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English ( Choctaw
Choctaw
official within Choctaw
Choctaw
Nation, Cherokee
Cherokee
official within Cherokee Nation
Cherokee Nation
and UKB)[1][2][3]

Demonym Oklahoman; Okie
Okie
(colloq.)

Capital (and largest city) Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City

Largest metro Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
metropolitan area

Area Ranked 20th

 • Total 69,690 sq mi (181,295 km2)

 • Width 230 miles (450 km)

 • Length 465 miles (750 km)

 • % water 1.8

 • Latitude 33°37' N to 37° N

 • Longitude 94° 26' W to 103° W

Population Ranked 28th

 • Total 3,923,561 (2016 est.)[4]

 • Density 55.2/sq mi  (21.3/km2) Ranked 35th

 • Median household income $47,000[5] (43rd)

Elevation

 • Highest point Black Mesa[6][7] 4,975 ft (1516 m)

 • Mean 1,300 ft  (400 m)

 • Lowest point Little River at Arkansas
Arkansas
border[6][7] 289 ft (88 m)

Before statehood Indian Territory
Indian Territory
(1834–1907)

Oklahoma Territory
Oklahoma Territory
(1890–1907)

Admission to Union November 16, 1907 (46th)

Governor Mary Fallin
Mary Fallin
(R)

Lieutenant Governor Todd Lamb (R)

Legislature Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Legislature

 • Upper house Senate

 • Lower house House of Representatives

U.S. Senators Jim Inhofe
Jim Inhofe
(R) James Lankford
James Lankford
(R)

U.S. House delegation 5 Republicans (list)

Time zones  

 • all of state (legally) Central: UTC -6/-5

 • Kenton (informally) Mountain: UTC -7/-6

ISO 3166 US-OK

Abbreviations OK, Okla.

Website www.ok.gov

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
state symbols

The Flag of Oklahoma

The Seal of Oklahoma

Living insignia

Amphibian Bullfrog

Bird Scissor-tailed Flycatcher

Fish White Bass

Flower

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Rose Wildflower: Indian Blanket

Grass Indian Grass

Insect European honey bee

Mammal American Bison
American Bison
(State symbol)

Reptile Mountain Boomer

Tree Redbud

Inanimate insignia

Beverage Milk[8]

Colors White and green (vice versa)

Dance Waltz: Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Wind

Dinosaur Acrocanthosaurus

Folk dance Square dance

Fossil Saurophaganax

Motto Labor omnia vincit

Nickname The Sooner State

Rock Rose Rock

Soil Port Silt Loam

Song "Oklahoma!"

Tartan Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Tartan

State route marker

State quarter

Released in 2008

Lists of United States state symbols

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
(/ˌoʊkləˈhoʊmə/ ( listen);[9] Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa,[10] Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh)[11] is a state in the South Central region of the United States.[12] It is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the 50 United States. The state's name is derived from the Choctaw
Choctaw
words okla and humma, meaning "red people".[13] It is also known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory
Oklahoma Territory
or before the Indian Appropriations Act
Indian Appropriations Act
of 1889, which dramatically increased European-American
European-American
settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory
Oklahoma Territory
and Indian Territory
Indian Territory
were merged into the State of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907. Its residents are known as Oklahomans, or informally as Okies, and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City. A major producer of natural gas, oil, and agricultural products, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
relies on an economic base of aviation, energy, telecommunications, and biotechnology.[14] Both Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
and Tulsa
Tulsa
serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two-thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas.[15] With small mountain ranges, prairie, mesas, and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, and the U.S. Interior Highlands, a region prone mainly to severe weather.[16] In addition to having a prevalence of English, German, Scottish, Scots-Irish, African American, and Native American ancestry, more than 25 Native American languages
Native American languages
are spoken in Oklahoma,[17] ranking third behind Alaska
Alaska
and California. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and historically served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, and a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Topography 2.2 Flora and fauna 2.3 Protected lands 2.4 Climate

3 History

3.1 20th and 21st centuries

4 Demographics

4.1 Cities and towns 4.2 Language 4.3 Religion

5 Economy

5.1 Industry 5.2 Energy

5.2.1 Wind generation

5.3 Agriculture

6 Education

6.1 Non-English education

7 Culture

7.1 Arts and theater 7.2 Festivals and events 7.3 Sports

7.3.1 Current teams

8 Health 9 Media 10 Transportation 11 Law and government

11.1 State government 11.2 Local government 11.3 National politics 11.4 Military

12 Cities and towns

12.1 Major cities

13 State symbols 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References 17 Further reading 18 External links

18.1 Government 18.2 Tourism and recreation 18.3 Culture and history 18.4 Maps and demographics

Etymology[edit] The name Oklahoma
Oklahoma
comes from the Choctaw
Choctaw
phrase okla humma, literally meaning red people. Choctaw Nation
Choctaw Nation
Chief Allen Wright
Allen Wright
suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language
Choctaw language
that described Native American people as a whole. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
later became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, and it was officially approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers.[13][18][19] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Oklahoma

Köppen climate types of Oklahoma

State rock (rose rock) specimens from Cleveland County, with a US quarter for size reference

American Bison

Elk
Elk
Mountain, in the eastern Wichita Mountains

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,898 square miles (181,035 km2), with 68,667 square miles (177,847 km2) of land and 1,281 square miles (3,188 km2) of water.[20] It lies partly in the Great Plains
Great Plains
near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas
Arkansas
and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, and on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas
Texas
lies along the Southern Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Aulacogen, a failed continental rift. The geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River. The Oklahoma
Oklahoma
panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas
Texas
border. The Oklahoma/ New Mexico
New Mexico
border is 2.1 to 2.2 miles east of the Texas
Texas
line. The border between Texas
Texas
and New Mexico
New Mexico
was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819. It was then set along the 103rd Meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma
Oklahoma
was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas
Texas
line was not set along the 103rd Meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, and the actual 103rd Meridian was approximately 2.2 miles to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas
Texas
to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error. The placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd Meridian. Cimarron County in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas, Colorado
Colorado
and Kansas. See also: List of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
tri-points Topography[edit] See also: List of lakes in Oklahoma Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is between the Great Plains
Great Plains
and the Ozark Plateau
Ozark Plateau
in the Gulf of Mexico watershed,[21] generally sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary.[22][23] Its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet (1,516 m) above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle. The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, Oklahoma, which dips to 289 feet (88 m) above sea level.[24]

The lower dam on Medicine Creek in Medicine Park, below Lake Lawtonka, built c. 1901 to serve the nearby city of Lawton. Medicine Park was one of the first resort communities established in the Wichita Mountains.

Wichita Mountains
Wichita Mountains
Narrows

Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders – more per square mile than in any other state.[16] Its western and eastern halves, however, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma
Oklahoma
touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma
Western Oklahoma
contains many rare, relic species.[16]

The Ouachita Mountains
Ouachita Mountains
cover much of southeastern Oklahoma.

Grave Creek in McIntosh County, Oklahoma

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, and the Ozark Mountains.[22] Contained within the U.S. Interior Highlands
U.S. Interior Highlands
region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains
Ouachita Mountains
are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
and the Appalachians.[25] A portion of the Flint Hills
Flint Hills
stretches into north-central Oklahoma, and near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill
Cavanal Hill
as the world's tallest hill; at 1,999 feet (609 m), it fails their definition of a mountain by one foot.[26] The semi-arid high plains in the state's northwestern corner harbor few natural forests; the region has a rolling to flat landscape with intermittent canyons and mesa ranges like the Glass Mountains. Partial plains interrupted by small, sky island mountain ranges like the Antelope Hills and the Wichita Mountains
Wichita Mountains
dot southwestern Oklahoma; transitional prairie and oak savannas cover the central portion of the state. The Ozark and Ouachita Mountains
Ouachita Mountains
rise from west to east over the state's eastern third, gradually increasing in elevation in an eastward direction.[23][27]

Turner Falls

More than 500 named creeks and rivers make up Oklahoma's waterways, and with 200 lakes created by dams, it holds the nation's highest number of artificial reservoirs.[26] Most of the state lies in two primary drainage basins belonging to the Red and Arkansas
Arkansas
rivers, though the Lee and Little rivers also contain significant drainage basins.[27] Flora and fauna[edit] See also: List of fauna of Oklahoma

Populations of American bison
American bison
inhabit the state's prairie ecosystems.

Due to Oklahoma's location at the confluence of many geographic regions, the state's climatic regions have a high rate of biodiversity. Forests cover 24 percent of Oklahoma[26] and prairie grasslands composed of shortgrass, mixed-grass, and tallgrass prairie, harbor expansive ecosystems in the state's central and western portions, although cropland has largely replaced native grasses.[28] Where rainfall is sparse in the state's western regions, shortgrass prairie and shrublands are the most prominent ecosystems, though pinyon pines, red cedar (junipers), and ponderosa pines grow near rivers and creek beds in the panhandle's far western reaches.[28] Southwestern Oklahoma
Southwestern Oklahoma
contains many rare, disjunct species including sugar maple, bigtooth maple, nolina and southern live oak. Marshlands, cypress forests and mixtures of shortleaf pine, loblolly pine, blue palmetto, and deciduous forests dominate the state's southeastern quarter, while mixtures of largely post oak, elm, red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) and pine forests cover northeastern Oklahoma.[27][28][29] The state holds populations of white-tailed deer, mule deer, antelope, coyotes, mountain lions, bobcats, elk, and birds such as quail, doves, cardinals, bald eagles, red-tailed hawks, and pheasants. In prairie ecosystems, American bison, greater prairie chickens, badgers, and armadillo are common, and some of the nation's largest prairie dog towns inhabit shortgrass prairie in the state's panhandle. The Cross Timbers, a region transitioning from prairie to woodlands in Central Oklahoma, harbors 351 vertebrate species. The Ouachita Mountains
Ouachita Mountains
are home to black bear, red fox, gray fox, and river otter populations, which coexist with 328 vertebrate species in southeastern Oklahoma. Also, in southeastern Oklahoma
Oklahoma
lives the American alligator.[28] Protected lands[edit]

Mesas rise above one of Oklahoma's state parks.

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
has 50 state parks,[30] six national parks or protected regions,[31] two national protected forests or grasslands,[32] and a network of wildlife preserves and conservation areas. Six percent of the state's 10 million acres (40,000 km2) of forest is public land,[29] including the western portions of the Ouachita National Forest, the largest and oldest national forest in the Southern United States.[33] With 39,000 acres (158 km2), the Tallgrass Prairie
Prairie
Preserve in north-central Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is the largest protected area of tallgrass prairie in the world and is part of an ecosystem that encompasses only 10 percent of its former land area, once covering 14 states.[34] In addition, the Black Kettle National Grassland
Grassland
covers 31,300 acres (127 km2) of prairie in southwestern Oklahoma.[35] The Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge is the oldest and largest of nine national wildlife refuges in the state[36] and was founded in 1901, encompassing 59,020 acres (238.8 km2).[37] Of Oklahoma's federally protected parks or recreational sites, the Chickasaw National Recreation Area
Chickasaw National Recreation Area
is the largest, with 9,898.63 acres (18 km2).[38] Other sites include the Santa Fe and Trail of Tears national historic trails, the Fort Smith and Washita Battlefield national historic sites, and the Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
National Memorial.[31] Climate[edit]

