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Osaka
Osaka
(大阪市, Ōsaka-shi) (Japanese pronunciation: [oːsaka];  listen (help·info)) is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan. It is the capital city of Osaka Prefecture
Osaka Prefecture
and the largest component of the Keihanshin
Keihanshin
Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Japan
Japan
and among the largest in the world with over 19 million inhabitants. Situated at the mouth of the Yodo River on Osaka
Osaka
Bay, Osaka
Osaka
is the second largest city in Japan
Japan
by daytime population after Tokyo's 23 wards and the third largest city by nighttime population after Tokyo's 23 wards and Yokohama, serving as a major economic hub for the country. Historically a merchant city, Osaka
Osaka
has also been known as the "nation's kitchen" (天下の台所, tenka no daidokoro) and served as a center for the rice trade during the Edo
Edo
period.[1][2][3][4]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Prehistory to the Kofun period 1.2 Asuka and Nara period 1.3 Heian to Edo
Edo
period 1.4 19th century to present

2 Etymology 3 Geography and climate

3.1 Geography 3.2 Climate

4 Cityscape

4.1 Neighborhoods 4.2 Wards

5 Demographics

5.1 Dialect

6 Politics 7 Politics regarding the use of nuclear energy 8 Economy 9 Transportation 10 Culture and lifestyle

10.1 Shopping and culinary 10.2 Entertainment and performing arts 10.3 Annual festivals 10.4 Museum and galleries 10.5 Sports 10.6 Media

10.6.1 Newspapers 10.6.2 Television and radio 10.6.3 Publishing companies

11 Places of interest

11.1 Amusement parks 11.2 Parks 11.3 Temples, shrines, and other historical sites 11.4 Entertainment

12 Education

12.1 Libraries 12.2 Learned society

13 International relations

13.1 Twin towns and sister cities 13.2 Business partner cities

14 See also 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Osaka Prehistory to the Kofun period[edit] Some of the earliest signs of human habitation in the Osaka
Osaka
area at the Morinomiya ruins (森ノ宮遺跡, Morinomiya iseki) comprise shell mounds, sea oysters and buried human skeletons from the 6th–5th centuries BC. It is believed[by whom?] that what is today the Uehonmachi area consisted of a peninsular land with an inland sea in the east. During the Yayoi period, permanent habitation on the plains grew as rice farming became popular.[1] By the Kofun period, Osaka
Osaka
developed into a hub port connecting the region to the western part of Japan. The large numbers of increasingly larger tomb mounds found in the plains of Osaka
Osaka
are seen as evidence of political-power concentration, leading to the formation of a state.[1][5] Asuka and Nara period[edit] The Kojiki
Kojiki
records that during 390–430 AD there was an imperial palace located at Osumi, in what is present day Higashiyodogawa ward, but it may have been a secondary imperial residence rather than a capital.[6] In 645, Emperor Kōtoku
Emperor Kōtoku
built his Naniwa Nagara-Toyosaki Palace in what is now Osaka,[7] making it the capital of Japan. The city now known as Osaka
Osaka
was at this time referred to as Naniwa, and this name and derivations of it are still in use for districts in central Osaka such as Naniwa (浪速) and Namba
Namba
(難波).[8] Although the capital was moved to Asuka (in Nara Prefecture
Nara Prefecture
today) in 655, Naniwa remained a vital connection, by land and sea, between Yamato (modern day Nara Prefecture), Korea, and China.[1][9] Naniwa was declared the capital again in 744 by order of Emperor Shōmu, and remained so until 745, when the Imperial Court moved back to Heijō-kyō
Heijō-kyō
(now Nara). By the end of the Nara period, Naniwa's seaport roles had been gradually taken over by neighboring areas, but it remained a lively center of river, channel, and land transportation between Heian-kyō ( Kyoto
Kyoto
today) and other destinations. Heian to Edo
Edo
period[edit] In 1496, Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
Buddhists established their headquarters in the heavily fortified Ishiyama Hongan-ji, located directly on the site of the old Naniwa Imperial Palace. Oda Nobunaga
Oda Nobunaga
began a decade-long siege campaign on the temple in 1570 which ultimately resulted in the surrender of the monks and subsequent razing of the temple. Toyotomi Hideyoshi constructed Osaka Castle
Osaka Castle
in its place in 1583.[10] Osaka
Osaka
was long considered Japan's primary economic center,[11] with a large percentage of the population belonging to the merchant class (see Four divisions of society). Over the course of the Edo
Edo
period (1603–1867), Osaka
Osaka
grew into one of Japan's major cities and returned to its ancient role as a lively and important port. Its popular culture[12] was closely related to ukiyo-e depictions of life in Edo. By 1780, Osaka
Osaka
had cultivated a vibrant arts culture, as typified by its famous Kabuki
Kabuki
and Bunraku
Bunraku
theaters.[13] In 1837, Ōshio Heihachirō, a low-ranking samurai, led a peasant insurrection in response to the city's unwillingness to support the many poor and suffering families in the area. Approximately one-quarter of the city was razed before shogunal officials put down the rebellion, after which Ōshio killed himself.[14] Osaka
Osaka
was opened to foreign trade by the government of the Bakufu
Bakufu
at the same time as Hyōgo (modern Kobe) on 1 January 1868, just before the advent of the Boshin War
Boshin War
and the Meiji Restoration.[15] Osaka
Osaka
residents were stereotyped in Edo
Edo
literature from at least the 18th century. Jippensha Ikku
Jippensha Ikku
in 1802 depicted Osakans as stingy almost beyond belief. In 1809, the derogatory term " Kamigata zeeroku" was used by Edo
Edo
residents to characterize inhabitants of the Osaka
Osaka
region in terms of calculation, shrewdness, lack of civic spirit, and the vulgarity of Osaka
Osaka
dialect. Edo
Edo
writers aspired to samurai culture, and saw themselves as poor but generous, chaste, and public spirited. Edo
Edo
writers by contrast saw "zeeroku" as obsequious apprentices, stingy, greedy, gluttonous, and lewd. To some degree, Osaka
Osaka
residents are still stigmatized by Tokyo
Tokyo
observers in the same way today, especially in terms of gluttony, evidenced in the phrase, "Residents of Osaka
Osaka
devour their food until they collapse" (大阪は食倒れ, "Ōsaka wa kuidaore").[16] 19th century to present[edit]

