HOME
ListMoto - Panthera


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i)

Panthera tigris
Panthera tigris
Panthera uncia Panthera onca
Panthera onca
Panthera leo
Panthera leo
Panthera pardus
Panthera pardus

PANTHERA is a genus within the Felidae
Felidae
family that was named and first described by the German naturalist Oken in 1816. The British taxonomist Pocock revised the classification of this genus in 1916 as comprising the species lion , tiger , jaguar , and leopard on the basis of cranial features. Results of genetic analysis indicate that the snow leopard also belongs to the Panthera, a classification that was accepted by IUCN
IUCN
assessors in 2008.

Only the tiger, lion, leopard, and jaguar have the anatomical structure that enables them to roar . The primary reason for this was formerly assumed to be the incomplete ossification of the hyoid bone . However, new studies show the ability to roar is due to other morphological features, especially of the larynx . The snow leopard does not roar. Although it has an incomplete ossification of the hyoid bone, it lacks the special morphology of the larynx.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name * 2 Characteristics * 3 Evolution

* 4 Classification

* 4.1 Phylogeny
Phylogeny
* 4.2 Species

* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading

NAME

See also: Panther (legendary creature)

The word panther derives from classical Latin panthēra, itself from the ancient Greek pánthēr (πάνθηρ). The Greek pan- (πάν), meaning "all", and thēr (θήρ), meaning "prey" bears the meaning of "predator of all animals". Use of the word for a beast originated in antiquity in the Orient, probably from India to Persia to Greece.

CHARACTERISTICS

In Panthera
Panthera
species, the dorsal profile of the skull is flattish or evenly convex. The frontal interorbital area is not noticeably elevated, and the area behind the elevation is less steeply sloped. The basicranial axis is nearly horizontal. The inner chamber of the bullae is large - the outer small. The partition between them is close to the external auditory meatus . The convexly rounded chin is sloping. All Panthera
Panthera
species have an incompletely ossified hyoid bone and this along with a specially adapted larynx that has proportionally larger vocal folds that are covered in a large fibro-elastic pad, is what enables all Panthera
Panthera
species except snow leopard to roar .

EVOLUTION

Panthera
Panthera
probably evolved in Asia, but the roots of the genus remain unclear. Genetic studies indicate that pantherine cats diverged from the subfamily Felinae between six and ten million years ago. Fossil records that appear to belong within the Panthera
Panthera
genus reach only 2.0 to 3.8 million years back.

The snow leopard was initially seen at the base of Panthera, but newer molecular studies suggest that it is nestled within Panthera
Panthera
and is a sister species of the tiger. Many place the snow leopard within the genus Panthera, but there is currently no consensus as to whether the snow leopard should retain its own genus Uncia or be moved to Panthera
Panthera
uncia. Since 2008, the IUCN
IUCN
Red List lists it as Panthera uncia using Uncia uncia as a synonym.

The genus Neofelis is generally placed at the base of the Panthera group, but is not included in the genus itself.

Results of a mitogenomic study suggest the phylogeny can be represented as Neofelis nebulosa ( Panthera tigris
Panthera tigris
( Panthera
Panthera
onca ( Panthera pardus
Panthera pardus
, ( Panthera leo
Panthera leo
, Panthera uncia )))). About 11.3 million years ago Panthera
Panthera
separated from other felid species and then evolved into the several species of the genus. N. nebulosa appears to have diverged about 8.66 million years ago , P. tigris about 6.55 million years ago , P. uncia about 4.63 million years ago and P. pardus about 4.35 million years ago . Mitochondrial sequence data from fossils suggest that the American lion
American lion
(P. l. atrox) is a sister lineage to Upper Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Eurasian cave lion (P. l. spelaea) that diverged about 0.34 million years ago .

The prehistoric cat Panthera onca
Panthera onca
gombaszogensis, often called European jaguar is probably closely related to the modern jaguar. The earliest evidence of the species was obtained at Olivola in Italy, and dates 1.6 million years.

