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Panthera
Panthera
tigris Panthera
Panthera
uncia Panthera
Panthera
onca Panthera
Panthera
leo Panthera
Panthera
pardus

Panthera
Panthera
is a genus within the Felidae
Felidae
family that was named and first described by the German naturalist Oken in 1816.[2] The British taxonomist Pocock revised the classification of this genus in 1916 as comprising the species lion, tiger, jaguar, and leopard on the basis of cranial features.[3] Results of genetic analysis indicate that the snow leopard also belongs to the Panthera, a classification that was accepted by IUCN
IUCN
assessors in 2008.[4][5] Only the tiger, lion, leopard, and jaguar have the anatomical structure that enables them to roar. The primary reason for this was formerly assumed to be the incomplete ossification of the hyoid bone. However, new studies show the ability to roar is due to other morphological features, especially of the larynx. The snow leopard does not roar. Although it has an incomplete ossification of the hyoid bone, it lacks the special morphology of the larynx.[6]

Contents

1 Name 2 Characteristics 3 Evolution 4 Classification

4.1 Phylogeny 4.2 Contemporary species 4.3 Fossil
Fossil
species and subspecies

5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading

Name[edit] See also: Panther (legendary creature) The word panther derives from classical Latin panthēra, itself from the ancient Greek pánthēr (πάνθηρ).[7] The Greek pan- (πάν), meaning "all", and thēr (θήρ), meaning "prey" bears the meaning of "predator of all animals". Use of the word for a beast originated in antiquity in the Orient, probably from India
India
to Persia to Greece.[8] Characteristics[edit] In Panthera
Panthera
species, the dorsal profile of the skull is flattish or evenly convex. The frontal interorbital area is not noticeably elevated, and the area behind the elevation is less steeply sloped. The basicranial axis is nearly horizontal. The inner chamber of the bullae is large, the outer small. The partition between them is close to the external auditory meatus. The convexly rounded chin is sloping.[9] All Panthera
Panthera
species have an incompletely ossified hyoid bone. Specially adapted larynx with proportionally larger vocal folds are covered in a large fibro-elastic pad. These characteristics enable all Panthera
Panthera
species except snow leopard to roar.[10] Evolution[edit] Panthera
Panthera
probably evolved in Asia, but the roots of the genus remain unclear. Genetic studies indicate that pantherine cats diverged from the subfamily Felinae
Felinae
between six and ten million years ago.[4] Fossil records that appear to belong within the Panthera
Panthera
genus reach only 2.0 to 3.8 million years back.[11] The snow leopard was initially seen at the base of Panthera, but newer molecular studies suggest that it is nestled within Panthera
Panthera
and is a sister species of the tiger.[12] Many place the snow leopard within the genus Panthera, but there is currently no consensus as to whether the snow leopard should retain its own genus Uncia or be moved to Panthera
Panthera
uncia.[4][13][14][15] Since 2008, the IUCN
IUCN
Red List lists it as Panthera uncia
Panthera uncia
using Uncia uncia as a synonym.[5] The genus Neofelis
Neofelis
is generally placed at the base of the Panthera group, but is not included in the genus itself.[4][14][15][16] Results of a mitogenomic study suggest the phylogeny can be represented as Neofelis
Neofelis
nebulosa ( Panthera tigris
Panthera tigris
( Panthera
Panthera
onca ( Panthera
Panthera
pardus, ( Panthera
Panthera
leo, Panthera
Panthera
uncia)))).[17] About 11.3 million years ago Panthera
Panthera
separated from other felid species and then evolved into the several species of the genus. N. nebulosa appears to have diverged about 8.66 million years ago, P. tigris about 6.55 million years ago, P. uncia about 4.63 million years ago and P. pardus about 4.35 million years ago. Mitochondrial sequence data from fossils suggest that the American lion
American lion
(P. l. atrox) is a sister lineage to Upper Pleistocene Eurasian cave lion (P. l. spelaea) that diverged about 0.34 million years ago.[18] The prehistoric cat Panthera onca
Panthera onca
gombaszogensis, often called European jaguar is probably closely related to the modern jaguar. The earliest evidence of the species was obtained at Olivola
Olivola
in Italy, and dates 1.6 million years.[19] Classification[edit] During the 19th and 20th centuries, various explorers and staff of natural history museums suggested numerous subspecies, or at times called races, for all Panthera
Panthera
species. The taxonomist Pocock reviewed skins and skulls in the zoological collection of the Natural History Museum, London and grouped subspecies described, thus shortening the lists considerably.[20][21][22] Since the mid-1980s, several Panthera species became subject of genetic research, mostly using blood samples of captive individuals. Study results indicate that many of the lion and leopard subspecies are questionable because of insufficient genetic distinction between them.[23][24] Subsequently, it was proposed to group all African leopard
African leopard
populations to P. p. pardus and retain eight subspecific names for Asian leopard populations.[25] Based on genetic research, it was suggested to group all living sub-Saharan lion populations into P. l. leo.[26] Results of phylogeographic studies indicate that the Western and Central African lion populations are more closely related to those in India
India
and form a different clade than lion populations in Southern and East Africa; southeastern Ethiopia
Ethiopia
is an admixture region between North African and East African lion
East African lion
populations.[27][28] Black panthers do not form a distinct species, but are melanistic specimens of the genus, most often encountered in the leopard and jaguar.[29][30] Phylogeny[edit]

