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ORAL ADMINISTRATION is a route of administration where a substance is taken through the mouth . PER OS (P.O.) is sometimes used as an abbreviation for medication to be taken orally. Many medications are taken orally because they are intended to have a systemic effect , reaching different parts of the body via the bloodstream , for example.

CONTENTS

* 1 Terminology * 2 Scope * 3 Facilitating methods * 4 See also * 5 References

TERMINOLOGY

"Per os" (/ˌpɜːrˈoʊs/ ; P.O.) is an adverbial phrase meaning literally from Latin "by opening" or "by way of the opening." The expression is used in medicine to describe a treatment that is taken orally. The abbreviated P.O. is often used on medical prescriptions . P.O. is also occasionally rendered per orem, which is sometimes corrupted to per oram. These are grammatically incorrect; "os" is a neuter noun of the 3rd declension and thus the accusative case is the same as the nominative case .

SCOPE

Oral administration
Oral administration
is a part of enteral administration , which also includes

* Buccal , dissolved inside the cheek * Sublabial , dissolved under the lip * Sublingual administration , dissolved under the tongue, but due to rapid absorption many consider SL a parenteral route

Enteral medications come in various forms, including:

* Tablets to swallow, chew or dissolve in water or under the tongue * Capsules and chewable capsules (with a coating that dissolves in the stomach or bowel to release the medication there) * Time-release or sustained-release tablets and capsules (which release the medication gradually) * Powders or granules * Teas * Drops * Liquid
Liquid
medications or syrups

FACILITATING METHODS

Concomitant ingestion of water facilitates in swallowing tablets and capsules. If the substance has disagreeable taste , addition of a flavor may facilitate ingestion . Substances that are harmful to the teeth are preferably given through a straw .

SEE ALSO

* Nil per os * List of Latin phrases * Medical prescription
Medical prescription
* List of abbreviations used in medical prescriptions

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. "Oral medications". Informed Health Online. Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ A B C TheFreeDictionary > oral administration of medication Citing: Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. 2009

* v * t * e

Routes of administration , dosage forms

ORAL

Digestive tract (enteral )

SOLIDS

* Pill * Tablet * Capsule * Pastille
Pastille
* Time release technology
Time release technology
* Osmotic delivery system (OROS)

LIQUIDS

* Decoction
Decoction
* Elixir * Electuary * Emulsion * Extended-release syrup * Effervescent
Effervescent
powder or tablet * Herbal tea
Herbal tea
* Hydrogel
Hydrogel
* Molecular encapsulation
Molecular encapsulation
* Powder * Softgel
Softgel
* Solution
Solution
* Suspension * Syrup
Syrup
* Syrup
Syrup
Concentrate for dilution and/or addition of carbonated water * Tincture
Tincture

BUCCAL (SUBLABIAL ), SUBLINGUAL

SOLIDS

* Orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) * Film * Lollipop * Sublingual drops * Lozenges * Effervescent
Effervescent
buccal tablet * Chewing gum
Chewing gum

LIQUIDS

* Mouthwash
Mouthwash
* Toothpaste
Toothpaste
* Ointment * Oral spray

Respiratory tract

SOLIDS

* Smoking
Smoking
device * Dry-powder inhaler (DPI)

0 0

LIQUIDS

* Anaesthetic vaporizer
Anaesthetic vaporizer
* Vaporizer * Nebulizer
Nebulizer
* Metered-dose inhaler
Metered-dose inhaler
(MDI)

GAS

* Oxygen mask
Oxygen mask
and Nasal cannula
Nasal cannula
* Oxygen concentrator * Anaesthetic machine
Anaesthetic machine
* Relative analgesia machine

Ophthalmic , otologic , nasal

* Nasal spray
Nasal spray
* Ear
Ear
drops * Eye drops * Ointment * Hydrogel
Hydrogel
* Nanosphere suspension * Insufflation * Mucoadhesive microdisc (microsphere tablet)

UROGENITAL

* Ointment * Pessary
Pessary
(vaginal suppository) * Vaginal ring
Vaginal ring
* Vaginal douche * Intrauterine device
Intrauterine device
(IUD) * Extra-amniotic infusion * Intravesical infusion

RECTAL (ENTERAL )

* Ointment * Suppository
Suppository

* Enema
Enema

* Solution
Solution
* Hydrogel
Hydrogel

* Murphy drip * Nutrient enema

DERMAL

* Ointment * Topical
Topical
cream * Topical
Topical
gel * Liniment
Liniment
* Paste * Film * DMSO drug solution * Electrophoretic
Electrophoretic
dermal delivery system * Hydrogel
Hydrogel
* Liposomes * Transfersome vesicles * Cream * Lotion
Lotion
* Lip balm
Lip balm
* Medicated shampoo * Dermal patch * Transdermal patch * Contact (rubbed into break in the skin) * Transdermal spray * Jet injector

Injection , infusion (into tissue/blood)

SKIN

* Intradermal * Subcutaneous * Transdermal implant
Transdermal implant

ORGANS

* Intracavernous * Intravitreal * Intra-articular injection * Transscleral

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

* Intracerebral * Intrathecal * Epidural

CIRCULATORY , MUSCULOSKELETAL

* Intravenous * Intracardiac * Intramuscular * Intraosseous * Intraperitoneal * Nanocell injection * Patient-Controlled Analgesia pump * PIC line

Category
Category
WikiProject

* Pharma

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