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The genus Ophrys
Ophrys
is a large group of orchids from the alliance Orchis in the subtribe Orchidinae. They are widespread across much of Europe, North Africa, the Canary Islands, and the Middle East
Middle East
as far east as Turkmenistan.[2][3] These plants are remarkable in that they successfully reproduce through pseudocopulation, that is, their flowers mimic female insects to such a degree that amorous males are fooled into mating with the flowers, thereby pollinating them. There are many natural hybrids. They are referred to as the "bee orchids" due to the flowers of some species resemblance to the furry bodies of bees and other insects. Their scientific name Ophrys
Ophrys
is the Greek word for "eyebrow", referring to the furry edges of the lips of several species.[4] Ophrys
Ophrys
was first mentioned in the book "Natural History" by Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD).

Contents

1 Biology

1.1 Pollination

2 Species 3 References 4 External links

Biology[edit] They are terrestrial or ground orchids from central to South Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor, up to the Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, but mostly in the Mediterranean region. They have been said to be the most important group of European terrestrial orchids.[5] During summer, all Ophrys
Ophrys
orchids are dormant as underground bulbous tubers, which serve as a food reserve. In late summer/autumn they develop a rosette of leaves. Also a new tuber starts to grow and matures until the following spring; the old tuber slowly dies. The next spring the flowering stem starts to grow. During flowering the leaves have already started to wither.[4] Most Ophrys
Ophrys
orchids are dependent on symbiotic fungi. Transplanting specimens, especially wild specimens, is difficult, sometimes impossible, due to this symbiosis unless a large amount of surrounding earth is also taken with the plant. All orchids are protected under CITES II and should not be removed or disturbed in habitat. The shiny, basal leaves have a green or bluish color. Two to twelve flowers grow on an erect stem with basal leaves.[5] These species are successfully cultivated by specialist growers of terrestrial orchids and are reported to be difficult to grow, being sensitive to rotting and damping off diseases if not properly subjected to a cool and dry aestivation period over the summer months with no water.[4] Pollination[edit] Orchids of the genus Ophrys
Ophrys
use sexual deception to attract pollinators to their flowers.[6] In sexual deception, an orchid attracts male pollinators by producing the sex pheromone of virgin female pollinators in addition to providing visual and tactile cues (Schiestl 2005; Schluter et al. 2009; Stokl et al. 2009). These signals stimulate mating behavior in the male pollinators, which then attempt copulation, called “pseudocopulation”, with the orchid labellum (Schluter et al. 2009). During pseudocopulation, pollen from the flower’s column becomes attached to some part of the pollinator, usually the head or abdomen, and the pollinator inadvertently carries and transfers this pollen to other flowers when they are once again enticed into pseudocopulation.[7][8][9] While the morphological cues such as the shape and texture of the labellum play a role especially at close range in inducing the pollinator mating behavior, the orchid’s pheromone mimic, or allomone, has been shown to play the most important role in enticing pollinators to the flower (Schiestl 2005; Schluter et al. 2009).[5] The allomone produced by an orchid is specific to its pollinator, of which it usually only has one (Ayasse et al. 2007; Gogler et al. 2009, Schluter et al. 2009) . The allomone is a mixture of alkenes and alkanes (Schiestl and Cozzolino 2008). There are one or more active species in this mixture that account for the attraction of pollinators (Vereeken and Schiestl 2008). Pollinators and orchids use the same chemical compounds in the same absolute amounts in their pheromones and allomones, respectively (Schiestl 2008). Every Ophrys
Ophrys
orchid has its own pollinator insect and is completely dependent on this species for its survival. Duped males are less likely to return and may ignore other plants of the same species. Only about 10% of an Ophrys
Ophrys
population gets pollinated. This is enough to preserve the population, since each Ophrys
Ophrys
orchid produces about 12,000 minute seeds.[4] Species[edit] Almost 2,000 names have been proposed for species, subspecies, and "nothospecies" (i.e. species of hybrid origin) within the genus.[10] The number of species recognized varies very widely between authorities. Flora Europaea in 1980 and Pedersen & Faurholdt in 2007 listed about 20 species in Europe
Europe
as a whole;[11][12] Buttler in 1991 increased this to 53 for slightly larger geographical area;[13] Delforge in 1995 gave a total of 130 species.[14] By contrast, a molecular phylogenetic study in 2008 suggested that there were around 10 distinguishable groups.[15] The need for further study is indicated. For the moment (May 2014), we follow the lead of Kew Botanical Garden's, the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families in provisionally recognizing the following taxa:[10]

