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Oral administration
Oral administration
is a route of administration where a substance is taken through the mouth. Per os (P.O.) is sometimes used as an abbreviation for medication to be taken orally. Many medications are taken orally because they are intended to have a systemic effect, reaching different parts of the body via the bloodstream, for example.[1]

Contents

1 Terminology 2 Scope 3 Facilitating methods 4 See also 5 References

Terminology[edit] "Per os" (/ˌpɜːrˈoʊs/; P.O.) is an adverbial phrase meaning literally from Latin "by opening" or "by way of the opening." The expression is used in medicine to describe a treatment that is taken orally. The abbreviated P.O. is often used on medical prescriptions. P.O. is also occasionally rendered per orem, which is sometimes corrupted to per oram. These are grammatically incorrect; "os" is a neuter noun of the 3rd declension and thus the accusative case is the same as the nominative case. Scope[edit] Oral administration
Oral administration
is a part of enteral administration, which also includes

Buccal, dissolved inside the cheek Sublabial, dissolved under the lip Sublingual administration, dissolved under the tongue, but due to rapid absorption many consider SL a parenteral route

Enteral medications come in various forms, including:[1]

Tablets to swallow, chew or dissolve in water or under the tongue Capsules and chewable capsules (with a coating that dissolves in the stomach or bowel to release the medication there) Time-release or sustained-release tablets and capsules (which release the medication gradually) Powders or granules Teas Drops Liquid
Liquid
medications or syrups

Facilitating methods[edit] Concomitant ingestion of water facilitates in swallowing tablets and capsules.[2] If the substance has disagreeable taste, addition of a flavor may facilitate ingestion.[2] Substances that are harmful to the teeth are preferably given through a straw.[2] See also[edit]

Nil per os List of Latin phrases Medical prescription List of abbreviations used in medical prescriptions

References[edit]

^ a b Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. "Oral medications". Informed Health Online. Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. Retrieved 22 June 2013.  ^ a b c TheFreeDictionary > oral administration of medication Citing: Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. 2009

v t e

Routes of administration, dosage forms

Oral

Digestive tract (enteral)

Solids

Pill Tablet Capsule Pastille Time release technology Osmotic delivery system (OROS)

Liquids

Decoction Elixir Electuary Emulsion Extended-release syrup Effervescent
Effervescent
powder or tablet Herbal tea Hydrogel Molecular encapsulation Powder Softgel Solution Suspension Syrup Syrup
Syrup
Concentrate for dilution and/or addition of carbonated water Tincture

Buccal (sublabial), sublingual

Solids

Orally disintegrating tablet
Orally disintegrating tablet
(ODT) Film Lollipop Sublingual drops Lozenges Effervescent
Effervescent
buccal tablet Chewing gum

Liquids

Mouthwash Toothpaste Ointment Oral spray

Respiratory tract

Solids

Smoking
Smoking
device Dry-powder inhaler
Dry-powder inhaler
(DPI)

0 0

Liquids

Anaesthetic vaporizer Vaporizer Nebulizer Metered-dose inhaler
Metered-dose inhaler
(MDI)

Gas

Oxygen mask
Oxygen mask
and Nasal cannula Oxygen concentrator Anaesthetic machine Relative analgesia machine

Ophthalmic, otologic, nasal

Nasal spray Ear
Ear
drops Eye drops Ointment Hydrogel Nanosphere suspension Insufflation Mucoadhesive microdisc (microsphere tablet)

Urogenital

Ointment Pessary
Pessary
(vaginal suppository) Vaginal ring Vaginal douche Intrauterine device
Intrauterine device
(IUD) Extra-amniotic infusion Intravesical infusion

Rectal (enteral)

Ointment Suppository Enema

Solution Hydrogel

Murphy drip Nutrient enema

Dermal

Ointment Topical
Topical
cream Topical
Topical
gel Liniment Paste Film DMSO drug solution Electrophoretic
Electrophoretic
dermal delivery system Hydrogel Liposomes Transfersome vesicles Cream Lotion Lip balm Medicated shampoo Dermal patch Transdermal patch Contact (rubbed into break in the skin) Transdermal spray Jet injector

Injection, infusion (into tissue/blood)

Skin

Intradermal Subcutaneous Transdermal implant

Organs

Intracavernous Intravitreal Intra-articular injection Transscleral

Central nervous system

Intracerebral Intrathecal Epidural

Circulatory, musculoskeletal

Intravenous Intracardiac Intramuscular Intraosseous Intraperitoneal Nanocell injection Patient-Controlled Analgesia
Patient-Controlled Analgesia
pump PIC line

Category WikiProjec

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