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Oyster
Oyster
is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats. In some species the valves are highly calcified, and many are somewhat irregular in shape. Many, but not all, oysters are in the superfamily Ostreoidea. Some kinds of oysters are commonly consumed by humans, cooked or raw, and are regarded as a delicacy. Some kinds of pearl oysters are harvested for the pearl produced within the mantle. Windowpane oysters are harvested for their translucent shells, which are used to make various kinds of decorative objects.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Types

2.1 True oysters 2.2 Pearl
Pearl
oysters 2.3 Other types of oysters

3 Anatomy 4 Habitat and behaviour 5 Nutrient cycling 6 Ecosystem services 7 Human
Human
history

7.1 Fishing from the wild 7.2 Cultivating oysters 7.3 Restoration and recovery 7.4 Human
Human
impact

8 As food

8.1 Depuration 8.2 Nutrition 8.3 Selection, preparation and storage 8.4 Opening oysters

9 Diseases 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

Etymology[edit] First attested in English during the 14th century,[1] the word "oyster" comes from Old French
Old French
oistre, in turn from Latin
Latin
ostrea, the feminine form of ostreum,[2] which is the latinisation of the Greek ὄστρεον (ostreon), "oyster".[3] Compare ὀστέον (osteon), "bone".[4] Types[edit] True oysters[edit] True oysters are members of the family Ostreidae. This family includes the edible oysters, which mainly belong to the genera Ostrea, Crassostrea, Ostreola, Magallana, and Saccostrea. Examples include the Belon oyster, eastern oyster, Olympia oyster, Pacific oyster, and the Sydney rock oyster. Pearl
Pearl
oysters[edit]

Removing a pearl from a pearl oyster

Main article: Pearl
Pearl
oyster Almost all shell-bearing mollusks can secrete pearls, yet most are not very valuable. Pearl
Pearl
oysters are not closely related to true oysters, being members of a distinct family, the feathered oysters (Pteriidae). Both cultured pearls and natural pearls can be extracted from pearl oysters, though other molluscs, such as the freshwater mussels, also yield pearls of commercial value. The largest pearl-bearing oyster is the marine Pinctada maxima, which is roughly the size of a dinner plate. Not all individual oysters produce pearls naturally. In fact, in a harvest of two and a half tons of oysters, only three to four oysters produce what commercial buyers consider to be absolute perfect pearls.[citation needed] In nature, pearl oysters produce pearls by covering a minute invasive object with nacre.[5] Over the years, the irritating object is covered with enough layers of nacre to become a pearl. The many different types, colours and shapes of pearls depend on the natural pigment of the nacre, and the shape of the original irritant. Pearl
Pearl
farmers can culture a pearl by placing a nucleus, usually a piece of polished mussel shell, inside the oyster. In three to seven years, the oyster can produce a perfect pearl. These pearls are not as valuable as natural pearls, but look exactly the same. In fact, since the beginning of the 20th century, when several researchers discovered how to produce artificial pearls, the cultured pearl market has far outgrown the natural pearl market. Other types of oysters[edit] A number of bivalve molluscs (other than true oysters and pearl oysters) also have common names that include the word "oyster", usually because they either taste like or look somewhat like true oysters, or because they yield noticeable pearls. Examples include:

Thorny oysters in the genus Spondylus Pilgrim oyster, another term for a scallop, in reference to the scallop shell of St. James Saddle oysters, members of the Anomiidae
Anomiidae
family also known as jingle shells Dimydarian oysters, members of the family Dimyidae Windowpane oysters

Pacific oyster

Pacific oyster, opened

In the Philippines, a local thorny oyster species known as Tikod Amo is a favorite seafood source in the southern part of the country.[6] Because of its good flavor, it commands high prices. Anatomy[edit] Oysters
Oysters
are filter feeders, drawing water in over their gills through the beating of cilia. Suspended plankton and particles are trapped in the mucus of a gill, and from there are transported to the mouth, where they are eaten, digested, and expelled as feces or pseudofeces. Oysters
Oysters
feed most actively at temperatures above 10 °C (50 °F). An oyster can filter up to 5 L (1.3 US gal) of water per hour. The Chesapeake Bay's once-flourishing oyster population historically filtered excess nutrients from the estuary's entire water volume every three to four days. Today, that would take nearly a year.[7] Excess sediment, nutrients, and algae can result in the eutrophication of a body of water. Oyster
Oyster
filtration can mitigate these pollutants. In addition to their gills, oysters can also exchange gases across their mantles, which are lined with many small, thin-walled blood vessels. A small, three-chambered heart, lying under the adductor muscle, pumps colorless blood to all parts of the body. At the same time, two kidneys, located on the underside of the muscle, remove waste products from the blood. Their nervous system includes two pairs of nerve cords and three pairs of ganglia. While some oysters have two sexes (European oyster and Olympia oyster), their reproductive organs contain both eggs and sperm. Because of this, it is technically possible for an oyster to fertilize its own eggs. The gonads surround the digestive organs, and are made up of sex cells, branching tubules, and connective tissue. Once the female is fertilized, she discharges millions of eggs into the water. The larvae develop in about six hours and exist suspended in the water column as veliger larvae for two to three weeks before settling on a bed and maturing to sexual adulthood within a year. Habitat and behaviour[edit]

Oyster reef
Oyster reef
at about mid-tide off fishing pier at Hunting Island State Park, South Carolina

A group of oysters is commonly called a bed or oyster reef.

