HOME
The Info List - Pahlavi Scripts


--- Advertisement ---



Phli, 131  (Inscriptional Pahlavi) Prti, 130  (Inscriptional Parthian) Phlp, 132  (Psalter Pahlavi) Phlv, 133  (Book Pahlavi)

Unicode
Unicode
alias

Inscriptional Pahlavi

Unicode
Unicode
range

U+10B60–U+10B7F Inscriptional Pahlavi U+10B40–U+10B5F Inscriptional Parthian U+10B80–U+10BAF Psalter Pahlavi

History of the alphabet

Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE

Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCE

Demotic 7 c. BCE

Meroitic 3 c. BCE

Proto-Sinaitic
Proto-Sinaitic
19 c. BCE

Ugaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE

Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE

Phoenician 12 c. BCE

Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE

Samaritan 6 c. BCE

Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCE

Tifinagh

Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE

Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE

Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)

E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CE

Canadian syllabics 1840

Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCE

Avestan
Avestan
4 c. CE

Palmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCE

Nabataean 2 c. BCE

Arabic 4 c. CE

N'Ko 1949 CE

Sogdian 2 c. BCE

Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CE

Old Hungarian c. 650 CE

Old Uyghur

Mongolian 1204 CE

Mandaic 2 c. CE

Greek 8 c. BCE

Etruscan 8 c. BCE

Latin 7 c. BCE

Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE

Runic 2 c. CE Ogham
Ogham
(origin uncertain) 4 c. CE

Coptic 3 c. CE Gothic 3 c. CE Armenian 405 CE Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE Glagolitic 862 CE Cyrillic c. 940 CE

Old Permic 1372 CE

Hangul
Hangul
1443 (probably influenced by Tibetan) Thaana
Thaana
18 c. CE (derived from Brahmi numerals)

v t e

Pahlavi or Pahlevi is a particular, exclusively written form of various Middle Iranian languages. The essential characteristics of Pahlavi are[1]

the use of a specific Aramaic-derived script, the Pahlavi script; the high incidence of Aramaic words used as heterograms (called hozwārishn, "archaisms").

Pahlavi compositions have been found for the dialects/ethnolects of Parthia, Persis, Sogdiana, Scythia, and Khotan.[2] Independent of the variant for which the Pahlavi system was used, the written form of that language only qualifies as Pahlavi when it has the characteristics noted above. Pahlavi is then an admixture of

written Imperial Aramaic, from which Pahlavi derives its script, logograms, and some of its vocabulary. spoken Middle Iranian, from which Pahlavi derives its terminations, symbol rules, and most of its vocabulary.

Pahlavi may thus be defined as a system of writing applied to (but not unique for) a specific language group, but with critical features alien to that language group. It has the characteristics of a distinct language, but is not one. It is an exclusively written system, but much Pahlavi literature remains essentially an oral literature committed to writing and so retains many of the characteristics of oral composition.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Script

3.1 Inscriptional Parthian 3.2 Inscriptional Pahlavi 3.3 Psalter Pahlavi 3.4 Book Pahlavi 3.5 Logograms 3.6 Problems in reading Book Pahlavi

