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Suborder Collematineae

* Coccocarpiaceae * Collemataceae * Pannariaceae * Placynthiaceae

Suborder Peltigerineae

* Lobariaceae * Nephromataceae * Peltigeraceae * Massalongia (genus of uncertain family)

PELTIGERALES is an order of lichen -forming fungi belonging to the class Lecanoromycetes
Lecanoromycetes
in the division Ascomycota
Ascomycota
. The taxonomy of the group has seen numerous changes; it was formerly often treated as a suborder of the order Lecanorales
Lecanorales
. It currently contains two suborders, seven families and about 45 genera such as Lobaria and Peltigera .

The fungi form lichens in a symbiotic relationship with one or two photosynthetic partners which may be a cyanobacterium such as Nostoc or a green alga such as Coccomyxa . The majority of species contain just a cyanobacterium, a smaller number have both a cyanobacterium and a green alga while only a few species have just a green alga. The thallus of the lichen may be foliose (leafy), subfruticose (somewhat shrubby) or granular-squamulose (scaly). The thallus attaches to a surface by means of small root-like rhizines . In some species, the thallus may vary in appearance depending on whether it contains a cyanobacterium or a green alga. Sometimes these different morphs of a single fungus were formerly thought to be separate species.

The lichens occur worldwide, growing on bark , moss , soil or rocks in humid woodland . The greatest diversity occurs in the Northern Hemisphere although the family Lobariaceae is most diverse in the Southern Hemisphere.

Members of the suborder Peltigerineae produce a wide range of secondary compounds , some of which are useful to humans in medicine and dyeing . Former uses include using Peltigera canina (dog lichen) as a remedy for the bite of a mad dog and Lobaria pulmonaria (tree lungwort) as a remedy for lung diseases because of its supposed resemblance to lung tissue.

REFERENCES

Wikimedia Commons has media related to PELTIGERALES .

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to: PELTIGERALES

* Gilbert, Oliver (2000) Lichens, HarperCollins, London. * Hibbett, David S.; Binder, M; Bischoff, JF; Blackwell, M; Cannon, PF; Eriksson, OE; Huhndorf, S; James, T; et al. (2007). "A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi" (PDF). Mycological Research. 111 (Pt 5): 509–547. PMID 17572334 . doi :10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004 . * Lumbsch, H. T.; Huhndorf, S.M. (2007). "Outline of Ascomycota
Ascomycota
– 2007" (PDF). Myconet. 13: 1–58. * Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Lutzoni, François (2004). "Phylogenetic classification of peltigeralean fungi (Peltigerales, Ascomycota) based on ribosomal RNA small and large subunits". American Journal of Botany. 91 (3): 449–464. PMID 21653401 . doi :10.3732/ajb.91.3.449 .

* Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Kauff, F; Hofstetter, V; Fraker, E; Grube, M; Hafellner, J; Reeb, V; Hodkinson, BP; et al. (2006). "New insights into classification and evolution of the Lecanoromycetes (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota) from phylogenetic analyses of three ribosomal RNA- and two protein-coding genes" (PDF). Mycologia. 98 (6): 1088–1103. PMID 17486983 . doi :10.3852/mycologia.98.6.1088 .

* v * t * e

Taxonomy of the Lichen
Lichen
families

Show all lichen genera

ASCOMYCOTA

ARTHONIOMYCETES

ARTHONIALES

* Arthoniaceae * Chrysothricaceae * Melaspileaceae * Roccellaceae

DOTHIDEOMYCETES

CAPNODIALES

* Capnodiaceae

DOTHIDEALES

* Dacampiaceae * Xanthopyreniaceae

PLEOSPORALES

* Melanommataceae * Mytilinidiaceae * Pleomassariaceae * Pleosporaceae
Pleosporaceae

INCERTAE SEDIS

* Epigloeaceae * Arthopyreniaceae * Didymosphaeriaceae * Lichenotheliaceae * Microthyriaceae * Mycosphaerellaceae
Mycosphaerellaceae
* Naetrocymbaceae * Parmulariaceae * Pseudoperisporiaceae * Pyrenotrichaceae * Protothelenellaceae

EUROTIOMYCETES

CHAETOTHYRIOMYCETIDAE

CHAETOTHYRIALES

* Herpotrichiellaceae

PYRENULALES

* Monoblastiaceae * Pyrenulaceae * Requienellaceae * Trypetheliaceae

VERRUCARIALES

* Adelococcaceae * Verrucariaceae
Verrucariaceae

INCERTAE SEDIS

* Strigulaceae

INCERTAE SEDIS

MYCOCALICIALES

* Mycocaliciaceae * Sphinctrinaceae

LECANOROMYCETES

ACAROSPOROMYCETIDAE

ACAROSPORALES

* Acarosporaceae

LECANOROMYCETIDAE

LECANORALES

* Anziaceae * Arthrorhaphidaceae * Biatorellaceae * Caliciaceae * Candelariaceae * Cetradoniaceae * Cladoniaceae * Crocyniaceae * Dactylosporaceae * Gypsoplacaceae * Haematommataceae * Lecanoraceae
Lecanoraceae
* Lecideaceae * Loxosporaceae * Megalariaceae * Megalosporaceae * Mycoblastaceae * Ophioparmaceae * Parmeliaceae
Parmeliaceae
* Physciaceae * Pilocarpaceae
Pilocarpaceae
* Porpidiaceae * Psoraceae
Psoraceae
* Ramalinaceae
Ramalinaceae
* Rhizocarpaceae * Stereocaulaceae * Sphaerophoraceae

