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The SS Ostindustrie
Ostindustrie
GmbH
GmbH
("East Industry", abbreviated as Osti) was one of many industrial projects set up by the Nazi German Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) using Jewish and Polish forced labor during World War II. Founded in March 1943 in German-occupied Poland, Osti operated confiscated Jewish and Polish prewar industrial enterprises, including foundries, textile plants, quarries and glassworks. Osti was headed by SS-Obersturmführer
SS-Obersturmführer
Max Horn, who was subordinated directly to Obergruppenführer
Obergruppenführer
Oswald Pohl
Oswald Pohl
of the SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt
SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt
(SS-WVHA), the SS economic administration department.[2] At its height, some 16,000 Jews and 1,000 Poles worked for the company, interned in a network of labor and concentration camps in the Lublin
Lublin
District of the semi-colonial General Government
General Government
territory.[1][2] SS- Gruppenführer
Gruppenführer
Odilo Globocnik
Odilo Globocnik
hoped to make Ostindustrie
Ostindustrie
into an armaments company, but gave up the idea to pursue Operation Reinhard instead.[3] The company was dissolved ahead of the Soviet counter-offensive of 1944.[1][2][3] The entire slave-labor workforce of Osti was exterminated in the process of the company's dissolution, during the deadliest phase of the Holocaust in Poland.[4]

Contents

1 Operations 2 Dissolution 3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography

Operations[edit] Further information: Ostarbeiter
Ostarbeiter
and Forced labour under German rule during World War II By 16 May 1943, the SS Ostindustrie
Ostindustrie
GmbH
GmbH
controlled several factories and workshops across Poland, grouped into five active Werke.[5] These included a glassworks in Wołomin
Wołomin
(Werk I), a turf factory in Dorohucza (Werk II), a broom and brush factory in Lublin
Lublin
(Werk III), workshops in Bliżyn, Radom, and Tomaszów (Werk IV), and Splitwerk – a grouping which comprised a shoe factory, tailoring factory, carpentry and joinery at the Budzyn Arbeitslager, a turf factory in Radom
Radom
and an iron foundry in Lublin
Lublin
(Werk V). Several additional Werke were under construction at that time, including vehicle spare parts factories, the Trawniki Arbeitslager
Arbeitslager
(Werk VI), earth and stone works in Lublin
Lublin
(Werk VII), a medical sanitary ware factory (Werk VIII), various slave-labor workshops in Lemberg, and the Poniatowa Arbeitslager
Arbeitslager
(later transferred to Többens).[6] By mid-1943, Globocnik projected the labor force of Osti to include some 45,000 Jews from a network of parallel camps with the main branch at Majdanek; however, the physical infrastructure in the region was insufficient for such numbers.[7][8] Dissolution[edit] Max Horn believed that Jewish forced labor was the way of the future, but his plans were halted by the Warsaw and Białystok ghetto uprisings, the latter of which occurred where the Ostindustrie
Ostindustrie
textile and armament factories were scheduled for relocation.[7][9][10] In the wake of the uprisings, and with the war on the Eastern Front increasingly turning against Germany, the SS decided to eliminate Poland's remaining Jewish forced laborers to prevent further unrest. On 3 November 1943, Osti's workforce was liquidated in its entirety in the course of Aktion Erntefest, the single largest German massacre of Jews in the entire war, with approximately 43,000 victims across District Lublin
Lublin
being shot in fake anti-tank trenches.[11] Subsequently, Horn complained in a report to Globocnik about the outcome of Aktion Erntefest; he stated that it had made Osti "completely valueless through the withdrawal [sic] of Jewish labor".[12] The company became officially defunct in March 1944.[1] See also[edit]

Deutsche Ausrüstungswerke, the predecessor of Ostie owned and operated by the SS Baudienst, a conscript labour service run by German authorities in Occupied Poland

References[edit]

