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The Palace of Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
(/fɒntɪnˌbloʊ/;[1] French pronunciation: ​[fɔ̃tɛnblo][1]) or Château de Fontainebleau, located 55 kilometres (34 miles) southeast of the center of Paris, in the commune of Fontainebleau, is one of the largest French royal châteaux. The medieval castle and subsequent palace served as a residence for the French monarchs from Louis VII to Napoleon
Napoleon
III. It is now a national museum and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Medieval palace (12th century) 1.2 Renaissance Château of Francis I (1528–1547) 1.3 Château of Henry II and Catherine de' Medici
Catherine de' Medici
(1547–1570) 1.4 Château of Henry IV (1570–1610) 1.5 Château from Louis XIII
Louis XIII
through Louis XVI 1.6 Château during the Revolution and the First Empire 1.7 Château during the Restoration and the reign of Louis-Philippe (1815–1848) 1.8 Château during the Second Empire 1.9 Château from the Third Republic to the present day

2 Grand Apartments

2.1 Gallery of Francis I 2.2 Ballroom 2.3 St. Saturnin's Chapels 2.4 Room of the Guards 2.5 Stairway of the King 2.6 Queen's bedroom 2.7 Boudoir of Marie-Antoinette 2.8 Throne Room of Napoleon
Napoleon
(former bedroom of the King) 2.9 Council Chamber 2.10 Apartment of the Pope and of the Queen-Mothers 2.11 Gallery of Diana

3 Apartments of Napoleon

3.1 Emperor's bedroom

4 Theatre 5 Chinese Museum 6 Chapel of the Trinity 7 Gardens and the park

7.1 Garden of Diana 7.2 Carp pond, English garden, grotto and spring 7.3 Parterre and canal

8 Art and decoration - the School of Fontainebleau 9 Museum of Napoleon
Napoleon
I 10 See also 11 References

11.1 Bibliography 11.2 Notes and citations

12 External links

History[edit] Medieval palace (12th century)[edit]

The Oval Courtyard, with the Medieval donjon, a vestige of the original castle where the King's apartments were located, in the center.

The Gallery of Francis I, connecting the King's apartments with the chapel, decorated between 1533 and 1539. It introduced the Italian Renaissance style to France.

The earliest record of a fortified castle at Fontaineau dates to 1137.[2] It became a favorite residence and hunting lodge of the Kings of France
France
because of the abundant game and many springs in the surrounding forest. it took its name from one of the springs, the fountain de Bliaud, located now in the English garden, next to the wing of Louis XV. [3] It was used by King Louis VII, for whom Thomas Becket consecrated the chapel in 1169; by Philip Augustus; by Louis IX, or Saint Louis, who built a hospital and a convent, the Couvent des Trinitaires, next to the castle; and by Philippe le Bel, who was born and died in the castle.[2] Renaissance Château of Francis I (1528–1547)[edit]

Cellini statute which would have flanked the Nymphe de Fontainebleau

Nymphe de Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
by Cellini.

Cellini statute which would have flanked the Nymphe de Fontainebleau

In the 15th century some modifications and embellishments were made to the castle by Isabeau of Bavaria, the wife of King Charles VI , but the medieval structure remained essentially intact until the reign Francis I (1494–1547). He commissioned the architect Gilles le Breton to build a palace in the new Renaissance style, recently imported from Italy. Le Breton preserved the old medieval donjon, where the King's apartments were located, but incorporated it into the new Renaissance-style Cour Ovale, or oval courtyard, built on the foundations of the old castle. It included monumental Porte Dorée, as its southern entrance. as well as a monumental Renaissance stairway, the portique de Serlio, to give access the royal apartments on the north side. Beginning in about 1528, Francis constructed the Gallery Francis I, which allowed him to pass directly from his apartments to the chapel of the Trinitaires. He brought the architect Sebastiano Serlio
Sebastiano Serlio
from Italy, and the Florentine painter Giovanni Battista di Jacopo, known as Rosso Fiorentino, to decorate the new gallery. Between 1533 and 1539 Rosso Fiorentino
Rosso Fiorentino
filled the gallery with murals glorifying the King, framed in stucco ornament in high relief, and lambris sculpted by the furniture maker Francesco Scibec da Carpi
Francesco Scibec da Carpi
. Another Italian painter, Francesco Primaticcio
Francesco Primaticcio
from Bologna, ("Primatice" to the French), joined later in the decoration of the palace. Together their style of decoration became known as the first School of Fontainebleau. This was the first great decorated gallery built in France. Broadly speaking, at Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
the Renaissance was introduced to France.[4] In about 1540, Francis began another major addition to the chateau. Using land on the east side of the chateau purchased from the order of the Trinitaires, he began to build a new square of buildings around a large courtyard. It was enclosed on the north by the wing of the Ministers, on the east by the wing of Ferrare, and on the south by a wing containing the new gallery of Ulysees. The chateau was surrounded by a new park in the style of the Italian Renaissance garden, with pavilions and the first grotto in France. Primaticcio created more monumental murals for the gallery of Ulysses.[5] Château of Henry II and Catherine de' Medici
Catherine de' Medici
(1547–1570)[edit]

The horseshoe stairway was originally built for Henry II by Philibert Delorme between 1547–59, then rebuilt for Louis XIII
Louis XIII
by Jean Androuet du Cerceau in about 1640.

Following the death of Francis I, King Henry II decided to continue and expand the chateau. The King and his wife chose the architects Philibert Delorme
Philibert Delorme
and Jean Bullant to do the work. They extended the east wing of the lower court, and decorated it with the first famous horseshoe-shaped staircase. In the oval court, they transformed the loggia planned by Francois into a Salle des Fétes or grand ballroom with a coffered ceiling. Facing the courtyard of the fountain and the fish pond, they designed a new building, the Pavillon des Poeles, to contain the new apartments of the King. The decoration of the new ballroom and the gallery of Ulysses with murals by Primaticcio and sculptured stucco continued, under the direction of the Mannerist painters Primaticcio and Niccolò dell'Abbate.[6] At Henri's orders, the Nymphe de Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
was installed at the gateway entrance of Château d'Anet, the primary domain of Henri's primary mistress Diane de Poitiers (the original bronze lunette is now in the Louvre, with a replica in place). Following the death of Henry II in a jousting accident, his widow, Catherine de' Medici, continued the construction and decoration of the château. She named Primaticcio as the new superintendent of royal public works. He designed the section known today as the wing of the Belle Cheminée, noted for its elaborate chimneys and its two opposing stairways. In 1565, as a security measure due to the Wars of Religion, she also had moat dug around the château to protect it against attack.[6] Château of Henry IV (1570–1610)[edit]

The Gallerie des Cerfs (Gallery of the Stags), built by Henry IV between 1601 and 1606.

King Henry IV made more additions to the château than any King since Francis I. He extended the oval court toward the west by building two pavilions, called Tiber and Luxembourg. Between 1601 and 1606, he remade all the façades around the courtyard, including that of the chapel of Saint-Saturnin, to give the architecture greater harmony. On the east side, he built a new monumental gateway with a dome, called the porte du Baptistère. Between 1606 and 1609, he built a new courtyard, called the Cour des Offices or the Quartier Henry IV, to provide a place for the kitchens and residences for court officials. Two new galleries, the Galerie de Diane de Poitiers
Diane de Poitiers
and the Galerie des Cerfs, were built to enclose the old garden of Diane. He also added a large Jeu de paume, or indoor tennis court, the largest such court existing in the world.[7][8][9] A "second school of Fontainebleau" of painters and decorators went to work on the interiors. The architect Martin Fréminet
Martin Fréminet
created the ornate chapel of the Trinity, while the painters Ambroise Dubois
Ambroise Dubois
and Toussaint Dubreuil
Toussaint Dubreuil
created a series of heroic paintings for the salons. A new wing, named for its central building, 'La Belle Cheminée, was built next to the large fish pond. Henry IV also devoted great attention to the park and gardens around the Chateau. The garden of the Queen or garden of Diane, created by Catherine de' Medici, with the fountain of Diane in the center, was located on the north side of the palace. Henry IV's gardener, Claude Mollet, trained at Château d'Anet, created a large parterre of flower beds, decorated with ancient statues and separated by paths into large squares. The fountain of Diana and the grotto were made by Tommaso Francini, who may also have designed the Medici Fountain
Medici Fountain
in the Luxembourg Garden
Luxembourg Garden
for Marie de Medici. On the south side, Henry created a park, planted with pines, elms and fruit trees, and laid out a grand canal 1200 meters long, sixty years before Louis XIV
Louis XIV
built his own grand canal at Versailles.[9] Château from Louis XIII
Louis XIII
through Louis XVI[edit]

The Château and gardens early in the 17th century, drawn by Tommaso Francini, the fountain-designer

The Gros Pavilion in the center, built by Louis XV
Louis XV
for the new royal apartments between 1750 and 1754.