Rocks in intertidal zone covered by oysters, at Bangchuidao Scenic Area, Dalian, Liaoning Province, China

As a keystone species, oysters provide habitat for many marine species. Crassostrea
Crassostrea
and Saccostrea
Saccostrea
live mainly in the intertidal zone, while Ostrea
Ostrea
is subtidal. The hard surfaces of oyster shells and the nooks between the shells provide places where a host of small animals can live. Hundreds of animals, such as sea anemones, barnacles, and hooked mussels, inhabit oyster reefs. Many of these animals are prey to larger animals, including fish, such as striped bass, black drum and croakers. An oyster reef can increase the surface area of a flat bottom 50-fold. An oyster's mature shape often depends on the type of bottom to which it is originally attached, but it always orients itself with its outer, flared shell tilted upward. One valve is cupped and the other is flat. Oysters
Oysters
usually reach maturity in one year. They are protandric; during their first year, they spawn as males by releasing sperm into the water. As they grow over the next two or three years and develop greater energy reserves, they spawn as females by releasing eggs. Bay oysters usually spawn from the end of June until mid-August. An increase in water temperature prompts a few oysters to spawn. This triggers spawning in the rest, clouding the water with millions of eggs and sperm. A single female oyster can produce up to 100 million eggs annually. The eggs become fertilized in the water and develop into larvae, which eventually find suitable sites, such as another oyster's shell, on which to settle. Attached oyster larvae are called spat. Spat are oysters less than 25 mm (1 in) long. Many species of bivalves, oysters included, seem to be stimulated to settle near adult conspecifics.

Pacific oyster
Pacific oyster
Crassostrea
Crassostrea
gigas equipped with activity electrodes to follow their daily behaviour

Oysters
Oysters
are considered to filter large amounts of water to feed and breathe (exchange O2 and CO2 with water) but they are not permanently open. They regularly shut their valves to enter a resting state, even when they are permanently submersed. In fact their behaviour follows very strict circatidal and circadian rhythms according to the relative moon and sun positions. During neap tides, they exhibit much longer closing periods than during the spring tide.[8] Some tropical oysters, such as the mangrove oyster in the family Ostreidae, grow best on mangrove roots. Low tide can expose them, making them easy to collect. In Trinidad
Trinidad
in the West Indies, tourists are often astounded when they are told, in the Caribbean, "oysters grow on trees". The largest oyster-producing body of water in the United States
United States
is Chesapeake Bay, although these beds have decreased in number due to overfishing and pollution. Willapa Bay
Willapa Bay
in Washington produces more oysters than any other estuary in the US.[9] Other large oyster farming areas in the US include the bays and estuaries along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
from Apalachicola, Florida
Apalachicola, Florida
in the east to Galveston, Texas
Galveston, Texas
in the west. Large beds of edible oysters are also found in Japan
Japan
and Australia. In 2005, China accounted for 80% of the global oyster harvest.[10] Within Europe, France
France
remained the industry leader. Common oyster predators include crabs, seabirds, starfish, and humans. Some oysters contain live crabs, known as oyster crabs. Nutrient cycling[edit] Bivalves, including oysters, are effective filter feeders and can have large effects on the water columns in which they occur.[11] As filter feeders, oysters remove plankton and organic particles from the water column.[12] Multiple studies have shown individual oysters are capable of filtering up to 50 gallons of water per day, and thus oyster reefs can significantly improve water quality and clarity.[13][14][15][16] Oysters
Oysters
consume nitrogen-containing compounds (nitrates and ammonia), phosphates, plankton, detritus, bacteria, and dissolved organic matter, removing them from the water. [17] What is not used for animal growth is then expelled as solid waste pellets, which eventually decompose into the atmosphere as nitrogen.[5] In Maryland, the Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
Program plans to use oysters to reduce the amount of nitrogen compounds entering the Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
by 8,600 t (19,000,000 lb) per year by 2010.[18] Several studies have shown that oysters and mussels have the capacity to dramatically alter nitrogen levels in estuaries.[19][20][21] In the U.S., Delaware is the only East Coast state without aquaculture, but making aquaculture a state-controlled industry of leasing water by the acre for commercial harvesting of shellfish is being considered.[22] Supporters of Delaware's legislation to allow oyster aquaculture cite revenue, job creation, and nutrient cycling benefits. It is estimated that one acre can produce nearly 750,000 oysters, which could filter between 57,000 to 150,000 m3 (15,000,000 to 40,000,000 US gal) of water daily.[22] Also see nutrient pollution for an extended explanation of nutrient remediation. Ecosystem services[edit] As an ecosystem engineer oysters provide "supporting" ecosystem services, along with "provisioning", "regulating" and "cultural" services. Oysters
Oysters
influence nutrient cycling, water filtration, habitat structure, biodiversity, and food web dynamics.[23] Oyster feeding and nutrient cycling activities could "rebalance" shallow, coastal ecosystems if restoration of historic populations could be achieved.[24] Furthermore, assimilation of nitrogen and phosphorus into shellfish tissues provides an opportunity to remove these nutrients from the environment, but this benefit has only recently been recognized.[24][25][26] In California's Tomales Bay, native oyster presence is associated with higher species diversity of benthic invertebrates[27] but other ecosystem services have not been studied.[28] As the ecological and economic importance of oyster reefs has become more widely acknowledged, creation of oyster reef habitat through restoration efforts has become more important- often with the goal of restoring multiple ecosystem services associated with natural oyster reefs.[29] Human
Human
history[edit]

Still-Life with Oysters
Oysters
by Alexander Adriaenssen

The Whaleback Shell Midden
Whaleback Shell Midden
in Maine
Maine
contains the shells from oysters harvested for food dating from 2200-1000 years ago