^ a b c d Yad Vashem (2013). " Ostindustrie
Ostindustrie
GMBH" (PDF file, direct download 19.6 KB). Shoah Resource Center, The International School for Holocaust Studies. Retrieved 11 July 2013.  ^ a b c Dobroszycki, Lucjan (1984). "Introduction (Ostindustrie)". The chronicle of the Łódź
Łódź
Ghetto: 1941-1944. Yale University Press. p. lxi. ISBN 0300039247. Retrieved 11 July 2013.  ^ a b Longerich, Peter (15 April 2010). "Murders and Deportations 1942–3". Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews. Oxford University Press. p. 377. ISBN 978-0-19-280436-5. Retrieved 11 July 2013.  ^ Stone, Dan (1 September 2010). Histories of the Holocaust. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0191614203. Retrieved 11 July 2013.  ^ Schulte 2007, p. 72. ^ Schulte 2007, p. 55. ^ a b Chmielewski, Jakub (2013). " Ostindustrie
Ostindustrie
(Osti)". Obozy pracy w dystrykcie lubelskim (in Polish). Leksykon Lublin
Lublin
(Ośrodek "Brama Grodzka – Teatr NN"). Retrieved 12 July 2013.  ^ "Zagłada lubelskich Żydów" [Annihilation of Lublin
Lublin
Jews]. Obozy pracy w dystrykcie lubelskim (in Polish). Leksykon Lublin
Lublin
(Ośrodek "Brama Grodzka – Teatr NN"). 2013. Archived from the original on 12 July 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2013.  ^ Datner, Szymon (December 1945). "The Fight and the Destruction of Ghetto Białystok". Kiryat Białystok, Yehud.  ^ Megargee, Geoffrey P., ed. (2009). The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum encyclopedia of camps and ghettos, 1933–1945. Volume II: Ghettos in German-occupied Eastern Europe. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 886–871. ISBN 978-0-253-35599-7.  ^ Browning, Christopher R. (1998) [1992]. "Arrival in Poland". Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland. Penguin Books. pp. 135–142. Archived from the original (PDF file, direct download 7.91 MB complete) on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2013.  ^ United States Nuremberg Military Tribunals (13 March 1944). "Max Horn : Business Report II of the Ostindustrie
Ostindustrie
G.m.b.H. for the year 1943". A digital Document Collection of the Harvard Law School Library. Nuremberg Trials Project. pp. 3 of 6. Retrieved 11 July 2013. HLSL Item No.: 4035 

Bibliography[edit]

Schulte, Jan Erik (1 January 2007). de Gruyter, Walter, ed. Juden in der Ostindustrie
Ostindustrie
GmbH. Ausbeutung, Vernichtung, Öffentlichkeit: Neue Studien zur nationalsozialistischen Lagerpolitik (in German). Institut für Zeitgeschichte. pp. 54–56. ISBN 3110956853. Retrieved 11 July 2013.  "Białystok – History". Virtual Shtetl
Virtual Shtetl
(Museum of the History of Polish Jews). pp. 6–7. Retrieved 11 July 2013. 

v t e

Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS)

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Paramilitary units

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Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
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Foreign SS units

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SS-controlled enterprises

Ostindustrie Deutsche Wirtschaftsbetriebe Deutsche Ausrüstungswerke DEST Allach porcelain Apollinaris Mattoni Sudetenquell Anton Loibl

SS awards

SS Sword of Honour SS Honour Ring SS Honor Dagger

Ranks, uniforms and insignia

Uniforms and insignia of the SS Ranks and insignia of the Waffen-SS Ranks and insignia of the Orpo Corps colours of the Waffen-SS

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Poland

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia France Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Ukraine

v t e

Camps, ghettos and operations

Camps

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Chełmno Majdanek Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
death camps

Bełżec Sobibór Treblinka

Concentration

Kraków-Płaszów Potulice Soldau Stutthof Szebnie Trawniki Warsaw

Mass shootings

AB Action Bronna Góra Erntefest Jedwabne Kielce cemetery Aktion Krakau Lviv pogroms Lwów professors Palmiry Sonderaktion Krakau Tannenberg Tykocin Bydgoszcz Wąsosz Bloody Sunday

Ghettos

List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
German-occupied Poland
(1939–1942) Będzin Białystok Brest Częstochowa Grodno Kielce Kraków Lwów Łódź Lubartów Lublin Międzyrzec Podlaski Mizocz Nowy Sącz Pińsk Radom Siedlce Sambor Słonim Sosnowiec Stanisławów Tarnopol Wilno Warsaw