King Louis XIII
Louis XIII
was born and baptized in the Château, and continued the works begun by his father. He completed the decoration of the chapel of the Trinity, and assigned the court architect Jean Androuet du Cerceau to reconstruct the horseshoe stairway earlier designed by Philibert Delorme
Philibert Delorme
on the courtyard that had become known as the Cour de Cheval Blanc. After his death, his widow, Anne of Austria, redecorated the apartments within the Wing of the Queen Mothers (Aile des Reines Mères) next to the Court of the Fountain, designed by Primatrice.[10] King Louis XIV
Louis XIV
spent more days at Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
than any other monarch; he liked to hunt there every year at the end of summer and the beginning of autumn. He made few changes to the exterior of the château, but did build a new apartment for his companion Madame de Maintenon, furnished it with some major works of André-Charles Boulle and demolished the old apartments of the baths under the Gallery of Francis I to create new apartments for the royal princes, and he made some modifications to the apartments of the King. The architect Jules Hardouin-Mansard built a new wing alongside the Gallerie des Cerfs and the Gallerie de Diane to provide more living space for the Court. He did make major changes in the park and gardens; he commissioned André Le Nôtre and Louis Le Vau
Louis Le Vau
to redesign the large parterre into a French formal garden. He destroyed the hanging garden which Henry IV had built next to the large fish pond, and instead built a pavilion, designed by Le Vau, on a small island in the center of the pond. Louis XIV
Louis XIV
signed the Edict of Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
at the Château on 22 October 1685, revoking the policy of tolerance towards Protestants begun by Henry IV. Louis welcomed many foreign guests there, including the former Queen Christina of Sweden, who had just abdicated her crown. While a guest in the Château on 10 November 1657, Christina suspected her master of horse and reputed lover, the Marchese Gian Rinaldo Monaldeschi, of betraying her secrets to her enemies. Her servants chased him through the halls of the Château and stabbed him to death. Louis XIV
Louis XIV
came to see her at the Château, did not mention the murder, and allowed her to continue her travels. On May 19–20, 1717, during the Regency following the death of Louis XIV, the Russian Czar Peter the Great
Peter the Great
was a guest at Fontainebleau. A hunt for stags was organized for him, and a banquet. Officially the visit was a great success. but in the memoirs published later by members of the delegation, it appears that Peter disliked the French style of hunting, and that he found the Château too small, compared with the other royal French residences. The routine of Fontainebleau also did not suit his tastes; he preferred beer to wine (and brought his own supply with him) and he liked to get up early, unlike the French Court.[11][12]

Louis XIV
Louis XIV
hunting near the Palace of Fontainebleau. Painting by Pierre-Denis Martin

The renovation projects of Louis XV
Louis XV
were more ambitious than those of Louis XIV. To create more lodging for his enormous number of courtiers In 1737–38 the King built a new courtyard, called the Cour de la Conciergerie
Conciergerie
or the Cour des Princes, to the east of the Gallerie des Cerfs. On the Cour du Cheval Blanc, the wing of the Gallery of Ulysees was torn down and gradually replaced by a new brick and stone building, built in stages in 1738–1741 and 1773–74, extending west toward the Pavilion and grotto of the pines. Between 1750 and 1754, the King commissioned the architect Ange-Jacques Gabriel
Ange-Jacques Gabriel
to build a new wing along the Cour de la Fontaine and the fish pond. The old Pavilion des Poeles was demolished and replaced by the Gros Pavilion, built of cream-colored stone. Lavish new apartments were created inside this building for the King and the Queen. The new meeting room for the Royal Council was decorated by the leading painters of the day, including François Boucher, Carle Vanloo, Jean-Baptiste Marie Pierre
Jean-Baptiste Marie Pierre
and Alexis Peyrotte. A magnificent small theater was created on the first floor of the wing of the Belle Cheminée. King Louis XVI
Louis XVI
also made additions to the château to create more space for his courtiers. A new building was constructed alongside the Gallery of Francis I; it created a large new apartment on the first floor, and a number of small apartments on the ground floor, but also blocked the windows on the north side of the Gallery of Francis I. The apartments of Queen Marie-Antoinette
Marie-Antoinette
were redone, a Turkish-style salon was created for her in 1777, a room for games in 1786–1787, and a boudoir in the arabesque style. Louis XVI
Louis XVI
and Marie-Antoinette made their last visit to Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
in 1786, on the eve of the French Revolution.[13] Château during the Revolution and the First Empire[edit]

Napoleon
Napoleon
saying farewell to his Old Guard in the Courtyard of Honor (20 April 1814)

The table where Napoleon
Napoleon
signed his abdication on 4 April 1814, before his exile to Elba.

During the French Revolution
French Revolution
the Château did not suffer any significant damage, but all the furniture was sold at auction. The buildings were occupied by the Central School of the Department of Seine-et-Marne, until 1803, when Napoleon
Napoleon
I installed a military school there. As he prepared to become Emperor, Napoleon
Napoleon
wanted to preserve as much as possible the palaces and protocol of the Old Regime. He chose Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
as the site of his historic 1804 meeting with Pope Pius VII, who had travelled from Rome to crown Napoleon
Napoleon
Emperor. Napoleon
Napoleon
had a suite of rooms decorated for the Pope, and had the entire chateau refurnished and decorated. The bedroom of the Kings was transformed into a throne room for Napoleon. Apartments were refurnished and decorated for the Emperor and Empress in the new Empire style. The Cour du Cheval Blanc was renamed the Cour d'Honneur, or Courtyard of Honor. One wing facing the courtyard, the Aile de Ferrare, was torn down and replaced with an ornamental iron fence and gate, making the façade of the Palace visible. The gardens of Diane and the gardens of the Pines were replanted and turned into an English landscape garden
English landscape garden
by the landscape designer Maximillien-Joseph Hurtault. Napoleon's visits to Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
were not frequent, because he was occupied so much of the time with military campaigns. Between 1812 and 1814, the château served as a very elegant prison for Pope Pius VII. Napoleon
Napoleon
5 November 1810, the chapel of the Chateau was used for the baptism of Napoleon's nephew, the future Napoleon
Napoleon
III, with Napoleon serving as his godfather, and the Empress Marie-Louise as his godmother.[14] Napoleon
Napoleon
spent the last days of his reign at Fontainebleau, before abdicating there on 4 April 1814, under pressure from his marechals, Ney, Berthier, and Lefebvre. On 20 April, after failing in an attempt to commit suicide, he gave an emotional farewell to the soldiers of the Old Guard, assembled in the Court of Honor. Later, during the One Hundred Days, he stopped there on 20 March 1815. In his memoires, written while in exile on Saint Helena, he recalled his time at Fontainebleau; “…the true residence of Kings, the house of the centuries. Perhaps it was not a rigorously architectural palace, but it was certainly a place of residence well thought out and perfectly suitable. It was certainly the most comfortable and happily situated palace in Europe.” Château during the Restoration and the reign of Louis-Philippe (1815–1848)[edit] Following the restoration of the Monarchy, Kings Louis XVIII
Louis XVIII
and Charles X each stayed at Fontainebleau, but neither made any major changes to the palace. Louis-Philippe
Louis-Philippe
was more active, both restoring some rooms and redecorating others in the style of his period. The Hall of the Guards and Gallery of Plates were redecorated in a Neo-Renaissance style, while the Hall of Columns, under the ballroom, was remade in a neoclassical style. He added new stained glass windows, made by the royal manufactory of Sèvres. Château during the Second Empire[edit]

Napoleon III
Napoleon III
receiving a delegation from the King of Siam
Siam
in the ballroom in (1864)