CLASSIFICATION

During the 19th and 20th centuries, various explorers and staff of natural history museums suggested numerous subspecies, or at times called races, for all Panthera
Panthera
species. The taxonomist Pocock reviewed skins and skulls in the zoological collection of the Natural History Museum, London and grouped subspecies described, thus shortening the lists considerably. Since the mid 1980s, several Panthera
Panthera
species became subject of genetic research , mostly using blood samples of captive individuals. Study results indicate that many of the lion and leopard subspecies are questionable because of insufficient genetic distinction between them. Subsequently, it was proposed to group all African leopard populations to P. p. pardus and retain eight subspecific names for Asian leopard populations.

Based on genetic research , it was suggested to group all living sub-Saharan lion populations into P. l. leo. More recent genetic research indicates that the Western and Central African lion populations form a different clade and are more related to the Asian lion than to lions from southern or eastern Africa. These populations have been largely ignored in previous studies.

Black panthers do not form a distinct species, but are melanistic specimens of the genus, most often encountered in the leopard and jaguar.

PHYLOGENY

Two cladograms proposed for Panthera. The upper cladogram is based on a 2006 phylogenetic study by Warren E. Johnson (of the National Cancer Institute) and colleagues, and a 2009 study by Lars Werdelin and colleagues. The lower cladogram is based on a 2010 study by Brian W. Davis (of the Texas Apadding:0;">

Neofelis

PANTHERA

Panthera uncia

Panthera palaeosinensis

Panthera onca
Panthera onca

Panthera
Panthera
atrox †

Panthera
Panthera
spelaea †

Panthera leo
Panthera leo

Panthera pardus
Panthera pardus

Panthera tigris
Panthera tigris

Panthera zdanskyi

SPECIES

The genus Panthera
Panthera
comprises:

* Panthera tigris
Panthera tigris
tiger

* Panthera tigris
Panthera tigris
amoyensis South China tiger * Panthera tigris
Panthera tigris
sumatrae Sumatran tiger * Panthera tigris
Panthera tigris
tigris Bengal tiger * Panthera tigris
Panthera tigris
jacksoni Malayan tiger * Panthera tigris
Panthera tigris
corbetti Indochinese tiger * Panthera tigris
Panthera tigris
altaica Siberian tiger * Panthera tigris
Panthera tigris
virgata Caspian tiger † * Panthera tigris
Panthera tigris
balica Bali tiger † * Panthera tigris
Panthera tigris
sondaica Javan tiger † * Panthera tigris
Panthera tigris
acutidens Wanhsien tiger † * Panthera tigris
Panthera tigris
trinilensis Trinil tiger † * Panthera tigris
Panthera tigris
soloensis Ngandong tiger †

* Panthera leo
Panthera leo
lion

* Panthera leo
Panthera leo
persica Asiatic lion
Asiatic lion

* Panthera leo
Panthera leo
leo African lion including:

* P. l. senegalensis West African lion * P. l. nubica Masai lion * P. l. azandica Congo lion * P. l. bleyenberghi Southwest African lion or Katanga lion * P. l. krugeri Transvaal lion * P. l. barbaricus Barbary lion
Barbary lion
extinct in the wild * P. l. melanochaita Cape lion
Cape lion

* Panthera leo
Panthera leo
sinhaleyus Sri Lanka lion or Ceylon lion † * Panthera leo
Panthera leo
spelaea Upper Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Eurasian cave lion † * Panthera leo
Panthera leo
fossilis Early Middle Pleistocene
Pleistocene
European cave lion † * Panthera leo
Panthera leo
atrox American lion
American lion
or North American cave lion †

* Panthera onca
Panthera onca
jaguar

* Panthera onca
Panthera onca
hernandesii Mexican jaguar * Panthera onca
Panthera onca
onca Coastal jaguar * Panthera onca
Panthera onca
palustris Pantanal jaguar * Panthera onca
Panthera onca
gombaszoegensis European jaguar † * Panthera onca
Panthera onca
augusta Pleistocene
Pleistocene
North American jaguar † * Panthera onca
Panthera onca
mesembrina Pleistocene
Pleistocene
South American jaguar †