Sennichimae area in 1916

The modern municipality was established[17] in 1889 by government ordinance, with an initial area of 15 square kilometres (6 sq mi), overlapping today's Chūō and Nishi wards. Later, the city went through three major expansions to reach its current size of 223 square kilometres (86 sq mi). Osaka
Osaka
was the industrial center most clearly defined in the development of capitalism in Japan. It became known as the " Manchester
Manchester
of the Orient."[10] The rapid industrialization attracted many Korean immigrants, who set up a life apart for themselves.[18] The political system was pluralistic, with a strong emphasis on promoting industrialization and modernization.[19] Literacy was high and the educational system expanded rapidly, producing a middle class with a taste for literature and a willingness to support the arts.[20] In 1927, General Motors operated a factory called Osaka
Osaka
Assembly until 1941, manufacturing Chevrolet, Pontiac, Oldsmobile, and Buick vehicles, operated and staffed by Japanese workers and managers.[21] In the nearby city of Ikeda in Osaka Prefecture
Osaka Prefecture
is the headquarters office of Daihatsu, one of Japan's oldest automobile manufacturers. Like its European and American counterparts, Osaka
Osaka
displayed slums, unemployment, and poverty. In Japan
Japan
it was here that municipal government first introduced a comprehensive system of poverty relief, copied in part from British models. Osaka
Osaka
policymakers stressed the importance of family formation and mutual assistance as the best way to combat poverty. This minimized the cost of welfare programs.[22] During World War II, Osaka
Osaka
came under air attacks in 1945 by the United States Army Air Forces
United States Army Air Forces
as part of the air raids on Japan. On March 13, 1945, a total of 329 Boeing B-29 Superfortress
Boeing B-29 Superfortress
heavy bombers took part in the raid against Osaka. According to an American prisoner of war who was held in the city, the air raid took almost the entire night and destroyed 25 square miles (65 km2) of the city. The U.S. bombed the city again twice in June 1945 and again on August 14, a day before Japan's surrender.[23] Etymology[edit] "Osaka" literally means "large hill" or "large slope". It is unclear when this name gained prominence over Naniwa, but the oldest written evidence for the name dates back to 1496. The name is now written 大阪 in kanji, but it was written 大坂 until 1870, when the partisans for the Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
changed it, apparently to avoid the second kanji being misinterpreted as 士反, meaning "samurai rebellion". The older kanji is still in very limited use, usually in historical contexts, but in Japanese the kanji 阪—pronounced han when standing alone—now refers exclusively to Osaka
Osaka
City or Osaka
Osaka
Prefecture. Geography and climate[edit] Geography[edit]

Satellite image of Osaka

The city's west side is open to Osaka
Osaka
Bay, and is otherwise completely surrounded by more than ten satellite cities, all of them in Osaka Prefecture, with one exception: the city of Amagasaki, belonging to Hyōgo Prefecture, in the northwest. The city occupies a larger area (about 13%) than any other city or village within Osaka
Osaka
Prefecture. When the city was established in 1889, it occupied roughly the area known today as the Chuo and Nishi wards, only 15.27 square kilometres (3,773 acres) that would eventually grow into today's 222.30 square kilometres (54,932 acres) via incremental expansions, the largest of which being a single 126.01 square kilometres (31,138 acres) expansion in 1925. Osaka's highest point is 37.5 metres (123.0 ft) Tokyo Peil in Tsurumi-ku, and the lowest point is in Nishiyodogawa-ku at −2.2 metres (−7.2 ft) Tokyo
Tokyo
Peil.[24] Climate[edit] Osaka
Osaka
is located in the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen Cfa), with four distinct seasons. Its winters are generally mild, with January being the coldest month having an average high of 9.3 °C (49 °F). The city rarely sees snowfall during the winter. Spring in Osaka
Osaka
starts off mild, but ends up being hot and humid. It also tends to be Osaka's wettest season, with the tsuyu (梅雨, tsuyu, "plum rain") — the rainy season — occurring between early June (average:Jun.7) to late July (average:Jul.21).[25] Summers are very hot and humid. In August, the hottest month, the average daily high temperature reaches 33.5 °C (92 °F), while average nighttime low temperatures typically hover around 25.5 °C (78 °F). Fall in Osaka
Osaka
sees a cooling trend, with the early part of the season resembling summer while the latter part of fall resembles winter. Precipitation
Precipitation
is abundant, with winter being the driest season, while monthly rainfall peaks in June with the "tsuyu" rainy season, which typically ends in mid to late July. From late July through the end of August, summer's heat and humidity peaks, and rainfall decreases some. Osaka
Osaka
experiences a second rainy period in September and early October, when tropical weather systems, including typhoons, coming from the south or southwest are possible.

Climate data for Osaka, Osaka
Osaka
(1981–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 19.0 (66.2) 23.7 (74.7) 24.2 (75.6) 30.7 (87.3) 32.7 (90.9) 36.1 (97) 38.0 (100.4) 39.1 (102.4) 36.2 (97.2) 32.9 (91.2) 27.2 (81) 23.6 (74.5) 39.1 (102.4)

Average high °C (°F) 9.5 (49.1) 10.2 (50.4) 13.7 (56.7) 19.9 (67.8) 24.5 (76.1) 27.8 (82) 31.6 (88.9) 33.4 (92.1) 29.3 (84.7) 23.3 (73.9) 17.6 (63.7) 12.3 (54.1) 21.1 (70)

Daily mean °C (°F) 6.0 (42.8) 6.3 (43.3) 9.4 (48.9) 15.1 (59.2) 19.7 (67.5) 23.5 (74.3) 27.4 (81.3) 28.8 (83.8) 25.0 (77) 19.0 (66.2) 13.6 (56.5) 8.6 (47.5) 16.9 (62.4)

Average low °C (°F) 2.8 (37) 2.9 (37.2) 5.6 (42.1) 10.7 (51.3) 15.6 (60.1) 20.0 (68) 24.3 (75.7) 25.4 (77.7) 21.7 (71.1) 15.5 (59.9) 9.9 (49.8) 5.1 (41.2) 13.3 (55.9)

Record low °C (°F) −7.5 (18.5) −6.5 (20.3) −5.2 (22.6) −2.6 (27.3) 3.5 (38.3) 8.9 (48) 14.8 (58.6) 13.6 (56.5) 10.4 (50.7) 3.0 (37.4) −2.2 (28) −4.5 (23.9) −7.5 (18.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 45.4 (1.787) 61.7 (2.429) 104.2 (4.102) 103.8 (4.087) 145.5 (5.728) 184.5 (7.264) 157.0 (6.181) 90.9 (3.579) 160.7 (6.327) 112.3 (4.421) 69.3 (2.728) 43.8 (1.724) 1,279 (50.354)

Average snowfall cm (inches) 1 (0.4) 1 (0.4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (1.2)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm) 6.6 7.2 11.3 10.0 11.0 12.2 11.1 7.6 10.3 8.7 7.2 6.5 109.8

Average snowy days 5.0 6.3 2.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.9 15.5

Average relative humidity (%) 61 60 59 59 62 68 70 66 67 65 64 62 64

Mean monthly sunshine hours 142.6 135.4 159.5 188.6 194.3 156.2 182.1 216.9 156.7 163.9 148.5 151.6 1,996.4

Source: Japan
Japan
Meteorological Agency[26]

Cityscape[edit] Osaka's sprawling cityscape has been described as "only surpassed by Tokyo
Tokyo
as a showcase of the Japanese urban phenomenon."[27]

Central Osaka
Osaka
looking north from the Abeno Harukas
Abeno Harukas
observation deck

Osaka
Osaka
skyline at night from Umeda
Umeda
Sky Building

Neighborhoods[edit]