Emperor Napoleon
Napoleon
III, who had been baptized at Fountainebleau, resumed the custom of long stays at Fontainebleau, particularly during the summer. Many of the historic rooms, such as the Gallerie des Cerfs, were restored to something like their original appearance, while the private apartments were redecorated to suit the tastes of the Emperor and Empress. Numerous guest apartments were squeezed into unused spaces of the buildings. The old theater of the palace, built in the 18th century, was destroyed by a fire in the wing of the Belle Cheminée 1856. Between 1854 and 1857 the architect Hector Lefuel built a new theater in the style of Louis XVI. On the ground floor of the Gros Pavilion, The Empress Eugénie built a small but rich museum, containing gifts from the King of Siam
Siam
in 1861, and works of art taken during the pillage of the Summer Palace in Beijing. It also featured paintings by contemporary artists, including Franz Xaver Winterhalter, and the sculptor Charles Henri Joseph Cordier. Close by, in the Lous XV wing, the Emperor established his office, and the Empress made her Salon of Lacquer. These were the last rooms created by the royal residents of Fontainebleau. In 1870, during the Franco-German War, the Empire fell, and the Château was closed.[15] Château from the Third Republic to the present day[edit] During the Franco-Prussian War, the palace was occupied by the Prussians on 17 September 1870, and briefly used as an army headquarters by Frederic Charles of Prussia from March 1871. Following the war, two of the buildings became the home of the advanced school of artillery and engineering of the French Army, which had been forced to leave Alsace when the province was annexed by Germany. [16] It was occasionally used as a residence by the Presidents of the Third Republic, and to welcome state guests. including King Alexander I of Serbia (1891), King George I of Greece
George I of Greece
(1892) Leopold II of Belgium (1895). and King Alphonse XIII of Spain
Alphonse XIII of Spain
(1913). It also received a visit by the last survivor of its royal residents, the Empress Eugenie, on 26 June 1920. The façades the major buildings received their first protection by classification as historic monuments on 20 August 1913. In 1923, following the First World War, it became home of the Écoles d'Art Américaines, schools of art and music, which still exist today. In 1927 it became a national museum. Between the wars the upper floors of the wing of the Belle Cheminée, burned in 1856, were rebuilt by a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. During World War II, it was occupied by the Germans on 16 June 1940, and occupied until 10 November, and again from 15 May to the end of October 1941. Following the war, part of the Chateau became a headquarters of the Allied Forces Central Europe, under NATO, until 1966. The general restoration of the Chateau took place between 1964 and 1968 under President Charles DeGaulle
Charles DeGaulle
and his Minister of Culture, Andre Malraux. It was classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 1981. In 2006, the Ministry of Culture purchased the royal stables, and began their restoration. Beginning in 2007, restoration began of the theater of the Chateau, created by Napoleon III
Napoleon III
during the Second Empire. The project was funded by the government of Abu-Dhabi, and in exchange the theater was renamed for Sheik Khalifa Bin Zayed al Nahyan. It was inaugurated on 30 April 2014.[17] On 1 March 2015, the Chinese Museum of the Chateau was robbed by professional thieves. They broke in at about six in the morning, and, despite alarms and video cameras, in seven minutes stole about fifteen of the most valuable objects in the collection, including the replica of the crown of Siam
Siam
given by the Siamese government to Napoleon
Napoleon
III, a Tibetan mandala, and an enamel chimera from the reign of the Quianlong rulers (1736–1795).[18] Grand Apartments[edit] Gallery of Francis I[edit]

The Gallery of Francis I is one of the first and finest examples of Renaissance decoration in France. It was originally constructed in 1528 as a passageway between the apartments of the King with the oval courtyard and the chapel of the convent Trinitaires, but in 1531 Francis I made it a part of his royal apartments, and between 1533 and 1539 it was decorated by artists and craftsmen from Italy, under the direction of the painter Rosso Fiorentino, or Primatice, in the new Renaissance style. The lower walls of the passage were the work of the master Italian furniture maker Francesco Scibec da Carpi; they are decorated with the coat of arms of France
France
and the salamander, the emblem of the King. The upper walls are covered by frescoes framed in richly sculpted stucco. The frescoes used mythological scenes to illustrate the virtues of the King. On the side of gallery with windows, the frescoes represent Ignorance Driven Out; The Unity of the State; Cliobis and Biton; Danae; The Death of Adonis; The Loss of Perpetual Youth; and The Battle of the Centaurs and the Lapithes. On the side of the gallery facing the windows, the frescoes represent: A Sacrifice; The Royal Elephant; The Burning of Catane; The Nymph of Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
(painted in 1860–61 by J. Alaux to cover a former entry to the gallery); The Sinking of Ajax;The Education of Achilles and The Frustration of Venus.[19] Ballroom[edit]

The Ballroom was created by King Henry II beginning in 1552

The musician's gallery in the ballroom

The monumental fireplace in the ballroom

The ballroom was originally begun as an open passageway, or loggia, by Francis I. In about 1552 King Henry II closed it with high windows and an ornate coffered ceiling, and transformed it into a room for celebrations and balls. The 'H', the initial of the King, is prominent in the decor, as well as figures of the crescent moon, the symbol of Henry's mistress Diane de Poitiers. At the western end is a monumental fireplace, decorated with bronze statues originally copied from classical statues in Rome. At the eastern end of the room is a gallery where the musicians played during balls. The decor was restored many times over the years. The floor, which mirrors the design of the ceiling, was built by Louis-Philippe in the first half of the 19th century. The frescoes on the walls and pillars were painted beginning in 1552 by Nicolo dell'Abate, following drawings by Primatice. On the garden side of the ballroom, the represent: The Harvest; Vulcan forging weapons for Love at the request of Venus; Phaeton begging the sun to let him drive his chariot; and Jupiter and Mercury at the home of Philemon and Baucis. The frescoes on the side of the Oval Courtyard represent: The feast of Bacchus; Apollo
Apollo
and the Muses
Muses
on Mount Parnassus; The Three Graces dancing before the gods; The wedding feast of Thetis
Thetis
and Peleus. A fresco behind the gallery of musicians shows musicians of the period performing. St. Saturnin's Chapels[edit] Behind the ballroom, there is St. Saturnin's Chapel. The lower chapel was originally built in the 12th century, but was destroyed and completely rebuilt under Francis I. The windows made in Sèvres were installed during the Louis Philippe's period and were designed by his daughter Marie, an artist herself.[20] The upper chapel was the royal chapel decorated by Philibert de l'Orme.[21] The ceiling, made in the same style as the ballroom, ends with a dome. Room of the Guards[edit]

The Room of the Guards

A room for the guards was always located next to the royal bedchambers. The Salle des Gardes was built during the reign of Charles IX. Some traces of the original decor remain from the 1570s, including the vaulted ceiling and a frieze of military trophies attributed to Ruggiero d'Ruggieri. In the 19th century Louis Philippe turned the room into a salon and redecorated it with a new parquet floor of exotic woods echoing the design of the ceiling, and a monumental fireplace (1836), which incorporates pieces of ornament from demolished rooms from 15th and early 16th century. The bust of Henry IV, attributed to Mathieu Jacquet, is from that period, as are the two figures on either side of the fireplace. The sculpted frame around the bust, by Pierre Bontemps, was originally in the bedchamber of Henry II. The decorations added by Louis Philippe include a large vase decorated with Renaissance themes, made by the Sèvres porcelain manufactory in 1832. During the reign of Napoleon
Napoleon
III, the hall was used as a dining room.[22][23] Stairway of the King[edit]

Stairway of the King (18th century)

The stairway of the King was installed in 1748 and 1749, in the space occupied during the reign of Francis I by the bedroom of Anne de Pisseleu, the Duchess of Étampes, a favorite of the King. It was designed by the architect Ange-Jacques Gabriel, who used many decorative elements from the earlier room, which had originally been decorated by Primatice. The upper portion of the walls is divided into panels, oval and rectangular, with scenes representing the love life of Alexander the Great. The paintings are framed by large statues of women by Primatice. The eastern wall of the room was destroyed during the reconstruction, and was replaced during the reign of Louis Philippe in the 19th century with paintings by Abel de Pujol. [24] Queen's bedroom[edit]

All of the Queens and Empresses of France
France
from Marie de Medici
Marie de Medici
to the Empress Eugènie, slept in the bedchamber of the Queen. The ornate ceiling over the bed was made in 1644 by the furniture-maker Guillaume Noyers for the Dowager Queen Anne of Austria, the mother of Louis XIV, and bears her initials. The room was redecorated by Marie Leszczynska, the Queen of Louis XV
Louis XV
in 1746–1747. The ceiling of the alcove, the decoration around the windows and the wood panelling were made by Jacques Vererckt and Antoine Magnonais in the rocaille style of the day. The decoration of the fireplace dates to the same period. The doors have an arabesque design, and were made for Marie-Antoinette, as were the sculpted panels over the doors, installed in 1787. The bed was also made specially for Marie Antoinette, but did not arrive until 1797, after the Revolution and her execution. it was used instead by Napoleon's wives, the Empress Josephine and Marie-Louise of Austria. The walls received their ornamental textile covering, with a design of flowers and birds, in 1805. It was restored in 1968–1986 using the original fabric as a model. The furniture in the room all dates to the First Empire. The balustrade around the bed was originally made for the throne room of the Tuileries Palace
Tuileries Palace
in 1804. The armchairs with a sphinx pattern, the consoles and screen and the two chests of drawers were placed in the room in 1806.[25] Boudoir of Marie-Antoinette[edit]

