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Suborder Collematineae

Coccocarpiaceae Collemataceae Pannariaceae Placynthiaceae

Suborder Peltigerineae

Lobariaceae Nephromataceae Peltigeraceae Massalongia (genus of uncertain family)

Peltigerales is an order of lichen-forming fungi belonging to the class Lecanoromycetes in the division Ascomycota. The taxonomy of the group has seen numerous changes; it was formerly often treated as a suborder of the order Lecanorales. It currently contains two suborders, seven families and about 45 genera such as Lobaria and Peltigera. The fungi form lichens in a symbiotic relationship with one or two photosynthetic partners which may be a cyanobacterium such as Nostoc or a green alga such as Coccomyxa. The majority of species contain just a cyanobacterium, a smaller number have both a cyanobacterium and a green alga while only a few species have just a green alga. The thallus of the lichen may be foliose (leafy), subfruticose (somewhat shrubby) or granular-squamulose (scaly). The thallus attaches to a surface by means of small root-like rhizines. In some species, the thallus may vary in appearance depending on whether it contains a cyanobacterium or a green alga. Sometimes these different morphs of a single fungus were formerly thought to be separate species. The lichens occur worldwide, growing on bark, moss, soil or rocks in humid woodland. The greatest diversity occurs in the Northern Hemisphere although the family Lobariaceae is most diverse in the Southern Hemisphere. Members of the suborder Peltigerineae produce a wide range of secondary compounds, some of which are useful to humans in medicine and dyeing. Former uses include using Peltigera canina (dog lichen) as a remedy for the bite of a mad dog and Lobaria pulmonaria (tree lungwort) as a remedy for lung diseases because of its supposed resemblance to lung tissue. References[edit]

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Gilbert, Oliver (2000) Lichens, HarperCollins, London. Hibbett, David S.; Binder, M; Bischoff, JF; Blackwell, M; Cannon, PF; Eriksson, OE; Huhndorf, S; James, T; et al. (2007). "A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi" (PDF). Mycological Research. 111 (Pt 5): 509–547. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004. PMID 17572334. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-06-10.  Lumbsch, H. T.; Huhndorf, S.M. (2007). "Outline of Ascomycota – 2007" (PDF). Myconet. 13: 1–58.  Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Lutzoni, François (2004). "Phylogenetic classification of peltigeralean fungi (Peltigerales, Ascomycota) based on ribosomal RNA small and large subunits". American Journal of Botany. 91 (3): 449–464. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.3.449. PMID 21653401.  Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Kauff, F; Hofstetter, V; Fraker, E; Grube, M; Hafellner, J; Reeb, V; Hodkinson, BP; et al. (2006). "New insights into classification and evolution of the Lecanoromycetes (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota) from phylogenetic analyses of three ribosomal RNA- and two protein-coding genes" (PDF). Mycologia. 98 (6): 1088–1103. doi:10.3852/mycologia.98.6.1088. PMID 17486983. 

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Taxonomy of the Lichen families

Show all lichen genera

Ascomycota

Arthoniomycetes

Arthoniales

Arthoniaceae Chrysothricaceae Melaspileaceae Roccellaceae

Dothideomycetes

Capnodiales

Capnodiaceae

Dothideales

Dacampiaceae Xanthopyreniaceae

Pleosporales

Melanommataceae Mytilinidiaceae Pleomassariaceae Pleosporaceae

Incertae sedis

Epigloeaceae Arthopyreniaceae Didymosphaeriaceae Lichenotheliaceae Microthyriaceae Mycosphaerellaceae Naetrocymbaceae Parmulariaceae Pseudoperisporiaceae Pyrenotrichaceae Protothelenellaceae

Eurotiomycetes

Chaetothyriomycetidae

Chaetothyriales

Herpotrichiellaceae

Pyrenulales

Monoblastiaceae Pyrenulaceae Requienellaceae Trypetheliaceae

Verrucariales

Adelococcaceae Verrucariaceae

Incertae sedis

Strigulaceae

Incertae sedis

Mycocaliciales

Mycocaliciaceae Sphinctrinaceae

Lecanoromycetes

Acarosporomycetidae

Acarosporales

Acarosporaceae

Lecanoromycetidae

Lecanorales

Anziaceae Arthrorhaphidaceae Biatorellaceae Caliciaceae Candelariaceae Cetradoniaceae Cladoniaceae Crocyniaceae Dactylosporaceae Gypsoplacaceae Haematommataceae Lecanoraceae Lecideaceae Loxosporaceae Megalariaceae Megalosporaceae Mycoblastaceae Ophioparmaceae Parmeliaceae Physciaceae Pilocarpaceae Porpidiaceae Psoraceae Ramalinaceae Rhizocarpaceae Stereocaulaceae Sphaerophoraceae

