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The Parmeliaceae
Parmeliaceae
is a large and diverse family of Lecanoromycetes. With over 2000 species in roughly 87 genera, it is regarded as the largest family of lichen forming fungi.[1][2] The most speciose genera in the family are the well-known groups: Xanthoparmelia
Xanthoparmelia
(800+ species), Usnea
Usnea
(500+ species), Parmotrema
Parmotrema
(350+ species), and Hypotrachyna
Hypotrachyna
(190+ species).[1][2] Nearly all members of the family have a symbiotic association with a green alga (most often Trebouxia
Trebouxia
spp., but Asterochloris spp. are known to associate with some species).[3] The majority of Parmeliaceae species have a foliose, fruticose, or subfruticose growth form. The morphological diversity and complexity exhibited by this group is enormous, and many specimens are exceedingly difficult to identify down to the species level. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution, and can be found in a wide range of habitats and climatic regions.[4] This includes everywhere from roadside pavement to alpine rocks, from tropical rainforest trees to subshrubs in the arctic tundra. Members of the Parmeliaceae
Parmeliaceae
can be found in most terrestrial environments.

Contents

1 Taxonomy 2 Characteristics

2.1 Thallus 2.2 Apothecia 2.3 Spores 2.4 Chemistry 2.5 Photobiont

3 Genera 4 Image gallery 5 Notable taxa 6 References 7 External links

Taxonomy[edit] Based on several molecular phylogenetic studies, the Parmeliaceae
Parmeliaceae
as currently circumscribed has been shown to be a monophyletic group.[5] This circumscription is inclusive of the previously described families Alectoriaceae, Anziaceae, Hypogymniaceae, and Usneaceae, which are all no longer recognised by most lichen systematists. However, despite the family being one of the most thoroughly studied groups of lichens, several relationships within the family still remain unclear. Phylogenetic
Phylogenetic
analysis tentatively supports the existence of six separate clades in the family:[2]

Alectorioid clade (3 genera) Cetrarioid clade (8 genera) Hypogymnioid clade (4 genera) Letharioid clade (2 genera) Parmelioid clade (26 genera) Psiloparmelioid clade (2 genera)

However, this still leaves roughly 42 Parmeliaceae
Parmeliaceae
genera unplaced. Characteristics[edit] Thallus[edit] Parmeliaceae
Parmeliaceae
thalli are most often foliose, fruticose or subfruticose, but can be umblicate, peltate, caespitose, crustose, or subcrustose. One genus, Nesolechia, is even a lichenicolous fungus. They can be a variety of colours, from whitish to grey, green to yellow, or brown to blackish (or any combination therein). Many genera are lobe forming, and nearly all are heteromerous (which are corticate on both sides). Species
Species
are usually rhizinate on the lower surface, occasionally with holdfasts, rhizohyphae, or a hypothallus. Only a few genera have a naked lower surface (for example Usnea, Hypogymnia
Hypogymnia
and Menegazzia). The upper surface has a pored or non-pored epicortex. Medulla is solid, but often loosely woven.[6] Apothecia[edit] Apothecia are lecanorine, produced along the lamina or margin, and sessile to pedicellate (or less often sunken). Thalline exciple is concolorous with the thallus. Asci are amyloid, and the vast majority of species have eight spores per ascus, though a few species are many-spored, and several Menegazzia
Menegazzia
species have two spores per ascus.[6] Spores[edit] Ascospores are simple, hyaline, and often small. Conidia generally arise laterally from the joints of conidiogenous hyphae (Parmelia-type), but arise terminally from these joints in a small number of species (Psora-type). The conidia can have a broad range of shapes: cylindrical to bacilliform, bifusiform, fusiform, sublageniform, unciform, filiform, or curved. Pycnidia are immersed or rarely emergent from the upper cortex, are produced along the lamina or margins, pyriform in shape, and dark-brown to black in colour.[6] Chemistry[edit] Members of the Parmeliaceae
Parmeliaceae
exhibit a diverse chemistry, with several types of lichenan (Xanthoparmelia-type, Cetraria-type, intermediate-type), isolichenan and/or other polysaccharides being known from the cell walls of many species.[6] Photobiont[edit] The main photobiont genus that associates with Parmeliaceae
Parmeliaceae
species is the Chlorophyte
Chlorophyte
Trebouxia. In particular the species Trebouxia
Trebouxia
jamesii appears to be especially prominent. Some Parmeliaceae
Parmeliaceae
genera are also known to associate with Asterochloris,[3] but the frequence of this association is not yet known. In general photobiont diversity within the Parmeliaceae
Parmeliaceae
is a little studied subject, and much is left to discover here. Genera[edit] Main article: List of Parmeliaceae
Parmeliaceae
genera Image gallery[edit]

Menegazzia
Menegazzia
pertransita growing on a tree in New Zealand. Scale bar = 1 cm.