Ophrys apifera
Ophrys apifera
( Bee
Bee
Orchid)

Ophrys apifera
Ophrys apifera
Huds. – Bee
Bee
Orchid
Orchid
- Central and southern Europe, North Africa, east to Iran Ophrys × arachnitiformis Gren. & Philippe - False Spider Orchid (hybrid O. fuciflora × O. sphegodes) - western and central Europe from France
France
and Britain to Sicily
Sicily
and Hungary Ophrys argolica
Ophrys argolica
H.Fleischm. – Argolian Bee-orchid

Ophrys argolica
Ophrys argolica
subsp. aegaea (Kalteisen & H. R. Reinhard) H. A. Pedersen & Faurh. - Greek islands Ophrys argolica
Ophrys argolica
subsp. argolica - Greece Ophrys argolica
Ophrys argolica
subsp. biscutella (O. Danesch & E. Danesch) Kreutz - southern Italy, Croatia Ophrys argolica
Ophrys argolica
subsp. crabronifera (Sebast. & Mauri) Faurh. - central and southern Italy Ophrys argolica
Ophrys argolica
subsp. elegans (Renz) E. Nelson - Cyprus Ophrys argolica
Ophrys argolica
subsp. lesbis (Gölz & H. R. Reinhard) H. A. Pedersen & Faurh. - western Turkey
Turkey
and the Greek Islands Ophrys argolica
Ophrys argolica
subsp. lucis (Kalteisen & H. R. Reinhard) H. A. Pedersen & Faurh. - Turkey, Syria, Greek islands

Ophrys
Ophrys
atlantica Munby – Atlantic Bee-orchid - Spain, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Ophrys bertolonii
Ophrys bertolonii
Moretti – Bertoloni's Bee-orchid - from Spain
Spain
to Serbia

Ophrys bombyliflora
Ophrys bombyliflora
(Bumblebee Orchid)

Ophrys bombyliflora
Ophrys bombyliflora
Link – Bumblebee Orchid
Orchid
- Mediterranean Basin and Canary Islands Ophrys
Ophrys
cilicica Schltr. – Cilician Bee-orchid - Turkey, Syria, Iran (note that Cilicia
Cilicia
means southern Turkey) Ophrys ferrum-equinum
Ophrys ferrum-equinum
Desf. – Horseshoe Bee-orchid - Albania, Greece, Turkey

Ophrys ferrum-equinum
Ophrys ferrum-equinum
subsp. ferrum-equinum - Albania, Greece, Turkey Ophrys ferrum-equinum
Ophrys ferrum-equinum
subsp. gottfriediana (Renz) E.Nelson - Greece

Ophrys fuciflora
Ophrys fuciflora
(F.W.Schmidt) Moench – Late Spider-orchid - from Britain to Iraq