Middens testify to the prehistoric importance of oysters as food, with some middens in New South Wales, Australia dated at ten thousand years.[30] They have been cultivated in Japan
Japan
from at least 2000 BC.[30] In the United Kingdom, the town of Whitstable
Whitstable
is noted for oyster farming from beds on the Kentish Flats that have been used since Roman times. The borough of Colchester
Colchester
holds an annual Oyster Feast each October, at which " Colchester
Colchester
Natives" (the native oyster, Ostrea
Ostrea
edulis) are consumed. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
hosts several other annual oyster festivals, for example Woburn Oyster
Oyster
Festival is held in September. Many breweries produce Oyster
Oyster
Stout, a beer intended to be drunk with oysters that sometimes includes oysters in the brewing process. The French seaside resort of Cancale
Cancale
in Brittany
Brittany
is noted for its oysters, which also date from Roman times. Sergius Orata of the Roman Republic is considered the first major merchant and cultivator of oysters. Using his considerable knowledge of hydraulics, he built a sophisticated cultivation system, including channels and locks, to control the tides. He was so famous for this, the Romans used to say he could breed oysters on the roof of his house.[31] In the early 19th century, oysters were cheap and mainly eaten by the working class. Throughout the 19th century, oyster beds in New York Harbor became the largest source of oysters worldwide. On any day in the late 19th century, six million oysters could be found on barges tied up along the city's waterfront. They were naturally quite popular in New York City, and helped initiate the city's restaurant trade.[32] New York's oystermen became skilled cultivators of their beds, which provided employment for hundreds of workers and nutritious food for thousands. Eventually, rising demand exhausted many of the beds. To increase production, they introduced foreign species, which brought disease; effluent and increasing sedimentation from erosion destroyed most of the beds by the early 20th century. Oysters' popularity has put ever-increasing demands on wild oyster stocks.[33] This scarcity increased prices, converting them from their original role as working-class food to their current status as an expensive delicacy. In the United Kingdom, the native variety ( Ostrea
Ostrea
edulis) requires five years to mature and is protected by an Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament
during the May to August spawning season. The current market is dominated by the larger Pacific oyster
Pacific oyster
and rock oyster varieties which are farmed year round. Fishing from the wild[edit] Oysters
Oysters
are harvested by simply gathering them from their beds. In very shallow waters, they can be gathered by hand or with small rakes. In somewhat deeper water, long-handled rakes or oyster tongs are used to reach the beds. Patent tongs can be lowered on a line to reach beds that are too deep to reach directly. In all cases, the task is the same: the oysterman scrapes oysters into a pile, and then scoops them up with the rake or tongs. In some areas, a scallop dredge is used. This is a toothed bar attached to a chain bag. The dredge is towed through an oyster bed by a boat, picking up the oysters in its path. While dredges collect oysters more quickly, they heavily damage the beds, and their use is highly restricted. Until 1965, Maryland
Maryland
limited dredging to sailboats, and even since then motor boats can be used only on certain days of the week. These regulations prompted the development of specialized sailboats (the bugeye and later the skipjack) for dredging. Similar laws were enacted in Connecticut before World War I and lasted until 1969. The laws restricted the harvesting of oysters in state-owned beds to vessels under sail. These laws prompted the construction of the oyster sloop-style vessel to last well into the 20th century. Hope is believed to be the last-built Connecticut oyster sloop, completed in 1948. Oysters
Oysters
can also be collected by divers. In any case, when the oysters are collected, they are sorted to eliminate dead animals, bycatch (unwanted catch), and debris. Then they are taken to market, where they are either canned or sold live. Cultivating oysters[edit]

Oyster
Oyster
culture in Riec-sur-Belon, France

Main article: Oyster
Oyster
farming Oysters
Oysters
have been cultured for well over a century. The Pacific oyster ( Magallana
Magallana
gigas) is presently the most widely grown bivalve around the world.[34] Two methods are commonly used, release and bagging. In both cases, oysters are cultivated onshore to the size of spat, when they can attach themselves to a substrate. They may be allowed to mature further to form 'seed oysters'. In either case, they are then placed in the water to mature. The release technique involves distributing the spat throughout existing oyster beds, allowing them to mature naturally to be collected like wild oysters. Bagging has the cultivator putting spat in racks or bags and keeping them above the bottom. Harvesting involves simply lifting the bags or rack to the surface and removing the mature oysters. The latter method prevents losses to some predators, but is more expensive.[35] The Pacific oyster
Pacific oyster
has been grown in the outflow of mariculture ponds. When fish or prawns are grown in ponds, it takes typically 10 kg (22 lb) of feed to produce 1 kg (2.2 lb) of product (dry-dry basis). The other 9 kg (20 lb) goes into the pond and after mineralization, provides food for phytoplankton, which in turn feeds the oyster. To prevent spawning, sterile oysters are now cultured by crossbreeding tetraploid and diploid oysters. The resulting triploid oyster cannot propagate, which prevents introduced oysters from spreading into unwanted habitats.[36] Restoration and recovery[edit] In many areas, non-native oysters have been introduced in attempts to prop up failing harvests of native varieties. For example, the eastern oyster ( Crassostrea
Crassostrea
virginica) was introduced to California waters in 1875, while the Pacific oyster
Pacific oyster
was introduced there in 1929.[37] Proposals for further such introductions remain controversial. The Pacific oyster
Pacific oyster
prospered in Pendrell Sound, where the surface water is typically warm enough for spawning in the summer. Over the following years, spat spread out sporadically and populated adjacent areas. Eventually, possibly following adaptation to the local conditions, the Pacific oyster
Pacific oyster
spread up and down the coast and now is the basis of the North American west coast oyster industry. Pendrell Sound is now a reserve that supplies spat for cultivation.[38] Near the mouth of the Great Wicomico River
Great Wicomico River
in the Chesapeake Bay, five-year-old artificial reefs now harbor more than 180 million native Crassostrea
Crassostrea
virginica. That is far lower than in the late 1880s, when the bay's population was in the billions, and watermen harvested about 910,000 m3 (25,000,000 imp bsh) annually. The 2009 harvest was less than 7,300 m3 (200,000 imp bsh). Researchers claim the keys to the project were:

using waste oyster shells to elevate the reef floor 25–45 cm (9.8–17.7 in) to keep the spat free of bottom sediments building larger reefs, ranging up to 8.1 ha (20 acres) in size disease-resistant broodstock[39]