Two cladograms proposed for Panthera. The upper one is based on phylogenetic studies by Johnson et al. (2006),[4] and by Werdelin et al. (2010).[31] The lower cladogram is based on a study by Davis et al. (2010)[32] and by Mazák et al. (2011).[33]

The cladogram below follows Mazák, Christiansen and Kitchener (2011).[33]

Pantherinae

Neofelis

Panthera

Panthera
Panthera
uncia

Panthera
Panthera
palaeosinensis

Panthera
Panthera
onca

Panthera
Panthera
atrox

Panthera
Panthera
spelaea

Panthera
Panthera
leo

Panthera
Panthera
pardus

Panthera
Panthera
tigris

Panthera
Panthera
zdanskyi

In 2018, results of a phylogenetic study on living and fossil cats were published. This study was based on the morphological diversity of the mandibles of saber-toothed cats, their speciation and extinction rates. The generated cladogram indicates a different relation of the Panthera
Panthera
species, as shown below:[34]

Panthera

Panthera
Panthera
palaeosinensis

Panthera
Panthera
blytheae

Panthera uncia
Panthera uncia

Panthera
Panthera
zdanskyi

Panthera tigris
Panthera tigris

Panthera
Panthera
gombaszoegensis

Panthera onca
Panthera onca

Panthera pardus
Panthera pardus

Panthera leo
Panthera leo

Panthera
Panthera
spelaea

Panthera
Panthera
atrox

Contemporary species[edit] The following list of the genus Panthera
Panthera
is based on the taxonomic assessment in Mammal
Mammal
Species
Species
of the World and reflects the taxonomy revised in 2017 by the Cat
Cat
Classification Task Force of the Cat Specialist Group:[1][35]

Species Subspecies Current distribution

Tiger
Tiger
P. tigris

Tigers of mainland Asia P. t. tigris including:[35]

Bengal tiger
Bengal tiger
P. t. tigris sensu stricto[1] Siberian tiger, formerly P. t. altaica[1] South China
China
tiger, formerly P. t. amoyensis[1] †Caspian tiger, formerly P. t. virgata[1][36] Indochinese tiger, formerly P. t. corbetti[1] Malayan tiger, formerly P. t. jacksoni[37]

Sunda tiger P. t. sondaica including[35]

Javan tiger
Javan tiger
P. t. sondaica sensu stricto[1][38] †Bali tiger, formerly P. t. balica[1][39] Sumatran tiger, formerly P t. sumatrae[1]

India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, eastern Russia and China, Indonesian island of Sumatra

Lion
Lion
P. leo

Northern lion P. l. leo including:[35]

†Barbary lion, P. l. leo sensu stricto[1][40] Asiatic lion, formerly P. l. persica[1] West African lion, formerly P. l. senegalensis, syn. P. l. gambianus[1] Central African lion, formerly P. l. kamptzi, P. l. azandicus[1]

Southern African lion
Southern African lion
P. l. melanochaita including:[35]

†Cape lion, formerly P. l. melanochaita sensu stricto[1][41] Southern African lion, formerly P. l. bleyenberghi, P. l. krugeri[1] East African lion, formerly P. l. massaica[1]

West, East, Central and Southern Africa, India

Jaguar
Jaguar
P. onca

None[42][35] Historic range stretches across the USA and Mexico
Mexico
to Chile and Argentina, including much of Amazonian Brazil.[43] Countries present in the modern range are Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica (particularly on the Osa Peninsula), Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, the United States and Venezuela.