4 Literary dialects

4.1 Arsacid Pahlavi 4.2 Sasanian Pahlavi 4.3 Post-conquest Pahlavi

5 Unicode 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links

9.1 Language and literature 9.2 Writing system

Etymology[edit] The term Pahlavi is said[3] to be derived from the Parthian language word parthav or parthau, meaning Parthia, a region just east of the Caspian Sea, with the -i suffix denoting the language and people of that region. If this etymology is correct, Parthav presumably became pahlaw through a semivowel glide rt (or in other cases rd) change to l, a common occurrence in language evolution (e.g. Arsacid sard became sal, zard>zal, vard>gol, sardar>salar etc.). The term has been traced back further[3] to Avestan
Avestan
pərəthu- "broad [as the earth]", also evident in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
pŗthvi- "earth" and parthivi "[lord] of the earth". Common to all Indo- Iranian languages
Iranian languages
is a connotation of "mighty". History[edit] The earliest attested use of Pahlavi dates to the reign of Arsaces I of Parthia
Parthia
(250 BC) in early Parthian coins with Pahlavi scripts.[4] There are also several Pahlavi texts written during the reign of Mithridates I (r. 171–138 BC).[5] The cellars of the treasury at Mithradatkird (near modern-day Nisa) reveal thousands of pottery sherds with brief records; several ostraca that are fully dated bear references to members of the immediate family of the king.[6] Such fragments, as also the rock inscriptions of Sassanid
Sassanid
kings, which are datable to the 3rd and 4th centuries AD, do not, however, qualify as a significant literary corpus. Although in theory Pahlavi could have been used to render any Middle Iranian language and hence may have been in use as early as 300 BC, no manuscripts that can be dated to before the 6th century AD have yet been found. Thus, when used for the name of a literary genre, i.e. Pahlavi literature, the term refers to Middle Iranian (mostly Middle Persian) texts dated near or after the fall of the Sassanid empire
Sassanid empire
and (with exceptions) extending to about AD 900, after which Iranian languages
Iranian languages
enter the "modern" stage. The oldest surviving example of the Pahlavi script
Pahlavi script
is from fragments of the so-called "Pahlavi Psalter", a 6th- or 7th-century-AD translation of a Syriac Psalter found at Bulayiq on the Silk Road, near Turpan
Turpan
in north-west China. It is in a more archaic script than Book Pahlavi.[7] After the Muslim conquest of Persia, the Pahlavi script
Pahlavi script
was replaced by the Arabic script, except in Zoroastrian sacred literature. The replacement of the Pahlavi script
Pahlavi script
with the Arabic script
Arabic script
in order to write the Persian language was done by the Tahirids
Tahirids
in 9th century Khurasan.[8][9] In the present day, "Pahlavi" is frequently identified with the prestige dialect of south-west Iran, formerly and properly called Pārsi, after Pars (Persia proper). This practice can be dated to the period immediately following the Islamic conquest.[5] Script[edit] The Pahlavi script
Pahlavi script
is one of the two essential characteristics of the Pahlavi system (see above). Its origin and development occurred independently of the various Middle Iranian languages
Iranian languages
for which it was used. The Pahlavi script
Pahlavi script
is derived from the Aramaic script
Aramaic script
as it was used under the Achaemenids, with modifications to support the phonology of the Iranian languages. It is essentially a typical abjad, where, in general, only long vowels are marked with matres lectionis (although short /i/ and /u/ are sometimes expressed so as well), and vowel-initial words are marked with an aleph. However, because of the high incidence of logograms derived from Aramaic words, the Pahlavi script is far from always phonetic; and even when it is phonetic, it may have more than one transliterational symbol per sign, because certain originally different Aramaic letters have merged into identical graphic forms – especially in the Book Pahlavi variety. (For a review of the transliteration problems of Pahlavi, see Henning.[10]) In addition to this, during much of its later history, Pahlavi orthography was characterized by historical or archaizing spellings. Most notably, it continued to reflect the pronunciation that preceded the widespread Iranian lenition processes, whereby postvocalic voiceless stops and affricates had become voiced, and voiced stops had become semivowels. Similarly, certain words continued to be spelt with postvocalic ⟨s⟩ and ⟨t⟩ even after the consonants had been debuccalized to ⟨h⟩ in the living language. The Pahlavi script
Pahlavi script
consisted of two widely used forms: Inscriptional Pahlavi and Book Pahlavi. A third form, Psalter Pahlavi, is not widely attested. Inscriptional Parthian[edit] Main article: Inscriptional Parthian Although the Parthian Arsacids generally wrote in Greek, some of the coins and seals of the Arsacid period (mid-3rd-century BC to early 3rd-century AD) also include inscriptions in the Parthian language. The script of these inscriptions is called inscriptional Parthian. Numerous clay fragments from Arsacid-era Parthia
Parthia
proper, in particular a large collection of fragments from Nisa that date to the reign of Mithridates I (r. 171–138 BC), are likewise inscribed in inscriptional Parthian. The bilingual and trilingual inscriptions of the early (3rd-century AD) Sassanids include Parthian texts, which were then also rendered in inscriptional Parthian. The Parthian language was a Middle Iranian language of Parthia
Parthia
proper, a region in the north-western segment of the Iranian plateau where the Arsacids had their power base. Inscriptional Parthian
Inscriptional Parthian
script had 22 letters for sounds and 8 letters for numerals. The letters were not joined. Inscriptional Parthian
Inscriptional Parthian
has its own unicode block.