The boudoir next to the Queen's bedroom was created for Queen Marie-Antoinette
Marie-Antoinette
in 1786, and permitted the Queen to have a measure of privacy. The room is the best surviving example of the decorative style just before the French Revolution, inspired by ancient Roman models, with delicately painted arabesques, cameos, vases, antique figures and garlands of flowers against a white background, framed by gilded and sculpted woodwork.[26] The room was made for the Queen by the same team of artists and craftsmen who also made the game room; the design was by the architect Pierre Rousseau (1751-1829) (fr); the wood panelling was sculpted by Laplace, and painted by Michel-Hubert Bourgeois and Louis-François Touzé. Eight figures of the Muses
Muses
were made in plaster by Roland; the ornate mantle of the fireplace was made by Jacques-François Dropsy, and decorated with glided bronze works by Claude-Jean Pitoin. The mahogany parquet floor, decorated with the emblems of the Queen, was made by Bernard Molitor, and finished in 1787. The painted ceiling, by Jean-Simon Berthélemy, shows Aurora with a group of angels.[27] The furnishings were designed for the room by Jean-Henri Riesener, using the finest materials available; mother of pearl, gilded bronze, brass, satin and ebony. Some of the original furnishings remain, including the cylindrical desk and the table, which were made between 1784 and 1789. The two armchairs are copies of the originals made by Georges Jacob
Georges Jacob
which are now in the Gulbenkian Museum
Gulbenkian Museum
in Lisbon, while the footstool is the original.[27] Throne Room of Napoleon
Napoleon
(former bedroom of the King)[edit]

The throne room was the bedroom of the Kings of France
France
from Henry IV to Louis XVI

In 1808 Napoleon
Napoleon
decided to install his throne in the former bedroom of the Kings of France
France
from Henry IV to Louis XVI, on the exact place where the royal bed had been. Under the Old Regime, the King's bed was a symbol of royal authority in France
France
and was saluted by courtiers who passed by it. Napoleon
Napoleon
wanted to show the continuity of his Empire with the past monarchies of France.[28] The majority of the carved wood ceiling, the lower part of the wood panelling, and the doors date to the reign of Louis XIII. The ceiling directly over the throne was made at the end of the reign of Louis XIV. Louis XV
Louis XV
created the portion of the ceiling directly over the throne, a new chimney, sculpted wooden medallions near the fireplace, the designs over the doors, and the fine carved woodwork facing the throne (1752–54). He also had the ceiling painted white and gilded and decorated with mosaics, to match the ceiling of the bedroom of the Queen.[29] Napoleon
Napoleon
added the standards with his initial and the Imperial eagle. The decoration around the throne was originally designed in 1804 by Jacob-Desmalter for the Palace of Saint-Cloud, and the throne itself came from the Tuileries Palace. The chimney was originally decorated with a portrait of Louis XIII painted by Philippe de Champaigne, which was burned in 1793 during the French Revolution. Napoleon
Napoleon
replaced it with a portrait of himself, by Robert Lefèvre. In 1834, King Louis-Philippe
Louis-Philippe
took down Napoleon's picture and replaced with another of Louis XIII, from a painter of the school of Champaigne,[30] Council Chamber[edit]

The Council Chamber

The Council Chamber, where the Kings and Emperors met their closest advisors, was close to the Throne Room. It was originally the office of Francis I, and was decorated with painted wooden panels showing following designs of Primatice, the virtues and the heroes of antiquity. The room was enlarged under Louis XIV, and the decorator, Claude Audran, followed the same theme. The room was entirely redecorated between 1751 and 1754 by the architect Ange-Jacques Gabriel, with arcades and wooded panels showing the virtues, and allegories of the seasons and the elements, painted by Jean-Baptiste Marie Pierre and Carle van Loo.[31] The painter Alexis Peyrotte
Alexis Peyrotte
added another series of medallions on the upper walls depicting floral themes, the sciences and arts. The five paintings on the vaulted ceiling were the work of François Boucher, and show the seasons and the sun beginning his journey and chasing away the night. A half-rotonda on the garden side of the room was added by Louis XV
Louis XV
in 1773, with a painted ceiling by Lagrenée depicting Glory surrounded by his children.[32] The room was used as a council chamber by Napoleon
Napoleon
I, and the furnishings are from that time. The armchairs at the table for the ministers are by Marcion (1806) and the folding chairs for advisors are by Jacob-Desmalter (1808).[33] Apartment of the Pope and of the Queen-Mothers[edit]

Bedroom of the Queen-Mother Anne of Austria
Anne of Austria
(Mid-17th century)

The apartment of the Pope, located on the first floor of the wing of the Queen Mothers and of the Gros Pavillon, takes its name from the 1804 visit of Pope Pius VII, who stayed there on his way to Paris
Paris
to crown Napoleon
Napoleon
I the Emperor of France. He stayed there again, involuntarily, under the close supervision of Napoleon
Napoleon
from 1812 to 1814. Prior to that, beginning in the 17th century it was the residence of the Queen Mothers Marie de' Medici
Marie de' Medici
and Anne of Austria. It was also the home of the Grand Dauphin, the oldest son of Louis XIV. In the 18th century it was used by the daughters of Louis XV, and then by the Count of Provence, the brother of Louis XVI. During the First Empire it was used by Louis, the brother of Napoleon, and his wife Queen Hortense, the daughter of the Empress Josephine. During the reign of Louis-Philippe, it was used by his eldest son, the Duke of Orleans. During the Second Empire, it was occupied by Stephanie de Bade, the adopted niece of Napoleon
Napoleon
I. It was restored in 1859–1861, and used thereafter for guests of high rank.[28] It was originally two apartments, which were divided or joined over the years depending upon its occupants.

The Grand Salon, the antechamber to the bedroom of the Queen-Mother (Mid-17th century)

The Salon de Reception was the anteroom to the bedroom of Anne of Austria, wife of Louis XIII
Louis XIII
and mother of Louis XIV. It features a gilded and sculpted ceiling divided into seven compartments, representing the sun and the known planets, along with smaller compartments for military trophies; it was created in 1558 by Ambroise Perret for the bedroom of Henry II in the pavilion des Poeles, a section of the Château that was later destroyed. Anne had it moved to the room and decorated with her own emblems, including a pelican. The wood paneling in the room is probably from the same period.[28] The decor of the bedroom dates largely to the 1650s; it includes grotesque paintings in compartments on the ceiling, attributed to Charles Errard; richly carved wood paneling featuring oak leaves and puti; and paintings over the doors of Anne of Austria
Anne of Austria
costumed as Minerva
Minerva
and Marie-Therese of Austria
Marie-Therese of Austria
costumed as Abundance, both painted by Gilbert de Sève. The bedroom was modified in the 18th century by the addition of a new fireplace (about 1700) and sculptured borders of cascades of flowers around the mirrors added in 1784. During the Secone Empire, painted panels imitating the style of the 17th century were added above the mirrors and between the mirrors and the doors.[34] Gallery of Diana[edit]

The Gallery of Diana (17th and 19th century)

The Gallery of Diana, an eighty-meter (242.4 feet) long corridor now lined with bookcases, was created by Henry IV at the beginning of the 17th century as a place for the Queen to promenade. The paintings on the vaulted ceiling, painted beginning in 1605 by Ambroise Dubois
Ambroise Dubois
and his workshop, represented scenes from the myth of Diana, goddess of the Hunt.[35] At the beginning of the 19th century, the gallery was in ruins. In 1810 Napoleon
Napoleon
decided to turn it into a gallery devoted the achievements of his Empire. A few of the paintings still in good condition were removed and put in the Gallery of Plates. The architect Hurtault designed a new plan for the gallery, inspired by the Grand Gallery of the Louvre, featuring paintings on the ceiling illustrating the great events of Napoleon's reign. By 1814 the corridor had been rebuilt and the decorative painted frames painted by the Moench and Redouté, but the cycle of paintings on the Empire had not been started, when Napoleon
Napoleon
fell from power.[36] Once the monarchy was restored, King Louis XVIII
Louis XVIII
had the gallery completed in a neoclassical style. A new series of the goddess Diana was done by Merry-Joseph Blondel
Merry-Joseph Blondel
and Abel de Pujol, using the painted frames prepared for Napoleon's cycle.[35] Paintings were also added along the corridor, illustrating the history of the French monarchy, painted in the Troubador style of the 1820s and 1830s, painted by a team of the leading academic painters. Beginning in 1853, under Napoleon
Napoleon
III, the corridor was turned into a library and most of the paintings were removed, with the exception of a large portrait of Henry IV on horseback by Jean-Baptiste Mauzaisse. The large globe near the entrance of the gallery, placed there in 1861, came from the office of Napoleon
Napoleon
in the Tuileries Palace.[36] Apartments of Napoleon[edit]

Bedroom of the Emperor Napoleon
Napoleon
(1808–1814)