Oklahoma's climate is prime for the generation of thunderstorms

Winter at the Oklahoma Baptist University
Oklahoma Baptist University
campus

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is in a humid subtropical region.[39] Oklahoma
Oklahoma
lies in a transition zone between humid continental climate to the north, semi-arid climate to the west, and humid subtropical climate in the central, south and eastern portions of the state. Most of the state lies in an area known as Tornado Alley
Tornado Alley
characterized by frequent interaction between cold, dry air from Canada, warm to hot, dry air from Mexico and the Southwestern U.S., and warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico. The interactions between these three contrasting air currents produces severe weather (severe thunderstorms, damaging thunderstorm winds, large hail and tornadoes) with a frequency virtually unseen anywhere else on planet Earth.[24] An average 62 tornadoes strike the state per year—one of the highest rates in the world.[40] Because of Oklahoma's position between zones of differing prevailing temperature and winds, weather patterns within the state can vary widely over relatively short distances and can change drastically in a short time.[24] As an example, on November 11, 1911, the temperature at Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
reached 83 °F (28 °C) in the afternoon (the record high for that date), then an Arctic cold front of unprecedented intensity slammed across the state, causing the temperature to fall 66 degrees, down to 17 °F (−8 °C) at midnight (the record low for that date); thus, both the record high and record low for November 11 were set on the same date.[41] This type of phenomenon is also responsible for many of the tornadoes in the area, such as the 1912 Oklahoma
Oklahoma
tornado outbreak, when a warm front traveled along a stalled cold front, resulting in an average of about one tornado per hour over the course of a day.[42] The humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa) of central, southern and eastern Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is influenced heavily by southerly winds bringing moisture from the Gulf of Mexico. Traveling westward, the climate transitions progressively toward a semi-arid zone (Koppen BSk) in the high plains of the Panhandle and other western areas from about Lawton westward, less frequently touched by southern moisture.[39] Precipitation and temperatures decline from east to west accordingly, with areas in the southeast averaging an annual temperature of 62 °F (17 °C) and an annual rainfall of generally over 40 inches (1,020 mm) and up to 56 inches (1,420 mm), while areas of the (higher-elevation) panhandle average 58 °F (14 °C), with an annual rainfall under 17 inches (430 mm).[43] Over almost all of Oklahoma, winter is the driest season. Average monthly precipitation increases dramatically in the spring to a peak in May, the wettest month over most of the state, with its frequent and not uncommonly severe thunderstorm activity. Early June can still be wet, but most years see a marked decrease in rainfall during June and early July. Mid-summer (July and August) represents a secondary dry season over much of Oklahoma, with long stretches of hot weather with only sporadic thunderstorm activity not uncommon many years. Severe drought is common in the hottest summers, such as those of 1934, 1954, 1980 and 2011, all of which featured weeks on end of virtual rainlessness and high temperatures well over 100 °F (38 °C). Average precipitation rises again from September to mid-October, representing a secondary wetter season, then declines from late October through December.[24] All of the state frequently experiences temperatures above 100 °F (38 °C) or below 0 °F (−18 °C),[39] though below-zero temperatures are rare in south-central and southeastern Oklahoma. Snowfall ranges from an average of less than 4 inches (10 cm) in the south to just over 20 inches (51 cm) on the border of Colorado
Colorado
in the panhandle.[24] The state is home to the Storm Prediction Center, the National Severe Storms Laboratory, and the Warning Decision Training Division, all part of the National Weather Service and in Norman.[44] Oklahoma's highest recorded temperature of 120 °F (49 °C) was recorded at Tipton on June 27, 1994 and the lowest recorded temperature of −31 °F (−35 °C) was recorded at Nowata on February 10, 2011.

Monthly temperatures for Oklahoma's largest cities

City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City 50/29 55/33 63/41 73/50 80/60 88/68 94/72 93/71 85/63 73/52 62/40 51/31

Tulsa 48/27 53/31 62/40 72/49 79/59 88/68 93/73 93/71 84/62 73/51 61/40 49/30

Lawton 50/26 56/31 65/40 73/49 82/59 90/68 96/73 95/71 86/63 76/51 62/39 52/30

Average high/low temperatures in °F[45][46]

History[edit] Main article: History of Oklahoma

Map of Indian Territory
Indian Territory
(Oklahoma) 1889. Britannica 9th ed.

Evidence suggests indigenous peoples traveled through Oklahoma
Oklahoma
as early as the last ice age.[47] Ancestors of the Wichita, Kichai, Teyas, Escanjaques, and Caddo
Caddo
lived in what is now Oklahoma. Southern Plains Villagers lived in the central and west of the state, with a subgroup, the Panhandle culture
Panhandle culture
people living in panhandle region. Caddoan Mississippian culture peoples lived in the eastern part of the state. Spiro Mounds, in what is now Spiro, Oklahoma, was a major Mississippian mound complex that flourished between AD 850 and 1450.[48][49] The Spaniard Francisco Vázquez de Coronado
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado
traveled through the state in 1541,[50] but French explorers claimed the area in the 1700s.[51] In the 18th century, Kiowa, Apache, and Comanche
Comanche
entered the region from the west and Quapaw
Quapaw
and Osage peoples moved into what is now eastern Oklahoma. French colonists claimed the region until 1803, when all the French territory west of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
was purchased by the United States in the Louisiana
Louisiana
Purchase.[50] The territory now known as Oklahoma
Oklahoma
was first a part of the Arkansas Territory from 1819 until 1828. During the 19th century, thousands of Native Americans were expelled from their ancestral homelands from across North America and transported to the area including and surrounding present-day Oklahoma. The Choctaw
Choctaw
was the first of the Five Civilized Tribes
Five Civilized Tribes
to be removed from the Southeastern United States. The phrase "Trail of Tears" originated from a description of the removal of the Choctaw Nation in 1831, although the term is usually used for the Cherokee removal.[52] Seventeen thousand Cherokees and 2,000 of their black slaves were deported.[53] The area, already occupied by Osage and Quapaw
Quapaw
tribes, was called for the Choctaw Nation
Choctaw Nation
until revised Native American and then later American policy redefined the boundaries to include other Native Americans. By 1890, more than 30 Native American nations and tribes had been concentrated on land within Indian Territory
Indian Territory
or "Indian Country".[54] All Five Civilized Tribes
Five Civilized Tribes
supported and signed treaties with the Confederate military during the American Civil War.[55] The Cherokee Nation had an internal civil war.[56] Slavery in Indian Territory
Indian Territory
was not abolished until 1866.[57] In the period between 1866 and 1899,[50] cattle ranches in Texas strove to meet the demands for food in eastern cities and railroads in Kansas
Kansas
promised to deliver in a timely manner. Cattle trails and cattle ranches developed as cowboys either drove their product north or settled illegally in Indian Territory.[50] In 1881, four of five major cattle trails on the western frontier traveled through Indian Territory.[58] Increased presence of white settlers in Indian Territory
Indian Territory
prompted the United States Government to establish the Dawes Act
Dawes Act
in 1887, which divided the lands of individual tribes into allotments for individual families, encouraging farming and private land ownership among Native Americans but expropriating land to the federal government. In the process, railroad companies took nearly half of Indian-held land within the territory for outside settlers and for purchase.[59]

The Dust Bowl
Dust Bowl
sent thousands of farmers into poverty during the 1930s.

Major land runs, including the Land Run of 1889, were held for settlers where certain territories were opened to settlement starting at a precise time. Usually land was open to settlers on a first come first served basis.[60] Those who broke the rules by crossing the border into the territory before the official opening time were said to have been crossing the border sooner, leading to the term sooners, which eventually became the state's official nickname.[61] Deliberations to make the territory into a state began near the end of the 19th century, when the Curtis Act
Curtis Act
continued the allotment of Indian tribal land. 20th and 21st centuries[edit] Attempts to create an all-Indian state named Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and a later attempt to create an all-Indian state named Sequoyah failed but the Sequoyah Statehood Convention of 1905 eventually laid the groundwork for the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Statehood Convention, which took place two years later.[62] On November 16, 1907, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
was established as the 46th state in the Union.

The bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building
Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building
in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City was one of the deadliest acts of terrorism in American history.

The new state became a focal point for the emerging oil industry, as discoveries of oil pools prompted towns to grow rapidly in population and wealth. Tulsa
Tulsa
eventually became known as the "Oil Capital of the World" for most of the 20th century and oil investments fueled much of the state's early economy.[63] In 1927, Oklahoman businessman Cyrus Avery, known as the "Father of Route 66", began the campaign to create U.S. Route 66. Using a stretch of highway from Amarillo, Texas
Texas
to Tulsa, Oklahoma
Tulsa, Oklahoma
to form the original portion of Highway 66, Avery spearheaded the creation of the U.S. Highway 66 Association to oversee the planning of Route 66, based in his hometown of Tulsa.[64] Oklahoma
Oklahoma
also has a rich African American
African American
history. Many black towns thrived in the early 20th century because of black settlers moving from neighboring states, especially Kansas. The politician Edward P. McCabe encouraged black settlers to come to what was then Indian Territory. He discussed with President Theodore Roosevelt the possibility of making Oklahoma
Oklahoma
a majority-black state. By the early 20th century, the Greenwood neighborhood of Tulsa
Tulsa
was one of the most prosperous African-American communities in the United States.[65] Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws
had established racial segregation since before the start of the 20th century, but the blacks had created a thriving area. Social tensions were exacerbated by the revival of the Ku Klux Klan after 1915. The Tulsa Race Riot
Tulsa Race Riot
broke out in 1921, with whites attacking blacks. In one of the costliest episodes of racial violence in American history, sixteen hours of rioting resulted in 35 city blocks destroyed, $1.8 million in property damage, and a death toll estimated to be as high as 300 people.[66] By the late 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan had declined to negligible influence within the state.[67] During the 1930s, parts of the state began suffering the consequences of poor farming practices, extended drought and high winds. Known as the Dust Bowl, areas of Kansas, Texas, New Mexico
New Mexico
and northwestern Oklahoma
Oklahoma
were hampered by long periods of little rainfall and abnormally high temperatures, sending thousands of farmers into poverty and forcing them to relocate to more fertile areas of the western United States.[68] Over a twenty-year period ending in 1950, the state saw its only historical decline in population, dropping 6.9 percent as impoverished families migrated out of the state after the Dust Bowl. Soil and water conservation projects markedly changed practices in the state and led to the construction of massive flood control systems and dams; they built hundreds of reservoirs and man-made lakes to supply water for domestic needs and agricultural irrigation. By the 1960s, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
had created more than 200 lakes, the most in the nation.[16][69] In 1995, Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
was the site of one of the most destructive acts of domestic terrorism in American history. The Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City bombing of April 19, 1995, in which Timothy McVeigh
Timothy McVeigh
detonated a large, crude explosive device outside the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, killed 168 people, including 19 children. For his crime, McVeigh was executed by the federal government on June 11, 2001. His accomplice, Terry Nichols, is serving life in prison without parole for helping plan the attack and prepare the explosive.[70] On May 31, 2016, several cities experienced record setting flooding.[71][72] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Oklahoma

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
population density map

Historical population

Census Pop.

1890 258,657

1900 790,391

205.6%

1910 1,657,155

109.7%

1920 2,028,283

22.4%

1930 2,396,040

18.1%

1940 2,336,434

−2.5%

1950 2,233,351

−4.4%

1960 2,328,284

4.3%

1970 2,559,229

9.9%

1980 3,025,290

18.2%

1990 3,145,585

4.0%

2000 3,450,654

9.7%

2010 3,751,351

8.7%

Est. 2017 3,930,864

4.8%

U.S. Decennial Census[73] 2015 Estimate[74]

The United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
estimates Oklahoma's population was 3,923,561 on July 1, 2016, a 4.6% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[75] At the 2010 Census, 68.7% of the population was non-Hispanic White, down from 88% in 1970,[76] 7.3% non-Hispanic Black or African American, 8.2% non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska
Alaska
Native, 1.7% non-Hispanic Asian, 0.1% non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and Other Pacific Islander, 0.1% from some other race (non-Hispanic) and 5.1% of two or more races (non-Hispanic). 8.9% of Oklahoma's population was of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin (they may be of any race).