Ophrys fuciflora
Ophrys fuciflora
subsp. andria (P.Delforge) Faurh. - Greek islands Ophrys fuciflora
Ophrys fuciflora
subsp. apulica O.Danesch & E.Danesch - southern Italy
Italy
including Sicily Ophrys fuciflora
Ophrys fuciflora
subsp. biancae (Tod.) Faurh. - Sicily Ophrys fuciflora
Ophrys fuciflora
subsp. bornmuelleri (M.Schulze) B.Willing & E.Willing - Turkey, Cyprus, Greek islands, Syria, Palestine, Israel, Iraq Ophrys fuciflora
Ophrys fuciflora
subsp. candica E.Nelson ex Soó - southern Italy including Sicily, plus Greece
Greece
and Turkey Ophrys fuciflora
Ophrys fuciflora
subsp. chestermanii (J. J. Wood) H. Blatt & W. Wirth - Sardinia Ophrys fuciflora
Ophrys fuciflora
subsp. elatior (Paulus) R. Engel & Quentin Germany, Switzerland, France, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia Ophrys fuciflora
Ophrys fuciflora
subsp. fuciflora - from Britain to Syria Ophrys fuciflora
Ophrys fuciflora
subsp. grandiflora (H. Fleischm. & Soó) Faurh. - Turkey, Cyprus Ophrys fuciflora
Ophrys fuciflora
subsp. lacaitae (Lojac.) Soó - Italy, Malta, Croatia Ophrys fuciflora
Ophrys fuciflora
subsp. oblita (Kreutz, Gügel & W. Hahn) Faurh., H. A. Pedersen & S. G. Christ - Greece, Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, Israel Ophrys fuciflora
Ophrys fuciflora
subsp. oxyrrhynchos (Tod.) Soó - southern Italy including Sicily Ophrys fuciflora
Ophrys fuciflora
subsp. pallidiconi Faurh. - Turkey Ophrys fuciflora
Ophrys fuciflora
subsp. parvimaculata O. Danesch & E. Danesch - Italy Ophrys fuciflora
Ophrys fuciflora
var. ziyaretiana (Kreutz & Ruedi Peter) Faurh. & H. A. Pedersen - Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, Israel

Ophrys fusca
Ophrys fusca
(Sombre Bee-orchid)

Ophrys fusca
Ophrys fusca
Link – Sombre Bee-orchid, Dark Bee-orchid - from Portugal to Turkey

Ophrys fusca
Ophrys fusca
subsp. blitopertha (Paulus & Gack) Faurh. & H.A.Pedersen - Turkey, Greek islands Ophrys fusca
Ophrys fusca
subsp. cinereophila (Paulus & Gack) Faurh.- Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Lebanon, Syria Ophrys fusca
Ophrys fusca
subsp. fusca - from Portugal to Turkey Ophrys fusca
Ophrys fusca
subsp. iricolor (Desf.) K.Richt. - from Portugal to Turkey Ophrys fusca
Ophrys fusca
subsp. pallida (Raf.) E. G. Camus in E. G. Camus & A. A. Camus - Sicily, Tunisia, Algeria

Ophrys insectifera
Ophrys insectifera
L. – Fly Orchid
Orchid
- much of Europe
Europe
from Spain
Spain
to Russia and Finland

Ophrys insectifera
Ophrys insectifera
nothosubsp. tytecaeana P. Delforge - France Ophrys insectifera
Ophrys insectifera
subsp. aymoninii Breistr. France, Spain Ophrys insectifera
Ophrys insectifera
subsp. insectifera - much of Europe
Europe
from Spain
Spain
to Russia and Finland

Ophrys
Ophrys
isaura Renz & Taubenheim - Turkey Ophrys
Ophrys
kojurensis Gölz - Iran Ophrys
Ophrys
konyana Kreutz & Ruedi Peter - Turkey Ophrys
Ophrys
kopetdagensis K.P. Popov & Neshat. - Turkmenistan Ophrys kotschyi H. Fleischm. & Soó – Cyprus
Cyprus
Bee-orchid, Kotschy's Bee-orchid - Greece, Cyprus

Ophrys kotschyi subsp. ariadnae (Paulus) Faurh. - Greek islands
Greek islands
and mainland Ophrys kotschyi subsp. cretica (Soó) H.Sund. - Crete and other Greek islands Ophrys kotschyi subsp. kotschyi – Cyprus

Ophrys
Ophrys
kreutzii W.Hahn - Turkey Ophrys
Ophrys
lepida S. Moingeon & J.-M. Moingeon - Sardinia Ophrys lunulata
Ophrys lunulata
Parl. - Sicily

Ophrys lutea
Ophrys lutea
(Yellow Bee-orchid)

Ophrys lutea
Ophrys lutea
Cav. – Yellow Bee-orchid - from Portugal and Morocco
Morocco
to Syria