* Panthera pardus
Panthera pardus
leopard

* Panthera pardus
Panthera pardus
pardus African leopard * Panthera pardus
Panthera pardus
orientalis Amur leopard * Panthera pardus
Panthera pardus
melas Javan leopard * Panthera pardus
Panthera pardus
nimr Arabian leopard * Panthera pardus
Panthera pardus
ciscaucasica Persian leopard , including P. p. saxicolor, and P. p. tulliana Anatolian leopard * Panthera pardus
Panthera pardus
fusca Indian leopard
Indian leopard
* Panthera pardus
Panthera pardus
kotiya Sri Lanka leopard * Panthera pardus
Panthera pardus
delacouri Indochinese leopard
Indochinese leopard
* Panthera pardus
Panthera pardus
japonensis North-Chinese leopard * Panthera pardus
Panthera pardus
begoueni † * Panthera pardus
Panthera pardus
sickenbergi † * Panthera pardus
Panthera pardus
antiqua † * Panthera pardus
Panthera pardus
spelaea European Ice Age leopard †

* Panthera uncia or Uncia uncia Snow leopard
Snow leopard

* Panthera uncia baikalensis-romanii Trans-Baikal snow leopard * Panthera uncia uncia Northern snow leopard * Panthera uncia uncioides Southern snow leopard

Taxonomic placing is uncertain for the extinct fossil Panthera species:

* Panthera blytheae - prehistoric relative of snow leopard * Panthera combaszoe * Panthera crassidens – probably identical with another felid taxon * Panthera palaeosinensis Pleistocene
Pleistocene
pantherine , probably ancestral to the tiger * Panthera schreuderi – prehistoric cat, probably junior synonym of European jaguar * Panthera
Panthera
shawi - a prehistoric lion which may have had leopard-like spots. * Panthera toscana Tuscany lion or Tuscany jaguar – probably junior synonym of European jaguar * Panthera youngi – a prehistoric Chinese lion-like cat * Panthera zdanskyi - prehistoric relative of tiger

SEE ALSO

* Panthera hybrid * Big cat

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 546–548. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0 . OCLC
OCLC
62265494 . * ^ Oken, L. (1816). Lehrbuch der Zoologie, 2. Abtheilung. August Schmid Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W. J.; Antunes, A.; Teeling, E. & O'Brien, S. J. (2006). "The Late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: A genetic assessment". Science . 311 (5757): 73–77. Bibcode :2006Sci...311...73J. PMID 16400146 . doi :10.1126/science.1122277 . * ^ A B Jackson, R.; Mallon, D.; McCarthy, T.; Chundaway, R. A.; Habib, B. (2008). " Panthera
Panthera
uncia". IUCN
IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. International Union for Conservation of Nature . * ^ Nowak, R. M. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press . ISBN 0-8018-5789-9 . * ^ Liddell, H. G. & R. Scott (1940). "πάνθηρ". A Greek-English Lexicon, revised and augmented. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

