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PAL-M
PAL-M
is the analog TV system used in Brazil
Brazil
since February 19, 1972. At that time, Brazil
Brazil
was the first South American country to broadcast in colour. Colour TV broadcast began on February 19, 1972, when the TV networks Globo and Bandeirantes transmitted the Caxias do Sul
Caxias do Sul
Grape Festival. Transition from black and white to colour was not complete until 1978. Two years later, in 1980, colour broadcast nationwide in Brazil
Brazil
was commonplace. It is unique among analog TV systems in that it combines the 525-line 30 frames-per-second System M
System M
with the PAL
PAL
colour encoding system (using very nearly the NTSC
NTSC
colour subcarrier frequency), unlike all other countries which pair PAL
PAL
with 625-line systems and NTSC
NTSC
with 525-line systems.

Contents

1 Technical specification

1.1 Why PAL-M 1.2 Compatibility 1.3 PAL-M
PAL-M
systems conversion issues 1.4 PAL
PAL
60

2 Technological obsolescence

2.1 ABERT/SET tests 2.2 SBTVD

3 References 4 See also

Technical specification[edit] Why PAL-M[edit] NTSC
NTSC
being the "natural" choice for countries with monochrome standard M, the choice of a different colour system poses problems of incompatibility with available hardware and the need to develop new television sets and production hardware. Walter Bruch, inventor of PAL, explains Brazil's choice of PAL
PAL
against these odds by an advertising campaign Telefunken
Telefunken
and Philips
Philips
carried out across South America in 1972, which included colour test broadcasts of popular shows (done with TV Globo) and technical demonstrations with executives of television stations.[1] Compatibility[edit] PAL-M
PAL-M
signals are identical to North American NTSC
NTSC
signals, except for the encoding of the colour carrier. Therefore, PAL-M
PAL-M
will display in monochrome with sound on an NTSC
NTSC
set and vice versa. PAL-M
PAL-M
is incompatible with 625-line based versions of PAL, because its frame rate, scan line, colour subcarrier and sound carrier specifications are different. It will therefore usually give a rolling and/or squashed monochrome picture with no sound on a native European PAL
PAL
television, as do NTSC
NTSC
signals. PAL-M
PAL-M
systems conversion issues[edit] PAL-M
PAL-M
being a standard unique to one country, the need of to convert it to/from other standards often arises.

Conversion to/from NTSC
NTSC
is easy, as only the colour carrier needs to be changed. Frame rate and scan lines can remain untouched. Conversion to/from PAL/625 lines/25 frame/s and SECAM/625/25 signals involves changing the frame rates as well as the scan lines. This is achieved using complicated circuitry involving a digital frame store, the same method used for converting between NTSC
NTSC
and the 625/25 standards. The fact that the colour encoding of PAL-M
PAL-M
and PAL/625/25 is the same does not help, as the entire signal goes through an A/D-D/A conversion process anyway.

However some special VHS video recorders are available which can allow viewers the flexibility of enjoying PAL-M
PAL-M
recordings using a standard PAL
PAL
(625/50 Hz) colour TV, or even through multi-system TV sets. Video
Video
recorders like Panasonic NV-W1E (AG-W1 for the USA), AG-W2, AG-W3, NV-J700AM, Aiwa HV-MX100, HV-MX1U, Samsung SV-4000W and SV-7000W feature a digital TV system conversion circuitry. PAL
PAL
60[edit] The PAL
PAL
colour system (either baseband or with any RF system, with the normal 4.43 MHz subcarrier unlike PAL-M) can also be applied to an NTSC-like 525-line (480i) picture to form what is often known as "PAL-60" (sometimes "PAL-60/525," "Pseudo-PAL," or "Quasi-PAL"). This non-standard signal is a method used in European domestic VCRs and DVD players for playback of NTSC
NTSC
material on PAL
PAL
televisions. It's not identical to PAL-M
PAL-M
and incompatible with it, because the colour subcarrier is at a different frequency; it will therefore display in monochrome on PAL-M
PAL-M
and NTSC
NTSC
television sets. Technological obsolescence[edit] ABERT/SET tests[edit] Before SBTVD, from 1999 to 2000, the ABERT/SET group in Brazil
Brazil
did system comparison tests of DTV under the supervision of the CPqD foundation. The comparison tests were done under the direction of a work group of SET and ABERT. Originally, Brazil
Brazil
including Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay are planned to adopt the DVB-T system. However, the ABERT/SET group selected ISDB-T as the best system among ATSC, DVB-T and ISDB-T. The outdoor coverage of field-tests result in "Brazilian digital television tests" show that ISDB-T is most robust system in Brazil.