Ophrys lutea
Ophrys lutea
subsp. aspea (Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers) Faurh. - Tunisia, Libya Ophrys lutea
Ophrys lutea
subsp. galilaea (H. Fleischm. & Bornm.) Soó - from Portugal and Morocco
Morocco
to Syria Ophrys lutea
Ophrys lutea
subsp. lutea - from Portugal and Morocco
Morocco
to Turkey Ophrys lutea
Ophrys lutea
subsp. melena Renz - Greece, Albania

Ophrys
Ophrys
lycia Renz & Taubenheim - Turkey Ophrys omegaifera
Ophrys omegaifera
H. Fleischm. – Omega Bee-orchid - from Portugal and Morocco
Morocco
to Syria

Ophrys omegaifera
Ophrys omegaifera
var. basilissa (C. Alibertis, A. Alibertis & H.R. Reinhard) Faurh - Greece Ophrys omegaifera
Ophrys omegaifera
subsp. dyris (Maire) Del Prete - Spain, Portugal, Morocco, Balearic Islands Ophrys omegaifera
Ophrys omegaifera
subsp. fleischmannii (Hayek) Del Prete - Crete and other Greek islands Ophrys omegaifera
Ophrys omegaifera
subsp. hayekii (H. Fleischm. & Soó) Kreutz - Sicily, Algeria, Tunisia Ophrys omegaifera
Ophrys omegaifera
subsp. israelitica (H. Baumann & Künkele) G. Morschek & K. Morschek - Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Cyprus, Greece Ophrys omegaifera
Ophrys omegaifera
subsp. omegaifera - Turkey, Greek islands Ophrys omegaifera
Ophrys omegaifera
subsp. apollonae or Ophrys apollonae - Greek islands, Turkey

Ophrys
Ophrys
pseudomammosa Renz - Turkey, Greece

Ophrys reinholdii
Ophrys reinholdii
(Reinhold's Bee-orchid)

Ophrys reinholdii
Ophrys reinholdii
Spruner ex Fleischm. – Reinhold's Bee-orchid - from Croatia
Croatia
to Turkey

Ophrys reinholdii
Ophrys reinholdii
subsp. antiochiana (H. Baumann & Künkele) H.Baumann & R.Lorenz - Turkey, Syria Ophrys reinholdii
Ophrys reinholdii
subsp. reinholdii - from Croatia
Croatia
to Turkey Ophrys reinholdii
Ophrys reinholdii
subsp. straussii (H. Fleischm.) E. Nelson - Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Cyprus, Greek islands

Ophrys
Ophrys
schulzei Bornm. & Fleischm. - Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon Ophrys scolopax
Ophrys scolopax
Cav. – Woodcock Bee-orchid - from Morocco
Morocco
and Portugal to Hungary
Hungary
and Iran

Ophrys scolopax
Ophrys scolopax
subsp. apiformis (Desf.) Maire & Weiller - Spain, Portugal, Sardinia, Sicily, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco Ophrys scolopax
Ophrys scolopax
subsp. conradiae (Melki & Deschâtres) H.Baumann & al. - Corsica, Sardinia, Italy Ophrys scolopax
Ophrys scolopax
subsp. cornuta (Steven) E.G. Camus - Italy, Hungary, the Balkans, Crimea, Turkey, Caucasus Ophrys scolopax
Ophrys scolopax
subsp. heldreichii (Schltr.) E.Nelson Greece, Turkey Ophrys scolopax
Ophrys scolopax
var. minutula (Gölz & H.R. Reinhard) H.A. Pedersen & Faurh - Turkey, Greek islands Ophrys scolopax
Ophrys scolopax
subsp. rhodia (H.Baumann & Künkele) H.A. Pedersen & Faurh. - Greek islands Ophrys scolopax
Ophrys scolopax
subsp. scolopax - from Portugal to Iran

Ophrys speculum
Ophrys speculum
(Mirror Bee
Bee
Orchid)

Ophrys speculum
Ophrys speculum
Link – Mirror Bee-orchid, Mirror Orchid
Orchid
- from Portugal to Syria

