PHRAORTES (from Old Persian : 𐎳𐎼𐎺𐎼𐎫𐎡𐏁,
Fravartiš, or Frâda via
Ancient Greek Φραόρτης; died c.
653 BC), son of
Deioces , was the second king of the
Median Empire .
Like his father Deioces,
Phraortes started wars against
Assyria , but
was defeated and killed by
Ashurbanipal , the king of the Neo-Assyrian
Empire (668 – c. 627 BC).
All information about him is from
Herodotus . According to him
Phraortes was the son of
Deioces and united all Median tribes
into a single state. He also subjugated the Persians and Parthians
while still a vassal of the Assyrian kings
Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal
, and began to conquer other nations of
Ancient Iran . After a rule of
twenty-two years (c. 675 – c. 653 BC), he fell in battle against the
Assyrians , who reasserted their subjugation of the Medes, Persians
and Parthians. However, some scholars assume that he ruled for
fifty-three years, c. 678 – c. 625.
Phraortes is commonly identified
Kashtariti , a chieftain in Media, although some scholars
consider such an identification doubtful.
* ^ Akbarzadeh, D.; A. Yahyanezhad (2006). The Behistun
Inscriptions (Old Persian Texts) (in Persian). Khaneye-Farhikhtagan-e
Honarhaye Sonati. p. 87. ISBN 964-8499-05-5 .
* ^ Kent, Ronald Grubb (1384 AP ). Old Persian: Grammar, Text,
Glossary (in Persian). translated into Persian by S. Oryan. p. 406.
ISBN 964-421-045-X . Check date values in: date= (help )
* ^ Medvedskaya, I. (20 Jul 2004). "PHRAORTES". Encyclopædia
Iranica . Retrieved 18 Dec 2012.
* Ancient Near East