The "oyster-tecture" movement promotes the use of oyster reefs for water purification and wave attenuation. An oyster-tecture project has been implemented at Withers Estuary, Withers Swash, South Carolina, by Neil Chambers-led volunteers, at a site where pollution was affecting beach tourism.[40] Currently, for the installation cost of $3000, roughly 4.8 million liters of water are being filtered daily. In New Jersey, however, the Department of Environmental Protection refused to allow oysters as a filtering system in Sandy Hook Bay and the Raritan Bay, citing worries that commercial shellfish growers would be at risk and that members of the public might disregard warnings and consume tainted oysters. New Jersey
New Jersey
Baykeepers responded by changing their strategy for utilizing oysters to clean up the waterway, by partnering with Naval Weapons Station Earle. The Navy station is under 24/7 security and therefore eliminates any poaching and associated human health risk.[41] Oyster-tecture projects have been proposed to protect coastal cities, such as New York, from the threat of rising sea levels due to climate change.[42] Human
Human
impact[edit] The accidental or intentional introduction of species by humans has the potential to negatively impact native oyster populations. For example, non-native species in Tomales Bay
Tomales Bay
have resulted in the loss of half of California's Olympia oysters.[43] In October 2017, it was reported that underwater noise pollution can affect oysters as they close their shells when exposed to low frequencies of sounds in experimental conditions. Oysters
Oysters
rely on hearing waves and currents to regulate their circadian rhythms, and perception of weather events—such as rain—may induce spawning. Cargo ships, pile drivers, and explosions conducted underwater produce low frequencies that may be detected by oysters.[44] As food[edit]

Chargrilled oysters

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oyster
Oyster
dishes.

Raw oysters presented on a plate

Oysters
Oysters
served on ice and with a piece of lemon on the side

Jonathan Swift
Jonathan Swift
is quoted as having said, "He was a bold man that first ate an oyster",[45] but evidence of oyster consumption goes back into prehistory, evidenced by oyster middens found worldwide. Oysters
Oysters
were an important food source in all coastal areas where they could be found, and oyster fisheries were an important industry where they were plentiful. Overfishing and pressure from diseases and pollution have sharply reduced supplies, but they remain a popular treat celebrated in oyster festivals in many cities and towns. It was once assumed that oysters were only safe to eat in months with the letter 'r' in their English and French names. This myth is based in truth, in that in the Northern Hemisphere, oysters are much more likely to spoil in the warmer months of May, June, July, and August.[46] In recent years, pathogens such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus have caused outbreaks in several harvesting areas of the eastern United States
United States
during the summer months, lending further credence to this belief. Depuration[edit] Depuration of oysters is a common industry practice and widely researched in the scientific community but is not commonly known by end consumers. The main objective of seafood depuration is to remove fecal contamination in seafood before being sold to end consumers. Oyster
Oyster
depuration is useful since they are generally eaten raw and in many countries, the requirement to process is government-regulated or mandatory. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO) formally recognizes depuration and has published detailed documents on the process,[47] whereas the Codex Alimentarius, encourages the application of seafood depuration.[48] Oyster
Oyster
depuration begins after the harvest of oysters from farmed locations. The oysters are transported and placed into tanks pumped with clean water for periods of 48 to 72 hours. The holding temperatures and salinity vary according to species. The seawater that the oysters were originally farmed in does not remain in the oyster, since the water used for depuration must be fully sterilized, plus the depuration facility would not necessarily be located near the farming location.[49] Depuration of oysters can remove moderate levels of contamination of most bacterial indicators and pathogens. Well-known contaminants include Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Vibrio parahaemolyticus
which is a bacterium found in seawater animals that is temperature sensitive, and Escherichia coli which is a bacterium found in coastal waters near highly populated cities having sewage systems discharging waste nearby, or from agricultural discharges.[50] Depuration expands beyond oysters into many shellfish and other related products, especially in seafood that is known to come from potentially polluted areas; depurated seafood is effectively a product cleansed from inside-out to make it safe for human consumption. Nutrition[edit] Oysters
Oysters
are an excellent source of zinc, iron, calcium, and selenium, as well as vitamin A and vitamin B12. Oysters
Oysters
are low in food energy; one dozen raw oysters contains 110 kilocalories (460 kJ).[51] They are rich in protein (approximately 9g in 100g of pacific oysters).[52] Traditionally, oysters are considered to be an aphrodisiac, partially because they resemble female sex organs.[53] A team of American and Italian researchers analyzed bivalves and found they were rich in amino acids that trigger increased levels of sex hormones.[54] Their high zinc content aids the production of testosterone.[32] Dietary supplements may contain calcium carbonate from oyster shells, though no evidence shows this offers any benefits beyond what calcium may offer. Selection, preparation and storage[edit] Unlike most shellfish, oysters can have a fairly long shelf life of up to four weeks. However, their taste becomes less pleasant as they age. Oysters
Oysters
should be refrigerated out of water, not frozen, and in 100% humidity. Oysters
Oysters
stored in water under refrigeration will open, consume available oxygen, and die.