Parthian version of Shapur I's inscription at the Ka'ba-ye Zartosht

Parthian (above), along with Greek (below) and Middle Persian
Middle Persian
was being used in inscriptions of early Sassanian kings. Shapur inscription in Naqsh-e Rajab

Inscriptional Pahlavi[edit] Main article: Inscriptional Pahlavi Inscriptional Pahlavi
Inscriptional Pahlavi
is the name given to a variant of the Pahlavi script as used to render the 3rd–6th-century Middle Persian
Middle Persian
language inscriptions of the Sassanid
Sassanid
kings and other notables. Genuine Middle Persian as it appears in these inscriptions was the Middle Iranian language of Persia proper, the region in the south-western corner of the Iranian plateau where the Sassanids had their power base. Inscriptional Pahlavi script
Pahlavi script
had 19 characters which were not joined.[11]

Coin of Ardashir I (r. 224–242) with Inscriptional Pahlavi writings.

Inscriptional Pahlavi
Inscriptional Pahlavi
text from Shapur III
Shapur III
at Taq-e Bostan, 4th century

Kartir's inscription at Naqsh-e Rajab

Sasanian relief with Inscriptional Pahlavi
Inscriptional Pahlavi
monogram.

Psalter Pahlavi[edit] Main article: Psalter Pahlavi Psalter Pahlavi
Psalter Pahlavi
derives its name from the so-called "Pahlavi Psalter", a 6th- or 7th-century translation of a Syriac book of psalms. This text, which was found at Bulayiq near Turpan
Turpan
in northwest China, is the earliest evidence of literary composition in Pahlavi, dating to the 6th or 7th century AD.[12] The extant manuscript dates no earlier than the mid-6th century since the translation reflects liturgical additions to the Syriac original by Mar Aba I, who was Patriarch of the Church of the East c. 540–552.[13] Its use is peculiar to Christians in Iran, given its use in a fragmentary manuscript of the Psalms of David.[14] The script of the psalms has altogether 18 graphemes, 5 more than Book Pahlavi and one less than Inscriptional Pahlavi. As in Book Pahlavi, letters are connected to each other. The only other surviving source of Psalter Pahlavi
Psalter Pahlavi
are the inscriptions on a bronze processional cross found at Herat, in present-day Afghanistan. Due to the dearth of comparable material, some words and phrases in both sources remain undeciphered. Of the 18 characters, 9 connect in all four traditional abjad positions, while 9 connect only on their right or are isolated. Numbers are built from units of 1, 2, 3, 4, 10, 20, and 100. The numbers 10 and 20 join on both sides, but the numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4 only join on the right, and if they are followed by an additional digit, they lose their tail, which is visually evident in their isolated forms. There are 12 encoded punctuation characters, and many are similar to those found in Syriac. The section marks are written in half-red and half-black, and several documents have entire sections in both black and red, as a means of distinction. Book Pahlavi[edit] Book Pahlavi
Book Pahlavi
is a smoother script in which letters are joined to each other and often form complicated ligatures. Book Pahlavi
Book Pahlavi
was the most common form of the script, with only 12 or 13 graphemes (13 when including aleph) representing 24 sounds. The formal coalescence of originally different letters caused ambiguity, and the letters became even less distinct when they formed part of a ligature.[11] In its later forms, attempts were made to improve the consonantary and reduce ambiguity through diacritic marks. Book Pahlavi
Book Pahlavi
continued to be in common use until about AD 900. After that date, Pahlavi was preserved only by the Zoroastrian clergy.

The word Ērān-šahr, spelled ʾylʾnštr', in Book Pahlavi.

Coin of Ispahbod Khurshid (r. 740–760) with Book Pahlavi writings. Book Pahlavi, instead of Inscriptional Pahlavi, was used in late Middle Persian
Middle Persian
inscriptions.

Stone cross with Book Pahlavi
Book Pahlavi
writings. Valiyapalli Church in Kottayam, Kerala, India.