In 1804 Napoleon
Napoleon
decided that he wanted his own private suite of apartments within the Palace, separate from the old state apartments. He took over a suite of six rooms which had been created in 1786 for Louis XVI, next to the Gallery of Francis I, and had them redecorated in the Empire style. The old apartment included a dressing room (cabinet de toilette), study, library, and bath.[37] Emperor's bedroom[edit] Beginning in 1808, Napoleon
Napoleon
had his bedroom in the former dressing room of the King. From this room, using a door hidden behind the drapery to the right of the bed, Napoleon
Napoleon
could go directly to his private library or to the offices on the ground floor. Much of the origin decor was unchanged from the time of Louis XVI; the fireplaces, the carved wooden panels sculpted by Pierre-Joseph LaPlace and the sculpture over the door by Sauvage remained as they were. The walls were painted with Imperial emblems in gold on white by Frederic-Simon Moench. The bed, made especially for the Emperor, was the summit of the Empire style; it was crowned with an imperial eagle and decorated with allegorical sculptures representing Glory, Justice, and Abundance. The Emperor had a special carpet made by Sallandrouze in the shape of the cross of the Legion of Honor; the branches of the cross alternate with symbols of military and civilian attributes.[38] The chairs near the fireplace were specially designed, with one side higher than the other, to contain the heat from the fire while allowing the occupants to see the decorations of the fireplace. The painting on the ceiling of the room was added later, after the downfall of Napoleon, by Louis XVII. Painted by Jean-Baptiste Regnault, it is an allegory representing The clemency of the King halting justice in its course.[37] The study was a small room designated as Napoleon's work room. In 1811 he added the camp bed, similar to the bed he used on his military campaigns, so he could rest briefly during a long night of work. The salon of the Emperor was simply furnished and decorated. It was in this room, on the small table on display, that the Emperor signed his abdication in 1814. Theatre[edit]

Theater of the Palace of Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
(1856)

Concerts, plays and other theatrical productions were a regular part of court life at Fontainebleau. Prior to the reign of Louis XV
Louis XV
these took place in different rooms of the palace, but during his reign a theatre was built in the Belle-Cheminée wing. It was rebuilt by the architect Gabriel, but was destroyed by a fire in 1856. It had already been judged too small for the court of Napoleon
Napoleon
III, and a new theatre had been begun in 1854 at the far eastern end of the wing of Louis XIV. It was designed by architect Hector Lefuel in the style of Louis XVI, and was inspired by the opera theatre at the palace of Versailles and that of Marie-Antoinette
Marie-Antoinette
at the Trianon Palace. The new theatre, with four hundred seats arranged in a parterre, two balconies and boxes in a horseshoe shape, was finished in 1856. It has the original stage machinery, and many of the original sets, including many transferred from the old theatre before the fire of 1856. [39][40] The theatre was closed after the end of the Second Empire and was rarely used. A restoration began in 2007, funded with ten million Euros by the government of Abu-Dhabi. In exchange, the theatre was renamed for Sheik Khalifa Bin Zayed al Nahyan. It was inaugurated on 30 April 2014. The theatre can be visited, but it no longer can be used for plays because some working parts of the theater, including the stage, were not included in the restoration.[17] Chinese Museum[edit]

The Chinese Museum created by the Empress Eugenie
Empress Eugenie
(1867)

The Chinese Museum, on the ground floor of the Gros Pavillon close to the pond, was among the last rooms decorated within the Chateau while it was still an imperial residence. In 1867, the Empress Eugenie
Empress Eugenie
had the rooms remade to display her personal collection of Asian art, which included gifts given to the Emperor by a delegation sent by the King of Siam
Siam
in 1861, and other objects taken during the destruction and looting of the Old Summer Palace
Old Summer Palace
near Beijing
Beijing
by a joint British-French military expedition to China in 1860.[41][42] The objects displayed in the antechamber include two royal palanquins given by the King of Siam, one designed for a King and the other (with curtains) for a Queen. Inside the two salons of the museum, some of the walls are covered with lacquered wood panels in black and gold, taken from 17th century Chinese screens, along with specially designed cases to display antique porcelain vases. Other objects on display include a Tibetan stupa containing a Buddha taken from the Summer Palace in China; and a royal Siamese crown given to Napoleon
Napoleon
III. The salons are lavishly decorated with both Asian and European furnishings and art objects, including silk-covered furnishings and Second Empire sculptures by Charles Cordier and Pierre-Alexandre Stonework. The room also served as a place for games and entertainment; an old bagatelle game and a mechanical piano from that period are on display.[43] In addition to the Chinese Museum, the Empress created a small office in 1868, the Salon of Lacquerware, which also decorated with lacquered panels and Asian art objects, on the ground floor of the Louis XV wing, not far from the office of the Emperor. This was the last room decorated before the fall of the Empire, and the eventual transformation of the Chateau into a museum.[43] Chapel of the Trinity[edit]

The Chapel of the Trinity (17th-18th century)

The Chapel of the Trinity was built at the end of the reign of Francis I to replace the old chapel of the convent of the Trinitaires. It was finished under Henry II, but was without decoration until 1608, when the painter Martin Freminet
Martin Freminet
was commissioned to design frescoes for the ceiling and walls. The sculptor Barthèlemy Tremblay created the vaults of the ceiling out of stucco and sculpture.[44] The paintings of Freminet in the central vaults depict the redemption of Man, from the appearance of God to Noah
Noah
at the launching of the Ark (Over the tribune) to the Annunciation. They surrounded these with smaller paintings depicting the ancestors of the Virgin Mary, the Kings of Judah, the Patriarchs announcing the coming of Christ, and the Virtues. Between 1613 and 1619 Freminet and Tremblay added paintings in stucco frames between the windows on the sides of the chapel, depicting the life of Christ.[45] Freminet died in 1619 and work did not resume until 1628.[46] The Trinity chapel, like Sainte-Chapelle
Sainte-Chapelle
in Paris
Paris
other royal chapels, had an upper section or tribune, where the King and his family sat, with a separate entrance; and a lower part, where the rest of the Court was placed. Beginning in 1628, the side chapels were decorated with iron gates and carved wood panelling, and the Florentine sculptor Francesco Bordoni began work on the marble altar. The figure to the left depicts Charlemagne, with the features of Henry II, while the figure on the right depicts Louis IX, or Saint Louis, with the features of Louis XIII, his patron. Bordoni also designed the multicolored marble pavement before the altar and the on the walls of the nave.[46] The painting of the Holy Trinity over the altar, by Jean Dubois the Elder, was added in 1642.[45] In the mid-17th century the craftsman Anthony Girault made the sculpted wooden doors of the nave. while the Jean Gobert made the doors of the tribune where the Royal family worshipped.[47] In 1741, the royal tribune was enlarged, while ornate balconies of wrought iron were added between the royal tribune and the simpler balconies used by the musicians and those who chanted the mass. In 1779, under Louis XVI, the frescoes of Freminet illustrating the life of Christ, which had deteriorated with time, were replaced by new paintings on the same theme. The paintings were done in the same style by about a dozen painters from the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture.[47] Under Napoleon, the old tabernacle of the chapel, which had been removed during the Revolution, was replaced by a new one designed by the architect Maximilien Hurtault. Beginning in 1824, the chapel underwent a program of major renovation and restoration that lasted for six years. The twelve paintings of the life of Christ were removed, as well as the gates to the side chapels. During the Second Empire, the wood panelling of side chapels was replaced. The restoration was not completed until the second half of the 20th century, when the twelve paintings, which had been scattered to different museums, were brought together again and restored in their stucco frames.[48] Between 1772 and 1774, a small organ made by François-Henri Cilquot was installed on the left side of the chapel, near the altar.[49] On 5 September 1725, the chapel was the setting for the wedding of Louis XV
Louis XV
and Marie Leszczynska. Napoleon III
Napoleon III
was baptized there on 4 November 1810, and Ferdinand-Philippe d'Orleans, the son of éKing Louis-Philippe, was married there to Helene de Mecklembourg Schwerin on 30 May 1837.[49] Gardens and the park[edit] From the time of Francis I, the palace was surrounded by formal gardens, representing the major landscaping styles of their periods; the French Renaissance
French Renaissance
garden, inspired by the Italian Renaissance gardens; the French formal garden, the favorite style of Louis XIV; and, in the 18th and 19th century, the French landscape garden, inspired by the English landscape garden. Garden of Diana[edit]

The fountain of Diana (17th century)