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
racial breakdown of population

Racial composition 1970[76] 1990[76] 2000[77] 2010[78]

White 89.1% 82.1% 76.2% 72.0%

Native 3.8% 8.0% 7.9% 8.7%

Black 6.7% 7.4% 7.6% 7.4%

Asian 0.1% 1.1% 1.4% 1.7%

Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific Islander – – 0.1% 0.1%

Other race 0.2% 1.3% 2.4% 4.1%

Two or more races – – 4.5% 6.0%

As of 2011[update], 47.3% of Oklahoma's population younger than age 1 were minorities, meaning they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white.[79] As of 2005[update] Oklahoma's estimated ancestral makeup was 14.5% German, 13.1% American, 11.8% Irish, 9.6% English, 8.1% African American, and 11.4% Native American (including 7.9% Cherokee[80]) though the percentage of people claiming American Indian as their only race was 8.1%.[81] Most people from Oklahoma
Oklahoma
who self-identify as having American ancestry
American ancestry
are of overwhelmingly English ancestry with significant amounts of Scottish and Welsh inflection as well.[82][83] The state had the second-highest number of Native Americans in 2002, estimated at 395,219, as well as the second highest percentage among all states.[80] In 2011, U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
American Community Survey
American Community Survey
data from 2005–2009 indicated about 5% of Oklahoma's residents were born outside the United States. This is lower than the national figure (about 12.5% of U.S. residents were foreign-born).[84] The center of population of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is in Lincoln County near the town of Sparks.[85] The state's 2006 per capita personal income ranked 37th at $32,210, though it has the third fastest-growing per capita income in the nation[86] and ranks consistently among the lowest states in cost of living index.[87] The Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
suburb Nichols Hills is first on Oklahoma locations by per capita income
Oklahoma locations by per capita income
at $73,661, though Tulsa County holds the highest average.[88][89] In 2011, 7.0% of Oklahomans were under the age of 5, 24.7% under 18, and 13.7% were 65 or older. Females made up 50.5% of the population.[90]

Demographics of Oklahoma
Demographics of Oklahoma
(csv)

By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*

2000 (total population) 82.59% 8.31% 11.39% 1.71% 0.15%

2000 (Hispanic only) 4.73% 0.19% 0.37% 0.05% 0.02%

2005 (total population) 82.20% 8.55% 11.31% 1.92% 0.16%

2005 (Hispanic only) 6.10% 0.24% 0.35% 0.06% 0.03%

Growth 2000–05 (total population) 2.33% 5.76% 2.04% 15.49% 9.51%

Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 0.50% 5.17% 2.22% 15.19% 9.47%

Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 32.58% 31.44% -3.27% 25.17% 9.69%

* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

Cities and towns[edit] The state is in the U.S. Census' Southern region. According to the 2010 United States Census, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is the 28th most populous state with 7006375161600000000♠3,751,616 inhabitants but the 19th largest by land area spanning 68,594.92 square miles (177,660.0 km2) of land.[91] Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is divided into 77 counties and contains 597 incorporated municipalities consisting of cities and towns.[92] In Oklahoma, cities are all those incorporated communities which are 1,000 or more in population and are incorporated as cities.[93] Towns are limited to town board type of municipal government. Cities may choose among aldermanic, mayoral, council-manager, and home-rule charter types of government.[94] Cities may also petition to incorporate as towns.[95]

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Oklahoma Source (2016 est.):[96]

Rank Name County Pop.

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City

Tulsa 1 Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City Oklahoma 638,367

Norman

Broken Arrow

2 Tulsa Tulsa 403,090

3 Norman Cleveland 122,180

4 Broken Arrow Tulsa 107,403

5 Lawton Comanche 94,653

6 Edmond Oklahoma 91,191

7 Moore Cleveland 61,415

8 Midwest City Oklahoma 57,305

9 Enid Garfield 51,004

10 Stillwater Payne 49,504

Language[edit]

Recording of a Cherokee language
Cherokee language
stomp dance ceremony in Oklahoma

Bilingual
Bilingual
stop sign in English and the Cherokee
Cherokee
syllabary, Tahlequah, Oklahoma

The English language has been official in the state of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
since 2010.[97] The variety of North American English
North American English
spoken is called Oklahoma
Oklahoma
English, and this dialect is quite diverse with its uneven blending of features of North Midland, South Midland, and Southern dialects.[98] In 2000, 2,977,187 Oklahomans—92.6% of the resident population five years or older—spoke only English at home, a decrease from 95% in 1990.[98] 238,732 Oklahoma
Oklahoma
residents reported speaking a language other than English in the 2000 census, about 7.4% of the state's population.[98] Spanish is the second-most commonly spoken language in the state, with 141,060 speakers counted in 2000.[98] The two most commonly spoken native North American languages are Cherokee
Cherokee
and Choctaw
Choctaw
with 10,000 Cherokee
Cherokee
speakers living within the Cherokee Nation
Cherokee Nation
tribal jurisdiction area of eastern Oklahoma, and another 10,000 Choctaw
Choctaw
speakers living in the Choctaw Nation
Choctaw Nation
directly south of the Cherokees.[99] Cherokee
Cherokee
is an official language in the Cherokee Nation
Cherokee Nation
tribal jurisdiction area and in the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee
Cherokee
Indians.[1][2][3]

Top 10 non-English languages spoken in Oklahoma

Language Percentage of population (as of 2000[update])[100]

Spanish 4.4%

Native North American languages 0.6%

German and Vietnamese (tied) 0.4%

French 0.3%

Chinese 0.2%

Korean, Arabic, Tagalog, Japanese (tied) 0.1%

German has 13,444 speakers representing about 0.4% of the state's population,[98] and Vietnamese is spoken by 11,330 people,[98] or about 0.4% of the population,[98] many of whom live in the Asia District of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City. Other languages include French with 8,258 speakers (0.3%), Chinese with 6,413 (0.2%), Korean with 3,948 (0.1%), Arabic with 3,265 (0.1%), other Asian languages with 3,134 (0.1%), Tagalog with 2,888 (0.1%), Japanese with 2,546 (0.1%), and African languages with 2,546 (0.1%).[98] In addition to Cherokee, more than 25 Native American languages
Native American languages
are spoken in Oklahoma,[17] second only to California
California
(though, it should be noted only Cherokee
Cherokee
exhibits language vitality at present). Religion[edit]

The Boston Avenue Methodist Church
Boston Avenue Methodist Church
in Tulsa
Tulsa
is a National Historic Landmark.

Religion in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
(2014)[101]

Religion

Percent

Protestant

69%

None

18%

Catholic

8%

Mormon

1%

Other faith

2%

Unanswered

1%

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is part of a geographical region characterized by conservative and Evangelical Christianity known as the "Bible Belt". Spanning the southern and eastern parts of the United States, the area is known for politically and socially conservative views, with the Republican Party having the greater number of voters registered between the two parties.[102] Tulsa, the state's second-largest city, home to Oral Roberts University, is sometimes called the "buckle of the Bible Belt".[103][104] According to the Pew Research Center, the majority of Oklahoma's religious adherents are Christian, accounting for about 80 percent of the population. The percentage of Oklahomans affiliated with Catholicism is half of the national average, while the percentage affiliated with Evangelical Protestantism is more than twice the national average – tied with Arkansas
Arkansas
for the largest percentage of any state.[105]

The Cathedral of Our Lady of Perpetual Help in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City.

In 2010, the state's largest church memberships were in the Southern Baptist Convention (886,394 members), the United Methodist Church (282,347), the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church (178,430), and the Assemblies of God (85,926) and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints[106] (47,349). Other religions represented in the state include Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam.[107] In 2000, there were about 5,000 Jews and 6,000 Muslims, with 10 congregations to each group.[108] Oklahoma
Oklahoma
religious makeup:[108][A]

Evangelical Protestant
Protestant
– 53% Mainline Protestant
Protestant
– 16% Roman Catholic
Catholic
– 13% Other – 6%[B] Unaffiliated – 12%

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Oklahoma See also: Oklahoma
Oklahoma
locations by per capita income

The BOK Tower
BOK Tower
of Tulsa, Oklahoma's second tallest building, serves as the world headquarters for Williams Companies.

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is host to a diverse range of sectors including aviation, energy, transportation equipment, food processing, electronics, and telecommunications. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is an important producer of natural gas, aircraft, and food.[14] The state ranks third in the nation for production of natural gas, is the 27th-most agriculturally productive state, and also ranks 5th in production of wheat.[109] Four Fortune 500 companies and six Fortune 1000
Fortune 1000
companies are headquartered in Oklahoma,[110] and it has been rated one of the most business-friendly states in the nation,[111] with the 7th-lowest tax burden in 2007.[112] In 2010, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City-based Love's Travel Stops & Country Stores ranked 18th on the Forbes
Forbes
list of largest private companies, Tulsa-based QuikTrip
QuikTrip
ranked 37th, and Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City-based Hobby Lobby ranked 198th in 2010 report.[113] Oklahoma's gross domestic product grew from $131.9 billion in 2006 to $147.5 billion in 2010, a jump of 10.6 percent.[114] Oklahoma's gross domestic product per capita was $35,480 in 2010, which was ranked 40th among the states.[115] Though oil has historically dominated the state's economy, a collapse in the energy industry during the 1980s led to the loss of nearly 90,000 energy-related jobs between 1980 and 2000, severely damaging the local economy.[116] Oil accounted for 35 billion dollars in Oklahoma's economy in 2007,[117] and employment in the state's oil industry was outpaced by five other industries in 2007.[118] As of July 2017[update], the state's unemployment rate is 4.4%.[119] Industry[edit] In mid-2011, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
had a civilian labor force of 1.7 million and non-farm employment fluctuated around 1.5 million.[118] The government sector provides the most jobs, with 339,300 in 2011, followed by the transportation and utilities sector, providing 279,500 jobs, and the sectors of education, business, and manufacturing, providing 207,800, 177,400, and 132,700 jobs, respectively.[118] Among the state's largest industries, the aerospace sector generates $11 billion annually.[111] Tulsa
Tulsa
is home to the largest airline maintenance base in the world, which serves as the global maintenance and engineering headquarters for American Airlines.[120] In total, aerospace accounts for more than 10 percent of Oklahoma's industrial output, and it is one of the top 10 states in aerospace engine manufacturing.[14] Because of its position in the center of the United States, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is also among the top states for logistic centers, and a major contributor to weather-related research.[111] The state is the top manufacturer of tires in North America and contains one of the fastest-growing biotechnology industries in the nation.[111] In 2005, international exports from Oklahoma's manufacturing industry totaled $4.3 billion, accounting for 3.6 percent of its economic impact.[121] Tire manufacturing, meat processing, oil and gas equipment manufacturing, and air conditioner manufacturing are the state's largest manufacturing industries.[122] Energy[edit]

A major oil producing state, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is the fifth-largest producer of crude oil in the United States.[117]

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is the nation's third-largest producer of natural gas, fifth-largest producer of crude oil, and has the second-greatest number of active drilling rigs,[117][123] and ranks fifth in crude oil reserves.[124] While the state ranked eighth for installed wind energy capacity in 2011,[125] it is at the bottom of states in usage of renewable energy, with 94 percent of its electricity being generated by non-renewable sources in 2009, including 25 percent from coal and 46 percent from natural gas.[126] Oklahoma
Oklahoma
has no nuclear power. Ranking 13th for total energy consumption per capita in 2009,[127] Oklahoma's energy costs were 8th lowest in the nation.[128] As a whole, the oil energy industry contributes $35 billion to Oklahoma's gross domestic product, and employees of Oklahoma oil-related companies earn an average of twice the state's typical yearly income.[117] In 2009, the state had 83,700 commercial oil wells churning 65.374 million barrels (10,393,600 m3) of crude oil.[129] Eight and a half percent of the nation's natural gas supply is held in Oklahoma, with 1.673 trillion cubic feet (47.4 km3) being produced in 2009.[129] The Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Stack Play is a geographic referenced area in the Anadarko Basin. The oil field "Sooner Trend", Anadarko basin and the counties of Kingfisher and Canadian make up the basis for the " Oklahoma
Oklahoma
STACK". Other Plays such as the Eagle Ford are geological rather than geographical. [130] According to Forbes
Forbes
magazine, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City-based Devon Energy Corporation, Chesapeake Energy
Chesapeake Energy
Corporation, and SandRidge Energy Corporation are the largest private oil-related companies in the nation,[131] and all of Oklahoma's Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies are energy-related.[110] Tulsa's ONEOK
ONEOK
and Williams Companies
Williams Companies
are the state's largest and second-largest companies respectively, also ranking as the nation's second- and third-largest companies in the field of energy, according to Fortune magazine.[132] The magazine also placed Devon Energy
Devon Energy
as the second-largest company in the mining and crude oil-producing industry in the nation, while Chesapeake Energy ranks seventh respectively in that sector and Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Gas & Electric ranks as the 25th-largest gas and electric utility company.[132] Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Gas & Electric, commonly referred to as OG&E (NYSE: OGE) operates four base electric power plants in Oklahoma. Two of them are coal-fired power plants: one in Muskogee, and the other in Redrock. Two are gas-fired power plants: one in Harrah and the other in Konawa. OG&E was the first electric company in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
to generate electricity from wind farms in 2003.[133] Wind generation[edit] Main article: Wind power in Oklahoma