Logograms[edit] See also: Heterogram (linguistics) In both Inscriptional and Book Pahlavi, many common words, including even pronouns, particles, numerals, and auxiliaries, were spelled according to their Aramaic equivalents, which were used as logograms. For example, the word for "dog" was written as ⟨KLBʼ⟩ (Aramaic kalbā) but pronounced sag; and the word for "bread" would be written as Aramaic ⟨LḤMʼ⟩ (laḥmā) but understood as the sign for Iranian nān.[15] These words were known as huzvārishn. Such a logogram could also be followed by letters expressing parts of the Persian word phonetically, e.g. ⟨ʼB-tr⟩ for pitar "father". The grammatical endings were usually written phonetically. A logogram did not necessarily originate from the lexical form of the word in Aramaic, it could also come from a declined or conjugated Aramaic form. For example, tō "you" (singular) was spelt ⟨LK⟩ (Aramaic "to you", including the preposition l-). A word could be written phonetically even when a logogram for it existed (pitar could be ⟨ʼB-tr⟩ or ⟨pytr⟩), but logograms were nevertheless used very frequently in texts. Many huzvarishn were listed in the lexicon Frahang-i Pahlavig. The practice of using these logograms appears to have originated from the use of Aramaic in the chancelleries of the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
Empire.[16] Partly similar phenomena are found in the use of Sumerograms and Akkadograms in ancient Mesopotamia and the Hittite empire, and in the adaptation of Chinese writing
Chinese writing
to Japanese. Problems in reading Book Pahlavi[edit] As pointed out above, the convergence in form of many of the characters of Book Pahlavi
Book Pahlavi
causes a high degree of ambiguity in most Pahlavi writing and it needs to be resolved by the context. Some mergers are restricted to particular groups of words or individual spellings. Further ambiguity is added by the fact that even outside of ligatures, the boundaries between letters are not clear, and many letters look identical to combinations of other letters. As an example, one may take the fact that the name of God, Ohrmazd, could equally be read (and, by Parsis, often was read) Anhoma. Historically speaking, it was spelt ⟨ʼwhrmzd⟩, a fairly straightforward spelling for an abjad. However, ⟨w⟩ had coalesced with ⟨n⟩; ⟨r⟩ had coalesced, in the spelling of certain words, with both ⟨n⟩ and ⟨w⟩; and ⟨z⟩ had been reduced, in the spelling of certain words, to a form whose combination with ⟨d⟩ was indistinguishable from a ⟨ʼ⟩, which in turn had coalesced with ⟨h⟩. This meant that the same orthographic form that stood for ⟨ʼwhrmzd⟩ could also be interpreted as ⟨ʼnhwmh⟩ (among many other possible readings). The logograms could also pose problems. For this reason, important religious texts were sometimes transcribed into the phonetically unambiguous Avestan
Avestan
alphabet. This latter system is called Pazend. Literary dialects[edit] From a formal historical and linguistic point of view, the Pahlavi script does not have a one-to-one correspondence with any Middle Iranian language: none was written in Pahlavi exclusively, and inversely, the Pahlavi script
Pahlavi script
was used for more than one language. Still, the vast majority of surviving Pahlavi texts are in Middle Persian, hence the occasional use of the term "Pahlavi" to refer to that language. Arsacid Pahlavi[edit] Main article: Parthian language Following the overthrow of the Seleucids, the Parthian Arsacids—who considered themselves the legitimate heirs of the Achaemenids—adopted the manner, customs and government of the Persian court of two centuries previously. Among the many practices so adopted was the use of the Aramaic language
Aramaic language
("Imperial Aramaic") that together with Aramaic script
Aramaic script
served as the language of the chancellery. By the end of the Arsacid era, the written Aramaic words had come to be understood as logograms, as explained above. The use of Pahlavi gained popularity following its adoption as the language/script of the commentaries (Zend) on the Avesta.[3][17] Propagated by the priesthood, who were not only considered to be transmitters of all knowledge but were also instrumental in government, the use of Pahlavi eventually reached all corners of the Parthian Arsacid empire. Arsacid Pahlavi is also called Parthian Pahlavi (or just Parthian), Chaldeo-Pahlavi, or Northwest Pahlavi, the latter reflecting its apparent development from a dialect that was almost identical to that of the Medes.[2] Sasanian Pahlavi[edit] Main article: Middle Persian Following the defeat of the Parthian Arsacids by the Persian Sasanians (Sassanids), the latter inherited the empire and its institutions, and with it the use of the Aramaic-derived language and script. Like the Parthians before him, Ardeshir, the founder of the second Persian Empire, projected himself as a successor to the regnal traditions of the first, in particular those of Artaxerxes II, whose throne name the new emperor adopted. From a linguistic point of view, there was probably only little disruption. Since the Sassanids had inherited the bureaucracy, in the beginning the affairs of government went on as before, with the use of dictionaries such as the Frahang-i Pahlavig assisting the transition. The royalty themselves came from a priestly tradition (Ardeshir's father and grandfather were both, in addition to being kings, also priests), and as such would have been proficient in the language and script. More importantly, being both Western Middle Iranian languages, Parthian was closely related to the dialect of the southwest (which was more properly called Pārsi,[5] that is, the language of Pārsā, Persia proper). Arsacid Pahlavi did not die out with the Arsacids. It is represented in some bilingual inscriptions alongside the Sassanid
Sassanid
Pahlavi; by the parchment manuscripts of Auroman; and by certain Manichaean texts from Turpan. Furthermore, the archaic orthography of Sasanian Pahlavi continued to reflect, in many respects, pronunciations that had been used in Arsacid times (in Parthia
Parthia
as well as Fars) and not its contemporary pronunciation. Sasanian Pahlavi is also called Sassanid
Sassanid
Pahlavi, Persian Pahlavi, or Southwest Pahlavi. Post-conquest Pahlavi[edit] Following the Islamic conquest of the Sassanids, the term Pahlavi came to refer to the (written) "language" of the southwest (i.e. Pārsi). How this came to pass remains unclear, but it has been assumed[5] that this was simply because it was the dialect that the conquerors would have been most familiar with. As the language and script of religious and semi-religious commentaries, Pahlavi remained in use long after that language had been superseded (in general use) by Modern Persian and Arabic script had been adopted as the means to render it. As late as the 17th century, Zoroastrian priests in Iran
Iran
admonished their Indian co-religionists to learn it.[18] Post-conquest Pahlavi (or just Pahlavi) is also called Zoroastrian Pahlavi. Unicode[edit] Main articles: Inscriptional Pahlavi
Inscriptional Pahlavi
( Unicode
Unicode
block), Inscriptional Parthian ( Unicode
Unicode
block), and Psalter Pahlavi
Psalter Pahlavi
( Unicode
Unicode
block) Tables showing the letters and their names or pronunciations are available online.[19] Inscriptional Pahlavi
Inscriptional Pahlavi
and Inscriptional Parthian
Inscriptional Parthian
were added to the Unicode
Unicode
Standard in October 2009 with the release of version 5.2. Psalter Pahlavi
Psalter Pahlavi
was added in June 2014 with the release of version 7.0. Book Pahlavi
Book Pahlavi
is proposed to be encoded in Unicode.[20] The Unicode
Unicode
block for Inscriptional Pahlavi
Inscriptional Pahlavi
is U+10B60–U+10B7F:

Inscriptional Pahlavi[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+10B6x 𐭠 𐭡 𐭢 𐭣 𐭤 𐭥 𐭦 𐭧 𐭨 𐭩 𐭪 𐭫 𐭬 𐭭 𐭮 𐭯

U+10B7x 𐭰 𐭱 𐭲

𐭸 𐭹 𐭺 𐭻 𐭼 𐭽 𐭾 𐭿

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

The Unicode
Unicode
block for Inscriptional Parthian
Inscriptional Parthian
is U+10B40–U+10B5F:

Inscriptional Parthian[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+10B4x 𐭀 𐭁 𐭂 𐭃 𐭄 𐭅 𐭆 𐭇 𐭈 𐭉 𐭊 𐭋 𐭌 𐭍 𐭎 𐭏

U+10B5x 𐭐 𐭑 𐭒 𐭓 𐭔 𐭕

𐭘 𐭙 𐭚 𐭛 𐭜 𐭝 𐭞 𐭟

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

The Unicode
Unicode
block for Psalter Pahlavi
Psalter Pahlavi
is U+10B80–U+10BAF:

Psalter Pahlavi[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+10B8x 𐮀 𐮁 𐮂 𐮃 𐮄 𐮅 𐮆 𐮇 𐮈 𐮉 𐮊 𐮋 𐮌 𐮍 𐮎 𐮏

U+10B9x 𐮐 𐮑

𐮙 𐮚 𐮛 𐮜

U+10BAx

𐮩 𐮪 𐮫 𐮬 𐮭 𐮮 𐮯

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

See also[edit]

Imperial Aramaic Middle Iranian languages Manichaean alphabet

References[edit]