Nakanoshima, a boundary of Kita (right) and Semba (left)

A crowd in Dōtonbori

Soemoncho in Minami

Central Osaka
Osaka
is roughly divided into downtown and uptown areas known as Kita (北, "north") and Minami (南, "south").[28][29] Kita is home to the Umeda
Umeda
district and its immediate surrounding neighborhoods, a major business and retail hub that plays host to Osaka
Osaka
Station City and a large subterranean network of shopping arcades.[28] Kita and nearby Nakanoshima
Nakanoshima
contain a prominent portion of the city's skyscrapers and are often featured in photographs of Osaka's skyline. Minami, though meaning "south", is essentially in Chūō Ward (中央区, Chūō-ku) and geographically central within the city.[29] Well known districts here include Namba
Namba
and Shinsaibashi
Shinsaibashi
shopping areas, the Dōtonbori
Dōtonbori
canal entertainment area, Nipponbashi
Nipponbashi
Den Den Town, as well as arts and fashion culture-oriented areas such as Amerikamura
Amerikamura
and Horie. The business districts between Kita and Minami such as Honmachi and Yodoyabashi, called Semba (船場), house the regional headquarters of many large-scale banks and corporations. The Midōsuji
Midōsuji
boulevard runs through Semba and connects Kita and Minami. Further south of Minami are neighborhoods such as Shinsekai
Shinsekai
(with its Tsūtenkaku
Tsūtenkaku
tower), Tennoji and Abeno (with Tennoji Zoo, Shitennō-ji and Abeno Harukas), and the Kamagasaki
Kamagasaki
slum, the largest slum in Japan.[30] The city's west side is a prominent bay area[31] which serves as its main port as well as a tourist destination with attractions such as Kyocera Dome, Universal Studios Japan
Japan
and the Tempozan Harbour Village. East Osaka
Osaka
is zoned as a separate city, although the east side of Osaka
Osaka
city proper contains numerous residential neighborhoods including Tsuruhashi Korea
Korea
Town, as well as the Osaka Castle
Osaka Castle
Park, Osaka Business Park
Osaka Business Park
and the hub Kyōbashi
Kyōbashi
Station. Osaka
Osaka
contains numerous urban canals and bridges, many of which serve as the namesake for their surrounding neighbourhoods.[32] The phrase "808 bridges of Naniwa" was an expression in old Japan
Japan
used to indicate impressiveness and the "uncountable". Osaka
Osaka
numbered roughly 200 bridges by the Edo period
Edo period
[33] and 1629 bridges by 1925. As many of the city's canals were gradually filled in, the number dropped to 872, of which 760 are currently managed by Osaka
Osaka
City.[32]

Wards[edit] Osaka
Osaka
has 24 wards (区, ku):

Map of Osaka

Place Name

Rōmaji Kanji

1 Abeno-ku 阿倍野区

2 Asahi-ku 旭区

3 Chūō-ku 中央区

4 Fukushima-ku 福島区

5 Higashinari-ku 東成区

6 Higashisumiyoshi-ku 東住吉区

7 Higashiyodogawa-ku 東淀川区

8 Hirano-ku 平野区

9 Ikuno-ku 生野区

10 Jōtō-ku 城東区

11 Kita-ku (administrative center) 北区

12 Konohana-ku 此花区

13 Minato-ku 港区

14 Miyakojima-ku 都島区

15 Naniwa-ku 浪速区

16 Nishi-ku 西区

17 Nishinari-ku 西成区

18 Nishiyodogawa-ku 西淀川区

19 Suminoe-ku 住之江区

20 Sumiyoshi-ku 住吉区

21 Taishō-ku 大正区

22 Tennōji-ku 天王寺区

23 Tsurumi-ku 鶴見区

24 Yodogawa-ku 淀川区

Demographics[edit]

Osaka

Year Pop. ±%

1900 881,344 —    

1910 1,239,373 +40.6%

1920 1,798,295 +45.1%

1930 2,453,573 +36.4%

1940 3,252,340 +32.6%

1965 3,156,222 −3.0%

1970 2,980,487 −5.6%

1975 2,778,987 −6.8%

1980 2,648,180 −4.7%

1985 2,636,249 −0.5%

1990 2,623,801 −0.5%

1995 2,602,421 −0.8%

2000 2,598,774 −0.1%

2005 2,628,811 +1.2%

2010 2,666,371 +1.4%

According to the census in 2005, there were 2,628,811 residents in Osaka, an increase of 30,037 or 1.2% from 2000.[34] There were 1,280,325 households with approximately 2.1 persons per household. The population density was 11,836 persons per km². The Great Kantō earthquake caused a mass migration to Osaka
Osaka
between 1920 and 1930, and the city became Japan's largest city in 1930 with 2,453,573 people, outnumbering even Tokyo, which had a population of 2,070,913. The population peaked at 3,252,340 in 1940, and had a post-war peak of 3,156,222 in 1965, but continued to decrease since, as the residents moved out to the suburbs.[35] There were 99,775.5 registered foreigners, the two largest groups being Korean (71,015) and Chinese (11,848). Ikuno, with its Tsuruhashi district, is the home to one of the largest population of Korean residents in Japan, with 27,466 registered Zainichi Koreans.[36][37] Dialect[edit] See also: Kansai dialect The commonly spoken dialect of this area is Osaka-ben, a typical sub-dialect of Kansai-ben. Of the many other particularities that characterize Osaka-ben, examples include using the copula ya instead of da, and the suffix -hen instead of -nai in the negative of verbs. Politics[edit]

Local administration

The Mayor and the Council

Osaka
Osaka
City Hall

Mayor: Toru Hashimoto

Vice Mayors: Akira Morishita, Takashi Kashiwagi

City Council

President: Toshifumi Tagaya (LDP)

Members: 83 councilors (7 vacant)

Factions: Osaka Restoration Association
Osaka Restoration Association
(36), Liberal Democratic Party and Citizen's Club (20), Komei Party (19), Japanese Communist Party
Japanese Communist Party
(9), Go OSAKA (1) Osaka
Osaka
Abe (1)

Seats by districts:

Ward (no. of seats)

Abeno-ku (4), Asahi-ku (4), Chūō-ku (2), Fukushima-ku (2), Higashinari-ku (3), Higashisumiyoshi-ku (5), Higashiyodogawa-ku (6), Hirano-ku (6), Ikuno-ku (5), Jōtō-ku (5), Kita-ku (3), Konohana-ku (3), Minato-ku (3), Miyakojima-ku (3), Naniwa-ku (2), Nishi-ku (2), Nishinari-ku (5), Nishiyodogawa-ku (3), Suminoe-ku (4), Sumiyoshi-ku (6), Taishō-ku (3), Tennōji-ku (2), Tsurumi-ku (3), Yodogawa-ku (5)

Website Osaka
Osaka
City Council

Note: As of October 27, 2017

See also: Local Autonomy Law, Municipalities of Japan, and Politics of Osaka
Osaka
City The Osaka
Osaka
City Council is the city's local government formed under the Local Autonomy Law. The Council has eighty-nine seats, allocated to the twenty-four wards proportional to their population and re-elected by the citizens every four years. The Council elects its President and Vice President. Toshifumi Tagaya (LDP) is the current and 104th President since May 2008. The Mayor of the city is directly elected by the citizens every four years as well, in accordance with the Local Autonomy Law. Tōru Hashimoto, former governor of Osaka Prefecture
Osaka Prefecture
is the 19th mayor of Osaka
Osaka
since 2011. The mayor is supported by two Vice Mayors, currently Akira Morishita and Takashi Kashiwagi, who are appointed by him in accordance with the city bylaw.[38] Osaka
Osaka
also houses several agencies of the Japanese Government. Below is a list of Governmental Offices housed in Osaka.