Cetraria
Cetraria
nivalis from Austria.

Parmelia sulcata
Parmelia sulcata
from Commanster, Belgium.

Usnea
Usnea
rubicunda growing on a branch in Mendocino County, California.

Allocetraria oakesiana growing on bark in Highland County, Virginia.

Alectoria ochroleuca from Carianthia, Austria.

Everniastrum catawbiense from Steuben, Maine.

Xanthoparmelia
Xanthoparmelia
cf. lavicola, on basalt in Hawaii.

Hypogymnia
Hypogymnia
cf. tubulosa in Alberta, Canada.

Letharia vulpina
Letharia vulpina
at Mt. Gleason, California.

Notable taxa[edit] Some well known members of the Parmeliaceae
Parmeliaceae
are:

the genus Parmelia the genus Usnea
Usnea
(old man's beard) Oakmoss
Oakmoss
(Evernia prunastri) Iceland moss
Iceland moss
( Cetraria
Cetraria
islandica) Wila (Bryoria fremontii)

References[edit]

^ a b Bisby, Guy Richard; Ainsworth, G. C.; Kirk, P. M.; Aptroot, André (2001). Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the fungi / by P. M. Kirk... [et al.]; with the assistance of A. Aptroot... [et al.] Oxon: CAB International. p. 378. ISBN 0-85199-377-X.  ^ a b c Crespo, A.; Lumbsch, H. T.; Mattsson, J. E.; Blanco, O.; Divakar, P. K.; Articus, K.; Wiklund, E.; Bawingan, P. A.; Wedin, M. (August 2007). "Testing morphology-based hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships in Parmeliaceae
Parmeliaceae
(Ascomycota) using three ribosomal markers and the nuclear RPB1 gene". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 44 (2): 812–824. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.11.029. PMID 17276700.  ^ a b Miadlikowska, J. et al. (2006). New insights into classification and evolution of the Lecanoromycetes
Lecanoromycetes
(Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota) from phylogenetic analyses of three ribosomal RNA- and two protein-coding genes. Mycologia 98: 1088-1103. http://www.mycologia.org/cgi/reprint/98/6/1088.pdf ^ Cannon PF, Kirk PM (2007). Fungal Families of the World. Wallingford: CABI. p. 256. ISBN 0-85199-827-5.  ^ Crespo Ana; Blanco, Oscar; Hawksworth, David L (2001). "The potential of mitochondrial DNA for establishing phylogeny and stabilising generic concepts in the parmelioid lichens". Taxon. 50 (3): 807–19. doi:10.2307/1223708. JSTOR 1223708.  ^ a b c d Elix, J.A. (1994). Parmeliaceae. Flora of Australia – Volume 55. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/publications/flora-of-australia/vol55.html

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Parmeliaceae.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Parmeliaceae

Index Fungorum Parmeliaceae
Parmeliaceae
at the online Encyclopedia of Life

v t e

Taxonomy of the Lichen
Lichen
families

Show all lichen genera

Ascomycota

Arthoniomycetes

Arthoniales

Arthoniaceae Chrysothricaceae Melaspileaceae Roccellaceae

Dothideomycetes

Capnodiales

Capnodiaceae

Dothideales

Dacampiaceae Xanthopyreniaceae

Pleosporales

Melanommataceae Mytilinidiaceae Pleomassariaceae Pleosporaceae

Incertae sedis

Epigloeaceae Arthopyreniaceae Didymosphaeriaceae Lichenotheliaceae Microthyriaceae Mycosphaerellaceae Naetrocymbaceae Parmulariaceae Pseudoperisporiaceae Pyrenotrichaceae Protothelenellaceae

Eurotiomycetes

Chaetothyriomycetidae

Chaetothyriales

Herpotrichiellaceae

Pyrenulales

Monoblastiaceae Pyrenulaceae Requienellaceae Trypetheliaceae

Verrucariales

Adelococcaceae Verrucariaceae

Incertae sedis

Strigulaceae

Incertae sedis

Mycocaliciales

Mycocaliciaceae Sphinctrinaceae

Lecanoromycetes

Acarosporomycetidae

Acarosporales

Acarosporaceae

Lecanoromycetidae

Lecanorales

Anziaceae Arthrorhaphidaceae Biatorellaceae Caliciaceae Candelariaceae Cetradoniaceae Cladoniaceae Crocyniaceae Dactylosporaceae Gypsoplacaceae Haematommataceae Lecanoraceae Lecideaceae Loxosporaceae Megalariaceae Megalosporaceae Mycoblastaceae Ophioparmaceae Parmeliaceae Physciaceae Pilocarpaceae Porpidiaceae Psoraceae Ramalinaceae Rhizocarpaceae Stereocaulaceae Sphaerophoraceae