The Garden of Diana was created during the reign of Henry IV; it was the private garden of the King and Queen, and was visible from the windows of their rooms. The fountain of Diana was originally in the center of garden, which at that time was enclosed by another wing, containing offices and later, under, Louis XIV, an orangerie. That building, and another, the former chancellery, were demolished in the 19th century, doubling the size of the garden. From the 17th until the end of the 18th century, the garden was in the Italian and then the French formal style, divided by straight paths into rectangular flower beds, flower beds, centered on the fountains, and decorated with statues, ornamental plants and citrus trees in pots. It was transformed during the reign of Napoleon
Napoleon
I into a landscape garden in the English style, with winding paths and trees grouped into picturesque landscapes, and it was enlarged during the reign of Louis-Philippe. it was opened to the public after the downfall of Napoleon
Napoleon
III. [50] The fountain in the center was made by Tommaso Francini, the master Italian fountain-maker, whose work included the Medici Fountain
Medici Fountain
in the Jardin du Luxembourg
Jardin du Luxembourg
in Paris. The bronze statue of Diana, the goddess of the hunt, with a young deer, was made by the Keller brothers in 1684 for another royal residence, at Marly. It is a copy of an antique Roman statue, Diana of Versailles, which was given by the Pope to King Henry IV, and which is now in the Louvre. The original statue of the fountain, made by Barthelemy Prieur
Barthelemy Prieur
in 1602, can be seen in the Gallery of the Cerfs inside the palace. The sculptures of hunting dogs and deer around the fountain were made by Pierre Biard.[51] Carp pond, English garden, grotto and spring[edit]

The carp pond and pavilion

The large pond next to the palace, with a surface of four hectares, was made during the reign of Henry IV, and was used for boating parties by members of the Court, and as a source of fish for the table and for amusement. Descriptions of the palace in the 17th century tell of guests feeding the carp, some of which reached enormous size, and were said to be a hundred years old. The small octagonal house on an island in the center of the lake, Pavillon de l'Ètang, was added during the reign of Louis XIV, then rebuilt under Napoleon
Napoleon
I, and is decorated with his initial.[3] The English garden also dates back to the reign of Henry IV. In one part of the garden, known as the garden of pines, against the wing of Louis XV, is an older structure dating to Francis I; the first Renaissance-style grotto to be built in a French garden, a rustic stone structure decorated with four statues of Atlas. Under Napoleon, his architect, Maximilien-Joseph Hurtault, turned this part of the garden into an English park, with winding paths and exotic trees, including the catalpa, tulip trees, the sophora, and cypress trees from Louisiana, and with a picturesque stream and antique boulders. The garden features two 17th century bronze copies of ancient Roman originals, the Borghese gladiator and the Dying Gladiator. A path leads from the garden through a curtain of trees to the spring which gave its name to the palace, next to a statue of Apollo.[3][52] Parterre and canal[edit]

The canal, round basin, parterre and the Palace

On the other side of the chateau, one the site of the garden of Francis I, Henry IV created a large formal garden, or parterre Along the axis of the parterre, he also built a grand canal 1200 meters long, similar to one at the nearby chateau of Fleury-en-Biere. Between 1660 and 1664 the chief gardener of Louis XIV, André Le Nôtre, and Louis Le Vau
Louis Le Vau
rebuilt the parterre on a grander scale, filling it with geometric designs and path bordered with boxwood hedges and filled with colorful flowerbeds. They also added a basin, called Les Cascades, decorated with fountains, at the head of the canal. LeNotre planted shade trees along the length of the canal, and also laid out a wide path, lined with elm trees, parallel to the canal. [3] The fountains of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
were removed after his reign. More recently, the Cascades were decorated with works of sculpture from the 19th century. A large ornamental fountain was installed in the central basin in 1817. A bronze replica of an ancient Roman statue, "The Tiber", was placed in the round basin in 1988. It replaced an earlier statue from the 16th century which earlier had decorated the basin. Two statues of sphinxes by Mathieu Lespagnandel, from 1664, are placed near the balustrade of the grand canal. [53] Art and decoration - the School of Fontainebleau[edit]

Painting by Rosso Fiorentino
Rosso Fiorentino
in the gallery of Francis I (1533–1539)

Detail of stucco and woodwork in the Gallery of Francis I, by Francesco Scibec da Carpi
Francesco Scibec da Carpi
(died c.1557)

Diana the Huntress, School of Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
(1550–1560)

During the late French Renaissance, the decoration of the Palace of Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
engaged some of the finest artists and craftsmen from Italy and France, including The style of painting and decoration they created became known as the School of Fontainebleau, and covered a period from about 1530 until about 1610. It helped form the French version of Northern Mannerism.[54] In 1531, the Florentine artist Rosso Fiorentino, having lost most of his possessions at the Sack of Rome in 1527, was invited by Francis I to work on the interior of the palace. In 1532 he was joined by another Italian artist, Francesco Primaticcio
Francesco Primaticcio
(from Bologna). Rosso died in France
France
in 1540. On the advice of Primaticcio, Niccolò dell'Abbate (from Modena) was invited to France
France
in 1552 by François's son Henri II. Other notable artists included:

Juste de Juste
Juste de Juste
(c.1505–1559), Franco-Italian sculptor and etcher Luca Penni
Luca Penni
(c.1500/1504–1556), Italian painter Francesco Scibec da Carpi
Francesco Scibec da Carpi
(died c.1557), Italian furniture maker Benvenuto Cellini
Benvenuto Cellini
(1500–1570), Italian sculptor, goldsmith, silversmith

The works of this "first school of Fontainebleau" are characterized by the extensive use of stucco (moldings and picture frames) and frescos, and an elaborate (and often mysterious) system of allegories and mythological iconography. Renaissance decorative motifs such as grotesques, strapwork and putti are common, as well as a certain degree of eroticism. The figures are elegant and show the influence of the techniques of the Italian Mannerism
Mannerism
of Michelangelo, Raphael
Raphael
and especially Parmigianino. Primaticcio was also directed to make copies of antique Roman statues for the king, thus spreading the influence of classical statuary. Many of the works of Rosso, Primaticcio and dell'Abate have not survived; parts of the Chateau were remodelled at various dates. The paintings of the group were reproduced in prints, mostly etchings, which were apparently produced initially at Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
itself, and later in Paris. These disseminated the style through France
France
and beyond, and also record several paintings that have not survived. From 1584 to 1594, during the Wars of Religion
Wars of Religion
work inside the palace was abandoned. Upon his ascension to the throne, Henri IV undertook a renovation of the Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
buildings using a group of artists: the Flemish born Ambroise Dubois
Ambroise Dubois
(from Antwerp) and the Parisians Toussaint Dubreuil
Toussaint Dubreuil
and Martin Fréminet. They are sometimes referred to as the "second school of Fontainebleau". Their late mannerist works, many of which have been lost, continue in the use of elongated and undulating forms and crowded compositions. Many of their subjects include mythological scenes and scenes from works of fiction by the Italian Torquato Tasso
Torquato Tasso
and the ancient Greek novelist Heliodorus of Emesa. Second School of Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
(from 1594). The important artists of the second school were:

Ambroise Dubois
Ambroise Dubois
(c.1542–1614) (Flemish born) Toussaint Dubreuil
Toussaint Dubreuil
(c.1561–1602) Martin Fréminet
Martin Fréminet
(1567–1619)

The mannerist style of the Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
school influenced French artists (with whom the Italians worked) such as the painter Jean Cousin the Elder, the sculptors Jean Goujon
Jean Goujon
and Germain Pilon, and, to a lesser degree, the painter and portraitist François Clouet
François Clouet
the son of Jean Clouet. The Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
style combined allegorical paintings in moulded plasterwork where the framing was treated as if it were leather or paper, slashed and rolled into scrolls and combined with arabesques and grotesques. Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
ideals of female beauty are Mannerist: a small neat head on a long neck, exaggeratedly long torso and limbs, small high breasts—almost a return to Late Gothic beauties. The new works at Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
were recorded in refined and detailed engravings that circulated among connoisseurs and artists. Through the engravings by the "School of Fontainebleau" this new style was transmitted to other northern European centres, Antwerp especially, and Germany, and eventually London. While Louis XIV
Louis XIV
spent more time at Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
than any other monarch, he made most of his modifications to gardens, rather than the interiors and decor. In the 18th century, interiors underwent major change in style. Between 1750 and 1754, the architect Ange-Jacques Gabriel built a new residential wing and new apartments for Louis XV and the Queen. The most famous artists of the period, including Francois Boucher, Carle Vanloo, Alexis Peyrotte
Alexis Peyrotte
and Jean-Baptiste Marie Pierre were commissioned to paint works for the Council Chamber. Louis XVI
Louis XVI
continued the decoration iwork, particularly in the Turkish cabinet (1777) and the game room and boudoir of the Queen, in an arabesque style. (1786–1787), up to the eve of the Revolution. Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
offers many of the best examples of interior design at the end of the Old Regime. Napoleon
Napoleon
I wished to continue the traditional grandeur of the monarchy, and had the palace completely refurnished. He created a new suite of rooms with the symbols and style of the Empire, and transformed the former King's bedroom into his throne room. It is the only throne room in France
France
which is still in its original state with its original furniture. The rooms Napoleon
Napoleon
used at Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
are among the best existing examples of the Empire style. [55]

Painting by Rosso Fiorentino
Rosso Fiorentino
in the Gallery of Francis I (1533–1539)

Panel in the Gallery of Francis I. (Mid-16th century).