Japan
Japan
Coast Guard, Fifth Regional Headquarters Japan
Japan
Fair Trade Commission; Kinki, Chugoku, Shikoku Office Kinki Regional Finance Bureau Kinki Regional Economy, Trade and Industry Bureau Kinki Regional Transportation Bureau Kinki Communications Bureau Kinki Regional Development Bureau Kinki Regional Police Bureau Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Osaka
Osaka
Office Osaka
Osaka
Customs Osaka
Osaka
District Court

Osaka
Osaka
Family Court Osaka
Osaka
High Court Osaka
Osaka
Immigration Osaka
Osaka
Labour Bureau Osaka
Osaka
Meteorological Observatory Osaka
Osaka
Public Prosecutors Office Osaka
Osaka
Regional Aerospace Bureau Osaka
Osaka
Regional Law Bureau Osaka
Osaka
Regional Taxation Bureau Osaka
Osaka
Summary Court

In July 2012, a joint multi-party bill was submitted to the Diet that would allow for implementation of the Osaka Metropolis plan
Osaka Metropolis plan
as pursued by the mayor of Osaka
Osaka
city, the governor of Osaka
Osaka
and their party. If implemented, Osaka
Osaka
City, neighbouring Sakai City and possibly other surrounding municipalities would dissolve and be reorganized as special wards of Osaka
Osaka
prefecture – similar to former Tokyo
Tokyo
City's successor wards within Tokyo
Tokyo
prefecture. Special
Special
wards are municipal-level administrative units that leave some otherwise municipal administrative responsibilities and revenues to the prefectural administration.[39] Politics regarding the use of nuclear energy[edit] On February 27, 2012 three Kansai cities, Kyoto, Osaka
Osaka
and Kobe, jointly asked Kansai Electric Power Company
Kansai Electric Power Company
to break its dependence on nuclear power. In a letter to KEPCO they also requested to disclose information on the demand and supply of electricity, and for lower and stable prices. The three cities were stockholders of the plant: Osaka owned 9% of the shares, while Kobe
Kobe
had 3% and Kyoto
Kyoto
0.45%. Toru Hashimoto, the mayor of Osaka, announced a proposal to minimize the dependence on nuclear power for the shareholders meeting in June 2012.[40] On March 18, 2012 the city of Osaka
Osaka
decided as largest shareholder of Kansai Electric Power Co, that at the next shareholders-meeting in June 2012 it would demand a series of changes:

that Kansai Electric would be split into two companies, separating power generation from power transmission a reduction of the number of the utility's executives and employees. the implementation of absolutely secure measurements to ensuring the safety of the nuclear facilities. the disposing of spent fuel. the installation of new kind of thermal power generation to secure non-nuclear supply of energy. selling all unnecessary assets including the stock holdings of KEPCO.

In this action Osaka
Osaka
had secured the support of two other cities and shareholders: Kyoto
Kyoto
and Kobe, but with their combined voting-rights of 12.5 percent they were not certain of the ultimate outcome, because for this two-thirds of the shareholders would be needed to agree to revise the corporate charter.[41] At a meeting held on April 10, 2012 by the "energy strategy council", formed by the city of Osaka
Osaka
and the governments of the prefectures, it became clear that at the end of the fiscal year 2011 some 69 employees of Kansai Electric Power Company
Kansai Electric Power Company
were former public servants. "Amakudari" was the Japanese name for this practice of rewarding by hiring officials that formerly controlled and supervised the firm. Such people included the following:

13 ex-officials of the: Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism 3 ex-officials of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, 2 ex-officials of the Ministry of the Environment, 16 former policemen, 10 former fire-fighters, 13 former civil engineers.

Besides this, it became known that Kansai Electric had done about 600 external financial donations, to a total sum of about 1.695 billion yen:

70 donations were paid to local governments: to a total of 699 million yen 100 donations to public-service organizations: 443 million yen, 430 donations to various organizations and foundations: a total of 553 million yen

During this meeting some 8 conditions were compiled, that needed to be fulfilled before a restart of the No.3 and No.4 reactors Oi Nuclear Power Plant:

the consent of the local people and government within 100 kilometer from the plant the installation of a new independent regulatory agency a nuclear safety agreement the establishment of new nuclear safety standards stress tests and evaluations based on these new safety rules [42]

Economy[edit] Main articles: Hanshin Industrial Region and Keihanshin
Keihanshin
industrial region

Greater Osaka
Osaka
Area

The gross city product of Osaka
Osaka
in fiscal year 2004 was ¥21.3 trillion, an increase of 1.2% over the previous year. The figure accounts for about 55% of the total output in the Osaka Prefecture
Osaka Prefecture
and 26.5% in the Kinki region. In 2004, commerce, services, and manufacturing have been the three major industries, accounting for 30%, 26%, and 11% of the total, respectively. The per capita income in the city was about ¥3.3 million, 10% higher than that of the Osaka Prefecture.[43] MasterCard
MasterCard
Worldwide reported that Osaka
Osaka
ranks 19th among the world's leading cities and plays an important role in the global economy.[44]

Osaka Securities Exchange
Osaka Securities Exchange
in the Kitahama district of Osaka

A map showing Osaka
Osaka
Metropolitan Employment Area.

The GDP in the greater Osaka
Osaka
area ( Osaka
Osaka
and Kobe) is $341 billion. Osaka, along with Paris
Paris
and London, has one of the most productive hinterlands in the world.[45] Historically, Osaka
Osaka
was the center of commerce in Japan, especially in the middle and pre-modern ages. Nomura Securities, the first brokerage firm in Japan, was founded in the city in 1925, and Osaka
Osaka
still houses a leading futures exchange. Many major companies have since moved their main offices to Tokyo. However, several major companies, such as Panasonic, Sharp, and Sanyo, are still headquartered in Osaka. Recently, the city began a program, headed by mayor Junichi Seki, to attract domestic and foreign investment.[46] In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index, Osaka
Osaka
was ranked as having the 15th most competitive financial center in the world and fifth most competitive in Asia (after Singapore, Hong Kong, Tokyo, and Shanghai).[47] The Osaka
Osaka
Securities Exchange, specializing in derivatives such as Nikkei 225
Nikkei 225
futures, is based in Osaka. The merger with JASDAQ will help the Osaka Securities Exchange
Osaka Securities Exchange
become the largest exchange in Japan
Japan
for start-up companies.[48] According to global consulting firm Mercer, Osaka
Osaka
was the second most expensive city for expatriate employees in the world in 2009. It jumped up nine places from 11th place in 2008 and was the eighth most expensive city in 2007. However, it was not ranked in the top ten places of the list in 2013.[49][50] The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) ranked Osaka
Osaka
as the second most expensive city in the world in its 2013 Cost of Living study.[51] Transportation[edit] Main article: Transport in Keihanshin