Peltigerales

Coccocarpiaceae Collemataceae Pannariaceae Lobariaceae Nephromataceae Peltigeraceae Placynthiaceae

Rhizocarpales

Catillariaceae

Teloschistales

Letrouitiaceae Microcaliciaceae Teloschistaceae

Incertae sedis

Brigantiaeaceae Coniocybaceae Fuscideaceae Phlyctidaceae Umbilicariaceae Vezdaeaceae

Ostropomycetidae

Agyriales

Agyriaceae Anamylopsoraceae Schaereriaceae

Gyalectales

Coenogoniaceae Gyalectaceae

Ostropales

Gomphillaceae Graphidaceae Odontotremataceae Solorinellaceae Stictidaceae Thelotremataceae

Pertusariales

Icmadophilaceae Megasporaceae Pertusariaceae

Trichotheliales

Porinaceae

Incertae sedis

Arctomiaceae Hymeneliaceae

Leotiomycetes

Leotiomycetidae

Helotiales

Helotiaceae Hyaloscyphaceae

Incertae sedis

Myxotrichaceae

Lichinomycetes

Lichinales

Gloeoheppiaceae Heppiaceae Lichinaceae Peltulaceae

Sordariomycetes

Hypocreomycetidae

Coronophorales

Nitschkiaceae

Hypocreales

Bionectriaceae Nectriaceae Niessliaceae

Microascales

Microascaceae

Xylariomycetidae

Xylariales

Hyponectriaceae

Incertae sedis

Phyllachorales

Phyllachoraceae

Incertae sedis

Obryzaceae

Incertae sedis

Lahmiales

Lahmiaceae

Incertae sedis

Aspidotheliaceae Mastodiaceae Thelenellaceae Baeomycetaceae Coccotremataceae Thelocarpaceae

Basidiomycota

Basidiomycetes

Agaricomycetidae

Agaricales

Hygrophoraceae Tricholomataceae

Atheliales

Atheliaceae Lepidostromataceae

Boletales

Coniophoraceae

Cantharellales

Clavulinaceae

Tremellomycetidae

Tremellales

Syzygosporaceae Tremellaceae

Urediniomycetes

Atractiellales

Chionosphaeraceae

Uredinales

Pucciniaceae

Incertae sedis

Platygloeaceae

References

   

Anderson, Heidi L.; Ekman, Stefan (2005). "Disintegration of the Micareaceae (lichenized Ascomycota): a molecular phylogeny based on mitochondrial rDNA sequences". Mycological Research. 109 (1): 21–30. doi:10.1017/S0953756204001625.  CABI Bioscience Databases. Available online at http://www.indexfungorum.org/. Ertz, Damien; Lawrey, James D.; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Fischer, Eberhard; Killmann, Dorothee; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël (2008). "A new lineage of lichenized basidiomycetes inferred from a two-gene phylogeny: The Lepidostromataceae
Lepidostromataceae
with three species from the tropics". American Journal of Botany. 95 (12): 1548–1556. doi:10.3732/ajb.0800232. PMID 21628162.  Ekman, Stefan; Andersen, Heidi L.; Wedin, Mats (2008). "The limitations of ancestral state reconstruction and the evolution of the ascus in the Lecanorales
Lecanorales
(lichenized Ascomycota)". Systematic Biology. 57 (1): 141–156. doi:10.1080/10635150801910451. PMID 18300027. 

Ekman, Stefan (2001). "Molecular phylogeny of the Bacidiaceae (Lecanorales, lichenized Ascomycota)". Mycological Research. 105 (7): 783–797. doi:10.1017/S0953756201004269.  Grube, Martin; Winka, Katarina (2002). "Progress in understanding the evolution and classification of lichenized ascomycetes". Mycologist. 16 (2): 67–76. doi:10.1017/S0269-915X(02)00206-9.  Liu, Yajuan J.; Hall, Benjamin D. (2004). "Body plan evolution of ascomycetes, as inferred from an RNA polymerase II phylogeny". PNAS. 101 (13): 4507–4512. doi:10.1073/pnas.0400938101. PMC 384777 . PMID 15070748.  Schmitt, I.; Yamamoto, Y.; Lumbsch, H. T. (2006). "Phylogeny of Pertusariales
Pertusariales
(Ascomycotina): Resurrection of Ochrolechiaceae and new circumscription of Megasporaceae". Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory. 100: 753–764.  Staiger, Bettina; Kalb, Klaus; Grube, Martin (2006). "Phylogeny and phenotypic variation in the lichen family Graphidaceae (Ostropomycetidae, Ascomycota)". Mycological Research. 110 (7): 765–772. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2006.05.003. PMID 16876697. 

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q2573345 EoL: 6145 EPPO: 1PARMF Fungorum: 81882 GBIF: 8305 ITIS: 14008 MycoBank: 81882 NCBI: 7

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