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Ohio
Ohio
/oʊˈhaɪ.oʊ/ ( listen) is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region
Great Lakes region
of the United States. Ohio
Ohio
is the 34th largest by area, the 7th most populous, and the 10th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio
Ohio
River. The name originated from the Seneca language word ohiːyo', meaning "great river" or "large creek".[22][23][24] Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, the state was admitted to the Union as the 17th state (and the first under the Northwest Ordinance) on March 1, 1803.[11][25] Ohio
Ohio
is historically known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio
Ohio
buckeye trees, and Ohioans are also known as "Buckeyes".[2] The government of Ohio
Ohio
is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor; the legislative branch, which comprises the Ohio
Ohio
General Assembly; and the judicial branch, which is led by the state Supreme Court. Ohio
Ohio
occupies 16 seats in the United States
United States
House of Representatives.[26] Ohio
Ohio
is known for its status as both a swing state[27] and a bellwether[27] in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States
United States
have been elected who had Ohio
Ohio
as their home state.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Climate

2.1.1 Records

2.2 Earthquakes

3 Major cities 4 History

4.1 Native Americans 4.2 Colonial and Revolutionary eras 4.3 Northwest Territory: 1787–1803 4.4 Statehood: 1803–present

5 Demographics

5.1 Population 5.2 Birth data 5.3 Ancestry 5.4 Languages 5.5 Religion

6 Economy 7 Transportation

7.1 Ground travel 7.2 Air travel 7.3 Transportation lists

8 Law and government

8.1 Executive branch 8.2 Judicial branch 8.3 Legislative branch 8.4 National politics

9 Education

9.1 Colleges and universities 9.2 Libraries

10 Culture

10.1 Arts 10.2 Sports

10.2.1 Professional sports teams 10.2.2 Individual sports 10.2.3 College sports

11 State symbols 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 External links

Etymology Ohio
Ohio
derives from Seneca (an Iroquois
Iroquois
language) as their name for the Ohio
Ohio
River/ Alleghany River, Ohi:yo. This is pronounced "Oh-hee-yoh," with the i sound being held an extra second. Folk etymology claims that this translates as "Beautiful River," however it appears that the word can be broken down as "O-" (pronoun prefix. Translates as "it" & implies that whatever is about to follow it is considered a permanent condition of the item), "Hih" (verb. to spill) & "Gihedenyo" (noun. creek, stream).[28] That being said, the most sensible translation ought to be "Continuously-spilling Creek," or "Continuously-giving creek." The word for creek is used instead of river, since it still flows into a larger river, the Mississippi. The common accent of Ohio
Ohio
shifts regularly, so there are multiple different accepted ways of saying Ohio
Ohio
that have been common throughout the last century, such as "Oh-hai-yuh," "Uh-hai-yoh," & "Uh-hai-yuh." The most recent shift that is beginning to surface sounds something along the lines of "wh-hai-yuh."[citation needed] Geography Further information: List of Ohio
Ohio
counties, List of cities in Ohio, List of villages in Ohio, List of Ohio
Ohio
townships, Ohio
Ohio
public lands, and List of lakes in Ohio Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic growth and expansion. Because Ohio
Ohio
links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio
Ohio
has the nation's 10th largest highway network, and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity.[29] To the north, Lake Erie
Lake Erie
gives Ohio
Ohio
312 miles (502 km) of coastline,[30] which allows for numerous cargo ports. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River
Ohio River
(with the border being at the 1792 low-water mark on the north side of the river),[31] and much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
to the east, Michigan
Michigan
to the northwest, Lake Erie
Lake Erie
to the north, Indiana
Indiana
to the west, Kentucky
Kentucky
on the south, and West Virginia on the southeast. Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows:

Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, and on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie
Lake Erie
or the territorial line, and thence with the same through Lake Erie
Lake Erie
to the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
line aforesaid.

The Ohio
Ohio
coast of Lake Erie.

Ohio
Ohio
is bounded by the Ohio
Ohio
River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky
Kentucky
and West Virginia. In 1980, the U.S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia
Virginia
(which at that time included what is now Kentucky
Kentucky
and West Virginia), the boundary between Ohio
Ohio
and Kentucky
Kentucky
(and, by implication, West Virginia) is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792.[31] Ohio
Ohio
has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark. The border with Michigan
Michigan
has also changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio
Ohio
features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp. This glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, and then by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio
Ohio
is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests.