Ophrys speculum
Ophrys speculum
subsp. lusitanica O.Danesch & E.Danesch - Spain, Portugal Ophrys speculum
Ophrys speculum
subsp. regis-ferdinandii (Acht. & Kellerer ex Renz) Soó - Turkey, Greek islands Ophrys speculum
Ophrys speculum
subsp. speculum - from Portugal to Syria

Ophrys sphegodes
Ophrys sphegodes
Mill. – Early Spider-orchid - from Britain and Portugal to Iran

Ophrys sphegodes
Ophrys sphegodes
nothosubsp. jeanpertii (E.G. Camus) Del Prete & Conte - France, Spain, Balkans
Balkans
(O. sphegodes subsp. araneola × O. sphegodes subsp. sphegodes) Ophrys sphegodes
Ophrys sphegodes
subsp. aesculapii (Renz) Soó ex J.J.Wood - Greece Ophrys sphegodes
Ophrys sphegodes
subsp. araneola (Rchb.) M.Laínz - Germany, Switzerland, France, Spain, Italy, Yugoslavia Ophrys sphegodes
Ophrys sphegodes
subsp. atrata (Rchb.f.) A.Bolòs - from Portugal to Serbia Ophrys sphegodes
Ophrys sphegodes
subsp. aveyronensis J.J.Wood - France, Spain Ophrys sphegodes
Ophrys sphegodes
subsp. catalcana Kreutz - European Turkey Ophrys sphegodes
Ophrys sphegodes
subsp. cretensis H.Baumann & Künkele - Crete and other Greek islands Ophrys sphegodes
Ophrys sphegodes
subsp. epirotica (Renz) Gölz & H.R.Reinhard - Albania, Greece Ophrys sphegodes
Ophrys sphegodes
subsp. gortynia H.Baumann & Künkele - Crete and other Greek islands Ophrys sphegodes
Ophrys sphegodes
subsp. helenae (Renz) Soó & D.M.Moore - Albania, Greece Ophrys sphegodes
Ophrys sphegodes
subsp. mammosa (Desf.) Soó ex E.Nelson - from the Balkans
Balkans
to Turkmenistan Ophrys sphegodes
Ophrys sphegodes
subsp. passionis (Sennen) Sanz & Nuet - France, Spain, Sardinia, Sicily, mainland Italy Ophrys sphegodes
Ophrys sphegodes
subsp. sipontensis (R.Lorenz & Gembardt) H.A.Pedersen & Faurh. - Apulia Ophrys sphegodes
Ophrys sphegodes
subsp. sphegodes - from Britain and Spain
Spain
to Hungary and the Balkans Ophrys sphegodes
Ophrys sphegodes
subsp. spruneri (Nyman) E.Nelson - Crete and other Greek islands

Ophrys
Ophrys
tenthredinifera

Ophrys tenthredinifera
Ophrys tenthredinifera
Willd. - from Portugal and Morocco
Morocco
to Turkey Ophrys
Ophrys
tremoris Gämperle & Gölz - Turkey Ophrys
Ophrys
ulupinara W.Hahn - Turkey Ophrys umbilicata
Ophrys umbilicata
Desf. - from the Balkans
Balkans
to Iran

Ophrys umbilicata
Ophrys umbilicata
subsp. beerii Shifman - Israel Ophrys umbilicata
Ophrys umbilicata
subsp. bucephala (Gölz & H.R.Reinhard) Biel - Turkey
Turkey
and the Greek islands Ophrys umbilicata
Ophrys umbilicata
subsp. calycadniensis Perschke - Turkey Ophrys umbilicata
Ophrys umbilicata
subsp. flavomarginata (Renz) Faurh. - Cyprus, Syria, Israel Ophrys umbilicata
Ophrys umbilicata
subsp. lapethica (Gölz & H.R.Reinhard) Faurh. - Cyprus Ophrys umbilicata
Ophrys umbilicata
subsp. latakiana (M.Schönfelder & H.Schönfelder) Faurh. & H.A.Pedersen - Turkey, Syria Ophrys umbilicata
Ophrys umbilicata
subsp. umbilicata - from the Balkans
Balkans
to Iran