Leopard
Leopard
P. pardus

African leopard
African leopard
P. p. pardus Arabian leopard
Arabian leopard
P. p. nimr Javan leopard
Javan leopard
P. p. melas Indian leopard
Indian leopard
P. p. fusca Sri Lankan leopard
Sri Lankan leopard
P. p. kotiya Persian leopard
Persian leopard
and Anatolian leopard
Anatolian leopard
P. p. tulliana,[35] syn. P. p. ciscaucasica, P. p. saxicolor[1] Indochinese leopard
Indochinese leopard
P. p. delacouri Amur leopard
Amur leopard
P. p. orientalis, including P. p. japonensis[35]

Africa, Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, East Asia

Snow leopard
Snow leopard
P. uncia[35]

Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan to the Hindu Kush in eastern Afghanistan, Karakoram in northern Pakistan, in the Pamir Mountains, and in the high altitudes of the Himalayas in India, Nepal, and Bhutan, and the Tibetan Plateau.

Fossil
Fossil
species and subspecies[edit]

Species Subspecies Fossil
Fossil
distribution Notes

Panthera
Panthera
palaeosinensis None Northern China Originally thought to be an ancestral species of tiger, this species has been found in recent studies place it close to the base of the genus Panthera.[33][44]

Panthera
Panthera
blytheae None Tibetan Plateau The oldest known species of Panthera
Panthera
closely related to the snow leopard.[45]

Panthera
Panthera
zdanskyi None Gansu province
Gansu province
of northwestern China Closely related to the tiger.[46]

Tiger
Tiger
P. tigris †P. t. acutidens[47] †P. t. trinilensis[48] †P. t. soloensis[49]

Much of Asia (P. t. acutidens); Java, Indonesia (P. t. trinilensis and P. t. soloensis) These three subspecies are not closely related to the modern subspecies of tigers.[50]

Panthera
Panthera
toscana

†P. t. toscana †P. t. georgica[51]

Italy (P. t. toscana) and Georgia (P. t. georgica) The oldest fossil species of jaguar (sometimes classified as fossil subspecies of the extant animal or P. gombaszoegensis).[51]

Panthera
Panthera
gombaszoegensis

†P. g. schreuderi †P. g. gombaszoegensis

Europe P. g. schreuderi might be a junior synonym of P. g. gombaszoegensis.[52][51][53] Sometimes classified as subspecies of the P. onca.[51][53]

†Giant jaguars Panthera
Panthera
onca

†P. o. augusta[54] †P. o. mesembrina[55]

North America (P. o. augusta) and South America (P. o. mesembrina) P. onca represented the third wave of jaguar evolution,[51] with P. o. augusta in the temperate forests of North America, P. o. mesembrina in temperate grasslands of South America, and the smaller modern jaguar, P. o. onca, inhabiting the tropics of both continents during the Pleistocene.[43]

†European leopards P. pardus †P. p. begoueni[56] †P. p. sickenbergi[57] †P. p. antiqua[58] †P. p. begoueni[56] †P. p. spelaea[59]

Europe Closely related to Persian leopard
Persian leopard
P. p. tulliana according to genetic work.[59]

Panthera
Panthera
crassidens None South Africa A possible chimera of fossil leopards and cheetahs.[60]

Panthera
Panthera
shawi None Laetoli site in Tanzania A leopard-like cat which is believed to be the oldest known species of lion.[61]

Lion
Lion
P. leo †P. l. sinhaleyus Sri Lanka This subspecies of lion is only known by two teeth.[62]

†P. spelaea

†P. s. fossilis[63] †P. s. youngi[64] †P. s. spelaea

Iberian peninsula, Southeast Europe, Great Britain, Central Europe, East European Plain, across most of northern Eurasia into Canada
Canada
and Alaska[65] Originally spelaea and fossilis were classified as subspecies of the extant lion P. leo.[66] Results of recent genetic studies indicate that both belong to a distinct species, namely P. spelaea.[67][68] Other genetic results indicate that the fossilis cave lion warrants status of a species.[69][70]

