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Onset of action is the duration of time it takes for a drug's effects to come to prominence upon administration. With oral administration, it typically ranges anywhere from 20 minutes to over an hour, depending on the drug in question. Other methods of ingestion such as smoking or injection can take as little as seconds to minutes to take effect. The determination of the onset of action, however, is not completely dependent upon route of administration. There are several other factors that determine the onset of action for a specific drug, including drug formulation, dosage, and the patient receiving the drug. Effect of Administration Route on the Onset of Action[edit] A drug's pharmacological effects can only occur once it has been fully solubilized and has entered the blood stream. For most drugs administered orally, the drug must be ingested, pass through the stomach, and into the small intestine, where the drug molecules enter the blood stream through the villi and microvilli.[1] Gastric emptying time can vary from 0 to 3 hours,[2] and therefore plays a major role in onset of action for orally administered drugs. For intravenous administration, the pathway is much shorter because the drug is administered (usually already in solution) directly to the bloodstream. References[edit]

^ Pang, K. Sandy (2003). "MODELING OF INTESTINAL DRUG ABSORPTION: ROLES OF TRANSPORTERS AND METABOLIC ENZYMES (FOR THE GILLETTE REVIEW SERIES)".  ^ Bummer, Paul (2012). Gastro Intestinal Tract and Oral Drug Absorption. University of Kentucky. 

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Concepts in pharmacology

Pharmacokinetics

(L)ADME: (Liberation) Absorption Distribution Metabolism Excretion
Excretion
(Clearance)

Loading dose Volume of distribution (Initial) Rate of infusion

Compartment Bioequivalence Bioavailability

Onset of action Biological half-life Mean residence time Plasma protein binding

Therapeutic index (Median lethal dose, Effective dose)

Pharmacodynamics

Mechanism of action Toxicity
Toxicity
(Neurotoxicology) Dose–response relationship
Dose–response relationship
(Efficacy, Potency)

Antimicrobial pharmacodynamics: Minimum inhibitory concentration (Bacteriostatic) Minimum bactericidal concentration (Bactericide)

Agonism and antagonism

Agonist: Inverse agonist Irreversible agonist Partial agonist Superagonist Physiological agonist

Antagonist: Competitive antagonist Irreversible antagonist Physiological antagonist

Other: Binding Affinity Binding selectivity Functional selectivity

Other

Drug
Drug
tolerance: Tachyphylaxis

Drug
Drug
resistance: Antibiotic resistance Multiple drug resistance

Drug
Drug
discovery strategies

Classical pharmacology

Reverse pharmacology

Related fields/subfields

Pharmacogenetics Pharmacogenomics

Neuropsychopharmacology (Neuropharmacology, Psychopharmacology)

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