^ Geiger & Kuhn 2002, pp. 249ff. ^ a b Kent 1953 ^ a b c Mirza 2002, p. 162. ^ Mirza 2002, p. 162, no citation, but probably referring to West 1904 ^ a b c d Boyce 2002, p. 106. ^ Boyce 2002, p. 106 cf. Weber 1992. ^ Weber 1992, pp. 32–33. ^ Ira M. Lapidus (29 October 2012). Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 256–. ISBN 978-0-521-51441-5.  ^ Ira M. Lapidus (22 August 2002). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 127–. ISBN 978-0-521-77933-3.  ^ Henning 1958, pp. 126–29. ^ a b Livinsky, BA; Guang‐Da, Zhang; Samghabadi, R Shabani; Masson, Vadim Mikhaĭlovich (March 1999), Dani, Ahmad Hasan, ed., History of civilizations of Central Asia, Multiple history, 3. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, p. 89, ISBN 978-81-208-1540-7 . ^ Gignoux 2002. ^ Andreas 1910, pp. 869–872. ^ https://www.unicode.org/L2/L2011/11147-n4040-psalter-pahlavi.pdf ^ Nyberg 1974. ^ "Frahang-i Pahlavig", Encyclopedia Iranica . ^ Dhalla 1922, p. 269. ^ Dhabar 1932 R382 ^ Pahlavi script, archived from the original on December 4, 2016  gives pronunciations. The Unicode
Unicode
files give the names: U+10B60–U+10B7F Inscriptional Pahlavi
Inscriptional Pahlavi
U+10B40–U+10B5F Inscriptional Parthian
Inscriptional Parthian
U+10B80–U+10BAF Psalter Pahlavi. ^ Meyers, Abe (2014-05-09). "L2/14-077R: Proposal for Encoding Book Pahlavi (revised)" (PDF). Working Group Document, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 and UTC. Retrieved 2014-08-20. 

Bibliography[edit]

Andreas, Friedrich Carl (1910), "Bruchstücke einer Pehlewi-Übersetzung der Psalmen aus der Sassanidenzeit", Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaft, Philosophisch-historische Klasse. (in German), Berlin: PAW, XLI (4): 869–72  ——— (2002), "The Parthians", in Godrej, Pheroza J., A Zoroastrian Tapestry, New York: Mapin  Boyce, Mary (1990), Textual Sources for the Study of Zoroastrianism, Chicago: UC Press  Dhabar, Bamanji Nusserwanji (1932), The Persian Rivayats of Hormazyar Framarz and others, Bombay: K. R. Cama Oriental Institute  Dhalla, Maneckji Nusservanji (1922), Zoroastrian Civilization, New York: OUP  Henning, Walter B. (1958), Altiranisch. Handbuch der Orientalistik. Erste Abteilung (in German), Band IV: Iranistik. Erster Abschnitt. Linguistik, Leiden-Köln: Brill  Geiger, Wilhelm; Kuhn, Ernst, eds. (2002), Grundriss der iranischen Philologie, I.1, Boston: Adamant  Gignoux, Philippe (2002), "Pahlavi Psalter", Encyclopedia Iranica, Costa Mesa: Mazda  Kent, Roland G. (1950), Old Persian: Grammar, texts, lexicon, New Haven: American Oriental Society  MacKenzie, D. N. (1971), A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary, London: Curzon Press  Mirza, Hormazdyar Kayoji (2002), "Literary treasures of the Zoroastrian priests", in Godrej, Pheroza J., A Zoroastrian Tapestry, New York: Mapin, pp. 162–163  Nyberg, Henrik Samuel (1974), A Manual of Pahlavi, Part II: Glossary, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz  Menachery, Prof. George (2005), "Pahlavi Crosses of Kerala in Granite Objects in Kerala Churches", Glimpses of Nazraney Heritage, Ollur: SARAS – South Asia Research Assistance Services  Weber, Dieter (1992), "Texts I: Ostraca, Papyri und Pergamente", Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum. Part III: Pahlavi Inscriptions, IV. Ostraca, V. Papyri, London: SOAS  West, Edward William (1904), "Pahlavi literature", in Geiger, Wilhelm; Kuhn, Ernst, Grundriss der iranischen Philologie II, Stuttgart: Trübner 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pahlavi writing.

Language and literature[edit]

Pahlavi, Farvardyn . Includes extracts from West and Kent. ISO 639‐3, SIL : classification of Pahlavi. Bharuchī, SD; Bharucha, ESD (1908), "Part 1", Lessons in Pahlavi- Pazend
Pazend
(PDF), The Internet Archive  and 2 (partly outdated). de Harlez, Charles (1880), Manuel du Pehlevi des livres religieux et historiques de la Perse : Grammaire, anthologie, lexique [Manual of Pahlavi of Persian religious and historical books: grammar, anthology, lexic] (in French), The Internet Archive  (partly outdated). " Middle Persian
Middle Persian
Pahlavi texts", TITUS, Uni Frankfurt .