Map of Osaka
Osaka
subway system

Greater Osaka
Osaka
has an extensive network of railway lines, comparable to that of Greater Tokyo. Major stations within the city include Umeda (梅田), Namba
Namba
(難波), Shinsaibashi
Shinsaibashi
(心斎橋), Tennōji (天王寺), Kyōbashi
Kyōbashi
(京橋), and Yodoyabashi (淀屋橋). Osaka
Osaka
connects to its surrounding cities and suburbs via the JR West Urban Network
Urban Network
as well as numerous private lines such as Keihan Electric Railway, Hankyu Railway, Hanshin Electric Railway, Kintetsu Railway, and Nankai Electric Railway. The Osaka Municipal Subway
Osaka Municipal Subway
system alone ranks 8th in the world by annual passenger ridership, serving over 912 million people annually (a quarter of Greater Osaka
Osaka
Rail System's 4 billion annual riders), despite being only 8 of more than 70 lines in the metro area. All Shinkansen trains including Nozomi stop at Shin- Osaka
Osaka
Station and provide access to other major cities in Japan, such as Kobe, Kyoto, Nagoya, Yokohama, and Tokyo. Regular bus services are provided by Osaka
Osaka
Municipal Transportation Bureau (the City Bus), as well Hankyu, Hanshin and Kintetsu, providing a dense network covering most parts of the city. Osaka
Osaka
is served by two airports outside of the city, Kansai International Airport (IATA: KIX) which handles primarily international passenger flights and Osaka
Osaka
International Airport (IATA:ITM) which handles mostly domestic services and some international cargo flights. Due to its geographical position, Osaka's international ferry connections are far greater than that of Tokyo, with international service to Shanghai, Tianjin, Korea
Korea
along with domestic routes to Kitakyushu, Kagoshima, Miyazaki and Okinawa. Culture and lifestyle[edit]

A chef prepares for the evening rush in Umeda

The Glico man among numerous signboards at Dōtonbori

Grand Front Osaka

Chayamachi district in Kita-ku

Shopping and culinary[edit] Osaka
Osaka
has a large number of wholesalers and retail shops: 25,228 and 34,707 respectively in 2004, according to the city statistics.[52] Many of them are concentrated in the wards of Chuō (10,468 shops) and Kita (6,335 shops). Types of shops vary from malls to conventional shōtengai shopping arcades, built both above- and underground.[53] Shōtengai
Shōtengai
are seen across Japan, and Osaka
Osaka
has the longest one in the country.[54] The Tenjinbashi-suji arcade stretches from the road approaching the Tenmangū shrine and continues for 2.6 km (1.6 miles) going north to south. The stores along the arcade include commodities, clothing, and catering outlets. Other shopping areas include Den Den Town, the electronic and manga/anime district, which is comparable to Akihabara; the Umeda district, which has the Hankyu Sanbangai shopping mall and Yodobashi Camera, a huge electrical appliance store that offers a vast range of fashion stores, restaurants, and a Shonen Jump store. Osaka
Osaka
is known for its food, in Japan
Japan
and abroad. Author Michael Booth and food critic François Simon of Le Figaro
Le Figaro
have suggested that Osaka is the food capital of the world.[55] Osakans' love for the culinary is made apparent in the old saying "Kyotoites are financially ruined by overspending on clothing, Osakans are ruined by spending on food."[56] Regional cuisine includes okonomiyaki (お好み焼き, pan-fried batter cake), takoyaki (たこ焼き, octopus in fried batter), udon (うどん, a noodle dish), as well as the traditional oshizushi (押し寿司, pressed sushi), particularly battera (バッテラ, pressed mackerel sushi). Osaka
Osaka
is known for its fine sake, which is made with fresh water from the prefecture's mountains.[57] Osaka's culinary prevalence is the result of a location that has provided access to high quality ingredients, a high population of merchants, and proximity to the ocean and waterway trade.[58] In recent years, Osaka
Osaka
has started to garner more attention from foreigners with the increased popularity of cooking and dining in popular culture.[59] Other shopping districts include:

American Village (Amerika-mura or "Ame-mura") – fashion for young people Dōtonbori
Dōtonbori
– part of Namba
Namba
district and considered heart of the city Namba
Namba
– main shopping, sightseeing, and restaurant area Shinsaibashi
Shinsaibashi
– luxury goods and department stores Umeda
Umeda
– theaters, boutiques, and department stores near the train station

Entertainment and performing arts[edit] See also: Kamigata

The National Museum of Art, a subterranean museum for Japanese and international arts

Osaka
Osaka
is home to the National Bunraku
Bunraku
Theatre,[60] where traditional puppet plays, bunraku, are performed. At Osaka
Osaka
Shochiku-za, close to Namba
Namba
station, kabuki can be enjoyed as well as manzai. At Shin-kabuki-za, formerly near Namba
Namba
and now near Uehommachi area, enka concerts and Japanese dramas are performed. Yoshimoto Kogyo, a Japanese entertainment conglomarate operates a hall in the city for manzai and other comedy shows: the Namba
Namba
Grand Kagetsu hall. The Hanjō-tei opened in 2006, dedicated to rakugo. The theatre is in the Ōsaka Tenman-gū
Ōsaka Tenman-gū
area. Umeda
Umeda
Arts Theater opened in 2005 after relocating from its former 46-year-old Umeda
Umeda
Koma Theater. The theater has a main hall with 1,905 seats and a smaller theater-drama hall with 898 seats. Umeda
Umeda
Arts Theatre stages various type of performances including musicals, music concerts, dramas, rakugo, and others. The Symphony Hall, built in 1982, is the first hall in Japan
Japan
designed specially for classical music concerts. The Hall was opened with a concert by the Osaka
Osaka
Philharmonic Orchestra, which is based in the city. Orchestras such as the Berlin Philharmonic
Berlin Philharmonic
and Vienna Philharmonic have played here during their world tours as well. Osaka-jō Hall
Osaka-jō Hall
is a multi-purpose arena in Osaka-jō park with a capacity for up to 16,000 people. The hall has hosted numerous events and concerts including both Japanese and international artists. Near City Hall in Nakanoshima
Nakanoshima
Park, is Osaka
Osaka
Central Public Hall, a Neo-Renaissance-style building first opened in 1918. Re-opened in 2002 after major restoration, it serves as a multi-purpose rental facility for citizen events. The Osaka
Osaka
Shiki Theatre[61] is one of the nine private halls operated nationwide by the Shiki Theatre, staging straight plays and musicals. Festival Hall was a hall hosting various performances including noh, kyōgen, kabuki, ballets as well as classic concerts. The Bolshoi Ballet and the Philharmonia are among the many that were welcomed on stage in the past. The hall has closed at the end of 2008, planned to re-open in 2013 in a new facility.