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Wind Generation (GWh, Million kWh)

Year Total January February March April May June July August September October November December

2009 2,698 183 182 233 233 159 175 140 172 152 253 269 308

2010 3,808 252 187 389 400 305 360 265 260 311 299 408 375

2011 5,369 319 446 519 531 510 513 329 335 337 487 574 469

2012

632 555 744 634 726 639 570 453 516

100

Source:[134][135] Agriculture[edit] The 27th-most agriculturally productive state, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is fifth in cattle production and fifth in production of wheat.[109][136] Approximately 5.5 percent of American beef comes from Oklahoma, while the state produces 6.1 percent of American wheat, 4.2 percent of American pig products, and 2.2 percent of dairy products.[109] The state had 85,500 farms in 2012, collectively producing $4.3 billion in animal products and fewer than one billion dollars in crop output with more than $6.1 billion added to the state's gross domestic product.[109] Poultry and swine are its second and third-largest agricultural industries.[136] Education[edit] See also: List of school districts in Oklahoma
List of school districts in Oklahoma
and List of colleges and universities in Oklahoma

Oklahoma's system of public regional universities includes Northeastern State University
Northeastern State University
in Tahlequah.

With an educational system made up of public school districts and independent private institutions, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
had 638,817 students enrolled in 1,845 public primary, secondary, and vocational schools in 533 school districts as of 2008[update].[137] Oklahoma
Oklahoma
has the highest enrollment of Native American students in the nation with 126,078 students in the 2009–10 school year.[138] Ranked near the bottom of states in expenditures per student, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
spent $7,755 for each student in 2008, 47th in the nation,[137] though its growth of total education expenditures between 1992 and 2002 ranked 22nd.[139] The state is among the best in pre-kindergarten education, and the National Institute for Early Education Research rated it first in the United States with regard to standards, quality, and access to pre-kindergarten education in 2004, calling it a model for early childhood schooling.[140] High school dropout rate decreased from 3.1 to 2.5 percent between 2007 and 2008 with Oklahoma
Oklahoma
ranked among 18 other states with 3 percent or less dropout rate.[141] In 2004, the state ranked 36th in the nation for the relative number of adults with high school diplomas, though at 85.2 percent, it had the highest rate among Southern states.[142][143] The University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
State University, the University of Central Oklahoma, and Northeastern State University
Northeastern State University
are the largest public institutions of higher education in Oklahoma, operating through one primary campus and satellite campuses throughout the state. The two state universities, along with Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
University and the University of Tulsa, rank among the country's best in undergraduate business programs.[144] Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
University School of Law, University of Oklahoma
University of Oklahoma
College of Law, and University of Tulsa
University of Tulsa
College of Law are the state's only ABA accredited institutions. Both University of Oklahoma
University of Oklahoma
and University of Tulsa
University of Tulsa
are Tier 1 institutions, with the University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
ranked 68th and the University of Tulsa
University of Tulsa
ranked 86th in the nation.[145] Oklahoma
Oklahoma
holds eleven public regional universities,[146] including Northeastern State University, the second-oldest institution of higher education west of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River,[147] also containing the only College of Optometry
Optometry
in Oklahoma[148] and the largest enrollment of Native American students in the nation by percentage and amount.[147][149] Langston University
Langston University
is Oklahoma's only historically black college. Six of the state's universities were placed in the Princeton Review's list of best 122 regional colleges in 2007,[150] and three made the list of top colleges for best value. The state has 55 post-secondary technical institutions operated by Oklahoma's CareerTech program for training in specific fields of industry or trade.[137] In the 2007–2008 school year, there were 181,973 undergraduate students, 20,014 graduate students, and 4,395 first-professional degree students enrolled in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
colleges. Of these students, 18,892 received a bachelor's degree, 5,386 received a master's degree, and 462 received a first professional degree. This means the state of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
produces an average of 38,278 degree-holders per completions component (i.e. July 1, 2007 – June 30, 2008). National average is 68,322 total degrees awarded per completions component.[151] Beginning on April 2, 2018, tens of thousands of K–12 public school teachers went on strike due to lack of funding. According to the National Education Association, teachers in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
had ranked 49th out of the 50 states in terms of teacher pay in 2016. The Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Legislature
Legislature
had passed a measure a week earlier to raise teacher salaries by $6,100, but it fell short of the $10,000 raise for teachers, $5,000 raise for other school employees, and $200 million increase in extra education funding many had sought.[152] Non-English education[edit]

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Cherokee language
Cherokee language
immersion school student writing in the Cherokee
Cherokee
syllabary

The Cherokee Nation
Cherokee Nation
instigated a 10-year language preservation plan that involved growing new fluent speakers of the Cherokee
Cherokee
language from childhood on up through school immersion programs as well as a collaborative community effort to continue to use the language at home.[153] This plan was part of an ambitious goal that in 50 years, 80% or more of the Cherokee
Cherokee
people will be fluent in the language.[154] The Cherokee
Cherokee
Preservation Foundation has invested $3 million into opening schools, training teachers, and developing curricula for language education, as well as initiating community gatherings where the language can be actively used.[154] A Cherokee language immersion school in Tahlequah, Oklahoma
Tahlequah, Oklahoma
educates students from pre-school through eighth grade.[155] Graduates are fluent speakers of the language. Several universities offer Cherokee
Cherokee
as a second language, including the University of Oklahoma
University of Oklahoma
and Northeastern State University. Culture[edit]

Oklahoma's heritage as a pioneer state is depicted with the Pioneer Woman statue in Ponca City.

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is placed in the South by the United States Census Bureau,[12] but lies fully or partially in the Midwest, Southwest, and Southern cultural regions by varying definitions, and partially in the Upland South
Upland South
and Great Plains
Great Plains
by definitions of abstract geographical-cultural regions.[156] Oklahomans have a high rate of English, Scotch-Irish, German, and Native American ancestry,[157] with 25 different native languages spoken.[17] Because many Native Americans were forced to move to Oklahoma
Oklahoma
when White settlement in North America increased, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
has much linguistic diversity. Mary Linn, an associate professor of anthropology at the University of Oklahoma
University of Oklahoma
and the associate curator of Native American languages
Native American languages
at the Sam Noble Museum, notes Oklahoma also has high levels of language endangerment.[158] Sixty-seven Native American tribes are represented in Oklahoma,[50] including 39 federally recognized tribes, who are headquartered and have tribal jurisdictional areas in the state.[159] Western ranchers, Native American tribes, Southern settlers, and eastern oil barons have shaped the state's cultural predisposition, and its largest cities have been named among the most underrated cultural destinations in the United States.[160][161] Residents of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
are associated with traits of Southern hospitality – the 2006 Catalogue for Philanthropy (with data from 2004) ranks Oklahomans 7th in the nation for overall generosity.[162] The state has also been associated with a negative cultural stereotype first popularized by John Steinbeck's novel The Grapes of Wrath, which described the plight of uneducated, poverty-stricken Dust Bowl-era farmers deemed "Okies".[163][164] However, the term is often used in a positive manner by Oklahomans.[163] Arts and theater[edit]

Philbrook Museum
Philbrook Museum
is one of the top 50 fine art museums in the United States.[165]

Further information: List of Native American artists from Oklahoma In the state's largest urban areas, pockets of jazz culture flourish,[166] and Native American, Mexican American, and Asian American communities produce music and art of their respective cultures.[167] The Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Mozart Festival in Bartlesville
Bartlesville
is one of the largest classical music festivals on the southern plains,[168] and Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City's Festival of the Arts has been named one of the top fine arts festivals in the nation.[166] The state has a rich history in ballet with five Native American ballerinas attaining worldwide fame. These were Yvonne Chouteau, sisters Marjorie and Maria Tallchief, Rosella Hightower
Rosella Hightower
and Moscelyne Larkin, known collectively as the Five Moons. The New York Times
New York Times
rates the Tulsa Ballet as one of the top ballet companies in the United States.[166] The Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
Ballet and University of Oklahoma's dance program were formed by ballerina Yvonne Chouteau and husband Miguel Terekhov. The University program was founded in 1962 and was the first fully accredited program of its kind in the United States.[169][170] In Sand Springs, an outdoor amphitheater called "Discoveryland!" is the official performance headquarters for the musical Oklahoma![171] Ridge Bond, native of McAlester, Oklahoma,[172] starred in the Broadway and International touring productions of Oklahoma!,[173][174][175][176] playing the role of "Curly McClain" in more than 2,600 performances.[173][177] In 1953 he was featured along with the Oklahoma! cast on a CBS
CBS
Omnibus television broadcast.[177] Bond was instrumental in the title song becoming the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
state song[172][178] and is also featured on the U.S. postage stamp commemorating the musical's 50th anniversary.[173][179] Historically, the state has produced musical styles such as The Tulsa Sound
The Tulsa Sound
and western swing, which was popularized at Cain's Ballroom
Cain's Ballroom
in Tulsa. The building, known as the "Carnegie Hall of Western Swing",[180] served as the performance headquarters of Bob Wills
Bob Wills
and the Texas
Texas
Playboys during the 1930s.[181] Stillwater is known as the epicenter of Red Dirt music, the best-known proponent of which is the late Bob Childers. Prominent theatre companies in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
include, in the capital city, Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
Theatre Company, Carpenter Square Theatre, Oklahoma Shakespeare in the Park, and CityRep. CityRep is a professional company affording equity points to those performers and technical theatre professionals. In Tulsa, Oklahoma's oldest resident professional company is American Theatre Company, and Theatre Tulsa is the oldest community theatre company west of the Mississippi. Other companies in Tulsa
Tulsa
include Heller Theatre and Tulsa
Tulsa
Spotlight Theater. The cities of Norman, Lawton, and Stillwater, among others, also host well-reviewed community theatre companies. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is in the nation's middle percentile in per capita spending on the arts, ranking 17th, and contains more than 300 museums.[166] The Philbrook Museum
Philbrook Museum
of Tulsa
Tulsa
is considered one of the top 50 fine art museums in the United States,[165] and the Sam Noble Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Museum of Natural History in Norman, one of the largest university-based art and history museums in the country, documents the natural history of the region.[166] The collections of Thomas Gilcrease
Thomas Gilcrease
are housed in the Gilcrease Museum
Gilcrease Museum
of Tulsa, which also holds the world's largest, most comprehensive collection of art and artifacts of the American West.[182] The Egyptian art collection at the Mabee-Gerrer Museum of Art
Mabee-Gerrer Museum of Art
in Shawnee is considered to be the finest Egyptian collection between Chicago
Chicago
and Los Angeles.[183] The Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
Museum of Art contains the most comprehensive collection of glass sculptures by artist Dale Chihuly in the world,[184] and Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City's National Cowboy
Cowboy
and Western Heritage Museum documents the heritage of the American Western frontier.[166] With remnants of the Holocaust and artifacts relevant to Judaism, the Sherwin Miller Museum of Jewish Art of Tulsa
Tulsa
preserves the largest collection of Jewish art in the Southwest United States.[185] Festivals and events[edit]