Physical geography of Ohio.

The rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River
Ohio River
from the West Virginia
West Virginia
Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia
West Virginia
and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, and distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state. In 1965 the United States
United States
Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, at attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region."[32] This act defines 29 Ohio
Ohio
counties as part of Appalachia.[33] While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there (1.476 million people.)[34]

Map of Ohio.

Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, and Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie
Lake Erie
and the St. Lawrence River, and the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River
Ohio River
and then the Mississippi. The worst weather disaster in Ohio
Ohio
history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton. As a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio
Ohio
and the United States.[35] Grand Lake St. Marys
Grand Lake St. Marys
in the west central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canals in the canal-building era of 1820–1850. For many years this body of water, over 20 square miles (52 km2), was the largest artificial lake in the world. Ohio's canal-building projects were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states. Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their industrial emergence to location on canals, and as late as 1910 interior canals carried much of the bulk freight of the state. Climate

Köppen climate types in Ohio

The climate of Ohio
Ohio
is a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa/Dfb) throughout most of the state except in the extreme southern counties of Ohio's Bluegrass region
Bluegrass region
section which are located on the northern periphery of the humid subtropical climate (Cfa) and Upland South
Upland South
region of the United States. Summers are typically hot and humid throughout the state, while winters generally range from cool to cold. Precipitation in Ohio
Ohio
is moderate year-round. Severe weather is not uncommon in the state, although there are typically fewer tornado reports in Ohio
Ohio
than in states located in what is known as the Tornado
Tornado
Alley. Severe lake effect snowstorms are also not uncommon on the southeast shore of Lake Erie, which is located in an area designated as the Snowbelt. Although predominantly not in a subtropical climate, some warmer-climate flora and fauna does reach well into Ohio. For instance, a number of trees with more southern ranges, such as the blackjack oak, Quercus marilandica, are found at their northernmost in Ohio
Ohio
just north of the Ohio
Ohio
River. Also evidencing this climatic transition from a subtropical to continental climate, several plants such as the Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), Albizia julibrissin (mimosa), Crape Myrtle, and even the occasional Needle Palm are hardy landscape materials regularly used as street, yard, and garden plantings in the Bluegrass region
Bluegrass region
of Ohio; but these same plants will simply not thrive in much of the rest of the State. This interesting change may be observed while traveling through Ohio
Ohio
on Interstate 75
Interstate 75
from Cincinnati
Cincinnati
to Toledo; the observant traveler of this diverse state may even catch a glimpse of Cincinnati's common wall lizard, one of the few examples of permanent "subtropical" fauna in Ohio.

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Ohio[36]

Location July (°F) July (°C) January (°F) January (°C)

Columbus 85/65 29/18 36/22 2/–5

Cleveland 82/64 28/18 34/21 1/–5

Cincinnati 86/66 30/19 39/23 3/–5

Toledo 84/62 29/17 32/18 0/–7

Akron 82/62 28/16 33/19 0/–7

Dayton 87/67 31/19 36/22 2/–5

Canton 82/62 28/16 33/19 1/–7

Records The highest recorded temperature was 113 °F (45 °C), near Gallipolis on July 21, 1934.[37] The lowest recorded temperature was −39 °F (−39 °C), at Milligan on February 10, 1899,[38] during the Great Blizzard of 1899.[39] Earthquakes Although few have registered as noticeable to the average resident, more than 30 earthquakes occurred in Ohio
Ohio
between 2002 and 2007, and more than 200 quakes with a magnitude of 2.0 or higher have occurred since 1776.[40] The most substantial known earthquake in Ohio
Ohio
history was the Anna (Shelby County) earthquake,[41] which occurred on March 9, 1937. It was centered in western Ohio, and had a magnitude of 5.4, and was of intensity VIII.[42] Other significant earthquakes in Ohio
Ohio
include:[43] one of magnitude 4.8 near Lima on September 19, 1884;[44] one of magnitude 4.2 near Portsmouth on May 17, 1901;[45] and one of 5.0 in LeRoy Township in Lake County on January 31, 1986, which continued to trigger 13 aftershocks of magnitude 0.5 to 2.4 for two months.[46][47] The most recent earthquake in Ohio
Ohio
of any appreciable magnitude occurred on December 31, 2011, at 3:05pm EST. It had a magnitude of 4.0, and its epicenter was located approximately 4 kilometres northwest of Youngstown (41°7′19.1994″N 80°41′2.3994″W / 41.121999833°N 80.683999833°W / 41.121999833; -80.683999833), near the Trumbull/Mahoning county border.[48] The Ohio
Ohio
Seismic Network (OhioSeis), a group of seismograph stations at several colleges, universities, and other institutions, and coordinated by the Division of Geological Survey of the Ohio Department of Natural Resources,[49] maintains an extensive catalog of Ohio
Ohio
earthquakes from 1776 to the present day, as well as earthquakes located in other states whose effects were felt in Ohio.[50] Major cities See also: List of cities in Ohio

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Ohio Source:[51]

Rank Name County Pop.