Annual festivals[edit]

Tenjin Matsuri

The Sumiyoshi-matsuri festival in the 16th century

One of the most famous festivals held in Osaka, the Tenjin Matsuri, is held on July 24 and 25 (Ikukunitama Shrine). Other festivals in Osaka include the Aizen Matsuri (June 30 – July 2, Shouman'in Temple), the Sumiyoshi Matsuri (July 30 – August 1, Sumiyoshi Taisha), Shōryō-e (April 22, Shitennō-ji) and Tōka-Ebisu (January 9–10, Imamiya Ebisu Jinja). The annual Osaka
Osaka
Asian Film Festival takes place in Osaka
Osaka
every March. Museum and galleries[edit] See also: Museums in Osaka The National Museum of Art (NMAO) is a subterranean Japanese and international art museum, housing mainly collections from the post-war era and regularly welcoming temporary exhibitions. Osaka
Osaka
Science Museum is in a five storied building next to the National Museum of Art, with a planetarium and an OMNIMAX
OMNIMAX
theatre. The Museum of Oriental Ceramics holds more than 2,000 pieces of ceramics, from China, Korea, Japan
Japan
and Vietnam, featuring displays of some of their Korean celadon under natural light. Osaka Municipal Museum of Art
Osaka Municipal Museum of Art
is inside Tennōji park, housing over 8,000 pieces of Japanese and Chinese paintings and sculptures. The Osaka
Osaka
Museum of History, opened in 2001, is located in a 13-story modern building providing a view of Osaka
Osaka
Castle. Its exhibits cover the history of Osaka
Osaka
from pre-history to the present day. Osaka
Osaka
Museum of Natural History houses a collection related to natural history and life. Sports[edit]

The Osaka
Osaka
Dome, home to the Orix Buffaloes
Orix Buffaloes
and Hanshin Tigers

Osaka
Osaka
hosts four professional sport teams: one of them is the Orix Buffaloes, a Nippon Professional Baseball
Nippon Professional Baseball
team, playing its home games at Kyocera Dome
Kyocera Dome
Osaka. Another baseball team, the Hanshin Tigers, although based in Nishinomiya, Hyōgo, plays a part of its home games in Kyocera Dome
Kyocera Dome
Osaka
Osaka
as well, when their homeground Koshien Stadium is occupied with the annual National High School Baseball Championship games during summer season. There are two J.League
J.League
clubs, Gamba Osaka, plays its home games at Suita
Suita
City Football Stadium. Another club Cerezo Osaka, plays its home games at Kincho Stadium. The city is home to Osaka
Osaka
Evessa, a basketball team that plays in the B.League. Evessa has won the first three championships of the league since its establishment. Kintetsu Liners, a rugby union team, play in the Top League. After winning promotion in 2008–09, they will again remain in the competition for the 2009–10 season. Their base is the Hanazono Rugby Stadium. The Haru Basho (春場所, "Spring Tournament"), one of the six regular tournaments of professional sumo, is held annually in Osaka
Osaka
at Osaka
Osaka
Prefectural Gymnasium. Another major annual sporting event that takes place is Osaka
Osaka
is Osaka International Ladies Marathon. Held usually at the end of January every year, the 42.195 km (26.219 miles) race starts from Nagai Stadium, runs through Nakanoshima, Midōsuji
Midōsuji
and Osaka castle
Osaka castle
park, and returns to the stadium. Another yearly event held at Nagai Stadium is the Osaka
Osaka
Gran Prix Athletics games operated by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) in May. The Osaka
Osaka
GP is the only IAAF games annually held in Japan. Osaka
Osaka
was one of the host cities of the official Women's Volleyball World Championship for its 1998, 2006 and 2010 editions. Osaka
Osaka
is the home of the 2011 created Japan
Japan
Bandy
Bandy
Federation and the introduction of bandy, in the form of rink bandy, was made in the city.[62] In July 2012 the first Japan
Japan
Bandy
Bandy
Festival was organised.[63] Media[edit]

NHK
NHK
Osaka

Osaka
Osaka
serves as one of the media hubs for Japan, housing headquarters of many media-related companies. Abundant television production takes place in the city and every nationwide TV network (with the exception of TXN network) registers its secondary-key station in Osaka. All five nationwide newspaper majors also house their regional headquarters, and most local newspapers nationwide have branches in Osaka. However major film productions are uncommon in the city. Most major films are produced in nearby Kyoto
Kyoto
or in Tokyo. The Ad Council Japan
Japan
is based in Osaka. Newspapers[edit] All the five nationwide newspaper majors of Japan, the Asahi Shimbun, Mainichi Shimbun, Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Sankei Shimbun
Sankei Shimbun
and Yomiuri Shimbun,[64] have their regional headquarters in Osaka
Osaka
and issue their regional editions. Furthermore, Osaka
Osaka
houses Osaka
Osaka
Nichi-nichi Shimbun, its newspaper press. Other newspaper related companies located in Osaka
Osaka
include, the regional headquarters of FujiSankei Business i.;Houchi Shimbunsha; Nikkan Sports; Sports Nippon, and offices of Kyodo News
Kyodo News
Jiji Press; Reuters; Bloomberg L.P.. Television and radio[edit] The five TV networks are represented by Asahi Broadcasting Corporation (ANN), Kansai Telecasting Corporation
Kansai Telecasting Corporation
(FNN), Mainichi Broadcasting System, Inc. (JNN), Television Osaka, Inc. (TXN) and Yomiuri Telecasting Corporation (NNN), headquartered in Osaka. NHK
NHK
has also its regional station based in the city. AM Radio services are provided by NHK
NHK
as well as the ABC Radio (Asahi Broadcasting Corporation), MBS Radio (Mainichi Broadcasting System, Inc.) and Radio Osaka
Osaka
(Osaka Broadcasting Corporation) and headquartered in the city. FM services are available from NHK, FM OSAKA, FM802
FM802
and FM Cocolo, the last providing programs in multiple languages including English. As of February 2009, the city is fully covered by terrestrial digital TV broadcasts.[65] Publishing companies[edit] Osaka
Osaka
is home to many publishing companies including: Examina, Izumi Shoin, Kaihou Shuppansha, Keihanshin
Keihanshin
Elmagazine, Seibundo Shuppan, Sougensha, and Toho Shuppan. Places of interest[edit] Tourist attractions include:

Osaka
Osaka
Aquarium
Aquarium
Kaiyukan

Universal Studios Japan

Umeda
Umeda
Sky Building

Amusement parks[edit]

Osaka Aquarium Kaiyukan
Osaka Aquarium Kaiyukan
– An aquarium located in Osaka
Osaka
Bay, containing 35,000 aquatic animals in 14 tanks, the largest of which holds 5,400 tons of water and houses a variety of sea animals including whale sharks. This tank is the world's second-largest aquarium tank, behind the Georgia Aquarium, whose largest tank holds approximately 29,000 tons of water. Tempozan Ferris Wheel
Tempozan Ferris Wheel
– A 112 m tall Ferris wheel located next to the aquarium in the bay area. Tennōji Zoo Universal Studios Japan HEP Five
HEP Five
– A shopping/amusement plaza in Umeda
Umeda
featuring a Sega Joypolis
Joypolis
and rooftop Ferris wheel offering views of the city. Umeda Sky Building
Umeda Sky Building
– Twin 173 m skyscrapers bridged by a rooftop "Floating Garden" observatory presenting a 360-degree panoramic view of Osaka. Popular for photographs, the structure also houses an underground mall with restaurants styled after the early Showa period of the 1920s.