National Powwow dancer of the Cherokee
Cherokee
of Oklahoma, 2007

Oklahoma's centennial celebration was named the top event in the United States for 2007 by the American Bus Association,[186] and consisted of multiple celebrations saving with the 100th anniversary of statehood on November 16, 2007. Annual ethnic festivals and events take place throughout the state such as Native American powwows and ceremonial events, and include festivals (as examples) in Scottish, Irish, German, Italian, Vietnamese, Chinese, Czech, Jewish, Arab, Mexican and African-American communities depicting cultural heritage or traditions. During a 10-day run in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City, the State Fair of Oklahoma attracts roughly one million people[187] along with the annual Festival of the Arts. Large national pow-wows, various Latin and Asian heritage festivals, and cultural festivals such as the Juneteenth celebrations are held in Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
each year. The Tulsa
Tulsa
State Fair attracts over one million people during its 10-day run,[188] and the city's Mayfest festival entertained more than 375,000 people in four days during 2007.[189] In 2006, Tulsa's Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest
was named one of the top 10 in the world by USA Today
USA Today
and one of the top German food festivals in the nation by Bon Appetit
Bon Appetit
magazine.[190] Norman plays host to the Norman Music Festival, a festival that highlights native Oklahoma
Oklahoma
bands and musicians. Norman is also host to the Medieval Fair of Norman, which has been held annually since 1976 and was Oklahoma's first medieval fair. The Fair was held first on the south oval of the University of Oklahoma
University of Oklahoma
campus and in the third year moved to the Duck Pond in Norman until the Fair became too big and moved to Reaves Park in 2003. The Medieval Fair of Norman is Oklahoma's "largest weekend event and the third-largest event in Oklahoma, and was selected by Events Media Network as one of the top 100 events in the nation".[191] Sports[edit] Oklahoma
Oklahoma
has teams in basketball, football, arena football, baseball, soccer, hockey, and wrestling in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City, Tulsa, Enid, Norman, and Lawton. The Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
Thunder of the National Basketball Association (NBA) is the state's only major league sports franchise. The state had a team in the Women's National Basketball
Basketball
Association, the Tulsa
Tulsa
Shock, from 2010 through 2015, but the team relocated to Dallas–Fort Worth after that season[192] and became the Dallas Wings.[193] Oklahoma
Oklahoma
has teams in several minor leagues, including Minor League Baseball
Baseball
at the AAA and AA levels ( Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
Dodgers and Tulsa Drillers, respectively), hockey's ECHL
ECHL
with the Tulsa
Tulsa
Oilers, and a number of indoor football leagues. In the last-named sport, the state's most notable team was the Tulsa
Tulsa
Talons, which played in the Arena Football League
Arena Football League
until 2012, when the team was moved to San Antonio. The Oklahoma Defenders
Oklahoma Defenders
replaced the Talons as Tulsa's only professional arena football team, playing the CPIFL. The Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City Blue, of the NBA G League, relocated to Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
from Tulsa
Tulsa
in 2014, where they were formerly known as the Tulsa
Tulsa
66ers. Tulsa
Tulsa
is the base for the Tulsa
Tulsa
Revolution, which plays in the American Indoor Soccer League.[194] Enid and Lawton host professional basketball teams in the USBL
USBL
and the CBA.

The Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
Thunder moved to the state in 2008, becoming its first permanent major league team in any sport

The NBA's New Orleans Hornets
New Orleans Hornets
became the first major league sports franchise based in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
when the team was forced to relocate to Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City's Ford Center, now known as Chesapeake Energy
Chesapeake Energy
Arena, for two seasons following Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina
in 2005.[195] In July 2008, the Seattle SuperSonics, relocated to Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
and began to play at the Ford Center as the Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
Thunder for the 2008–09 season, becoming the state's first permanent major league franchise.[196] Collegiate athletics are a popular draw in the state. The state has four schools that compete at the highest level of college sports, NCAA Division I. The most prominent are the state's two members of the Big 12 Conference,[197] one of the so-called Power Five conferences
Power Five conferences
of the top tier of college football, Division I FBS. The University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and Oklahoma State University
Oklahoma State University
average well over 50,000 fans attending their football games, and Oklahoma's football program ranked 12th in attendance among American colleges in 2010, with an average of 84,738 people attending its home games.[198] The two universities meet several times each year in rivalry matches known as the Bedlam Series, which are some of the greatest sporting draws to the state. Sports Illustrated magazine rates Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and Oklahoma
Oklahoma
State among the top colleges for athletics in the nation.[199][200] Two private institutions in Tulsa, the University of Tulsa
University of Tulsa
and Oral Roberts University; are also Division I members. Tulsa
Tulsa
competes in FBS football and other sports in the American Athletic Conference,[201] while Oral Roberts, which does not sponsor football,[202] is a member of The Summit League.[203] In addition, 12 of the state's smaller colleges and universities compete in NCAA Division II
NCAA Division II
as members of four different conferences,[204][205][206][207] and eight other Oklahoma
Oklahoma
institutions participate in the NAIA, mostly within the Sooner Athletic Conference.[208] Regular LPGA
LPGA
tournaments are held at Cedar Ridge Country Club in Tulsa, and major championships for the PGA or LPGA
LPGA
have been played at Southern Hills Country Club
Southern Hills Country Club
in Tulsa, Oak Tree Country Club in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City, and Cedar Ridge Country Club in Tulsa.[209] Rated one of the top golf courses in the nation, Southern Hills has hosted four PGA Championships, including one in 2007, and three U.S. Opens, the most recent in 2001.[210] Rodeos are popular throughout the state, and Guymon, in the state's panhandle, hosts one of the largest in the nation.[211] Current teams[edit]

Basketball

Club Type League Venue City Area (Metro/Region)

Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
Thunder Men's Basketball NBA Chesapeake Energy
Chesapeake Energy
Arena Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City OKC Metro

Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
Blue Men's Basketball NBA G League Cox Convention Center Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City OKC Metro

Baseball

Club Type League Venue City Area (Metro/Region)

Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
Dodgers Baseball PCL (AAA) Chickasaw Bricktown Ballpark Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City OKC Metro

Tulsa
Tulsa
Drillers Baseball Texas
Texas
League (AA) ONEOK
ONEOK
Field Tulsa Tulsa
Tulsa
Metro

Hockey

Club Type League Venue City Area (Metro/Region)

Tulsa
Tulsa
Oilers Hockey ECHL BOK Center Tulsa Tulsa
Tulsa
Metro

Football

Club Type League Venue City Area (Metro/Region)

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Defenders Indoor Football CPIFL Tulsa
Tulsa
Convention Center Tulsa Tulsa
Tulsa
Metro

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Thunder Football GDFL Bixby High School Bixby Tulsa
Tulsa
Metro

Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
Bounty Hunters Football GDFL Putnam City Stadium Warr Acres OKC Metro

Soccer

Club Type League Venue City Area (Metro/Region)

Tulsa
Tulsa
Spirit Women's Soccer WPSL Union 8th Broken Arrow Tulsa
Tulsa
Metro

Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
FC Women's Soccer WPSL Miller Stadium Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City OKC Metro

Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
Energy Men's Soccer USL Taft Stadium; Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City OKC Metro

Tulsa
Tulsa
Roughnecks Men's Soccer USL ONEOK
ONEOK
Field Tulsa Tulsa
Tulsa
Metro

Tulsa
Tulsa
Athletics Men's Soccer NPSL Drillers Stadium Tulsa Tulsa
Tulsa
Metro

Tulsa
Tulsa
Rugby Club Men's Rugby Division II Rugby Riverside Pitch Tulsa Tulsa
Tulsa
Metro

Health[edit]

INTEGRIS Cancer Institute of Oklahoma, in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City

Cancer Treatment Centers of America
Cancer Treatment Centers of America
at Southwestern Regional Medical Center is in Tulsa.

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
was the 21st-largest recipient of medical funding from the federal government in 2005, with health-related federal expenditures in the state totaling $75,801,364; immunizations, bioterrorism preparedness, and health education were the top three most funded medical items.[212] Instances of major diseases are near the national average in Oklahoma, and the state ranks at or slightly above the rest of the country in percentage of people with asthma, diabetes, cancer, and hypertension.[212] In 2000, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
ranked 45th in physicians per capita and slightly below the national average in nurses per capita, but was slightly over the national average in hospital beds per 100,000 people and above the national average in net growth of health services over a 12-year period.[213] One of the worst states for percentage of insured people, nearly 25 percent of Oklahomans between the age of 18 and 64 did not have health insurance in 2005, the fifth-highest rate in the nation.[214] Oklahomans are in the upper half of Americans in terms of obesity prevalence, and the state is the 5th most obese in the nation, with 30.3 percent of its population at or near obesity.[215] Oklahoma ranked last among the 50 states in a 2007 study by the Commonwealth Fund on health care performance.[216] The OU Medical Center, Oklahoma's largest collection of hospitals, is the only hospital in the state designated a Level I trauma center
Level I trauma center
by the American College of Surgeons. OU Medical Center is on the grounds of the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Health Center in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City, the state's largest concentration of medical research facilities.[217][218] The Cancer Treatment Centers of America
Cancer Treatment Centers of America
at Southwestern Regional Medical Center in Tulsa
Tulsa
is one of four such regional facilities nationwide, offering cancer treatment to the entire southwestern United States, and is one of the largest cancer treatment hospitals in the country.[219] The largest osteopathic teaching facility in the nation, Oklahoma State University
Oklahoma State University
Medical Center at Tulsa, also rates as one of the largest facilities in the field of neuroscience.[220][221] Media[edit] Main articles: List of newspapers in Oklahoma, List of radio stations in Oklahoma, and List of television stations in Oklahoma

The second-largest newspaper in Oklahoma, the Tulsa
Tulsa
World has a circulation of 189,789.[222]

Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
and Tulsa
Tulsa
are the 45th and 61st-largest media markets in the United States as ranked by Nielsen Media Research. The state's third-largest media market, Lawton-Wichita Falls, Texas, is ranked 149th nationally by the agency.[223] Broadcast television in Oklahoma began in 1949 when KFOR-TV
KFOR-TV
(then WKY-TV) in Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
and KOTV-TV in Tulsa
Tulsa
began broadcasting a few months apart.[224] Currently, all major American broadcast networks have affiliated television stations in the state.[225] The state has two primary newspapers. The Oklahoman, based in Oklahoma City, is the largest newspaper in the state and 54th-largest in the nation by circulation, with a weekday readership of 138,493 and a Sunday readership of 202,690. The Tulsa
Tulsa
World, the second-most widely circulated newspaper in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and 79th in the nation, holds a Sunday circulation of 132,969 and a weekday readership of 93,558.[222] Oklahoma's first newspaper was established in 1844, called the Cherokee
Cherokee
Advocate, and was written in both Cherokee
Cherokee
and English.[226] In 2006, there were more than 220 newspapers in the state, including 177 with weekly publications and 48 with daily publications.[226] The state's first radio station, WKY in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City, signed on in 1920, followed by KRFU in Bristow, which later on moved to Tulsa
Tulsa
and became KVOO in 1927.[227] In 2006, there were more than 500 radio stations in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
broadcasting with various local or nationally owned networks. Five universities in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
operate non-commercial, public radio stations/networks.[228] Oklahoma
Oklahoma
has a few ethnic-oriented TV stations broadcasting in Spanish and Asian languages, and there is some Native American programming. TBN, a Christian religious television network, has a studio in Tulsa, and built its first entirely TBN-owned affiliate in Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
in 1980.[229] Transportation[edit]

One of ten major toll highways in Oklahoma, the Will Rogers Turnpike extends northeast from Tulsa.