Freshly opened pearl oysters

Freshly shucked European flat Oyster

Oysters
Oysters
must be eaten alive, or cooked alive. The shells of live oysters are usually tightly closed or snap shut given a slight tap. If the shell is open, the oyster is dead, and cannot be eaten safely. Cooking oysters in the shell kills the oysters and causes them to open by themselves. Traditionally, oysters that do not open have been assumed to be dead before cooking and therefore unsafe.[55] However, according to at least one marine biologist, Nick Ruello, this advice may have arisen from an old, poorly researched cookbook's advice regarding mussels, which has now become an assumed truism for all shellfish. Ruello found 11.5% of all mussels failed to open during cooking, but when forced open, 100% were "both adequately cooked and safe to eat."[56]

Giant oyster
Giant oyster
in southern Angola

Fried oyster with egg and flour is a common dish in Malaysia[57] and Singapore.

Oysters
Oysters
can be eaten on the half shell, raw, smoked, boiled, baked, fried, roasted, stewed, canned, pickled, steamed, or broiled, or used in a variety of drinks. Eating can be as simple as opening the shell and eating the contents, including juice. Butter
Butter
and salt are often added. In the case of Oysters
Oysters
Rockefeller, preparation can be very elaborate. They are sometimes served on edible seaweed, such as brown algae. Care should be taken when consuming oysters. Purists insist on eating them raw, with no dressing save perhaps lemon juice, vinegar (most commonly shallot vinegar), or cocktail sauce. Upscale restaurants pair raw oysters with a home-made Mignonette sauce, which consists primarily of fresh chopped shallot, mixed peppercorn, dry white wine and lemon juice or sherry vinegar. Like fine wine, raw oysters have complex flavors that vary greatly among varieties and regions: salty, briny, buttery, metallic, or even fruity. The texture is soft and fleshy, but crisp on the palate. North American varieties include: Kumamoto
Kumamoto
and Yaquina Bay
Yaquina Bay
from Oregon, Duxbury
Duxbury
and Wellfleet from Massachusetts, Malpeque from Prince Edward Island, Canada, Blue Point from Long Island, New York, Pemaquid from Maine, and Cape May
Cape May
oysters from New Jersey. Variations in water salinity, alkalinity, and mineral/nutritional content influence their flavor profile. Oysters
Oysters
can contain harmful bacteria. Oysters
Oysters
are filter feeders, so will naturally concentrate anything present in the surrounding water. Oysters
Oysters
from the Gulf Coast
Gulf Coast
of the United States, for example, contain high bacterial loads of human pathogens in the warm months, most notably Vibrio vulnificus
Vibrio vulnificus
and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In these cases, the main danger is for immunocompromised individuals, who are unable to fight off infection and can succumb to septicemia, leading to death. Vibrio vulnificus
Vibrio vulnificus
is the most deadly seafood-borne pathogen. Opening oysters[edit]

Special
Special
knives for opening live oysters, such as this one, have short and stout blades.

Fresh oysters must be alive just before consumption or cooking. There is only one criterion: the oyster must be capable of tightly closing its shell. Open oysters should be tapped on the shell; a live oyster will close up and is safe to eat. Oysters
Oysters
which are open and unresponsive are dead and must be discarded. Some dead oysters, or oyster shells which are full of sand may be closed. These make a distinctive noise when tapped, and are known as 'clackers'. Opening oysters, referred to as oyster-shucking, requires skill. The preferred method is to use a special knife (called an oyster knife, a variant of a shucking knife), with a short and thick blade about 5 cm (2.0 in) long. While different methods are used to open an oyster (which sometimes depend on the type), the following is one commonly accepted oyster-shucking method.

Insert the blade, with moderate force and vibration if necessary, at the hinge between the two valves. Twist the blade until there is a slight pop. Slide the blade upward to cut the adductor muscle which holds the shell closed.

Inexperienced shuckers can apply too much force, which can result in injury if the blade slips. Heavy gloves are necessary; apart from the knife, the shell itself can be razor sharp. Professional shuckers require fewer than three seconds to open the shell.[32] If the oyster has a particularly soft shell, the knife can be inserted instead in the 'sidedoor', about halfway along one side where the oyster lips widen with a slight indentation. Opening or "shucking" oysters has become a competitive sport. Oyster-shucking competitions are staged around the world. Widely acknowledged to be the premiere event, the Guinness World Oyster Opening Championship is held in September at the Galway Oyster Festival. The annual Clarenbridge Oyster
Oyster
Festival ' Oyster
Oyster
Opening Competition' is also held in Galway, Ireland. Diseases[edit] Oysters
Oysters
are subject to various diseases which can reduce harvests and severely deplete local populations. Disease control focuses on containing infections and breeding resistant strains, and is the subject of much ongoing research.

"Dermo" is caused by a protozoan parasite (Perkinsus marinus). It is a prevalent pathogen, causes massive mortality, and poses a significant economic threat to the oyster industry. The disease is not a direct threat to humans consuming infected oysters.[58] Dermo first appeared in the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
in the 1950s, and until 1978 was believed to be caused by a fungus. While it is most serious in warmer waters, it has gradually spread up the east coast of the United States.[59]

Multinucleated sphere X (MSX) is caused by the protozoan Haplosporidium nelsoni, generally seen as a multinucleated Plasmodium. It is infectious and causes heavy mortality in the eastern oyster; survivors, however, develop resistance and can help propagate resistant populations. MSX is associated with high salinity and water temperatures.[58] MSX was first noted in Delaware Bay
Delaware Bay
in 1957, and is now found all up and down the East Coast of the United States. Evidence suggests it was brought to the US when Crassostrea
Crassostrea
gigas, a Japanese oyster variety, was introduced to Delaware Bay.[59]