Columbus

Cleveland 1 Columbus Franklin 860,090

Cincinnati

Toledo

2 Cleveland Cuyahoga 385,809

3 Cincinnati Hamilton 298,800

4 Toledo Lucas 278,508

5 Akron Summit 197,542

6 Dayton Montgomery 140,599

7 Parma Cuyahoga 79,425

8 Canton Stark 71,885

9 Youngstown Mahoning 64,312

10 Lorain Lorain 63,647

Columbus (home of The Ohio
Ohio
State University, Franklin University, Capital University, and Ohio
Ohio
Dominican University) is the capital of Ohio, near the geographic center of the state. Other Ohio
Ohio
cities functioning as centers of United States
United States
metropolitan areas include:

Akron (home of University of Akron, Akron Art Museum, and Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company) Canton (home of Pro Football Hall of Fame, Malone University, and The Timken Company) Cincinnati
Cincinnati
(home of University of Cincinnati, Xavier University, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Museum Center, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Symphony Orchestra, Procter & Gamble, Kroger, Macy's Inc., and Fifth Third Bank) Cleveland
Cleveland
(home of Cleveland
Cleveland
State University, Playhouse Square Center, The Cleveland
Cleveland
Museum of Art, The Cleveland
Cleveland
Orchestra, Case Western Reserve University, The Cleveland
Cleveland
Clinic, Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Forest City Enterprises, and University Hospitals) Dayton (home of University of Dayton, Dayton Ballet, Wright State University, Premier Health Partners, and National Museum of the United States Air Force) Lima (home of University of Northwestern Ohio) Mansfield (home of North Central State College
North Central State College
and Mansfield Motorsports Park) Sandusky (home of Cedar Point, and Kalahari Resort and Convention Center) Springfield (home of Wittenberg University) Steubenville (home of Franciscan University of Steubenville) Toledo (home of The University of Toledo, The Toledo Museum of Art, Owens Corning, and Owens-Illinois) Youngstown (home of Youngstown State University
Youngstown State University
and Butler Institute of American Art).

Note: The Cincinnati
Cincinnati
metropolitan area extends into Kentucky
Kentucky
and Indiana, the Steubenville metropolitan area extends into West Virginia, The Toledo metropolitan area extends into Michigan, and the Youngstown metropolitan area extends into Pennsylvania. Ohio
Ohio
cities that function as centers of United States
United States
micropolitan areas include:

Ashland (home of Ashland University) Ashtabula Athens (home of Ohio
Ohio
University) Bellefontaine Bucyrus Cambridge Celina Chillicothe (home of Ohio
Ohio
University-Chillicothe) Coshocton Defiance (home of Defiance College) Findlay (home of The University of Findlay) Fremont Greenville Marion (home of Marion Popcorn Festival) Mount Vernon (home of Mount Vernon Nazarene University) New Philadelphia-Dover Norwalk (home of the NHRA
NHRA
venue Summit Motorsports Park, headquarters of the International Hot Rod Association, and pioneer automobile company Fisher Body) Oxford (home of Miami University) Portsmouth (home of Shawnee
Shawnee
State University) Salem Sidney Tiffin (home of Heidelberg College
Heidelberg College
and Tiffin University) Urbana (home of Urbana University) Van Wert Wapakoneta (birthplace of Apollo 11
Apollo 11
astronaut Neil Armstrong) Washington Court House Wilmington (home of Wilmington College) Wooster (home of The College of Wooster) Zanesville (home of Zane State College).

