ORAL ADMINISTRATION is a route of administration where a substance is taken through the mouth . PER OS (P.O.) is sometimes used as an abbreviation for medication to be taken orally. Many medications are taken orally because they are intended to have a systemic effect , reaching different parts of the body via the bloodstream , for example.
* 1 Terminology * 2 Scope * 3 Facilitating methods * 4 See also * 5 References
"Per os" (/ˌpɜːrˈoʊs/ ; P.O.) is an adverbial phrase meaning literally from Latin "by opening" or "by way of the opening." The expression is used in medicine to describe a treatment that is taken orally. The abbreviated P.O. is often used on medical prescriptions . P.O. is also occasionally rendered per orem, which is sometimes corrupted to per oram. These are grammatically incorrect; "os" is a neuter noun of the 3rd declension and thus the accusative case is the same as the nominative case .
* Buccal , dissolved inside the cheek * Sublabial , dissolved under the lip * Sublingual administration , dissolved under the tongue, but due to rapid absorption many consider SL a parenteral route
Enteral medications come in various forms, including:
* Tablets to swallow, chew or dissolve in water or under the tongue
* Capsules and chewable capsules (with a coating that dissolves in
the stomach or bowel to release the medication there)
* Time-release or sustained-release tablets and capsules (which
release the medication gradually)
* Powders or granules
Concomitant ingestion of water facilitates in swallowing tablets and capsules. If the substance has disagreeable taste , addition of a flavor may facilitate ingestion . Substances that are harmful to the teeth are preferably given through a straw .
* ^ A B Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. "Oral medications". Informed Health Online. Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ A B C TheFreeDictionary > oral administration of medication Citing: Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. 2009
* v * t * e
Routes of administration , dosage forms
Digestive tract (enteral )
BUCCAL (SUBLABIAL ), SUBLINGUAL
Ophthalmic , otologic , nasal
RECTAL (ENTERAL )
Injection , infusion (into tissue/blood)
* Intracavernous * Intravitreal * Intra-articular injection * Transscleral
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
* Intracerebral * Intrathecal * Epidural
CIRCULATORY , MUSCULOSKELETAL