The Nymph of Fontainebleau, by Benevenuto Cellini, now in the Louvre (1542)

' Allegory
Allegory
of painting and sculpture', by Ambroise Dubois
Ambroise Dubois
(1543–1614)

Portrait of Gabrielle d'Estrées and Duchess of Villars, c.1594

Master of the school of Fontainebleau, "Lady at her Toilet" (1585–1595) (Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon)

The ceiling of the ballroom, designed by Philibert Delorme, with the symbols of Henri II and his mistress Diane de Poitiers: "HD" cyphers, three interlaced crescent moons, and Henri II's main cypher: a crowned H above a crescent moon

Decorative carved panel in the Gallery of Francis I, with his emblem, the salamander. (mid 16th century).

The ceiling of the throne room of Napoleon
Napoleon
I. The ceiling was originally made for Louis XIII
Louis XIII
in the 17th century, when this was his bedroom.

Ceiling panel in the hall of Saint Louis, built by Louis XV
Louis XV
(18th century)

Decoration over the door in the boudoir of Marie Antoinette, with her initials, (late 18th century).

The bed of Marie Antoinette, ordered for her just before the French Revolution. It was used by the Empresses Josephine and Marie-Louise..

Museum of Napoleon
Napoleon
I[edit]

Cradle of the King of Rome in the Museum of Napoleon
Napoleon
I

The Museum of Napoleon
Napoleon
I was created in 1986 in the wing on the right side of the Court of Honor, where the apartments of the princes of the First Empire had been located. It includes a gallery of portraits of members of Napoleon's family, medals and decorations, several costumes worn during Napoleon's coronation as Emperor, and a gold leaf from the crown he wore during the coronation; a large collection of porcelain and decorative objectives from the Imperial dining table, and a cradle, toys, and other souvenirs from the Emperor's son, the King of Rome. It also has a collection of souvenirs from his military campaigns, including a recreation of his tent and its furnishings and practical items which he took with him on his campaigns.[56] See also[edit]

Treaty of Fontainebleau French Renaissance
French Renaissance
garden French formal garden

Kingdom of France
France
portal

References[edit] Bibliography[edit]

Carlier, Yves (2010). Histoire du château de Fontainebleau. Paris: Editions Jean-Paul Gisserot. ISBN 978-2-75580-022-7.  Dan, Pierre (1642). Le Trésor des merveilles de la Maison Royale de Fontainebleau. Paris: S. Cramoisy. OCLC 457360433; copy at INHA. Morel, Pierre (1967). Aspects de la France
France
- Fontainebleau. Artaud.  Salmon, Xavier (2011). Fontainebleau- Vrai demeure des rois, maison des siècles. Versailles: Artlys. ISBN 978-2-85495-442-5.  Séguin, Philippe (1990). Louis Napoléon Le Grand. Paris: Bernard Grasset. ISBN 2-246-42951-X.  Allain, Yves-Marie (2006). L'art des jardins en Europe. Paris: Citadelles & Mazenod. ISBN 2-85088-087-6. 

Notes and citations[edit]

^ a b "Fontainebleau". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014.  ^ a b Salmon, Xavier, Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
- Vraie demure des rois, maison des siécles, p. 7. ^ a b c d Morel, p. 28. ^ Salmon, p. 8 ^ Salmon, p. 8. ^ a b Salmon, p. 9. ^ "Histoire de la salle de jeu de paume de Fontainebleau". Archived from the original on June 25, 2008. Retrieved March 19, 2007.  ^ http://jdpfontainebleau.com ^ a b Salmon, p. 10 ^ Salmon, p. 12. ^ Мезин С.А. Взгляд из Европы: французские авторы XVIII века о Петре I. Саратов, 2003. (In Russian). ^ Buvat J. Journal de la régence. T. 1. P. 269–270; Майков Л. Н. Современные рассказы... // Русский архив. 1881. Кн. 1, № 1. С. 12–13. (In Russian). ^ Salmon, p. Ö14 ^ Séguin, 1990, p. 26 ^ Walter Bruyère-Ostells, Napoléon III et le Second Empire ^ Carlier 2010, p. 37. ^ a b "Coup de Theatre a Fontainebleau", Le Figaro, April 25, 2014. ^ Le Figaro, 2 March 2015 ^ Salmon, pp. 23–24 ^ "The chapelle basse Saint-Saturnin". Palace of Fontainebleau. Retrieved 23 February 2016.  ^ "The chapelle haute Saint-Saturnin". Palace of Fontainebleau. Retrieved 23 February 2016.  ^ Salmon, p. 26 ^ Carlier, pp. 80–82 ^ Salmon, p. 31. ^ Salmon, p. 41 ^ Carlier, Yves, ‘’Histoire du chateau de Fontainebleau’’, pp. 91–93 ^ a b Salmon, p. 42 ^ a b c Carlier, HIstoire du château de Fontainebleau, p. 95. ^ Carly, HIstoire du château de Fontainebleau, p. 95. ^ Salmon, p. 44. ^ , Salmon, p. 47 ^ Carly, HIstoire du château de Fontainebleau, p. 96. ^ Salmon, p. 47 ^ Carlier, HIstoire du château de Fontainebleau, pp. 110–111 ^ a b Carlier, Histoire du château de Fontainebleau, p. 88 ^ a b Salmon, p. 95 ^ a b Carlier, Yves, Histoire du château de Fontainebleau, p. 98. ^ Salmon, p. 51 ^ Carlier, pp. 119–120. ^ Salmon, p. 86. ^ Salmon, pp. 84–85 ^ Carlier, Yves, Histoire du château de Fontainebleau, p.121. ^ a b Salmon, p. 85 ^ Salmon, Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
- Vrai demeure des Rois, Maison des Siecles p. 55 ^ a b Carlier, Histoire du château de Fontainebleau, p. 102 ^ a b Salmon, p. 55 ^ a b Carlier, HIstoire du château de Fontainebleau, p. 104 ^ Carlier, HIstoire du château de Fontainebleau, p. 106 ^ a b Salmon, p. 56 ^ Carlier, pp. 45-46. ^ Salmon, p. 90. ^ Salmon, p. 91. ^ Salmon, p. 92. ^ Oxford Dictionary of Art ^ Salmon, p. 14. ^ Salmon, pp. 74–79.

External links[edit]

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- The official website of France
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(in English) World Heritage profile (in English) Fontainebleau
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Art Atlas

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Établissement public à caractère administratif

Minister of Defence

Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace ENSTA ParisTech École nationale supérieure de techniques avancées Bretagne École Polytechnique Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service Établissement de communication et de production audiovisuelle de la Défense Établissement public d'insertion de la défense Musée de l'Armée Musée national de la Marine Musée de l'Air Académie de Marine Etablissement public national des fonds de prévoyance militaire et de l'aéronautique

Minister of the Interior

Right of Asylum in France Conseil national des activités privées de sécurité

Minister of Social Affairs

Agence Nationale pour l'Amélioration des Conditions de Travail Agence nationale des services à la personne

Minister of the Economy, Finances and Industry

Mines ParisTech École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Étienne École des Mines de Douai École des mines d'Alès École des mines de Nantes École des Mines d'Albi-Carmaux

Ministry of Higher Education and Research

Groupe Concours Polytechniques 4 of the 5 Groupe des écoles nationales d’ingénieurs (Groupe ENI)

École nationale d'ingénieurs de Brest École nationale d'ingénieurs de Metz École nationale d'ingénieurs de Tarbes École nationale d'ingénieurs du Val de Loire

7 of the 9 Institut d'études politiques École Nationale Supérieure de l'Électronique et de ses Applications École nationale supérieure d'informatique pour l'industrie et l'entreprise Institut français de mécanique avancée École nationale supérieure de la nature et du paysage École nationale supérieure des arts et techniques du théâtre Louis Lumière College Côte d'Azur Observatory Jean-François Champollion University Center for Teaching and Research Institut national supérieur de formation et de recherche pour l'éducation des jeunes handicapés et les enseignements adaptés

Ministry of National Education

Centre international d'études pédagogiques National Centre for Distance Education

Ministry of Agriculture

Établissement national des produits de l'agriculture et de la mer Agence de services et de paiement Institut français du cheval et de l'équitation Inventaire Forestier National

Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy

Agence nationale de l'habitat Agence de l'eau École des Ponts ParisTech École nationale de l'aviation civile Institut Géographique National Météo-France Office national de la chasse et de la faune sauvage Office national de l'eau et des milieux aquatiques National parks of France Agence des aires marines protégées et parcs naturels marins

Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs

Agency for French Teaching Abroad

Minister of Culture

Bibliothèque nationale de France Bibliothèque publique d'information Centre des monuments nationaux Centre Georges Pompidou Centre national des arts plastiques National Center of Cinematography and the moving image Centre national du livre Cité nationale de l'histoire de l'immigration CNSAD Conservatoire de Paris Conservatoire national supérieur de musique et de danse de Lyon École du Louvre Écoles nationales supérieure d'architecture École nationale supérieure d'arts de Cergy-Pontoise École nationale supérieure de la photographie École nationale supérieure des arts décoratifs École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts Opérateur du patrimoine et des projets immobiliers de la culture Institut national du patrimoine Institut national de recherches archéologiques préventives Palace of Fontainebleau Guimet Museum Musée national Jean-Jacques Henner Sèvres – Cité de la céramique Musée du Louvre Musée national Gustave Moreau Musée d'Orsay Musée Picasso Musée Rodin Public Establishment of the Palace, Museum and National Estate of Versailles

Ministère chargé de la Sécurité sociale

École nationale supérieure de sécurité sociale

Centre national de la fonction publique territoriale

Institut national des études territoriales

Not classified

Sorbonne
Sorbonne
Graduate Business School Institut des hautes études de défense nationale French Academy of Technologies Agence centrale des organismes de sécurité sociale Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l'alimentation, de l'environnement et du travail Agence Nationale de la Recherche AD Isère Drac Romanche Centre d'études et de recherches sur les qualifications National Computer Center for Higher Education Institut national supérieur de formation et de recherche pour l'éducation des jeunes handicapés et les enseignements adaptés Centre national des œuvres universitaires et scolaires Centre régional des œuvres universitaires et scolaires Caisse nationale de solidarité pour l'autonomie Centre de ressources, d'expertise et de performance sportives Chamber of commerce Service départemental d'incendie et de secours Île-de- France
France
mobilités Association syndicale allowed

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World Heritage Sites in France

Île-de-France

Palace and Park of Versailles Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
Palace and Park Paris: Banks of the Seine Provins

Parisian basin

Amiens Cathedral Belfries of Belgium and France1 Bourges Cathedral Champagne hillsides, houses and cellars Chartres Cathedral Climats and terroirs of Burgundy Reims: Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Abbey of Saint-Remi, Palace of Tau Abbey of Fontenay Le Havre Vézelay Church and hill

Nord-Pas-de-Calais

Belfries of Belgium and France1 Nord-Pas de Calais Mining Basin

East

Great Saltworks of Salins-les-Bains
Salins-les-Bains
and Royal Saltworks of Arc-et-Senans Nancy: Place Stanislas, Place de la Carrière and Place d'Alliance Strasbourg: Grande Île, Neustadt Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3

West

Abbey Church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
and its bay

South West

Episcopal city, Albi Port of the Moon, Bordeaux Prehistoric sites and decorated caves of the Vézère valley Pyrénées – Mont Perdu2 Saint-Émilion

Centre East

Chauvet Cave Lyon

Mediterranean

Roman and Romanesque monuments, Arles Carcassonne citadel Gulf of Porto: Calanches de Piana, Gulf of Girolata, Scandola Reserve Avignon: Papal Palace, Episcopal Ensemble, Avignon Bridge Pont du Gard Orange: Roman Theatre and environs, Triumphal Arch

Multiple regions

The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier Canal du Midi Fortifications of Vauban Loire Valley
Loire Valley
between Sully-sur-Loire
Sully-sur-Loire
and Chalonnes-sur-Loire Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France

Overseas departments and territories

Lagoons of New Caledonia Pitons, cirques and remparts of Réunion Taputapuātea

1Shared locally with other region/s and with Belgium 2Shared with Spain 3Shared with Austria, Germany, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland

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French royal residences

Versailles (including the Grand Trianon
Grand Trianon
and Petit Trianon)

Paris: Palais de la Cité Palais du Louvre Palais des Tuileries Palais du Luxembourg Palais Royal Château de la Muette

Elsewhere: Blois Chambord Choisy Compiègne Fontainebleau Marly Meudon Saint Cloud Saint Germain en Laye

v t e

Tourism in Paris

Landmarks

Arc de Triomphe Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
du Carrousel Arènes de Lutèce Bourse Catacombs Conciergerie Eiffel Tower Flame of Liberty Grand Palais
Grand Palais
and Petit Palais Institut de France Jeanne d'Arc Les Invalides Louvre
Louvre
Pyramid Luxor Obelisk Odéon Opéra Bastille Opéra Garnier Panthéon Philharmonie de Paris Porte Saint-Denis Porte Saint-Martin Sorbonne Tour Montparnasse

Museums

Bibliothèque nationale Carnavalet Centre Pompidou/Beaubourg Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie Jeu de Paume Louis Vuitton Foundation Musée des Arts Décoratifs Musée des Arts et Métiers Musée d'Art et d'Histoire du Judaïsme Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris Musée Cognacq-Jay Musée Grévin Musée Guimet Maison de Victor Hugo Musée Jacquemart-André Musée du Louvre Musée Marmottan Monet Musée de Montmartre Musée National d'Art Moderne Musée national Eugène Delacroix Musée national Gustave Moreau Musée national des Monuments Français Muséum national d'histoire naturelle Musée national du Moyen Âge Musée de l'Orangerie Musée d'Orsay Musée Pasteur Musée Picasso Musée du quai Branly Musée Rodin Palais de la Légion d'Honneur

Musée de la Légion d'honneur

Musée de la Vie Romantique

Religious buildings

Alexander Nevsky Cathedral American Cathedral American Church Chapelle expiatoire Grand Mosque Grand Synagogue La Madeleine Notre-Dame de Paris Notre-Dame-de-Bonne-Nouvelle Notre-Dame-de-Lorette Notre-Dame-des-Victoires Sacré-Cœur Saint Ambroise Saint-Augustin Saint-Étienne-du-Mont Saint-Eustache Saint-François-Xavier Saint-Germain-des-Prés Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois Saint-Gervais-Saint-Protais Saint-Jacques Tower Saint-Jean-de-Montmartre Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis Saint-Pierre de Montmartre Saint-Roch Saint-Sulpice Saint-Vincent-de-Paul Sainte-Chapelle Sainte-Clotilde Sainte-Trinité Temple du Marais Val-de-Grâce

Hôtels particuliers and palaces

Élysée Palace Hôtel de Beauvais Hôtel de Charost Hôtel de Crillon Hôtel d'Estrées Hôtel de la Païva Hôtel de Pontalba Hôtel de Sens Hôtel de Soubise Hôtel de Sully Hôtel de Ville Hôtel Lambert Hôtel Matignon Luxembourg Palace
Luxembourg Palace
(Petit Luxembourg) Palais Bourbon Palais de Justice Palais-Royal

Areas, bridges, streets and squares

Avenue Foch Avenue George V Champ de Mars Champs-Élysées Covered passages

Galerie Véro-Dodat Choiseul Panoramas Galerie Vivienne Havre Jouffroy Brady

Latin Quarter Le Marais Montmartre Montparnasse Place Dauphine Place de la Bastille Place de la Concorde Place de la Nation Place de la République Place Denfert-Rochereau Place des États-Unis Place des Pyramides Place des Victoires Place des Vosges Place du Carrousel Place du Châtelet Place du Tertre Place Saint-Michel Place Vendôme Pont Alexandre III Pont d'Iéna Pont de Bir-Hakeim Pont des Arts Pont Neuf Rive Gauche Rue de Rivoli Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré Saint-Germain-des-Prés Trocadéro

Parks and gardens

Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Jardin d'Acclimatation Jardin du Luxembourg Parc des Buttes Chaumont Parc Montsouris Tuileries Garden

Cemeteries

Montmartre
Montmartre
Cemetery Montparnasse
Montparnasse
Cemetery Passy Cemetery Père Lachaise Cemetery Picpus Cemetery

Région parisienne

Chantilly La Défense

Grande Arche

Disneyland Paris Écouen Fontainebleau France
France
Miniature Malmaison Musée de l’air et de l’espace Musée Fragonard d'Alfort Parc Astérix Provins Rambouillet La Roche-Guyon Basilica of St Denis Saint-Germain-en-Laye Sceaux Stade de France U Arena Vaux-le-Vicomte Palace and Gardens of Versailles Vincennes

Events and traditions

Bastille Day military parade Fête de la Musique Nuit Blanche Paris
Paris
Air Show Paris-Plages Republican Guard

Other

Le Bateau-Lavoir La Ruche Café des 2 Moulins Café Procope Les Deux Magots Maxim's Moulin de la Galette Moulin Rouge

Related

Paris
Paris
Musées Axe historique

Paris
Paris
Mét

.