A map of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
showing major roads and thoroughfares

Transportation in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is generated by an anchor system of Interstate Highways, intercity rail lines, airports, inland ports, and mass transit networks. Situated along an integral point in the United States Interstate network, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
contains three interstate highways and four auxiliary Interstate Highways. In Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City, Interstate 35 intersects with Interstate 44
Interstate 44
and Interstate 40, forming one of the most important intersections along the United States highway system.[230] More than 12,000 miles (19,000 km) of roads make up the state's major highway skeleton, including state-operated highways, ten turnpikes or major toll roads,[230] and the longest drivable stretch of Route 66 in the nation.[231] In 2008, Interstate 44
Interstate 44
in Oklahoma City was Oklahoma's busiest highway, with a daily traffic volume of 123,300 cars.[232] In 2010, the state had the nation's third highest number of bridges classified as structurally deficient, with nearly 5,212 bridges in disrepair, including 235 National Highway System Bridges.[233] Oklahoma's largest commercial airport is Will Rogers World Airport
Will Rogers World Airport
in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City, averaging a yearly passenger count of more than 3.5 million (1.7 million boardings) in 2010.[234] Tulsa
Tulsa
International Airport, the state's second-largest commercial airport, served more than 1.3 million boardings in 2010.[235] Between the two, six airlines operate in Oklahoma.[236][237] In terms of traffic, R. L. Jones Jr. (Riverside) Airport in Tulsa
Tulsa
is the state's busiest airport, with 335,826 takeoffs and landings in 2008.[238] Oklahoma
Oklahoma
has over 150 public-use airports.[239] Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is connected to the nation's rail network via Amtrak's Heartland Flyer, its only regional passenger rail line. It currently stretches from Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
to Fort Worth, Texas, though lawmakers began seeking funding in early 2007 to connect the Heartland Flyer
Heartland Flyer
to Tulsa.[240] Two inland ports on rivers serve Oklahoma: the Port of Muskogee and the Tulsa
Tulsa
Port of Catoosa. The state's only port handling international cargo, the Tulsa
Tulsa
Port of Catoosa is the most inland ocean-going port in the nation and ships over two million tons of cargo each year.[241][242] Both ports are on the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas
Arkansas
River Navigation System, which connects barge traffic from Tulsa
Tulsa
and Muskogee to the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
via the Verdigris and Arkansas
Arkansas
rivers, contributing to one of the busiest waterways in the world.[242] Law and government[edit] Main article: Government of Oklahoma

The Oklahoma State Capitol
Oklahoma State Capitol
in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is a constitutional republic with a government modeled after the Federal Government of the United States, with executive, legislative, and judicial branches.[243] The state has 77 counties with jurisdiction over most local government functions within each respective domain,[23] five congressional districts, and a voting base with a plurality in the Democratic Party.[244] State officials are elected by plurality voting in the state of Oklahoma. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is one of 32 states with capital punishment as a legal sentence, and the state has had (between 1976 through mid-2011) the highest per capita execution rate in the US.[245] State government[edit] See also: Governor of Oklahoma, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Legislature, and Oklahoma Supreme Court The Legislature
Legislature
of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. As the lawmaking branch of the state government, it is responsible for raising and distributing the money necessary to run the government. The Senate has 48 members serving four-year terms, while the House has 101 members with two-year terms. The state has a term limit for its legislature that restricts any one person to twelve cumulative years service between both legislative branches.[246][247] Oklahoma's judicial branch consists of the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Supreme Court, the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Court of Criminal Appeals, and 77 District Courts that each serve one county. The Oklahoma
Oklahoma
judiciary also contains two independent courts: a Court of Impeachment
Impeachment
and the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Court on the Judiciary. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
has two courts of last resort: the state Supreme Court hears civil cases, and the state Court of Criminal Appeals hears criminal cases (this split system exists only in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and neighboring Texas). Judges of those two courts, as well as the Court of Civil Appeals are appointed by the Governor upon the recommendation of the state Judicial
Judicial
Nominating Commission, and are subject to a non-partisan retention vote on a six-year rotating schedule.[246]

The five congressional districts in Oklahoma

The executive branch consists of the Governor, their staff, and other elected officials. The principal head of government, the Governor is the chief executive of the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
executive branch, serving as the ex officio Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the Oklahoma National Guard
Oklahoma National Guard
when not called into Federal use and reserving the power to veto bills passed through the Legislature. The responsibilities of the Executive branch include submitting the budget, ensuring state laws are enforced, and ensuring peace within the state is preserved.[248] Local government[edit] The state is divided into 77 counties that govern locally, each headed by a three-member council of elected commissioners, a tax assessor, clerk, court clerk, treasurer, and sheriff.[249] While each municipality operates as a separate and independent local government with executive, legislative and judicial power, county governments maintain jurisdiction over both incorporated cities and non-incorporated areas within their boundaries, but have executive power but no legislative or judicial power. Both county and municipal governments collect taxes, employ a separate police force, hold elections, and operate emergency response services within their jurisdiction.[250][251] Other local government units include school districts, technology center districts, community college districts, rural fire departments, rural water districts, and other special use districts. Thirty-nine Native American tribal governments are based in Oklahoma, each holding limited powers within designated areas. While Indian reservations typical in most of the United States are not present in Oklahoma, tribal governments hold land granted during the Indian Territory era, but with limited jurisdiction and no control over state governing bodies such as municipalities and counties. Tribal governments are recognized by the United States as quasi-sovereign entities with executive, judicial, and legislative powers over tribal members and functions, but are subject to the authority of the United States Congress to revoke or withhold certain powers. The tribal governments are required to submit a constitution and any subsequent amendments to the United States Congress
United States Congress
for approval.[252][253] Oklahoma
Oklahoma
has 11 substate districts including the two large Councils of Governments, INCOG in Tulsa
Tulsa
(Indian Nations Council of Governments) and ACOG (Association of Central Oklahoma
Central Oklahoma
Governments). For a complete list visit the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Association of Regional Councils. National politics[edit]

Presidential election results[254]

Year Republicans Democrats

2016 65.32% 949,136 28.93% 420,375

2012 66.77% 891,325 33.23% 443,547

2008 65.65% 960,165 34.35% 502,496

2004 65.57% 959,792 34.43% 503,966

2000 60.31% 744,337 38.43% 474,276

1996 48.26% 582,315 40.45% 488,105

1992 42.65% 592,929 34.02% 473,066

1988 57.93% 678,367 41.28% 483,423

1984 68.61% 861,530 30.67% 385,080

1980 60.50% 695,570 34.97% 402,026

1976 49.96% 545,708 48.75% 532,442

1972 73.70% 759,025 24.00% 247,147

1968 47.68% 449,697 31.99% 301,658

1964 44.25% 412,665 55.75% 519,834

1960 59.02% 533,039 40.98% 370,111

Main article: Politics of Oklahoma

Treemap
Treemap
of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
has been politically conservative for much of its history, especially recently. During the first half century of statehood, it was considered a Democratic stronghold, being carried by the Republican Party in only two presidential elections (1920 and 1928). During this time, it was also carried by every winning Democratic candidate up to Harry Truman. However, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Democrats were generally considered to be more conservative than Democrats in other states. After the 1948 election, the state turned firmly Republican. Although registered Republicans were a minority in the state until 2015,[255] starting in 1952, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
has been carried by Republican presidential candidates in all but one election (1964). This is not to say every election has been a landslide for Republicans: Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
lost the state by less than 1.5% in 1976, while Michael Dukakis
Michael Dukakis
and Bill Clinton both won 40% or more of the state's popular vote in 1988 and 1996 respectively. Al Gore
Al Gore
in 2000, though, was the last Democrat to even win any counties in the state. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
was one of three states, the others being Utah
Utah
and West Virginia, where Barack Obama
Barack Obama
failed to carry any of its counties in 2012, and it was the only state where Barack Obama
Barack Obama
failed to carry any county in 2008. In 2016, Donald Trump, the Republican nominee, again won every county, being one of only two states, the other being West Virginia, where Democrat Hillary Clinton failed to carry a single county. Generally, Republicans are strongest in the suburbs of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City and Tulsa, as well as the Panhandle. Democrats are strongest in the eastern part of the state and Little Dixie, as well as the most heavily African American
African American
and inner parts of Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
and Tulsa. With a population of 8.6% Native American in the state, it is also worth noting most Native American precincts vote Democratic in margins exceeded only by African Americans.[256] Following the 2000 census, the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
delegation to the U.S. House of Representatives was reduced from six to five representatives, each serving one congressional district. For the 112th Congress (2011–2013), there were no changes in party strength, and the delegation included four Republicans and one Democrat. In the 112th Congress, Oklahoma's U.S. senators were Republicans Jim Inhofe
Jim Inhofe
and Tom Coburn, and its U.S. Representatives were John Sullivan (R-OK-1), Dan Boren (D-OK-2), Frank D. Lucas (R-OK-3), Tom Cole
Tom Cole
(R-OK-4), and James Lankford (R-OK-5). In 2012, Dan Boren
Dan Boren
(D-OK-2) retired from Congress, therefore making the seat vacant. This district, which covers most of Little Dixie, is the Democrats' best region of the state, and has been represented by a Democrat for a dozen years. Republican Markwayne Mullin
Markwayne Mullin
won the election, making the state's congressional delegation entirely Republican.

Voter registration and party enrollment as of 15 January 2018[update][102]

Party Number of voters Percentage

Republican 942,621 46.75%

Democratic 769,772 38.18%

Others 303,764 15.07%

Total 2,016,157 100%

Further information: Political party strength in Oklahoma Military[edit] Further information: List of military units and installations in Oklahoma Further information: List of battles fought in Oklahoma Cities and towns[edit] See also: List of cities in Oklahoma, List of towns in Oklahoma, and List of towns and cities in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
by population Major cities[edit]

Most Populous Cities[90]

City Population (2012 state estimate)

1. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City 599,199

2. Tulsa 393,987

3. Norman 115,562

4. Broken Arrow 102,019

5. Lawton 98,376

6. Edmond 84,885

7. Moore 57,810

8. Midwest City 56,080

9. Enid 49,854

10. Stillwater 46,560

11. Muskogee 38,981

12. Bartlesville 36,245

Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
is the state's capital and largest city.

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
had 598 incorporated places in 2010, including four cities over 100,000 in population and 43 over 10,000.[257] Two of the fifty-largest cities in the United States are in Oklahoma, Oklahoma City and Tulsa, and 65 percent of Oklahomans live within their metropolitan areas, or spheres of economic and social influence defined by the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
as a metropolitan statistical area. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City, the state's capital and largest city, had the largest metropolitan area in the state in 2010, with 1,252,987 people, and the metropolitan area of Tulsa
Tulsa
had 937,478 residents.[258] Between 2000 and 2010, the cities that led the state in population growth were Blanchard (172.4%), Elgin (78.2%), Jenks (77.0%), Piedmont (56.7%), Bixby (56.6%), and Owasso (56.3%).[257]

Tulsa
Tulsa
is the state's second-largest city by population and land area.