* ^ OUP (2002). "Panther". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
. Oxford: Oxford University Press. * ^ Pocock, R. I. (1939). The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. – Volume 1. Taylor and Francis, London. * ^ Hast, M. H. (1989). "The larynx of roaring and non-roaring cats" . Journal of Anatomy. 163: 117–121. ISSN 0021-8782 . PMC 1256521  . PMID 2606766 . * ^ Turner, A. (1987). "New fossil carnivore remains from the Sterkfontein hominid site (Mammalia: Carnivora)". Annals of the Transvaal Museum. 34 (15): 319–347. * ^ Davis, B. W.; Li, G..; Murphy, W.J. (Jul 2010). "Supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, Panthera
Panthera
(Carnivora: Felidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 56 (1): 64–76. PMID 20138224 . doi :10.1016/j.ympev.2010.01.036 . * ^ Yu, L.; Zhang, Y. P. (2005). "Phylogenetic studies of pantherine cats (Felidae) based on multiple genes, with novel application of nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7 to carnivores". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 35 (2): 483–495. PMID 15804417 . doi :10.1016/j.ympev.2005.01.017 . * ^ A B Janczewski, D. N.; Modi, W. S.; Stephens, J. C.; O'Brien, S. J. (1996). "Molecular Evolution of Mitochondrial 12S RNA and Cytochrome b Sequences in the Pantherine Lineage of Felidae". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 12 (4): 690–707. PMID 7544865 . doi :10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a040232 . Retrieved 2006-08-06. * ^ A B Johnson, W. E.; O'Brien, S. J. (1997). "Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Felidae
Felidae
using 16S rRNA and NADH-5 mitochondrial genes". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 44: S98–S116. PMID 9071018 . doi :10.1007/PL00000060 . * ^ Yu L & Zhang YP (2005). "Phylogenetic studies of pantherine cats (Felidae) based on multiple genes, with novel application of nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7 to carnivores". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 35 (2): 483–495. PMID 15804417 . doi :10.1016/j.ympev.2005.01.017 . * ^ Wei L, Wu X, Zhu L, Jiang Z (2010). "Mitogenomic analysis of the genus Panthera". Science China Life Sciences. 54 (10): 917–930. PMID 22038004 . doi :10.1007/s11427-011-4219-1 . * ^ Barnett, R.; Shapiro, B. ; Barnes, I.; Yo, S. Y.W.; Burger, J. ; Yamaguchi, N.; Higham, T. F.G.; Wheeler, H. T.; et al. (2009). "Phylogeography of lions ( Panthera leo
Panthera leo
ssp.) reveals three distinct taxa and a late Pleistocene
Pleistocene
reduction in genetic diversity" (PDF). Molecular Ecology . 18 (8): 1668–1677. PMID 19302360 . doi :10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04134.x . Retrieved 2011-11-23. * ^ Hemmer, H.; Kahlke, R. D.; Vekua, A. K. (2001). "The Jaguar
Jaguar
Panthera onca
Panthera onca
gombaszoegensis (Kretzoi, 1938) (Carnivora: Felidae) in the late lower pleistocene of Akhalkalaki (south Georgia; Transcaucasia) and its evolutionary and ecological significance". Geobios. 34 (4): 475–486. doi :10.1016/s0016-6995(01)80011-5 . * ^ Pocock, R. I. (1930). "The panthers and ounces of Asia". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 34 (1): 65–82. * ^ Pocock, R. I. (1932). Check url= value (help ). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 102 (2): 543–591. * ^ Pocock, R. I. (1939). "The races of jaguar ( Panthera
Panthera
onca)". Novitates Zoologicae. 41: 406–422. * ^ O’Brien, S. J.; Martenson, J. S.; Packer, C.; Herbst, L.; de Vos, V.; Joslin, P.; Ott-Joslin, J.; Wildt, D. E. ">(PDF). National Geographic Research. 3 (1): 114–124. * ^ Miththapala, S.; Seidensticker, J.; O'Brien, S. J. (1996). "Phylogeographic subspecies recognition in leopards ( Panthera
Panthera
pardus): Molecular genetic variation". Conservation Biology. 10 (4): 1115–1132. doi :10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10041115.x . * ^ Uphyrkina, O.; Johnson, W. E.; Quigley, H. B.; Miquelle, D. G.; Marker, L.; Bush, M. E.; O'Brien, S. J. (2001). "Phylogenetics, genome diversity and origin of modern leopard, Panthera
Panthera
pardus". Molecular Ecology. 10 (11): 2617–2633. PMID 11883877 . doi :10.1046/j.0962-1083.2001.01350.x . * ^ Dubach, J.; Patterson, B. D.; Briggs, M. B.; Venzke, K.; Flamand, J.; Stander, P.; Scheepers, L.; Kays, R. W. (2005). "Molecular genetic variation across the southern and eastern geographic ranges of the African lion, Panthera