Some oysters also harbor bacterial species which can cause human disease; of importance is Vibrio vulnificus, which causes gastroenteritis, which is usually self-limiting, and cellulitis. Cellulitis
Cellulitis
can be so severe and rapidly spreading, often it requires amputation. It is usually acquired when the contents of the oyster come in contact with a cut skin lesion, as when shucking an oyster. See also[edit]

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Angels on horseback
Angels on horseback
(classic recipe) Auckland oyster Belon oyster Bluff oyster Eastern oyster List of delicacies List of smoked foods Olympia oyster Ostrea
Ostrea
angasi (Australian southern mud or native flat oyster) Oyster
Oyster
cracker Oyster
Oyster
farming Oyster
Oyster
festival Oyster
Oyster
omelette Oyster
Oyster
pirate Oyster
Oyster
sauce Oysters Kirkpatrick (classic recipe and minor English literary character) Oysters
Oysters
Rockefeller Pacific oyster Pearl Pearl
Pearl
oyster Red tide Rolled oyster Rock oyster San Leandro Oyster
Oyster
Beds Shellder Sydney rock oyster Tabby (cement)

References[edit]

^ Oysters
Oysters
in Cynee, Recipe for Oysters
Oysters
in Bread Sauce ( Oysters
Oysters
in Cynee) from the 1390 English text, The Forme of Cury, from Celtnet Recipes ^ ostrea, ostreum, Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, on Perseus ^ ὄστρεον, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ ὀστέον, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ a b "A dozen ocean-cleaners and a pint of Guinness, please". The Economist. 2008-12-18. Retrieved 2008-12-26.  ^ "Native oyster species in Surigao del Sur draws attention for R&D eVolved". eVolved. 2011-12-02. Retrieved 2017-12-12.  ^ " Oyster
Oyster
Reefs: Ecological importance" (PDF). US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2008-01-16.  ^ Tran, D., Nadau, A., Durrieu, G., Ciret, P., Parisot, JP., Massabuau, JC. 2011. Field chronobiology of a Molluscan bivalve: how the moon and sun cycles interact to drive oyster activity rhythms. Chronobiology International, Vol. 28, Num. 4: 307-317. ^ Ruesink Lab - About the Bay ^ "China harvests almost 4 m tonnes of oyster in 2005".  ^ Padilla, D.K. 2010. Context-dependent Impacts of a Non-native Ecosystem Engineer, the Pacific Oyster
Oyster
Crassostrea
Crassostrea
gigas. Integrative and Comparative Biology, Vol. 50, Num. 2: 213-225. ^ Jud and Layman. 2011. Loxahatchee River oyster reef restoration monitoring report: Using baselines derived from long-term monitoring of benthic community structure on natural oyster reefs to assess the outcome of large-scale oyster reef restoration. Prepared for Martin County, state of Florida. ^ Jonas, R.B., 1997. Bacteria, dissolved organics and oxygens consumption in salinity stratified Chesapeake Bay, an anoxia paradigm. Am. Zool. 37, 612-620. ^ Officer, C.B., Smayda, T.J. and Mann, R., 1982. Benthic Filter Feeding - a Natural Eutrophication
Eutrophication
Control. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 9, 203-210. ^ Ulanowicz, R.E. and Tuttle, J.H., 1992. The Trophic Consequences of Oyster
Oyster
Stock Rehabilitation in Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries 15, 298-306. ^ Newell, R. 2004. Ecosystem Influences of Natural and Cultivated Populations of Suspension-Feeding Bivalve
Bivalve
Molluscs: A Review. J. Shellfish Research, 23(1):51-61. ^ Crisp et al. 1985. Feeding by oyster larvae: the functional response, energy budget and comparison with mussel larvae. J. Marine Biology Assoc. U.K 65:759-783. ^ " Oyster
Oyster
Restoration Projected to Provide Significant Boost to Bay Grasses While Removing Nitrogen Pollution from the Bay". Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Archived from the original on 2006-09-03. Retrieved 2008-12-26.  ^ Newell, R.I.E., Fisher, T.R., Holyoke, R.R., Cornwell, J.C. (2005). "Influence of eastern oysters on nitrogen and phosphorus regeneration in Chesapeake Bay, USA". In Dame, R., Olenin, S. The Comparative Roles of Suspension Feeders in Ecosystems, Vol. 47 (NATO Science Series IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences ed.). Netherlands: Springer. pp. 93–120. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Grabowski, J.H., Petersen, C.H. (2007). Cuddington, K., Byers, J.E., Wilson, W.G., Hastings, A, ed. Restoring oyster reefs to recover ecosystem services (Ecosystem Engineers: Concepts, Theory and Applications ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier-Academic Press. pp. 281–298. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Rose JM, Tedesco M, Wikfors GH, Yarish C (2010). "International Workshop on Bioextractive Technologies for Nutrient Remediation Summary Report". US Dept Commer, Northeast Fish Sci Cent Ref Doc. 10-19; 12 p. Available from: National Marine Fisheries Service, 166 Water Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543-1026.  ^ a b Brown, Ashton (June 10, 2013). "'Aquaculture' shellfish harvesting bill moves forward". Delaware State News. Archived from the original on October 22, 2013. Retrieved June 11, 2013.  ^ Schulte, David M. et al. 2009. Unprecedented Restoration of a Native Oyster
Oyster
Metapopulation. Science 1124, 325. ^ a b Wikfors, Gary H. 2011. Trophic interactions between phytoplankton and bivalve aquaculture. In, Shellfish Aquaculture
Aquaculture