History Main article: History of Ohio Native Americans Archeological evidence suggests that the Ohio
Ohio
Valley was inhabited by nomadic people as early as 13,000 BC.[52] These early nomads disappeared from Ohio
Ohio
by 1,000 BC, "but their material culture provided a base for those who followed them".[attribution needed][52] Between 1,000 and 800 BC, the sedentary Adena culture
Adena culture
emerged. As Ohio
Ohio
historian George W. Knepper notes, this sophisticated culture was "so named because evidences of their culture were excavated in 1902 on the grounds of Adena, Thomas Worthington's estate located near Chillicothe".[53] The Adena were able to establish "semi-permanent" villages because they domesticated plants, which included squash, sunflowers, and perhaps corn. Cultivation of these in addition to hunting and gathering supported more settled, complex villages.[53] The most spectacular remnant of the Adena culture
Adena culture
is the Great Serpent Mound, located in Adams County, Ohio.[53]

Iroquois
Iroquois
conquests during the Beaver Wars
Beaver Wars
(mid-1600s), which largely depopulated the upper and mid- Ohio River
Ohio River
valley.

Around 100 BC, the Adena evolved into the Hopewell people, who were named for the farm owned by Captain M. C. Hopewell, where evidence of their unique culture was discovered.[54] Like the Adena, the Hopewell people participated in a mound-building culture. Their complex, large and technologically sophisticated earthworks can be found in modern-day Marietta, Newark, and Circleville.[54] They were also a powerful trading society, managing to knit together a network that passed goods throughout a third of the continent.[55] The Hopewell, however, disappeared from the Ohio
Ohio
Valley in about 600 AD. Little is known about the people who replaced them, although many Siouan-speaking peoples from the Plains & East Coast claim them as ancestors & say they lived throughout the Ohio region until approx. the 13th century.[56] It is possible that the rise of the Mississippian Culture
Mississippian Culture
was the downfall of the Hopewell, as they began to rise to prominence on the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
around the same time that the Hopewell Culture died out. Researchers have identified three additional, distinct prehistoric cultures: the Fort Ancient
Fort Ancient
people, the Whittlesey Focus people [56] & the Monongahela Culture.[57] All three cultures apparently disappeared in the 17th century, perhaps decimated by infectious diseases spread in epidemics from early European contact. The Native Americans had no immunity to common European diseases. No one has ever definitively concluded which historically known peoples they may have been analogous to. That being said, it is generally believed that the Shawnees may have absorbed the Fort Ancient
Fort Ancient
people.[56] It's also possible that the Monongahela held no land in Ohio
Ohio
during by the Colonial Era. The Mississippian Culture
Mississippian Culture
were close to, contemporaneous with, and traded extensively with the Fort Ancient
Fort Ancient
people. American Indians in the Ohio
Ohio
Valley were greatly affected by the aggressive tactics of the Iroquois
Iroquois
Confederation, based in central and western New York.[58] After the Beaver Wars
Beaver Wars
in the mid-17th century, the Iroquois
Iroquois
claimed much of the Ohio country
Ohio country
as hunting and, more importantly, beaver-trapping ground. After the devastation of epidemics and war in the mid-17th century, which largely emptied the Ohio country
Ohio country
of indigenous people by the mid-to-late 17th century, the land gradually became repopulated by the mostly Algonquian. Many of these Ohio-country nations were multi-ethnic (sometimes multi-linguistic) societies born out of the earlier devastation brought about by disease, war, and subsequent social instability. They subsisted on agriculture (corn, sunflowers, beans, etc.) supplemented by seasonal hunts. By the 18th century, they were part of a larger global economy brought about by European entry into the fur trade.[59] The indigenous nations to inhabit Ohio
Ohio
in the historical period included the Iroquoian Petun (known for their Tobacco plantations), Erie (thought to have been from Northeast Ohio
Northeast Ohio
& western Pennsylvania, but may have come from Canada), Chonnonton (Conquered their way down from Canada
Canada
during Beaver Wars
Beaver Wars
before being defeated by the Iroquois
Iroquois
Confederacy & their allies), Wyandot (a group of Petun who became isolated around Cleveland
Cleveland
after the Beaver Wars. Commonly mistaken for the Huron, whom most surviving Petun later joined),[60] the Mingo
Mingo
Seneca (split off from the Iroquois
Iroquois
Confederacy & moved to Ohio
Ohio
in 18th century. Remained approx. 100 years.) & the Iroquois
Iroquois
Confederacy (conquered most of Ohio
Ohio
at the bequest of the English in the 1660s. Pushed back to Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
by French in 1701.), The Algonquian Miami (Mostly from Indiana.), Mascouten (close sister tribe to Miamis. Scattered during Beaver Wars. Mostly relocated to Kentucky) Lenape
Lenape
(Arrived around the turn of the 18th century from east coast), Shawnee
Shawnee
(Seceded from Powhatan Confederacy. Eventually came to Ohio River
Ohio River
& most likely merged with several other lesser known people in the region) & Odawa
Odawa
(part of a Confederacy that surrounded Lake Superior. Relocated to Michigan
Michigan
& Northwest Ohio around the American Revolution.) & the Siouan Mosopelea (moved to Arkansas
Arkansas
during Beaver Wars).[61][62] Ohio country
Ohio country
was also the site of Indian massacres, such as the Yellow Creek Massacre, Gnadenhutten and Pontiac's Rebellion
Pontiac's Rebellion
school massacre.[63] Most Native Peoples who remained in Ohio
Ohio
were slowly bought out and convinced to leave, or ordered to do so by law, in the early 19th century with the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Colonial and Revolutionary eras During the 18th century, the French set up a system of trading posts to control the fur trade in the region. Beginning in 1754, France and Great Britain fought a war that was known in North America as the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
and in Europe as the Seven Years' War. As a result of the Treaty of Paris, the French ceded control of Ohio
Ohio
and the remainder of the Old Northwest
Old Northwest
to Great Britain. Pontiac's Rebellion
Pontiac's Rebellion
in the 1760s, however, posed a challenge to British military control.[64] This came to an end with the colonists' victory in the American Revolution. In the Treaty of Paris in 1783, Britain ceded all claims to Ohio country
Ohio country
to the United States. Northwest Territory: 1787–1803