Writing system[edit]

Pahlavi script, archived from the original on December 4, 2016 . Everson, Michael; Pournader, Roozbeh (2007-09-18). "N3286R2: Proposal for encoding the Inscriptional Parthian, Inscriptional Pahlavi, and Psalter Pahlavi
Psalter Pahlavi
scripts in the SMP of the UCS" (PDF). Working Group Document, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 and UTC. Retrieved 2014-08-19.  Everson, Michael; Pournader, Roozbeh (2011-05-06). "N4040: Proposal for encoding the Psalter Pahlavi script
Pahlavi script
in the SMP of the UCS" (PDF). Working Group Document, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 and UTC. Retrieved 2014-08-19.  Pournader, Roozbeh (2013-07-24). "L2/13-141: Preliminary proposal to encode the Book Pahlavi script
Pahlavi script
in the Unicode
Unicode
Standard" (PDF). Working Group Document, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 and UTC. Retrieved 2014-08-19. . "Pahlavi fonts", The Ancient Iranian Font Project, St Catherine University .

v t e

Types of writing systems

Overview

History of writing Grapheme

Lists

Writing systems

undeciphered inventors constructed

Languages by writing system / by first written accounts

Types

Abjads

Numerals

Aramaic

Hatran

Arabic Pitman shorthand Hebrew

Ashuri Cursive Rashi Solitreo

Tifinagh Manichaean Nabataean Old North Arabian Pahlavi Pegon Phoenician

Paleo-Hebrew

Proto-Sinaitic Psalter Punic Samaritan South Arabian

Zabur Musnad

Sogdian Syriac

ʾEsṭrangēlā Serṭā Maḏnḥāyā

Teeline Shorthand Ugaritic

Abugidas

Brahmic

Northern

Asamiya (Ôxômiya) Bānglā Bhaikshuki Bhujinmol Brāhmī Devanāgarī Dogri Gujarati Gupta Gurmukhī Kaithi Kalinga Khojki Khotanese Khudawadi Laṇḍā Lepcha Limbu Mahajani Meitei Mayek Modi Multani Nāgarī Nandinagari Odia 'Phags-pa Newar Ranjana Sharada Saurashtra Siddhaṃ Soyombo Sylheti Nagari Takri Tibetan

Uchen Umê

Tirhuta Tocharian Zanabazar Square Zhang-Zhung

Drusha Marchen Marchung Pungs-chen Pungs-chung

Southern

Ahom Balinese Batak Baybayin Bhattiprolu Buhid Burmese Chakma Cham Grantha Goykanadi Hanunó'o Javanese Kadamba Kannada Karen Kawi Khmer Kulitan Lanna Lao Leke Lontara Malayalam Maldivian

Dhives Akuru Eveyla Akuru Thaana

Mon Old Makassarese Old Sundanese Pallava Pyu Rejang Rencong Sinhala Sundanese Tagbanwa Tai Le Tai Tham Tai Viet Tamil Telugu Thai Tigalari Vatteluttu

Kolezhuthu Malayanma

Visayan

Others

Boyd's syllabic shorthand Canadian syllabics

Blackfoot Déné syllabics

Fox I Ge'ez Gunjala Gondi Japanese Braille Jenticha Kayah Li Kharosthi Mandombe Masaram Gondi Meroitic Miao Mwangwego Sorang Sompeng Pahawh Hmong Thomas Natural Shorthand

Alphabets

Linear

Abkhaz Adlam Armenian Avestan Avoiuli Bassa Vah Borama Carian Caucasian Albanian Coorgi–Cox alphabet Coptic Cyrillic Deseret Duployan shorthand

Chinook writing

Early Cyrillic Eclectic shorthand Elbasan Etruscan Evenki Fox II Fraser Gabelsberger shorthand Garay Georgian

Asomtavruli Nuskhuri Mkhedruli

Glagolitic Gothic Gregg shorthand Greek Greco-Iberian alphabet Hangul Hanifi IPA Kaddare Latin

Beneventan Blackletter Carolingian minuscule Fraktur Gaelic Insular Kurrent Merovingian Sigla Sütterlin Tironian notes Visigothic

Luo Lycian Lydian Manchu Mandaic Medefaidrin Molodtsov Mongolian Mru Neo-Tifinagh New Tai Lue N'Ko Ogham Oirat Ol Chiki Old Hungarian Old Italic Old Permic Orkhon Old Uyghur Osage Osmanya Pau Cin Hau Runic

Anglo-Saxon Cipher Dalecarlian Elder Futhark Younger Futhark Gothic Marcomannic Medieval Staveless