Parks[edit]

Nakanoshima
Nakanoshima
Park: About 10.6 ha. In the vicinity of the City Hall Osaka Castle
Osaka Castle
Park: About 106 ha. Includes Osaka-jō Hall, a Japanese plum blossom (Ume) garden, a Cherry Blossom garden, and more. It is a hotspot for migrating birds in the spring and autumn. Sumiyoshi Park Tennōji Park: About 28 ha. Includes Tennōji Zoo; an art museum (established by contribution from Sumitomo family in 1936); and a Japanese garden, Keitaku-en (慶沢園). Keitaku-en was constructed in 1908 by Jihei Ogawa (小川治兵衛, Hiragana: おがわ じへえ), an illustrious gardener in Japan. This was originally one of Sumitomo family's gardens until 1921. Utsubo Park Nagai Park: The 2007 IAAF World Championships in Athletics
IAAF World Championships in Athletics
were held at the Nagai Stadium, located in this park. Tsurumi-Ryokuchi Park with the Sakuya Konohana Kan
Sakuya Konohana Kan
was the site of the flower expo in 1990.

Temples, shrines, and other historical sites[edit]

Hideyoshi's Osaka
Osaka
Castle, destroyed in 1868 and rebuilt in 1931.

Shitennō-ji
Shitennō-ji
with Abeno Harukas
Abeno Harukas
in the background

Siege of Osaka Castle
Osaka Castle
in 1614

Osaka
Osaka
Castle Sankō Shrine Shitennō-ji
Shitennō-ji
– The oldest Buddhist temple in Japan, established in 593 AD by Prince Shōtoku Sumiyoshi taisha
Sumiyoshi taisha
One of the oldest Shinto shrines, built in 211 AD.[66] Tamatsukuri Inari Shrine Ōsaka Tenmangū Shrine Osaka
Osaka
Peace Pagoda, built by Nipponzan Myohoji in 1963. Imamiya Ebisu

Entertainment[edit]

Dōtonbori
Dōtonbori
- Osaka's primary tourist and nightlife area Namba
Namba
and Shinsaibashi
Shinsaibashi
districts – Located side by side in Minami, offering shopping, restaurants, bars and nightclubs running 24/7 Higashi-Dori area – A network of shōtengai in Umeda
Umeda
with numerous restaurants, bars, and nightlife options Shin-michi/Kitashinchi district – Well known for its upscale dining and hostess clubs, also offers more reasonably priced izakaya as well as bars and nightclubs that cater to tourists and foreigners Shinsekai
Shinsekai
– Earthy eating/drinking district, built around the Tsūtenkaku
Tsūtenkaku
Tower and famous for cheap kushikatsu Den Den Town – An electronics/anime district analogous to Tokyo's Akihabara, Den Den Town also features maid cafes, bars, and other venues of entertainment Sankaku Koen (Triangle Park) – A popular youth meeting spot in Amerika-mura. Eccentric fashions and local skateboarders abound Jūsō
Jūsō
– Popular working class bar/nightlife district Kyobashi – A commercial area and shotengai with a diverse variety of izakaya Zepp
Zepp
Osaka
Osaka
– A live stage venue in the Osaka Bay
Osaka Bay
area that hosts many big-name musical acts and events Doyama – Considered a hub for Osaka's LGBT community Tobita – A red-light district

Education[edit]

Kansai University

Osaka
Osaka
City University

Public elementary and junior high schools in Osaka
Osaka
are operated by the city of Osaka. Its supervisory organization on educational matters is Osaka
Osaka
City Board of Education.[67] Likewise, public high schools are operated by the Osaka
Osaka
Prefectural Board of Education. Osaka
Osaka
city once had a large number of universities and high schools, but because of growing campuses and the need for larger area, many chose to move to the suburbs, including Osaka
Osaka
University.[68] Historically foreign expatriates in the Kansai region
Kansai region
preferred to live in Kobe
Kobe
rather than Osaka. As a result, until 1991 the Osaka
Osaka
area has no schools catering to expatriate children.[69] Osaka International School of Kwansei Gakuin, founded in 1991, is located in nearby Minoh,[70] and it was the first international school in the Osaka
Osaka
area.[69] The Great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake of 1995 caused a decline in demand for international schools, as there were about 2,500 U.S. nationals resident in Osaka
Osaka
after the earthquake while the pre-earthquake number was about 5,000. American Chamber of Commerce in Japan
Japan
(ACCJ) Kansai chapter president Norman Solberg stated that since 2002 the numbers of expatriates in Kansai were recovering "but the fact is there is still a persistent exodus to Tokyo."[71] In 2001 the city of Osaka
Osaka
and YMCA
YMCA
established the Osaka
Osaka
YMCA
YMCA
International School.[69] Colleges and universities include:

Kansai University Morinomiya University
University
of Medical Sciences Osaka
Osaka
City University Osaka
Osaka
University
University
of Economics Osaka
Osaka
Institute of Technology Osaka
Osaka
Jogakuin College Osaka
Osaka
Seikei University Osaka
Osaka
University
University
of Arts, Minamikawachi District, Osaka Osaka
Osaka
University
University
of Comprehensive Children education Osaka
Osaka
University
University
of Education Soai University Tokiwakai Gakuen University

Libraries[edit]

International Institute for Children's Literature, Osaka[72] Osaka
Osaka
Prefectural Nakanoshima
Nakanoshima
Library Osaka
Osaka
Municipal Central Library

Learned society[edit]

The Japanese Academy of Family Medicine

International relations[edit]

Tsūtenkaku, a symbol of Osaka's post-WWII rebuilding

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Japan Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

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Osaka
Osaka
is twinned with the following cities around the world.[73]

San Francisco, United States
United States
(since 1957) (Ties were cut in 2017 after "comfort women" statue controversy)[74] São Paulo, Brazil
Brazil
(since 1969)[75][76] Chicago, United States
United States
(since 1973) Shanghai, China
China
(since 1974) Melbourne, Australia
Australia
(since 1978) Saint Petersburg, Russia
Russia
(since 1979)[77] Milan, Italy
Italy
(since 1981)[78] Hamburg, Germany
Germany
(since 1989) Manchester, United Kingdom

Osaka
Osaka
also has the following friendship and cooperation cities.[79]