Ophrys
Ophrys
urteae Paulus - Turkey Ophrys
Ophrys
zagrica Gölz - Iran

Ophrys
Ophrys
sulcata - MHNT

References[edit]

^ Jarvis, Taxon 41: 566 (1992) ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, Ophrys ^ a b c d Illustrated Encyclopedia of Orchids. ISBN 0-88192-267-6.  ^ a b c Robert L. Dressler. The Orchids, Natural History and Classification. ISBN 0-674-87526-5.  ^ Schiestl, F. P. (2005). "On the success of a swindle: pollination by deception in orchids". Naturwissenschaften. 92: 255–264. doi:10.1007/s00114-005-0636-y. PMID 15931514.  ^ Borg-Karlson, A.-K. (1990). "Chemical and ethological studies of pollination in the genus Ophrys
Ophrys
(Orchidaceae)". Phytochemistry. 29: 1359–1387. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(90)80086-v.  ^ Gögler, J.; Stökl, J.; Sramkova, A.; Twele, R.; Francke, W.; Cozzolino, S.; Cortis, P.; Scrugli, A.; Ayasse, M. (2009). "Ménage à Trois — Two Endemic Species of Deceptive Orchids and One Pollinator Species". Evolution. 63 (9): 2222–2234. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2009.00712.x.  ^ Stokl, J.; Schluter, P. M.; Stuessy, T. F.; Paulus, H. F.; Fraberger, R.; Erdmann, D.; Schulz, C.; et al. (2009). "Speciation in sexually deceptive orchids: pollinator-driven selection maintains discrete odour phenotypes in hybridizing species". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 98: 439–451. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2009.01279.x. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ a b Search for "Ophrys", World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2012-03-29  ^ Tutin, T. G.; Heywood, V.H.; Burges, N.A.; Moore, D.M.; Valentine, D.H.; Walters, S.M. & Webb, D.A., eds. (1980), Flora Europaea, Vol. 5, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-20108-7  ^ Pedersen, H.Æ. & Faurholdt, N. (2007), Ophrys : The Bee Orchids of Europe, Richmond, Surrey, UK: Kew Publishing, ISBN 978-1-84246-152-5  ^ Buttler, Karl Peter (1991), Field Guide to Orchids of Britain and Europe, Swindon: Crowood, ISBN 978-1-85223-591-8  ^ Delforge, Pierre (1995), Orchids of Britain and Europe, transl. Christine Grey-Wilson, London: HarperCollins, ISBN 978-0-00-220024-0  ^ Devey, D. S.; Bateman, R.M.; Fay, M.F. & Hawkins, J.A. (2008), "Friends or Relatives? Phylogenetics and Species Delimitation in the Controversial European Orchid
Orchid
Genus Ophrys", Annals of Botany, 101: 385–402, doi:10.1093/aob/mcm299 

Ayasse, M (2007). "Chemical mimicry in sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys. Phyton-". Annales Rei Botanicae. 46: 221–223.  Schiestl, F. P.; Cozzolino, S. (2008). "Evolution of sexual mimicry in the orchid subtribe orchidinae: the role of preadaptations in the attraction of male bees as pollinators". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 8. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-27.  Schluter, P. M.; Ruas, P. M.; Kohl, G.; Ruas, C. F.; Stuessy, T. F.; Paulus, H. F. (2009). "Genetic patterns and pollination in Ophrys iricolor and O-mesaritica (Orchidaceae): sympatric evolution by pollinator shift". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 159: 583–598. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00957.x.  Vereecken, N. J.; Schiestl, F. P. (2008). "The evolution of imperfect floral mimicry". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 105: 7484–7488. doi:10.1073/pnas.0800194105. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ophrys.

Extensive information and beautiful slides Ophrys
Ophrys
picture database Orchids of Greece, slide show.

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q157544 APDB: 193201 EoL: 29176 EPPO: 1OPRG GBIF: 2792579 GRIN: 8499 IPNI: 30162-1 ITIS: 894599 NCBI: 59329 PLANTS: OPHRY

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