Sidetic Shavian Somali Tifinagh Vagindra Visible Speech Vithkuqi Wancho Zaghawa

Non-linear

Braille Maritime flags Morse code New York Point Semaphore line Flag semaphore Moon type

Ideograms/Pictograms

Adinkra Aztec Blissymbol Dongba Ersu Shaba Emoji IConji Isotype Kaidā Míkmaq Mixtec New Epoch Notation Painting Nsibidi Ojibwe Hieroglyphs Siglas poveiras Testerian Yerkish Zapotec

Logograms

Chinese family of scripts

Chinese Characters

Simplified Traditional Oracle bone script Bronze Script Seal Script

large small bird-worm

Hanja Idu Kanji Chữ nôm Zhuang

Chinese-influenced

Jurchen Khitan large script Sui Tangut

Cuneiform

Akkadian Assyrian Elamite Hittite Luwian Sumerian

Other logo-syllabic

Anatolian Bagam Cretan Isthmian Maya Proto-Elamite Yi (Classical)

Logo-consonantal

Demotic Hieratic Hieroglyphs

Numerals

Hindu-Arabic Abjad Attic (Greek) Muisca Roman

Semi-syllabaries

Full

Celtiberian Northeastern Iberian Southeastern Iberian Khom

Redundant

Espanca Pahawh Hmong Khitan small script Southwest Paleohispanic Zhuyin fuhao

Somacheirograms

ASLwrite SignWriting si5s Stokoe Notation

Syllabaries

Afaka Bamum Bété Byblos Cherokee Cypriot Cypro-Minoan Ditema tsa Dinoko Eskayan Geba Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics Iban Japanese

Hiragana Katakana Man'yōgana Hentaigana Sogana Jindai moji

Kikakui Kpelle Linear B Linear Elamite Lisu Loma Nüshu Nwagu Aneke script Old Persian Cuneiform Vai Woleai Yi (Modern) Yugtun

v t e

Braille
Braille
 ⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑

Braille
Braille
cell

1829 braille International uniformity ASCII braille Unicode
Unicode
braille patterns

Braille
Braille
scripts

French-ordered scripts (see for more)

Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Belarusian Bharati

Devanagari
Devanagari
(Hindi  / Marathi  / Nepali) Bengali Punjabi Sinhalese Tamil Urdu etc.

Bulgarian Burmese Cambodian Cantonese Catalan Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) Czech Dutch Dzongkha (Bhutanese) English (Unified English) Esperanto Estonian Faroese French Georgian German Ghanaian Greek Guarani Hawaiian Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) Iñupiaq IPA Irish Italian Kazakh Kyrgyz Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Mongolian Māori Navajo Nigerian Northern Sami Persian Philippine Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Samoan Scandinavian Slovak South African Spanish Tatar Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) Thai & Lao (Japanese vowels) Tibetan Turkish Ukrainian Vietnamese Welsh Yugoslav

Reordered scripts

Algerian Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

Frequency-based scripts

American Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

Independent scripts

Japanese Korean Two-Cell Chinese

Eight-dot scripts

Luxembourgish Kanji Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

Symbols in braille

Braille
Braille
music Canadian currency marks Computer Braille
Braille
Code Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) International Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) Nemeth braille code

Braille
Braille
technology

Braille
Braille
e-book Braille
Braille
embosser Braille
Braille
translator Braille
Braille
watch Mountbatten Brailler Optical braille recognition Perforation Perkins Brailler Refreshable braille display Slate and stylus Braigo

Persons

Louis Braille Charles Barbier Valentin Haüy Thakur Vishva Narain Singh Sabriye Tenberken William Bell Wait

Organisations

Braille
Braille
Institute of America Braille
Braille
Without Borders Japan Braille
Braille
Library National Braille
Braille
Association Blindness organizations Schools for the blind American Printing House for the Blind

Other tactile alphabets

Decapoint Moon type New York Point Night writing Vibratese

Related topics

Accessible publishing Braille
Braille
literacy RoboBraille

v t e

Electronic writing systems

Emoticons Emoji iConji Leet Unicode

v t e

Internet slang
Internet slang
dialects

3arabizi Alay (Indonesia) Denglisch Doge Fingilish (Persian) Greeklish Gyaru-moji (Japan) Jejemon (Philippines) Leet
Leet
("1337") Lolspeak / LOLspeak / Kitteh Martian language (Chinese) Miguxês (Portuguese) Padonkaffsky jargon
Padonkaffsky jargon
(Russian) Translit Volapuk

See also English internet slang (at Wiktio

.