Peltigerales

Coccocarpiaceae Collemataceae Pannariaceae Lobariaceae Nephromataceae Peltigeraceae Placynthiaceae

Rhizocarpales

Catillariaceae

Teloschistales

Letrouitiaceae Microcaliciaceae Teloschistaceae

Incertae sedis

Brigantiaeaceae Coniocybaceae Fuscideaceae Phlyctidaceae Umbilicariaceae Vezdaeaceae

Ostropomycetidae

Agyriales

Agyriaceae Anamylopsoraceae Schaereriaceae

Gyalectales

Coenogoniaceae Gyalectaceae

Ostropales

Gomphillaceae Graphidaceae Odontotremataceae Solorinellaceae Stictidaceae Thelotremataceae

Pertusariales

Icmadophilaceae Megasporaceae Pertusariaceae

Trichotheliales

Porinaceae

Incertae sedis

Arctomiaceae Hymeneliaceae

Leotiomycetes

Leotiomycetidae

Helotiales

Helotiaceae Hyaloscyphaceae

Incertae sedis

Myxotrichaceae

Lichinomycetes

Lichinales

Gloeoheppiaceae Heppiaceae Lichinaceae Peltulaceae

Sordariomycetes

Hypocreomycetidae

Coronophorales

Nitschkiaceae

Hypocreales

Bionectriaceae Nectriaceae Niessliaceae

Microascales

Microascaceae

Xylariomycetidae

Xylariales

Hyponectriaceae

Incertae sedis

Phyllachorales

Phyllachoraceae

Incertae sedis

Obryzaceae

Incertae sedis

Lahmiales

Lahmiaceae

Incertae sedis

Aspidotheliaceae Mastodiaceae Thelenellaceae Baeomycetaceae Coccotremataceae Thelocarpaceae

Basidiomycota

Basidiomycetes

Agaricomycetidae

Agaricales

Hygrophoraceae Tricholomataceae

Atheliales

Atheliaceae Lepidostromataceae

Boletales

Coniophoraceae

Cantharellales

Clavulinaceae

Tremellomycetidae

Tremellales

Syzygosporaceae Tremellaceae

Urediniomycetes

Atractiellales

Chionosphaeraceae

Uredinales

Pucciniaceae

Incertae sedis

Platygloeaceae

References

   

Anderson, Heidi L.; Ekman, Stefan (2005). "Disintegration of the Micareaceae (lichenized Ascomycota): a molecular phylogeny based on mitochondrial rDNA sequences". Mycological Research. 109 (1): 21–30. doi:10.1017/S0953756204001625.  CABI Bioscience Databases. Available online at http://www.indexfungorum.org/. Ertz, Damien; Lawrey, James D.; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Fischer, Eberhard; Killmann, Dorothee; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël (2008). "A new lineage of lichenized basidiomycetes inferred from a two-gene phylogeny: The Lepidostromataceae with three species from the tropics". American Journal of Botany. 95 (12): 1548–1556. doi:10.3732/ajb.0800232. PMID 21628162.  Ekman, Stefan; Andersen, Heidi L.; Wedin, Mats (2008). "The limitations of ancestral state reconstruction and the evolution of the ascus in the Lecanorales (lichenized Ascomycota)". Systematic Biology. 57 (1): 141–156. doi:10.1080/10635150801910451. PMID 18300027. 

Ekman, Stefan (2001). "Molecular phylogeny of the Bacidiaceae (Lecanorales, lichenized Ascomycota)". Mycological Research. 105 (7): 783–797. doi:10.1017/S0953756201004269.  Grube, Martin; Winka, Katarina (2002). "Progress in understanding the evolution and classification of lichenized ascomycetes". Mycologist. 16 (2): 67–76. doi:10.1017/S0269-915X(02)00206-9.  Liu, Yajuan J.; Hall, Benjamin D. (2004). "Body plan evolution of ascomycetes, as inferred from an RNA polymerase II phylogeny". PNAS. 101 (13): 4507–4512. doi:10.1073/pnas.0400938101. PMC 384777 . PMID 15070748.  Schmitt, I.; Yamamoto, Y.; Lumbsch, H. T. (2006). "Phylogeny of Pertusariales (Ascomycotina): Resurrection of Ochrolechiaceae and new circumscription of Megasporaceae". Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory. 100: 753–764.  Staiger, Bettina; Kalb, Klaus; Grube, Martin (2006). "Phylogeny and phenotypic variation in the lichen family Graphidaceae (Ostropomycetidae, Ascomycota)". Mycological Research. 110 (7): 765–772. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2006.05.003. PMID 16876697. 

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q144456 EoL: 5700 EPPO: 1PELTO Fungorum: 90492 GBIF: 1055 ITIS: 936362 MycoBank: 90492 NCBI: 38

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