Buenos Aires, Argentina
Argentina
(since 1998) Budapest, Hungary
Hungary
(since 1998)[80] Busan, South Korea
Korea
(since 2008)[81]

Business partner cities[edit] Osaka's business partnerships are:[82]

Auckland, New Zealand Bangkok, Thailand Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Hong Kong Jakarta, Indonesia Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Melbourne, Australia Mumbai, India Seoul, South Korea Shanghai, China Singapore Tianjin, China

See also[edit]

Osaka
Osaka
portal

Expo '70 List of metropolitan areas by population List of metropolitan areas in Japan
Japan
by population

References[edit]

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City Datanet: Osaka
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Further reading[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Osaka

Gerstle, C. Andrew. Kabuki
Kabuki
Heroes on the Osaka
Osaka
Stage 1780–1830 (2005). Hanes, Jeffrey. The City as Subject: Seki Hajime and the Reinvention of Modern Osaka
Osaka
(2002) online edition Hauser, William B. "Osaka: a Commercial City in Tokugawa Japan." Urbanism past and Present 1977–1978 (5): 23–36. Hein, Carola, et al. Rebuilding Urban Japan
Japan
after 1945. (2003). 274 pp. Hotta, Chisato. "The Construction of the Korean Community in Osaka between 1920 and 1945: A Cross-Cultural Perspective." PhD dissertation U. of Chicago
Chicago
2005. 498 pp. DAI 2005 65(12): 4680-A. DA3158708 Fulltext: ProQuest
ProQuest
Dissertations & Theses Lockyer, Angus. "The Logic of Spectacle C. 1970," Art History, Sept 2007, Vol. 30 Issue 4, p571-589, on the international exposition held in 1970 McClain, James L. and Wakita, Osamu, eds. Osaka: The Merchants' Capital of Early Modern Japan. (1999). 295 pp. online edition Michelin Red Guide Kyoto
Kyoto
Osaka
Osaka
Kobe
Kobe
2011 (2011) Najita, Tetsuo. Visions of Virtue in Tokugawa Japan: The Kaitokudo Merchant Academy of Osaka. (1987). 334 pp. online edition Rimmer, Peter J. "Japan's World Cities: Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya
Nagoya
or Tokaido Megalopolis?" Development and Change 1986 17(1): 121–157. ISSN 0012-155X Ropke, Ian Martin. Historical Dictionary of Osaka
Osaka
and Kyoto. (1999) 273pp Ruble, Blair A. Second Metropolis: Pragmatic Pluralism in Gilded Age Chicago, Silver Age Moscow, and Meiji Osaka. (2001). 464 pp. Torrance, Richard. "Literacy and Literature in Osaka, 1890–1940," The Journal of Japanese Studies 31#1 (Winter 2005), pp. 27–60 in Project Muse

External links[edit]

Look up 大阪 or Ōsaka in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Osaka
Osaka
(category)

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Osaka.

Osaka
Osaka
City official website (in English) Official Osaka
Osaka
Tourist Guide  "Osaka". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.  Geographic data related to Osaka
Osaka
at OpenStreetMap

v t e

Osaka
Osaka
Prefecture

Osaka
Osaka
(capital)

Wards of Osaka

Abeno Asahi Chūō Fukushima Higashinari Higashisumiyoshi Higashiyodogawa Hirano Ikuno Jōtō Kita Konohana Minato Miyakojima Naniwa Nishi Nishinari Nishiyodogawa Suminoe Sumiyoshi Taishō Tennōji Tsurumi Yodogawa

Wards of Sakai

Higashi Kita Naka Nishi Mihara Minami Sakai

Core cities

Higashiōsaka Hirakata Takatsuki Toyonaka

Special
Special
cities

Ibaraki Kishiwada Neyagawa Suita Yao

Cities

Daitō Fujiidera Habikino Hannan Ikeda Izumi Izumiotsu Izumisano Kadoma Kaizuka Kashiwara Katano Kawachinagano Matsubara Minoh Moriguchi Ōsakasayama Sennan Settsu Shijōnawate Takaishi Tondabayashi

Minamikawachi District

Chihayaakasaka Kanan Taishi

Mishima District

Shimamoto

Senboku District

Tadaoka

Sennan District

Kumatori Misaki Tajiri

Toyono District

Nose Toyono

List of mergers in Osaka
Osaka
Prefecture

v t e

Metropolitan cities of Japan

Tokyo
Tokyo
Metropolis

Special
Special
wards of Tokyo※ (Adachi Arakawa Bunkyo Chiyoda Chūō Edogawa Itabashi Katsushika Kita Koto Meguro Minato Nakano Nerima Ōta Setagaya Shibuya Shinagawa Shinjuku Suginami Sumida Toshima Taitō)

Designated cities

Chiba※ Fukuoka※ Hamamatsu Hiroshima※ Kawasaki Kitakyushu Kobe※ Kumamoto※ Kyoto※ Nagoya※ Niigata※ Okayama※ Osaka※ Sagamihara Saitama※ Sakai Sapporo※ Sendai※ Shizuoka※ Yokohama※

Core cities

Akita※ Amagasaki Aomori※ Asahikawa Fukuyama Funabashi Gifu※ Hachinohe Hachiōji Hakodate Higashiōsaka Himeji Hirakata Iwaki Kagoshima※ Kanazawa※ Kashiwa Kawagoe Kōchi※ Kōriyama Koshigaya Kurashiki Kure Kurume Maebashi※ Matsuyama※ Miyazaki※ Morioka※ Naha Nagano※ Nagasaki※ Nara※ Nishinomiya Ōita※ Okazaki Ōtsu※ Sasebo Shimonoseki Takamatsu※ Takasaki Takatsuki Toyama※ Toyohashi Toyonaka Toyota Utsunomiya※ Wakayama※ Yokosuka

Special
Special
cities

Akashi Atsugi Chigasaki Fuji Fukui※ Hiratsuka Ibaraki Ichinomiya Isesaki Jōetsu Kakogawa Kasugai Kasukabe Kawaguchi Kishiwada Kōfu※ Kumagaya Matsue※ Matsumoto Mito※ Nagaoka Neyagawa Numazu Odawara Ōta Saga※ Sōka Suita Takarazuka Tokorozawa Tottori※ Tsukuba Yamagata※ Yamato Yao Yokkaichi

Prefectural capitals

Fukushima Tsu Tokushima Yamaguchi

Note: ※ also a prefectural capital

v t e

World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

v t e

Host cities of the IAAF World Championships in Athletics

1983: Helsinki 1987: Rome 1991: Tokyo 1993: Stuttgart 1995: Gothenburg 1997: Athens 1999: Seville 2001: Edmonton 2003: Saint-Denis 2005: Helsinki 2007: Osaka 2009: Berlin 2011: Daegu 2013: Moscow 2015: Beijing 2017: London 2019: Doha 2021: Eugene

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 122548794 LCCN: n80022951 ISNI: 0000 0004 0616 2721 GND: 4043961-6 SELIBR: 156055 BNF: cb15283394k (d

.