Panthera
Panthera
atrox

None North America, dubious remains in South America.[71] The American lion
American lion
is thought to have descended from a basal spelaea cave lion population isolated south of the North American continental ice sheet, and then established a mitochondrial sister clade circa 200,000 BP.[70][72] It is sometimes considered either under the nomenclature of P. leo[72] or of P. spelaea.[73]

See also[edit]

Panthera
Panthera
hybrid Big cat

References[edit]

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(Linnaeus, 1758) (Mammalia: Felidae)". Brazilian Journal of Biological Sciences. 2 (4): p. 309–319. ISSN 2358-2731. CS1 maint: Extra text (link) ^ Tseng, Z. J.; Wang, X.; Slater, G. J.; Takeuchi, G. T.; Li, Q.; Liu, J.; Xie, G. (2013). "Himalayan fossils of the oldest known pantherine establish ancient origin of big cats". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 281 (1774): 20132686–20132686. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.2686. ISSN 0962-8452.  ^ Tseng, Z. Jack; Wang, Xiaoming; Slater, Graham J.; Takeuchi, Gary T.; Li, Qiang; Liu, Juan; Xie, Guangpu (2014-01-07). "Himalayan fossils of the oldest known pantherine establish ancient origin of big cats". Proc. R. Soc. B. 281 (1774): 20132686. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.2686. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC 3843846 . PMID 24225466.  ^ Ji H. Mazák, Per Christiansen and Andrew C. Kitchener (2011). "Oldest Known Pantherine Skull
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Panthera
tigris (Linnaeus) subspecies from Wanhsien, Szechwan, China, compared with fossil and recent tigers from other localities. American Museum Novitates no. 1346. ^ Brongersma, L. D. (1935). "Notes on some recent and fossil cats, chiefly from the Malay Archipelago". Zoologische Mededelingen 18: 1–89. ^ Koenigswald, G. H. R. von (1933). "Beitrag zur Kenntnis der fossilen Wirbeltiere Javas". Wetenschappelijke Mededeelingen Dienst Mijnbouw Nederlansch Oost-Indie 23: 1–127.  ^ Hasegawa, Y. Tomida, Y. Kohno, N. Ono, K. Nokariya, H., UyenoT. (1988). "Quaternary vertebrates from Shiriya area, Shimokita Pininsula, northeastern Japan". Memoirs of the National Science Museum. 21: 17–36. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b c d e Hemmer, H.; Kahlke, R. D.; Vekua, A. K. (2010). "Panthera onca georgica ssp. nov. from the Early Pleistocene of Dmanisi (Republic of Georgia) and the phylogeography of jaguars (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae)". Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen. 257 (1): 115–127.  ^ O'Regan, H.; Turner, A (2004). "Biostratigraphic and palaeoecological implications of new fossil felid material from the Plio-Pleistocene site of Tegelen, the Netherlands". Palaeontology. 47 (5): 1181–1193. doi:10.1111/j.0031-0239.2004.00400.x.  ^ a b Mol, D.; van Logchem, W.; de Vos, J. (2011). "New record of the European jaguar, Panthera onca
Panthera onca
gombaszoegensis (Kretzoi, 1938), from the Plio-Pleistocene of Langenboom (The Netherlands)". Cainozoic Research. 8 (1–2): 35–40. Retrieved 2015-09-28. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Ruiz-Garcia, M.; Payan, E.; Murillo, A. & Alvarez, D. (2006). "DNA microsatellite characterization of the jaguar ( Panthera
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onca) in Colombia". Genes & Genetic Systems. 81 (2): 115–127. doi:10.1266/ggs.81.115. Retrieved 2015-09-08.  ^ Roth, S., 1899. Descripción de los restos encontrados en la caverna de Última Esperanza. Revista del Museo La Plata 9, 381–388. ^ a b Fraipont, C. (1923). "Crane de Panthère ou de Lynx
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géant provenent de la caverne de Trois-Frères (Ariège)". Revue d'Anthropologie 33: 42.  ^ Schütt, Von G. (1969). " Panthera pardus
Panthera pardus