Panthera
leo". Conservation Genetics. 6 (1): 15–24. doi :10.1007/s10592-004-7729-6 . * ^ Bertola, L., de Iongh, H., Vrieling, K. (2011). Researchers confirm West and Central African lion is different from other lions. University of Leiden. Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML). Faculty of Science. * ^ Bertola, L. D.; Van Hooft, W. F.; Vrieling, K.; Uit De Weerd, D. R.; York, D. S.; Bauer, H.; Prins, H. H. T.; Funston, P. J.; Udo De Haes, H. A.; Leirs, H.; Van Haeringen, W. A.; Sogbohossou, E.; Tumenta, P. N.; De Iongh, H. H. (2011). "Genetic diversity, evolutionary history and implications for conservation of the lion ( Panthera
Panthera
leo) in West and Central Africa" (PDF). Journal of Biogeography . 38 (7): 1356–1367. doi :10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02500.x . * ^ Robinson, R. (1970). "Inheritance of black form of the leopard Panthera
Panthera
pardus". Genetica. 41 (1): 190–197. PMID 5480762 . doi :10.1007/bf00958904 . * ^ Eizirik, E.; Yuhki, N.; Johnson, W. E.; Menotti-Raymond, M.; Hannah, S. S.; O'Brien, S. J. (2003). "Molecular Genetics and Evolution of Melanism in the Cat
Cat
Family". Current Biology. 13 (5): 448–453. PMID 12620197 . doi :10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00128-3 . * ^ Mazák, Ji H.; Christiansen, Per; Kitchener, Andrew C. (2011). "Oldest Known Pantherine Skull
Skull
and Evolution of the Tiger". PLoS ONE. 6 (10): e25483. Bibcode :2011PLoSO...625483M. PMC 3189913  . PMID 22016768 . doi :10.1371/journal.pone.0025483 . * ^ Luo, S.J.; Kim, J.H.; Johnson, W.E.; Walt Jvd; Martenson, J.; et al. (2004). "Phylogeography and Genetic Ancestry of Tigers ( Panthera
Panthera
tigris)" . PLoS Biol. 2 (12): e442. PMC 534810  . PMID 15583716 . doi :10.1371/journal.pbio.0020442 . * ^ Jackson, P.; Nowell, K. (2008). " Panthera tigris
Panthera tigris
ssp. virgata". IUCN
IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature . * ^ Jackson, P. Nowell, K. (2008). " Panthera tigris
Panthera tigris
ssp. balica". IUCN
IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Jackson, P.; Nowell, K. (2008). " Panthera tigris
Panthera tigris
ssp. sondaica". IUCN
IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
. * ^ Hooijer, D. A. (1947). Pleistocene
Pleistocene
remains of Panthera
Panthera
tigris (Linnaeus) subspecies from Wanhsien, Szechwan, China, compared with fossil and recent tigers from other localities. American Museum Novitates no. 1346. * ^ Brongersma, L. D. (1935). "Notes on some recent and fossil cats, chiefly from the Malay Archipelago". Zoologische Mededelingen 18: 1–89. * ^ A B Barnett, R.; Yamaguchi, N.; Barnes, I.; Cooper, A. (2006). "Lost populations and preserving genetic diversity in the lion Panthera
Panthera
leo: Implications for its ex situ conservation" (PDF). Conservation Genetics. 7 (4): 507–514. doi :10.1007/s10592-005-9062-0 . * ^ Manamendra-Arachchi, K., Pethiyagoda, R., Dissanayake, R., Meegaskumbura, M. (2005). A second extinct big cat from the late Quaternary of Sri Lanka. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement 12: 423–434. * ^ Tchernov, E.; Tsoukala, E. (1997). "Middle Pleistocene
Pleistocene
(early Toringian) carnivore remains from northern Israel". Quaternary Research. 48: 122–136. Bibcode :1997QuRes..48..122T. doi :10.1006/qres.1997.1901 . * ^ A B Harington, C. R. (1996). Pleistocene
Pleistocene
mammals of the Yukon Territory. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Alberta, Edmonton. * ^ Nowell, K.; Jackson, P., eds. (1996). " Panthera
Panthera
Onca". Wild Cats. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan (PDF). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Cat
Cat
Specialist Group. IUCN. pp. 118–122. Retrieved 2015-09-04. * ^ Khorozyan, I. (2008). " Panthera pardus
Panthera pardus
ssp. saxicolor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature . * ^ O'Regan, H.; Turner, A (2004). "Biostratigraphic and palaeoecological implications of new fossil felid material from the Plio- Pleistocene
Pleistocene
site of Tegelen, the Netherlands". Palaeontology. 47 (5): 1181–1193. doi :10.1111/j.0031-0239.2004.00400.x .