PELTIGERALES

* Coccocarpiaceae * Collemataceae * Pannariaceae * Lobariaceae * Nephromataceae * Peltigeraceae * Placynthiaceae

RHIZOCARPALES

* Catillariaceae

TELOSCHISTALES

* Letrouitiaceae * Microcaliciaceae * Teloschistaceae
Teloschistaceae

INCERTAE SEDIS

* Brigantiaeaceae * Coniocybaceae * Fuscideaceae * Phlyctidaceae * Umbilicariaceae * Vezdaeaceae

OSTROPOMYCETIDAE

AGYRIALES

* Agyriaceae * Anamylopsoraceae * Schaereriaceae

GYALECTALES

* Coenogoniaceae
Coenogoniaceae
* Gyalectaceae

OSTROPALES

* Gomphillaceae
Gomphillaceae
* Graphidaceae * Odontotremataceae * Solorinellaceae * Stictidaceae * Thelotremataceae

PERTUSARIALES

* Icmadophilaceae * Megasporaceae * Pertusariaceae

TRICHOTHELIALES

* Porinaceae

INCERTAE SEDIS

* Arctomiaceae * Hymeneliaceae

LEOTIOMYCETES

LEOTIOMYCETIDAE

HELOTIALES

* Helotiaceae * Hyaloscyphaceae

INCERTAE SEDIS

* Myxotrichaceae

LICHINOMYCETES

LICHINALES

* Gloeoheppiaceae * Heppiaceae * Lichinaceae * Peltulaceae

SORDARIOMYCETES

HYPOCREOMYCETIDAE

CORONOPHORALES

* Nitschkiaceae

HYPOCREALES

* Bionectriaceae * Nectriaceae
Nectriaceae
* Niessliaceae

MICROASCALES

* Microascaceae

XYLARIOMYCETIDAE

XYLARIALES

* Hyponectriaceae

INCERTAE SEDIS

PHYLLACHORALES

* Phyllachoraceae

INCERTAE SEDIS

* Obryzaceae

INCERTAE SEDIS

LAHMIALES

* Lahmiaceae

INCERTAE SEDIS

* Aspidotheliaceae * Mastodiaceae * Thelenellaceae * Baeomycetaceae * Coccotremataceae * Thelocarpaceae

BASIDIOMYCOTA

BASIDIOMYCETES

AGARICOMYCETIDAE

AGARICALES

* Hygrophoraceae * Tricholomataceae

ATHELIALES

* Atheliaceae * Lepidostromataceae

BOLETALES

* Coniophoraceae

CANTHARELLALES

* Clavulinaceae
Clavulinaceae

TREMELLOMYCETIDAE

TREMELLALES

* Syzygosporaceae * Tremellaceae

UREDINIOMYCETES

ATRACTIELLALES

* Chionosphaeraceae

UREDINALES

* Pucciniaceae

INCERTAE SEDIS

* Platygloeaceae

REFERENCES

* Anderson, Heidi L.; Ekman, Stefan (2005). "Disintegration of the Micareaceae (lichenized Ascomycota): a molecular phylogeny based on mitochondrial rDNA sequences". Mycological Research. 109 (1): 21–30. doi :10.1017/S0953756204001625 . * CABI Bioscience Databases. Available online at http://www.indexfungorum.org/. * Ertz, Damien; Lawrey, James D.; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Fischer, Eberhard; Killmann, Dorothee; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël (2008). "A new lineage of lichenized basidiomycetes inferred from a two-gene phylogeny: The Lepidostromataceae with three species from the tropics". American Journal of Botany. 95 (12): 1548–1556. PMID 21628162 . doi :10.3732/ajb.0800232 . * Ekman, Stefan; Andersen, Heidi L.; Wedin, Mats (2008). "The limitations of ancestral state reconstruction and the evolution of the ascus in the Lecanorales
Lecanorales
(lichenized Ascomycota)". Systematic Biology. 57 (1): 141–156. PMID 18300027 . doi :10.1080/10635150801910451 .

* Ekman, Stefan (2001). "Molecular phylogeny of the Bacidiaceae (Lecanorales, lichenized Ascomycota)". Mycological Research. 105 (7): 783–797. doi :10.1017/S0953756201004269 . * Grube, Martin; Winka, Katarina (2002). "Progress in understanding the evolution and classification of lichenized ascomycetes". Mycologist. 16 (2): 67–76. doi :10.1017/S0269-915X(02)00206-9 . * Liu, Yajuan J.; Hall, Benjamin D. (2004). "Body plan evolution of ascomycetes, as inferred from an RNA polymerase II phylogeny" . PNAS . 101 (13): 4507–4512. PMC 384777  . PMID 15070748 . doi :10.1073/pnas.0400938101 . * Schmitt, I.; Yamamoto, Y.; Lumbsch, H. T. (2006). "Phylogeny of Pertusariales
Pertusariales
(Ascomycotina): Resurrection of Ochrolechiaceae and new circumscription of Megasporaceae". Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory. 100: 753–764. * Staiger, Bettina; Kalb, Klaus; Grube, Martin (2006). "Phylogeny and phenotypic variation in the lichen family Graphidaceae (Ostropomycetidae, Ascomycota)". Mycological Research. 110 (7): 765–772. PMID 16876697 . doi :10.1016/j.mycres.2006.05.003 .

TAXON IDENTIFIERS

* Wd : Q144456 * EoL : 5700 * GBIF : 1055 * Index Fungorum : 90492 * ITIS : 936362 * MycoBank : 90492 * NCBI : 388450 * WoRM

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