Other atrocities

Action T4 Grossaktion Warsaw Human medical experimentation

v t e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

Major perpetrators

Organizers

Josef Bühler Eichmann Eicke Ludwig Fischer Hans Frank Globocnik Glücks Greiser Himmler Hermann Höfle Fritz Katzmann Wilhelm Koppe Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger Kutschera Erwin Lambert Ernst Lerch Oswald Pohl Reinefarth Scherner Seyss-Inquart Sporrenberg Streckenbach Thomalla Otto Wächter Wisliceny

Camp command

Aumeier Baer Boger Braunsteiner Eberl Eupen Kurt Franz Karl Frenzel Karl Fritzsch Göth Grabner Hartjenstein Hering Höss Hössler Josef Kramer Liebehenschel Mandel Matthes Michel Möckel Mulka Johann Niemann Oberhauser Reichleitner Heinrich Schwarz Stangl Gustav Wagner Christian Wirth

Gas chamber executioners

Erich Bauer Bolender Hackenholt Klehr Hans Koch Herbert Lange Theuer

Physicians

von Bodmann Clauberg Gebhardt Fritz Klein Mengele Horst Schumann Trzebinski Eduard Wirths

Ghetto command

Auerswald Biebow Blösche Bürkl Konrad Palfinger von Sammern-Frankenegg Stroop

Einsatzgruppen

Wolfgang Birkner Blobel Felix Landau Schaper Schöngarth von Woyrsch

Personnel

Camp guards

Juana Bormann Danz Demjanjuk Margot Dreschel Kurt Gerstein Grese Höcker Kaduk Kollmer Muhsfeldt Orlowski Volkenrath

By camp

Sobibór Treblinka

Organizations

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
(SS) Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
(Orpo battalions) WVHA RKFDV VoMi General Government Hotel Polski

Collaboration

Belarusian

Belarusian Auxiliary Police BKA battalions Brigade Siegling Black Cats Central Rada

Jewish

Jewish Ghetto Police Żagiew ("Torch Guard") Group 13 Kapos Judenräte

Russian

Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
"RONA" Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
"Russland" Ostlegionen, Bataillone (Cossack Division, Russian "ROA")

Ukrainian

Ukrainian Auxiliary Police SS Galizien Ukrainian Liberation Army Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Battalion 118, Brigade Siegling, 30. Waffen SS Grenadier Division) Trawnikimänner

Other nationalities

Estonian Auxiliary Police Latvian Auxiliary Police
Latvian Auxiliary Police
(Arajs Kommando) Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
(Schutzmannschaft, Ypatingasis būrys) Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten
(Nederlandsche SS)

v t e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

Organizations

AK AOB Bund GL PKB ŻOB ŻZA

Uprisings

Ghetto uprisings Białystok Częstochowa Sobibór Treblinka Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising

Leaders

Mordechai Anielewicz Icchak Cukierman Mordechai Tenenbaum Marek Edelman Leon Feldhendler Paweł Frenkiel Henryk Iwański Itzhak Katzenelson Michał Klepfisz Miles Lerman Alexander Pechersky Witold Pilecki Frumka Płotnicka Roza Robota Szmul Zygielbojm

Judenrat

Jewish Ghetto Police Adam Czerniaków Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

Victim lists

Ghettos

Kraków Łódź Lvov (Lwów) Warsaw

Camps

Auschwitz Bełżec Gross-Rosen Izbica Majdanek Sobibór Soldau Stutthof Trawniki Treblinka

Documentation

Nazi sources

Auschwitz Album Frank Memorandum Höcker Album Höfle Telegram Katzmann Report Korherr Report Nisko Plan Posen speeches Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland Stroop Report Wannsee Conference

Witness accounts

Graebe affidavit Gerstein Report Vrba–Wetzler report Witold's Report Sonderkommando photographs

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

Technical and logistics

Identification in camps Gas chamber Gas van Holocaust train Human medical experimentation Zyklon B

v t e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

Aftermath

Holocaust survivors Polish population transfers (1944–1946) Bricha Kielce pogrom Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 Ministry of Public Security

Trials

West German trials

Frankfurt Auschwitz trials Treblinka trials

Polish, East German, and Soviet trials

Auschwitz trial
Auschwitz trial
(Poland) Stutthof trials Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Memorials

Museum of the History of Polish Jews Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum Majdanek
Majdanek
State Museum Sobibór Museum International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz March of the Living

Righteous Among the Nations

Polish Righteous Among the Nations Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust Garden of the Righteous

Authority control

.