FURTHER READING

* A. Turner: The big cats and their fossil relatives. Columbia University Press, 1997.ISBN 0-231-10229-1

* v * t * e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

* Kingdom: Animalia * Phylum: Chordata * Class: Mammalia * Infraclass: Eutheria
Eutheria
* Superorder: Laurasiatheria

SUBORDER FELIFORMIA

NANDINIIDAE

NANDINIA

* African palm civet (N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

ATILAX

* Marsh mongoose (A. paludinosus)

BDEOGALE

* Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) * Jackson\'s mongoose (B. jacksoni) * Black-footed mongoose (B. nigripes)

CROSSARCHUS

* Alexander\'s kusimanse (C. alexandri) * Angolan kusimanse (C. ansorgei) * Common kusimanse (C. obscurus) * Flat-headed kusimanse (C. platycephalus)

CYNICTIS

* Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

DOLOGALE

* Pousargues\'s mongoose (D. dybowskii)

GALERELLA

* Angolan slender mongoose (G. flavescens) * Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) * Somalian slender mongoose (G. ochracea) * Cape gray mongoose (G. pulverulenta) * Slender mongoose (G. sanguinea)

HELOGALE

* Ethiopian dwarf mongoose (H. hirtula) * Common dwarf mongoose (H. parvula)

HERPESTES

* Short-tailed mongoose (H. brachyurus) * Indian gray mongoose (H. edwardsii) * Indian brown mongoose (H. fuscus) * Egyptian mongoose (H. ichneumon) * Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) * Long-nosed mongoose (H. naso) * Collared mongoose (H. semitorquatus) * Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) * Crab-eating mongoose (H. urva) * Stripe-necked mongoose (H. vitticollis)

ICHNEUMIA

* White-tailed mongoose (I. albicauda)

LIBERIICTUS

* Liberian mongoose (L. kuhni)

MUNGOS

* Gambian mongoose (M. gambianus) * Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

PARACYNICTIS

* Selous\' mongoose (P. selousi)

RHYNCHOGALE

* Meller\'s mongoose (R. melleri)

SURICATA

* Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

CROCUTA

* Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

HYAENA

* Brown hyena (H. brunnea) * Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

PROTELES

* Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

FELIDAE Large family listed below

VIVERRIDAE Large family listed below

EUPLERIDAE Small family listed below

FAMILY FELIDAE

FELINAE

ACINONYX

* Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

CARACAL

* Caracal (C. caracal) * African golden cat (C. aurata)

CATOPUMA

* Bay cat (C. badia) * Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

FELIS

* Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti) * Domestic cat (F. catus) * Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) * Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) * Black-footed cat (F. nigripes) * Wildcat
Wildcat
(F. silvestris)

LEOPARDUS

* Pantanal cat (L. braccatus) * Colocolo
Colocolo
(L. colocolo) * Geoffroy\'s cat (L. geoffroyi) * Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) * Southern tigrina (L. guttulus) * Andean mountain cat (L. jacobita) * Pampas cat (L. pajeros) * Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) * Oncilla (L. tigrinus) * Margay (L. wiedii)

LEPTAILURUS

* Serval (L. serval)

LYNX

* Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) * Eurasian lynx (L. lynx) * Iberian lynx (L. pardinus) * Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

OTOCOLOBUS

* Pallas\'s cat (O. manul)

PARDOFELIS

* Marbled cat (P. marmorata)

PRIONAILURUS

* Leopard
Leopard
cat (P. bengalensis) * Flat-headed cat (P. planiceps) * Rusty-spotted cat (P. rubiginosus) * Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus)

PUMA

* Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor) * Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(P. yagouaroundi)

PANTHERINAE

PANTHERA

* Lion
Lion
(P. leo) * Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) * Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) * Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) * Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

NEOFELIS

* Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) * Sunda clouded leopard (N. diardi)

FAMILY VIVERRIDAE (INCLUDES CIVETS )

PARADOXURINAE

ARCTICTIS

* Binturong (A. binturong)

ARCTOGALIDIA

* Small-toothed palm civet (A. trivirgata)

MACROGALIDIA

* Sulawesi palm civet (M. musschenbroekii)

PAGUMA

* Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

PARADOXURUS

* Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) * Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus) * Jerdon\'s palm civet (P. jerdoni) * Golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)