In descending order of population, Oklahoma's largest cities in 2010 were: Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
(579,999, +14.6%), Tulsa
Tulsa
(391,906, −0.3%), Norman (110,925, +15.9%), Broken Arrow (98,850, +32.0%), Lawton (96,867, +4.4%), Edmond (81,405, +19.2%), Moore (55,081, +33.9%), Midwest City (54,371, +0.5%), Enid (49,379, +5.0%), and Stillwater (45,688, +17.0%). Of the state's ten largest cities, three are outside the metropolitan areas of Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
and Tulsa, and only Lawton has a metropolitan statistical area of its own as designated by the United States Census Bureau, though the metropolitan statistical area of Fort Smith, Arkansas
Arkansas
extends into the state.[88] Under Oklahoma
Oklahoma
law, municipalities are divided into two categories: cities, defined as having more than 1,000 residents, and towns, with under 1,000 residents. Both have legislative, judicial, and public power within their boundaries, but cities can choose between a mayor-council, council-manager, or strong mayor form of government, while towns operate through an elected officer system.[250] State symbols[edit]

This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this article to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available. (March 2018)

See also: List of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
state symbols

The American bison, Oklahoma's state mammal

Oklahoma's quarter, released in 2008 as part of the state quarters series, depicts Oklahoma's state bird flying above its state wildflower.[259]

State law codifies Oklahoma's state emblems and honorary positions;[260] the Oklahoma Senate
Oklahoma Senate
or House of Representatives may adopt resolutions designating others for special events and to benefit organizations. In 2012 the House passed HCR 1024, which would change the state motto from "Labor Omnia Vincit" to "Oklahoma—In God We Trust!" The author of the resolution stated a constituent researched the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Constitution and found no "official" vote regarding "Labor Omnia Vincit", therefore opening the door for an entirely new motto.[261][262] State symbols:[263]

State amphibian: Bullfrog[264] State beverage: Milk[265] State bird: Scissor-tailed flycatcher State cartoon: Gusty created by Don Woods, Oklahoma's first professional meteorologist, used on KTUL-TV from 1954 to 1989.[266][267] State dinosaur: Acrocanthosaurus
Acrocanthosaurus
atokensis[268] State fruit: Strawberry[269] State mammal: American bison[270]

State tree: Eastern redbud State vegetable: Watermelon[271][272] State game bird: Wild turkey[273] State fish: Sand bass[274] State floral emblem: Mistletoe State flower: Oklahoma
Oklahoma
rose State wildflower: Indian blanket
Indian blanket
(Gaillardia pulchella) State grass: Indiangrass
Indiangrass
(Sorghastrum nutans) State fossil: Saurophaganax
Saurophaganax
maximus[275] State monument: Golden Driller[276]

State rock: Rose rock State insect: Honeybee State soil: Port Silt Loam State reptile: Collared lizard State meal: Fried okra, squash, cornbread, barbecue pork, biscuits, sausage and gravy, grits, corn, strawberries, chicken fried steak, pecan pie, and black-eyed peas. State folk dance: Square dance State percussive instrument: Drum[277]

State waltz: " Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Wind" State butterfly: Black swallowtail State song: "Oklahoma!" State language: English; Cherokee
Cherokee
and other Native American languages State gospel song: "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot" State rock song: "Do You Realize??" by The Flaming Lips[278] State theater group: Lynn Riggs
Lynn Riggs
Players of Oklahoma[279]

See also[edit]

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
portal

Index of Oklahoma-related articles Outline of Oklahoma
Outline of Oklahoma
– organized list of topics about Oklahoma

Notes[edit]

A. ^ Determined by a survey by the Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
in 2008. Percentages represent claimed religious beliefs, not necessarily membership in any particular congregation. Figures have a ±5 percent margin of error.[105]

B. ^ Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism, Judaism, other faiths each account for less than 1 percent. Jehovah's Witness, Mormons, Orthodox Christianity, and other Christian traditions each compose less than .5% percent. 1% refused to answer the Pew Research Center's survey.[105]

References[edit]

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Cherokee
is the Official Language of the UKB" (PDF). Keetoowah Cherokee
Cherokee
News: Official Publication of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee
Cherokee
Indians in Oklahoma. April 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 15, 2014. Retrieved June 1, 2014.  ^ a b "UKB Constitution and By-Laws in the Keetoowah Cherokee Language" (PDF). United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians
United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians
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Cherokee Nation
& its Language" (PDF). University of Minnesota: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition. 2008. Retrieved May 22, 2014.  ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. June 22, 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2017.  ^ "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 9, 2016.  ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.  ^ a b Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988. ^ " Oklahoma
Oklahoma
State Beverage - Milk". State Symbols USA. Retrieved March 27, 2018.  ^ " Oklahoma
Oklahoma
– Definitions from Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. Retrieved August 10, 2007.  ^ "AISRI Dictionary Database Search—prototype version. "River", Southband Pawnee". American Indian Studies Research Institute. Retrieved May 26, 2012.  ^ "Cayuga: Our Oral Legacy – Home. Cayuga Digital Dictionary". Archived from the original on March 26, 2012. Retrieved May 27, 2012.  ^ a b "Census Regions and Divisions of the United States" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 2, 2016.  ^ a b Wright, Muriel (June 1936). "Chronicles of Oklahoma". Oklahoma State University. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved July 31, 2007.  ^ a b c " Oklahoma
Oklahoma
at a Glance" (PDF). Oklahoma
Oklahoma
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Oklahoma
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Oklahoma
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Oklahoma
State Map Collection". geology.com. 2006. Retrieved August 1, 2007.  ^ a b c d e Arndt, Derek (January 1, 2003). "The Climate of Oklahoma". Oklahoma
Oklahoma
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Oklahoma
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Oklahoma
Ecoregional Maps". Oklahoma
Oklahoma
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Oklahoma
State Parks". Oklahoma
Oklahoma
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Oklahoma
National Park Guide". National Park Service. 2007. Retrieved August 2, 2007.  ^ "National Forests". United States Department of Agriculture
Agriculture
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Prairie
Preserve". The Nature Conservatory. 2007. Retrieved July 31, 2007.  ^ "Black Kettle National Grassland". USDA Forest Service. July 24, 2007. Retrieved August 2, 2007.  ^ "Refuge Locator Map – Oklahoma". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved August 17, 2007.  ^ " Wichita Mountains
Wichita Mountains
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Chickasaw National Recreation Area
– Park Statistics". National Park Service. Retrieved January 16, 2010.  ^ a b c "Oklahoma's Climate: an Overview" (PDF). University of Oklahoma. Retrieved August 1, 2007.  ^ " Tornado
Tornado
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Tornado
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Oklahoma
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Oklahoma
Weather And Climate". UStravelweather.com. 2007. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved August 2, 2007.  ^ "Weather Averages: Lawton, Oklahoma". MSN Weather. Retrieved August 13, 2007.  ^ Palino, Valerie. "Early Man in North America: The Known to the Unknown". Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. Retrieved August 1, 2007.  ^ "The Historic Spiro Mounds". Spiro Area Chamber of Commerce. 2007. Archived from the original on August 8, 2007. Retrieved August 1, 2007.  ^ "Prehistory of Oklahoma". rootsweb. Retrieved August 1, 2007.  ^ a b c d e "Oklahoma's History". Government of Oklahoma. Archived from the original on July 26, 2007. Retrieved August 1, 2007.  ^ "French and Spanish Explorations". rootsweb. Retrieved August 1, 2007.  ^ Len Green. " Choctaw
Choctaw
Removal was really a "Trail of Tears"". Bishinik, mboucher, University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on June 4, 2008. Retrieved April 28, 2008.  ^ Carter, Samuel (III) (1976). Cherokee
Cherokee
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Indian Territory
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State Cartoon Character - Gusty". State Symbols USA. Retrieved March 27, 2018.  ^ " Oklahoma
Oklahoma
State Dinosaur - Acrocanthosaurus
Acrocanthosaurus
atokensis". State Symbols USA. Retrieved March 27, 2018.  ^ " Oklahoma
Oklahoma
State Symbols and Emblems – Complete list of Oklahoma state symbols including the state flag and state seal from NETSTATE.COM". Netstate.com. Retrieved 2015-11-18.  ^ " Oklahoma
Oklahoma
State Animal - Buffalo". State Symbols USA. Retrieved March 27, 2018.  ^ " Watermelon
Watermelon
State Vegetable". State Symbols USA. Retrieved 2016-06-03.  ^ Matthew Weaver. "It's a scandal: Oklahoma
Oklahoma
declares watermelon a vegetable". the Guardian.  ^ " Oklahoma
Oklahoma
State Game Bird - Wild Turkey". State Symbols USA. Retrieved March 27, 2018.  ^ " Oklahoma
Oklahoma
State Fish - White Bass". State Symbols USA. Retrieved March 27, 2018.  ^ " Oklahoma
Oklahoma
State Fossil". State fossils. Archived from the original on February 20, 2007. Retrieved January 20, 2007.  ^ " Oklahoma
Oklahoma
State Monument - Golden Driller". State Symbols USA. Retrieved March 27, 2018.  ^ " Oklahoma
Oklahoma
State Percussive Instrument - Drum". State Symbols USA. Retrieved March 27, 2018.  ^ John Benson, (April 28, 2009). "Flaming Lips prepare for Oklahoma honor". Reuters.  ^ " Oklahoma
Oklahoma
State Theater Group - Lynn Riggs
Lynn Riggs
Players of Oklahoma". State Symbols USA. Retrieved March 27, 2018. 

Further reading[edit]

Baird, W. David; Danney Goble (1994). The Story of Oklahoma. Norman: University of Oklahoma
University of Oklahoma
Press. ISBN 0-8061-2650-7.  Dale, Edward Everett; Morris L. Wardell (1948). History of Oklahoma. New York: Prentice-Hall.  Gibson, Arrell Morgan (1981). Oklahoma: A History of Five Centuries (2nd ed.). Norman: University of Oklahoma
University of Oklahoma
Press. ISBN 0-8061-1758-3.  Goble, Danney (1980). Progressive Oklahoma: The Making of a New Kind of State. Norman: University of Oklahoma
University of Oklahoma
Press. ISBN 0-8061-1510-6.  Gunther, John (1947). " Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and the Indians". Inside U.S.A. New York City, London: Harper & Brothers. pp. 869–885.  Jones, Stephen (1974). Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Politics in State and Nation (vol. 1 (1907–62) ed.). Enid, Okla.: Haymaker Press.  Joyce, Davis D. (ed.) (1994). An Oklahoma
Oklahoma
I Had Never Seen Before: Alternative Views of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
History. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2599-3. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Morgan, Anne Hodges; Morgan, H. Wayne (eds.) (1982). Oklahoma: New Views of the Forty-sixth State. Norman: University of Oklahoma
University of Oklahoma
Press. ISBN 0-8061-1651-X. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Morgan, David R.; Robert E. England; George G. Humphreys (1991). Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Politics and Policies: Governing the Sooner State. Lincoln: University of Nebraska
Nebraska
Press. ISBN 0-8032-3106-7.  Morris, John W.; Charles R. Goins; Edwin C. McReynolds (1986). Historical Atlas of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
(3rd ed.). Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1991-8.  Wishart, David J. (ed.) (2004). Encyclopedia of the Great Plains. Lincoln: University of Nebraska
Nebraska
Press. ISBN 0-8032-4787-7. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) complete text online; 900 pages of scholarly articles

External links[edit]

Find more aboutOklahomaat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Government[edit]

Official website Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Legislative
Legislative
Branch Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Department of Commerce Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Department of Human Services Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Department of Transportation

Tourism and recreation[edit]

Official Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Tourism Info Oklahoma
Oklahoma
State Parks Red Earth Woody Guthrie Folk Festival

Culture and history[edit]

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
State Guide from the Library of Congress Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Arts Council Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Theatre Association Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Oral History Research Program Encyclopedia of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
History and Culture Voices of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Oral History Project

Maps and demographics[edit]

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
QuickFacts Geographic and Demographic information State highway maps Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Genealogical Society Realtime USGS geographic, weather, and geologic information Geographic data related to Oklahoma
Oklahoma
at OpenStreetMap Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and Indian Territory

Preceded by Utah List of U.S. states by date of statehood Admitted on November 16, 1907 (46th) Succeeded by New Mexico

Topics related to Oklahoma Native America

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 State of Oklahoma

Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
(capital)

Topics

History Government Governor (List) Symbols People Geography Earthquakes Media

Newspapers Radio TV

Sports Tourist attractions

Society

Culture Crime Demographics Economy Education Politics

Regions

Arklatex Central Cherokee
Cherokee
Outlet Cross Timbers Four State Area Flint Hills Green Country Kiamichi Country Little Dixie Northwestern Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
Metro Ouachita Mountains The Ozarks Panhandle South Central Southwestern Texoma Tulsa
Tulsa
Metro Western

Largest cities

Ardmore Bartlesville Bixby Broken Arrow Del City Duncan Edmond Enid Lawton Midwest City Muskogee Moore Norman Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City Owasso Ponca City Shawnee Stillwater Tulsa Yukon