sickenbergi n. subsp. Aus den Mauerer Sanden". Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie: 299–310.  ^ Cuvier, G. (1835). Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles ou l'on retablit les caractères de plusieurs animaux dont les revolutions du globe ont détruit les espèces. Paris: Dufour et E. d'Ocagne.  ^ a b Diedrich, C. G. (2013). "Late Pleistocene leopards across Europe – northernmost European German population, highest elevated records in the Swiss Alps, complete skeletons in the Bosnia Herzegowina Dinarids and comparison to the Ice Age cave art". Quaternary Science Reviews. 76: 167–193. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.05.009.  ^ Turner, A (1984). " Panthera crassidens Broom, 1948. The cat that never was?". South African Journal of Science. 80 (5): 227–233.  ^ Sabol, M. (2011). "Masters of the lost world: a hypothetical look at the temporal and spatial distribution of lion-like felids" (PDF). Quaternaire. 4: 229–236.  ^ Manamendra-Arachchi, K., Pethiyagoda, R., Dissanayake, R., Meegaskumbura, M. (2005). A second extinct big cat from the late Quaternary of Sri Lanka. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement 12: 423–434. ^ Harington, C. R. (1996). Pleistocene mammals of the Yukon Territory. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Alberta, Edmonton. ^ Harington, C. R. (1969). "Pleistocene remains of the lion-like cat ( Panthera
Panthera
atrox) from the Yukon Territory and northern Alaska". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 6 (5): 1277–1288. doi:10.1139/e69-127.  ^ Stuart, A.J., Lister, A.M. (2011). "Extinction chronology of the cave lion Panthera
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spelaea". Quaternary Science Reviews. 30 (17): 2329–2340. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Sala, B. (1990). " Panthera leo
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fossilis (v. Reichenau, 1906) (Felidae) de Iserna la Pineta (Pléistocene moyen inférieur d'Italie)". Géobios (23): 189–194.  ^ Marciszak, A.; Stefaniak, K. (2010). "Two forms of cave lion: Middle Pleistocene Panthera
Panthera
spelaea fossilis Reichenau, 1906 and Upper Pleistocene Panthera
Panthera
spelaea spelaea Goldfuss, 1810 from the Bísnik Cave, Poland". Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen. 258 (3): 339–351. doi:10.1127/0077-7749/2010/0117.  ^ Marciszak, A.; Schouwenburg, C.; Darga, R. (2014). "Decreasing size process in the cave (Pleistocene) lion Panthera
Panthera
spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) evolution – A review". Quaternary International. Fossil remains in karst and their role in reconstructing Quaternary paleoclimate and paleoenvironments. 339–340: 245–257. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2013.10.008.  ^ Sotnikova, M. V.; Foronova, I. V. (2014). "First Asian record of Panthera
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(Leo) fossilis (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) in the Early Pleistocene of Western Siberia, Russia" (PDF). Integrative zoology. 9 (4): 517–530.  ^ a b Barnett, R.; Mendoza, M. L. Z.; Soares, A. E. R.; Ho, S. Y. W.; Zazula, G.; Yamaguchi, N.; Shapiro, B.; Kirillova, I. V.; Larson, G.; Gilbert, M. T. P. (2016). "Mitogenomics of the Extinct Cave Lion, Panthera
Panthera
spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810), resolve its position within the Panthera
Panthera
cats". Open Quaternary 2. 2: 4. doi:10.5334/oq.24.  ^ Chimento, N. R.; Agnolin, F. L. (2017). "The fossil American lion ( Panthera
Panthera
atrox) in South America: Palaeobiogeographical implications". Comptes Rendus Palevol. 16 (8): 850–864. doi:10.1016/j.crpv.2017.06.009.  ^ a b Barnett, R.; Shapiro, B.; Barnes, I.; Ho, S. Y. W.; Burger, J.; Yamaguchi, N.; Higham, T. F. G.; Wheeler, H. T:; Rosendahl, W. (2009). "Phylogeography of lions ( Panthera leo
Panthera leo
ssp.) reveals three distinct taxa and a late Pleistocene reduction in genetic diversity" (18): 1668−1677.  ^ Sotnikova, M. and Nikolskiy, P. (2006). "Systematic position of the cave lion Panthera
Panthera
spelaea (Goldfuss) based on cranial and dental characters". Quaternary International. 142–143: 218–228. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2005.03.019. ISSN 1040-6182. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)

Further reading[edit]

A. Turner: The big cats and their fossil relatives. Columbia University Press, 1997.ISBN 0-231-10229-1

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard
Leopard
cat (P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q127960 ADW: Panthera EoL: 14134 EPPO: 1PNTHG Fossilworks: 41066 ITIS: 180592 MSW: 1

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