HEMIGALINAE

CHROTOGALE

* Owston\'s palm civet (C. owstoni)

CYNOGALE

* Otter civet (C. bennettii)

DIPLOGALE

* Hose\'s palm civet (D. hosei)

HEMIGALUS

* Banded palm civet (H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

PRIONODON

* Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) * Spotted linsang (P. pardicolor)

VIVERRINAE

CIVETTICTIS

* African civet (C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

* Abyssinian genet (G. abyssinica) * Angolan genet (G. angolensis) * Bourlon\'s genet (G. bourloni) * Crested servaline genet (G. cristata) * Common genet (G. genetta) * Johnston\'s genet (G. johnstoni) * Rusty-spotted genet (G. maculata) * Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) * Aquatic genet (G. piscivora) * King genet (G. poensis) * Servaline genet (G. servalina) * Haussa genet (G. thierryi) * Cape genet (G. tigrina) * Giant forest genet (G. victoriae)

POIANA

* African linsang (P. richardsonii) * Leighton\'s linsang (P. leightoni)

VIVERRA

* Malabar large-spotted civet (V. civettina) * Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) * Malayan civet (V. tangalunga) * Large Indian civet (V. zibetha)

VIVERRICULA

* Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

FAMILY EUPLERIDAE

EUPLERINAE

CRYPTOPROCTA

* Fossa (C. ferox)

EUPLERES

* Eastern falanouc (E. goudotii) * Western falanouc (E. major)

FOSSA

* Malagasy civet (F. fossana)

GALIDIINAE

GALIDIA

* Ring-tailed mongoose (G. elegans)

GALIDICTIS

* Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) * Grandidier\'s mongoose (G. grandidieri)

MUNGOTICTIS

* Narrow-striped mongoose (M. decemlineata)

SALANOIA

* Brown-tailed mongoose (S. concolor) * Durrell\'s vontsira (S. durrelli)

SUBORDER CANIFORMIA (CONT. BELOW)

Ursidae (Bears)

AILUROPODA

* Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

HELARCTOS

* Sun bear (H. malayanus)

MELURSUS

* Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

TREMARCTOS

* Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

URSUS

* American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) * Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) * Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) * Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae (Skunks)

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

* Molina\'s hog-nosed skunk (C. chinga) * Humboldt\'s hog-nosed skunk (C. humboldtii) * American hog-nosed skunk (C. leuconotus) * Striped hog-nosed skunk (C. semistriatus)

MEPHITIS

* Hooded skunk (M. macroura) * Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

MYDAUS

* Sunda stink badger (M. javanensis) * Palawan stink badger (M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

* Southern spotted skunk (S. angustifrons) * Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) * Eastern spotted skunk (S. putorius) * Pygmy spotted skunk (S. pygmaea)

PROCYONIDAE

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

* Eastern lowland olingo (B. alleni) * Northern olingo (B. gabbii) * Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) * Olinguito (B. neblina)

BASSARISCUS

* Ring-tailed cat (B. astutus) * Cacomistle (B. sumichrasti)

Nasua
Nasua
(Coatis inclusive)

* White-nosed coati (N. narica) * South American coati (N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

* Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) * Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

POTOS

* Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

PROCYON

* Crab-eating raccoon (P. cancrivorus) * Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) * Cozumel raccoon (P. pygmaeus)

AILURIDAE

AILURUS

* Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

SUBORDER CANIFORMIA (CONT. ABOVE)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions ) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

ARCTOCEPHALUS

* South American fur seal (A. australis) * Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) * Galápagos fur seal (A. galapagoensis) * Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) * Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) * Brown fur seal (A. pusillus) * Guadalupe fur seal (A. townsendi) * Subantarctic fur seal (A. tropicalis)

CALLORHINUS

* Northern fur seal (C. ursinus)

EUMETOPIAS

* Steller sea lion (E. jubatus)

NEOPHOCA

* Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

OTARIA

* South American sea lion (O. flavescens)

PHOCARCTOS

* New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

ZALOPHUS

* California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) * Galápagos sea lion (Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

ODOBENUS

* Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

CYSTOPHORA

* Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

ERIGNATHUS

* Bearded seal (E. barbatus)

HALICHOERUS

* Gray seal (H. grypus)