Counties

Adair Alfalfa Atoka Beaver Beckham Blaine Bryan Caddo Canadian Carter Cherokee Choctaw Cimarron Cleveland Coal Comanche Cotton Craig Creek Custer Delaware Dewey Ellis Garfield Garvin Grady Grant Greer Harmon Harper Haskell Hughes Jackson Jefferson Johnston Kay Kingfisher Kiowa Latimer Le Flore Lincoln Logan Love Major Marshall Mayes McClain McCurtain McIntosh Murray Muskogee Noble Nowata Okfuskee Oklahoma Okmulgee Osage Ottawa Pawnee Payne Pittsburg Pontotoc Pottawatomie Pushmataha Roger Mills Rogers Seminole Sequoyah Stephens Texas Tillman Tulsa Wagoner Washington Washita Woods Woodward

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Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in Oklahoma

Mick Cornett
Mick Cornett
(R) ( Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City) G. T. Bynum (R) (Tulsa) Cindy Rosenthal (Norman) Dave Wooden (Broken Arrow)

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Protected areas of Oklahoma

Federal

National Historic Sites:

Fort Smith Washita Battlefield

National Recreation Areas:

Chickasaw

National Forests:

Ouachita

USFS National Recreation Areas:

Winding Stair Mountain

National Grasslands:

Black Kettle Rita Blanca

National Memorials:

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City

National Wildlife Refuges:

Deep Fork Little River Optima Ozark Plateau Salt Plains Sequoyah Tishomingo Washita Wichita Mountains

State

State Parks:

Alabaster Caverns Arrowhead Beaver Dunes Beavers Bend Resort Park Bernice Black Mesa Boggy Depot Boiling Springs Brushy Lake Cherokee Cherokee
Cherokee
Landing Clayton Lake Disney/Little Blue Dripping Springs Fort Cobb Foss Gloss Mountain Great Plains Great Salt Plains Greenleaf Hochatown Honey Creek Hugo Lake Keystone Lake Eufaula Lake Murray Lake Texoma Lake Wister Lake Thunderbird Little Sahara McGee Creek Natural Falls Okmulgee Osage Hills Quartz Mountain Raymond Gary Red Rock Canyon Robbers Cave Roman Nose Sequoyah Bay Sequoyah Snowdale Spavinaw Talimena Tenkiller Twin Bridges Walnut Creek

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Southern United States

Topics

Culture Cuisine Geography Economy Government and Politics History Sports

States

Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Virginia

Major cities

Atlanta Birmingham Charleston Charlotte Columbia Dallas Fort Worth Greensboro Houston Jacksonville Little Rock Memphis Miami Nashville New Orleans Norfolk Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City Orlando Raleigh Richmond Tampa Tulsa

State capitals

Atlanta Austin Baton Rouge Charleston Columbia Jackson Little Rock Montgomery Nashville Raleigh Richmond Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City Tallahassee

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  New France
New France
(1534–1763)

Subdivisions

Acadia
Acadia
(1604–1713) Canada (1608–1763) Pays d'en Haut Domaine du roy Louisiana
Louisiana
(1682–1762, 1802–1803) Illinois Country
Illinois Country
Ohio
Ohio
Country Newfoundland (1662–1713) Île Royale (1713–1763)

Towns

Acadia
Acadia
(Port Royal) Canada

Quebec Trois-Rivières Montreal Détroit

Île Royale

Louisbourg

Louisiana

Mobile Biloxi New Orleans

Newfoundland

Plaisance

List of towns

Forts

Fort Rouillé Fort Michilimackinac Fort de Buade Fort de Chartres Fort Detroit Fort Carillon Fort Condé Fort Duquesne Fortress of Louisbourg Castle Hill Fort St. Louis (Illinois) Fort St. Louis (Texas) List of Forts

Government

Canada

Governor General Intendant Sovereign Council Bishop of Quebec Governor of Trois-Rivières Governor of Montreal

Acadia

Governor Lieutenant-General

Newfoundland

Governor Lieutenant-General

Louisiana

Governor Intendant Superior Council

Île Royale

Governor Intendant Superior Council

Law

Intendancy Superior Council Admiralty court Provostship Officiality Seigneurial court Bailiff Maréchaussée Code Noir

Economy

Seigneurial system Fur trade Company of 100 Associates Crozat's Company Mississippi
Mississippi
Company Compagnie de l'Occident Chemin du Roy Coureur des bois Voyageurs

Society

Population

1666 census

Habitants King's Daughters Casquette girls Métis Amerindians Slavery Plaçage Gens de couleur libres

Religion

Jesuit missions Récollets Grey Nuns Ursulines Sulpicians

War and peace

Military of New France Intercolonial Wars French and Iroquois Wars Great Upheaval Great Peace of Montreal Schenectady massacre Deerfield massacre

Related

French colonization of the Americas French colonial empire History of Quebec History of the Acadians History of the French-Americans French West Indies Carib Expulsion Atlantic slave trade

Category Portal Commons

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New Spain
New Spain
(1521–1821)

Conflicts

Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Piracy in the Caribbean
Piracy in the Caribbean
Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
War of Jenkins' Ear
War of Jenkins' Ear
→ Seven Years' War → Spanish involvement in the American Revolutionary War

Conflicts with indigenous peoples during colonial rule

Mixtón War
Mixtón War
Yaqui Wars
Yaqui Wars
Chichimeca War
Chichimeca War
Philippine revolts against Spain
Philippine revolts against Spain
Acaxee Rebellion
Acaxee Rebellion
Spanish–Moro conflict
Spanish–Moro conflict
Acoma Massacre
Acoma Massacre
Tepehuán Revolt
Tepehuán Revolt
→ Tzeltal Rebellion → Pueblo Revolt
Pueblo Revolt
Pima Revolt
Pima Revolt
→ Spanish American wars of independence

Government and administration

Central government

Habsburg Spain

Charles I Joanna of Castile Philip II Philp III Philip IV Charles II

Bourbon Spain

Philip V (also reigned after Louis I) Louis I Ferdinand VI Charles III Charles IV Ferdinand VII of Spain
Ferdinand VII of Spain
(also reigned after Joseph I)

Viceroys of New Spain

List of viceroys of New Spain

Audiencias

Guadalajara Captaincy General of Guatemala Manila Mexico Santo Domingo

Captancies General

Cuba Guatemala Philippines Puerto Rico Santo Domingo Yucatán Provincias Internas

Intendancy

Havana New Orleans State of Mexico Chiapas Comayagua Nicaragua Camagüey Santiago de Cuba Guanajuato Valladolid Guadalajara Zacatecas San Luis Potosí Veracruz Puebla Oaxaca Durango Sonora Mérida, Yucatán

Politics

Viceroy Gobernaciones Adelantado Captain general Corregidor (position) Cabildo Encomienda

Treaties

Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty of Zaragoza Peace of Westphalia Treaty of Ryswick Treaty of Utrecht Congress of Breda Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762) Treaty of Paris (1783) Treaty of Córdoba Adams–Onís Treaty

Notable cities, provinces, & territories

Cities

Mexico City Veracruz Xalapa Puebla Toluca Cuernavaca Oaxaca Morelia Acapulco Campeche Mérida Guadalajara Durango Monterrey León Guanajuato Zacatecas Pachuca Querétaro Saltillo San Luis Potosí Los Ángeles Yerba Buena (San Francisco) San José San Diego Santa Fe Albuquerque El Paso Los Adaes San Antonio Tucson Pensacola St. Augustine Havana Santo Domingo San Juan Antigua Guatemala Cebu Manila

Provinces & territories

La Florida Las Californias Santa Fe de Nuevo México Alta California Baja California Tejas Nueva Galicia Nueva Vizcaya Nueva Extremadura New Kingdom of León Cebu Bulacan Pampanga

Other areas

Spanish Formosa

Explorers, adventurers & conquistadors

Pre-New Spain explorers

Christopher Columbus Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Vasco Núñez de Balboa Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar

Explorers & conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Juan Ponce de León Nuño de Guzmán Bernal Díaz del Castillo Pedro de Alvarado Pánfilo de Narváez Hernando de Soto Francisco Vásquez de Coronado Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Miguel López de Legazpi Ángel de Villafañe Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Luis de Carabajal y Cueva Juan de Oñate Juan José Pérez Hernández Gaspar de Portolà Manuel Quimper Cristóbal de Oñate Andrés de Urdaneta Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (Yucatán conquistador) Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (founder of Nicaragua) Gil González Dávila Francisco de Ulloa Juan José Pérez Hernández Dionisio Alcalá Galiano Bruno de Heceta Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra Alonso de León Ignacio de Arteaga y Bazán José de Bustamante y Guerra José María Narváez Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa Antonio Gil Y'Barbo Alexander von Humboldt Thomas Gage

Catholic
Catholic
Church in New Spain

Spanish missions in the Americas

Spanish missions in Arizona Spanish missions in Baja California Spanish missions in California Spanish missions in the Carolinas Spanish missions in Florida Spanish missions in Georgia Spanish missions in Louisiana Spanish missions in Mexico Spanish missions in New Mexico Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert Spanish missions in Texas Spanish missions in Virginia Spanish missions in Trinidad

Friars, fathers, priests, & bishops

Pedro de Gante Gerónimo de Aguilar Toribio de Benavente Motolinia Bernardino de Sahagún Juan de Zumárraga Alonso de Montúfar Vasco de Quiroga Bartolomé de las Casas Alonso de Molina Diego Durán Diego de Landa Gerónimo de Mendieta Juan de Torquemada Juan de Palafox y Mendoza Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora Eusebio Kino Francisco Javier Clavijero Junípero Serra Francisco Palóu Fermín Lasuén Esteban Tápis José Francisco de Paula Señan Mariano Payeras Sebastián Montero Marcos de Niza Francisco de Ayeta Antonio Margil Francisco Marroquín Manuel Abad y Queipo Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla José María Morelos

Other events

Suppression of the Jesuits California
California
mission clash of cultures Cargo system Indian Reductions

Society and culture

Indigenous peoples

Mesoamerican

Aztec Maya Huastec Mixtec P'urhépecha Totonac Pipil Kowoj K'iche' Kaqchikel Zapotec Poqomam Mam

Caribbean

Arawak Ciboney Guanajatabey

California

Mission Indians Cahuilla Chumash Cupeño Juaneño Kumeyaay Luiseño Miwok Mohave Ohlone Serrano Tongva

Southwestern

Apache Coahuiltecan Cocopa Comanche Hopi Hualapai La Junta Navajo Pima Puebloan Quechan Solano Yaqui Zuni

North-Northwest Mexico

Acaxee Chichimeca Cochimi Kiliwa Ópata Tepehuán

Florida
Florida
& other Southeastern tribes

Indigenous people during De Soto's travels Apalachee Calusa Creek Jororo Pensacola Seminole Timucua Yustaga

Filipino people

Negrito Igorot Mangyan Peoples of Palawan Ati Panay Lumad Bajau Tagalog Cebuano

Others

Taiwanese aborigines Chamorro people

Architecture

Spanish Colonial style by country Colonial Baroque style Forts Missions

Trade & economy

Real Columbian Exchange Manila galleon Triangular trade

People & classes

Casta

Peninsulars

Criollo Indios Mestizo Castizo Coyotes Pardos Zambo Negros

People

Juan Bautista de Anza Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Francis Drake Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Eusebio Kino La Malinche Fermín Lasuén Limahong Moctezuma II Junípero Serra Hasekura Tsunenaga

New Spain
New Spain
Portal

v t e

Political divisions of the United States

States

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Federal district

Washington, D.C.

Insular areas

American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

Outlying islands

Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Palmyra Atoll Wake Island

Indian reservations

List of Indian reservations

Coordinates: 35°30′N 98°00′W / 35.5°N 98°W / 35.5; -98

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 137038395 LCCN: n79046257 ISNI: 0000 0004 0647 1356 GND: 4102053-4 SUDOC: 032341547 BNF:

.