ABERT/SET Brazilian digital television tests

SBTVD[edit] Main article: SBTVD The analog PAL-M
PAL-M
was scheduled to be supplanted by a digital high-definition system named Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão Digital (SBTVD) by 2015, and finishing in 2018. However, SBTVD
SBTVD
was later replaced by the Brazilian variant of the ISDB
ISDB
standard, ISDB-Tb, which features SBTVD's characteristics into the originally-Japanese digital norm. References[edit]

^ PAL
PAL
Das Farbfernsehen Archived 2007-12-08 at the Wayback Machine.; Walter Bruch/Heide Riedel; Deutsches Rundfunk-Museum 1987[dead link]

See also[edit]

v t e

Digital video resolutions

Designation

Usage examples Definition (lines) Rate (Hz)

Interlaced (fields) Progressive (frames)

Low, MP@LL

LDTV, VCD, HTV 240, 288 (SIF)   24, 30; 25

Standard, MP@ML

SDTV, SVCD, DVD, DV 480 (NTSC), 576 (PAL) 60, 50 24, 30; 25

Enhanced, HMP@HML

EDTV 480 (NTSC-HQ), 576   60, 50

High, MP@HL

HDTV, BD, HD DVD, HDV 720   24, 30, 60; 25, 50

1080 25, 30 24, 50, 60

Ultra-high

UHDTV 2160, 4320   60, 120,180

v t e

Broadcast video formats

Television

Analog

525 lines

System M NTSC NTSC-J PAL-M

625 lines

PAL

System B System D System G System H System I System K

PAL-N PALplus SECAM

System B System D System G System K System L (SECAM-L)

Audio

BTSC (MTS) EIAJ NICAM SAP Sound-in-Syncs Zweikanalton
Zweikanalton
(A2/IGR)

Hidden signals

Captioning CGMS-A EPG GCR PDC Teletext VBI VEIL VIT VITC WSS XDS

Historical

Pre-1940 Mechanical television 180-line 405-line

System A

441-line 819-line MAC MUSE

Digital

Interlaced

SDTV

480i 576i

HDTV

1080i

Progressive

LDTV

1seg 240p 288p

EDTV

480p 576p

HDTV

720p 1080p

UHDTV

2160p 4320p

MPEG-2
MPEG-2
standards

ATSC DVB ISDB DTMB DVB 3D-TV

MPEG-4 AVC standards

ATSC A/72 DMB DTMB DVB SBTVD 1seg

HEVC standards

ATSC 3.0

Audio

AC-3 (5.1) DTS MPEG-1 Audio Layer II MPEG Multichannel PCM LPCM AAC HE-AAC

Hidden signals

AFD Broadcast flag Captioning CPCM EPG Teletext

Technical issues

14:9 compromise Broadcast-safe Digital cinema
Digital cinema
(DCI) Display motion blur Moving image formats MPEG transport stream Reverse Standards Conversion Standards conversion Television transmitter Video
Video
on demand Video
Video
processing Widescreen signaling Templates (Analogue TV Topics)

v t e

Analog television
Analog television
broadcasting topics

Systems

180-line 405-line ( System A ) 441-line 525-line ( System J , System M
System M
) 625-line ( System B , System C , System D , System G , System H , System I , System K , System L , System N ) 819-line ( System E , System F )

Color systems

NTSC PAL PAL-M PAL-S PALplus SECAM

Video

Back porch and front porch Black level Blanking level Chrominance Chrominance
Chrominance
subcarrier Colorburst Color killer Color TV Composite video Frame (video) Horizontal scan rate Horizontal blanking interval Luma Nominal analogue blanking Overscan Raster scan Safe area Television lines Vertical blanking interval White clipper

Sound

Multichannel television sound NICAM Sound-in-Syncs Zweikanalton

Modulation

Frequency modulation Quadrature amplitude modulation Vestigial sideband modulation (VSB)

Transmission

Amplifiers Antenna (radio) Broadcast transmitter/Transmitter station Cavity amplifier Differential gain Differential phase Diplexer Dipole antenna Dummy load Frequency mixer Intercarrier method Intermediate frequency Output power of an analog TV transmitter Pre-emphasis Residual carrier Split sound system Superheterodyne transmitter Television receive-only Direct-broadcast satellite television Television transmitter Terrestrial television Transposer

Frequencies & Bands

Frequency offset Microwave transmission Television channel frequencies UHF VHF

Propagation

Beam tilt Distortion Earth bulge Field strength in free space Knife-edge effect Noise (electronics) Null fill Path loss Radiation pattern Skew Television interference

Testing

Distortionmeter Field strength meter Vectorscope VIT signals Zero reference pulse

Artifacts

Dot crawl Ghosting Hano

.

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