HISTRIOPHOCA

* Ribbon seal (H. fasciata)

HYDRURGA

* Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

LEPTONYCHOTES

* Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

LOBODON

* Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

* Northern elephant seal (M. angustirostris) * Southern elephant seal (M. leonina)

MONACHUS

* Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) * Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

OMMATOPHOCA

* Ross seal (O. rossi)

PAGOPHILUS

* Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

PHOCA

* Spotted seal (P. largha) * Harbor seal (P. vitulina)

PUSA

* Caspian seal (P. caspica) * Ringed seal (P. hispida) * Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

CANIDAE Large family listed below

MUSTELIDAE Large family listed below

FAMILY CANIDAE (INCLUDES DOGS )

ATELOCYNUS

* Short-eared dog (A. microtis)

CANIS

* Side-striped jackal (C. adustus) * African golden wolf (C. anthus) * Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) * Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) * Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) * Black-backed jackal (C. mesomelas) * Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) * Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

CERDOCYON

* Crab-eating fox (C. thous)

CHRYSOCYON

* Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

CUON

* Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

LYCALOPEX

* Culpeo (L. culpaeus) * Darwin\'s fox (L. fulvipes) * South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) * Pampas fox (L. gymnocercus) * Sechuran fox (L. sechurae) * Hoary fox (L. vetulus)

LYCAON

* African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

NYCTEREUTES

* Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

OTOCYON

* Bat-eared fox (O. megalotis)

SPEOTHOS

* Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

UROCYON

* Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) * Island fox (U. littoralis)

Vulpes
Vulpes
(Foxes )

* Bengal fox (V. bengalensis) * Blanford\'s fox (V. cana) * Cape fox (V. chama) * Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) * Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) * Arctic fox (V. lagopus) * Kit fox (V. macrotis) * Pale fox (V. pallida) * Rüppell\'s fox (V. rueppelli) * Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) * Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) * Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

FAMILY MUSTELIDAE

Lutrinae (Otters)

AONYX

* African clawless otter (A. capensis) * Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

ENHYDRA

* Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

HYDRICTIS

* Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

LONTRA

* North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) * Marine otter (L. felina) * Neotropical otter (L. longicaudis) * Southern river otter (L. provocax)

LUTRA

* Eurasian otter (L. lutra) * Hairy-nosed otter (L. sumatrana)

LUTROGALE

* Smooth-coated otter (L. perspicillata)

PTERONURA

* Giant otter (P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae
Mustelinae
(including badgers )

ARCTONYX

* Hog badger (A. collaris)

EIRA

* Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

GALICTIS

* Lesser grison (G. cuja) * Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

GULO

* Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

ICTONYX

* Saharan striped polecat (I. libyca) * Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

LYNCODON

* Patagonian weasel (L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

* American marten (M. americana) * Yellow-throated marten (M. flavigula) * Beech marten (M. foina) * Nilgiri marten (M. gwatkinsii) * European pine marten (M. martes) * Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) * Fisher (M. pennanti) * Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

MELES

* Japanese badger (M. anakuma) * Asian badger (M. leucurus) * European badger (M. meles)

MELLIVORA

* Honey badger (M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

* Bornean ferret-badger (M. everetti) * Chinese ferret-badger (M. moschata) * Javan ferret-badger (M. orientalis) * Burmese ferret-badger (M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets )

* Amazon weasel (M. africana) * Mountain weasel (M. altaica) * Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) * Steppe polecat (M. eversmannii) * Colombian weasel (M. felipei) * Long-tailed weasel (M. frenata) * Japanese weasel (M. itatsi) * Yellow-bellied weasel (M. kathiah) * European mink (M. lutreola) * Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) * Black-footed ferret (M. nigripes) * Least weasel (M. nivalis) * Malayan weasel (M. nudipes) * European polecat (M. putorius) * Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) * Back-striped weasel (M. strigidorsa) * Egyptian weasel (M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks )

* American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

POECILOGALE

* African striped weasel (P. albinucha)

TAXIDEA

* American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

VORMELA

* Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

TAXON IDENTIFIERS

* Wd : Q127960 * ADW : Panthera * EoL : 14134 * Fossilworks : 41066 * ITIS : 180592 * MSW : 14000227 * N

.