and the Environment. Ed: S.E. Shumway. John Wiley & Sons. ^ Officer, C.B., T.J. Smayda & R. Mann. 1982. Benthic filter feeding, a natural eutrophication control. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 9:203-120. ^ Lindahl, O., et al. 2005. Improving marine water quality by mussel farming- a profitable solution for Swedish society. Ambio 131-138. ^ Kimbro, D. L. & E. D. Grosholz. 2006. Disturbance influences oyster community richness and evenness, but not diversity. Ecology 87:2378–2388 ^ Camara, M. and Vadopalas, B. 2009. Genetic aspects of restoring Olympia oysters and other native bivalves: Balancing the need for action, good intentions, and the risk of making things worse. Journal of Shellfish Research 28(1):121-145 ^ Jud and Layman. 2011. Loxahatchee River oyster reef restoration monitoring report: Using baselines derived from long-term monitoring of benthic community structure on natural reefs to assess the outcome of large-scale oyster reef restoration. http://www.loxahatcheeriver.org/pdf/FIU_NOAAMonitRpt_2011.pdf ^ a b " Oyster
Oyster
industry in NSW". NSW Department of Primary Industries. NSW Government. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2015.  ^ Holland, Tom (2003). Rubicon. ISBN 0-385-50313-X.  ^ a b c Kurlansky, Mark (2006). The Big Oyster: History on the Half Shell. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-47638-8.  ^ Clover, Charles (2004). The End of the Line: How overfishing is changing the world and what we eat. London: Ebury Press. ISBN 0-09-189780-7.  ^ FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture
Aquaculture
- Aquatic species ^ " Oyster
Oyster
Farming in Louisiana" (PDF). Louisiana State University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-12-01. Retrieved 2008-01-16.  ^ Nell J. A. (2002). "Farming triploid oysters". Aquaculture. 210: 69–88. doi:10.1016/S0044-8486(01)00861-4.  ^ Conte, Fred S. "California Oyster
Oyster
Culture" (PDF). University of California, Davis Department of Animal Science. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-12-01. Retrieved 2008-01-16.  ^ "Shellfish Tenures Locations Map". Retrieved 2008-01-16.  ^ Fountain, Henry (August 3, 2009). " Oysters
Oysters
Are on the Rebound in the Chesapeake Bay". The New York Times. Retrieved August 25, 2009.  ^ "Oyster-Tecture in Action". THE DIRT. 2011-02-24. Retrieved 2017-12-12.  ^ "NY/NJ Baykeeper Protect, Preserve, Restore". www.nynjbaykeeper.org. Retrieved 2017-12-12.  ^ "Oyster-tecture - SCAPE". SCAPE. Retrieved 2017-12-12.  ^ "Invasive Species Threaten Critical Habitats, Oyster
Oyster
Among Victims". ScienceDaily. August 10, 2009. Retrieved November 1, 2017.  ^ Quenqua, Douglas (October 25, 2017). "Yes, Oysters
Oysters
Can 'Hear.' They Probably Wish We'd Clam
Clam
Up". New York Times. Archived from the original on October 25, 2017. Retrieved November 1, 2017.  ^ Polite Conversations, 1738, cited e.g. in " Oyster
Oyster
Heaven". Wilmington Magazine. Wilmington Star-News. November 24, 2004. Retrieved 2008-01-16.  ^ "Nefsc Fish Faq". Nefsc.noaa.gov. 2011-06-16. Archived from the original on 2011-10-04. Retrieved 2011-08-16.  ^ ( Bivalve
Bivalve
Depuration: fundamental and practical aspects. FAO Fisheries Technical paper. No 511. Rome FAO 2008.) ^ (Code of Practice for fish and fishery products (first edition) Rome 2009. WHO and FAO ISBN 978-92-5-105914-2) ^ (Impact of water salinity and types of oysters on depuration for reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Vibrio parahaemolyticus
in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) Feb 2013 Sureerat Phuvasate, Yi-Cheng Su) ^ (Escherichia coli in seafood: A brief overview, Renata Albuquerque Costa, Fisheries Engineering, INTA Faculty, Sobral-Ceara, Brazil feb 2013) ^ "Nutrition Facts and Analysis for Mollusks, oyster, eastern, wild, raw". Nutritiondata.com. Retrieved 2011-08-16.  ^ "Calories in pacific Oyster". Recipeofhealth.com. 2015-03-28.  ^ Stott, Rebecca (2004). Oyster. The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9781861892218. Retrieved 2008-01-16.  ^ "Pearly wisdom: oysters are an aphrodisiac". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2005-03-24.  ^ "Safely Cooking Oysters
Oysters
and Other Molluscan Shellfish". SafeOysters.org. 2009-03-09. Retrieved 2015-06-13.  ^ " Mussel
Mussel
myth an open and shut case". ABC Science. 2008-10-29. Retrieved 2012-04-20.  ^ "Fried Oyster". Best Malaysian Food Guide. Retrieved 24 July 2015.  ^ a b " Oyster
Oyster
Diseases". Connecticut Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2008-01-16.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ a b "MSX/Dermo". Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
Program. Archived from the original on 2009-03-01. Retrieved 2009-04-05.  External link in publisher= (help)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oyster.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Oysters

Look up oyster in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

MolluSCAN eye, a website devoted to the online study of molluscan bivalve behavior around the world, including oysters. Daily update. World of Boats (EISCA) Collection ~ Fal Oyster
Oyster
Boat, Sunny South Oysters
Oysters
grown on trestles in Ireland Nutrition Facts for Oysters Oyster farming
Oyster farming
in the Rivers Crouch, Roach and Blackwater of Eastern Essex  "Oyster". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 

v t e

Oysters

Types

True

Portuguese Auckland Cockscomb Dredge Eastern European flat Frond Mangrove Olympia Pacific Rock Sydney rock Sponge

Other

Pearl
Pearl
oyster Windowpane Dimydarian Saddle Thorny Tikod amo

Industry

Equipment

Oyster
Oyster
knife Oystering machinery Boats (Bugeye Buy-boat Dredge Pungy Sharpie Skipjack Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
deadrise)

Commerce

Oyster
Oyster
farming Oyster
Oyster
pirate Oyster
Oyster
Wars

Culture

Cuisine

Angels on horseback Hangtown fry Ice cream Omelette Sauce Vermicelli Oysters
Oysters
Bienville Oysters
Oysters
en brochette Oysters
Oysters
Kirkpatrick Oysters
Oysters
Rockefeller Steak and oyster pie Stew

Media

Consider the Oyster The Big Oyster: History on the Half Shell The Oyster
Oyster
Dredger

Other

Oyster
Oyster
bar

List of oyster bars

Oyster
Oyster
festival Oyster
Oyster
Feast

Category

v t e

Commercial mollusks

Marine gastropods

Abalone Periwinkle Whelk Buccinum undatum Bullacta exarata

Land and freshwater gastropods

Helix pomatia Helix aspersa Helix aperta Cepaea nemoralis Otala lactea Escargot

Free-swimming marine bivalves

Scallop Queen scallop Pecten maximus Pecten jacobaeus Argopecten irradians Placopecten magellanicus

Infaunal bivalves

Clam

Atlantic surf clam Soft-shell clam

Mercenaria mercenaria Austrovenus stutchburyi Saxidomus nuttalli Arctica islandica Cockle Geoduck Spisula solidissima Paphies
Paphies
ventricosa Paphies
Paphies
australis Tuatua Ruditapes largillierti Grooved carpet shell

Sessile bivalves

Oyster Mussel Pearl
Pearl
oyster Pinctada maxima

Freshwater bivalves

Freshwater pearl mussel

Cephalopods

Octopus Squid

Techniques

Heliciculture Gathering by hand Clam
Clam
digging Dredging Oyster
Oyster
farming Oyster
Oyster
boats Pearl
Pearl
farming Pearl
Pearl
diving Ama divers Trawling

List of fishing topics by subject

v t e

Principal commercial fishery species groups

Wild

Large pelagic fish

Mackerel Salmon Saury Shark Swordfish Tuna

albacore bigeye Atlantic bluefin Pacific bluefin southern bluefin skipjack yellowfin

Forage fish

Anchovy Capelin Herring Ilish Menhaden Sardines Shad Sprat

european

Demersal fish

Catfish Cod

Atlantic Pacific Alaska pollock

Flatfish

flounder halibut plaice sole turbot

Haddock Mullet Orange roughy Pollock Rockfish Smelt-whitings Toothfish

Freshwater fish

Carp Sturgeon Tilapia Trout

Other wild fish

Eel Whitebait more...

Crustaceans

Crab Krill Lobster Shrimp more...

Molluscs

Abalone Mussels Octopus Oysters Scallops Squid more...

Echinoderms

Sea cucumbers Sea urchin more...

Farmed

Carp

bighead common crucian grass silver

Catfish Freshwater prawns Gilt-head bream Mussels Oysters Salmon

Atlantic salmon trout coho chinook

Scallops Seaweed Shrimp Tilapia

Commercial fishing World fish production Commercial species Fishing topics Fisheries glossary

v t e

Edible mollusks

Bivalves

Clams

Atlantic jackknife Atlantic surf Geoduck Grooved carpet shell Hard clam Horse Mactra stultorum Blunt gaper Ocean quahog Pacific razor Venus California butterclam Senilia senilis Smooth clam Soft-shell Triangle shell Tuatua Japanese littleneck Razor clam Pod razor Ensis
Ensis
(razor genus) Paphies

Cockles

Common Blood Goolwa New Zealand Sydney

Mussels

Blue Mediterranean New Zealand green-lipped California Brown Asian/Philippine green Date Mytilidae
Mytilidae
(mussel family)

Oysters

Auckland Eastern Olympia Southern mud Colchester
Colchester
native Pacific Portuguese Windowpane Rock Sydney rock Ostra chilena/Bluff Gillardeau oysters Crassostrea
Crassostrea
("true oyster" genus)

Scallops

Atlantic bay Great/king New Zealand Pecten jacobaeus Peruvian calico Yesso Placopecten magellanicus

Gastropods

Abalone

White Red Black Green Pink Blacklip Greenlip Green ormer Pāua
Pāua
(group of three species) South African abalone Chilean

Conches

Queen Elegant Dog

Limpets

Black-foot opihi/Hawaiian Turtle/talc Yellow-foot opihi China Common European Rayed Mediterranean Ribbed Mediterranean Rustic

Periwinkles

Common Banded Littorina sitkana

Whelks

Common Kellet's Knobbed Lightning Channeled

Other snails

Sea

Mud-flat Korean mud Chorus giganteus

Land

Cornu aspersum Helix lucorum Helix pomatia

Freshwater

Nerites

Inkfish

Cuttlefish

Spineless Bottletail

Octopus

Common Atlantic white-spotted Big blue Pacific giant Southern red Mimic Amphioctopus fangsiao

Squid

New Zealand arrow Japanese flying Humboldt Neon flying

Chitons

Chiton
Chiton
magnificus Acanthopleura granulata

Related topics Oyster
Oyster
farming Land snail
Land snail
farming Gastropod
Gastropod
anatomy Bivalve
Bivalve
anatomy

Authority control

BNF:

.