Plaque commemorating the Northwest Ordinance
Northwest Ordinance
outside Federal Hall National Memorial
National Memorial
in New York

The United States
United States
created the Northwest Territory
Northwest Territory
under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.[65] Slavery was not permitted in the new territory. Settlement began with the founding of Marietta by the Ohio
Ohio
Company of Associates, which had been formed by a group of American Revolutionary War veterans. Following the Ohio
Ohio
Company, the Miami Company (also referred to as the "Symmes Purchase") claimed the southwestern section, and the Connecticut Land Company
Connecticut Land Company
surveyed and settled the Connecticut Western Reserve
Connecticut Western Reserve
in present-day Northeast Ohio. The old Northwest Territory
Northwest Territory
originally included areas previously known as Ohio Country
Ohio Country
and Illinois
Illinois
Country. As Ohio
Ohio
prepared for statehood, the Indiana
Indiana
Territory was created, reducing the Northwest Territory
Northwest Territory
to approximately the size of present-day Ohio
Ohio
plus the eastern half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan
Michigan
and the eastern tip of the Upper Peninsula. Under the Northwest Ordinance, areas of the territory could be defined and admitted as states once their population reached 60,000. Although Ohio's population numbered only 45,000 in December 1801, Congress determined that the population was growing rapidly and Ohio
Ohio
could begin the path to statehood. The assumption was that it would exceed 60,000 residents by the time it was admitted as a state. Furthermore, in regards to the Leni Lenape
Lenape
Native Americans living in the region, Congress decided that 10,000 acres on the Muskingum River
Muskingum River
in the present state of Ohio
Ohio
would "be set apart and the property thereof be vested in the Moravian Brethren ... or a society of the said Brethren for civilizing the Indians and promoting Christianity".[66] Statehood: 1803–present

James A. Garfield, President of the United States
United States
from Ohio

On February 19, 1803, U.S. President Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
signed an act of Congress that approved Ohio's boundaries and constitution.[67] However, Congress had never passed a resolution formally admitting Ohio
Ohio
as the 17th state. The current custom of Congress declaring an official date of statehood did not begin until 1812,[disputed – discuss] with Louisiana's admission as the 18th state. Although no formal resolution of admission was required, when the oversight was discovered in 1953, Ohio
Ohio
congressman George H. Bender
George H. Bender
introduced a bill in Congress to admit Ohio
Ohio
to the Union retroactive to March 1, 1803, the date on which the Ohio General Assembly
Ohio General Assembly
first convened.[68] At a special session at the old state capital in Chillicothe, the Ohio state legislature approved a new petition for statehood that was delivered to Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
on horseback. On August 7, 1953 (the year of Ohio's 150th anniversary), President Eisenhower signed a congressional joint resolution that officially declared March 1, 1803, the date of Ohio's admittance into the Union.[68][69][70] Ohio
Ohio
has had three capital cities: Chillicothe, Zanesville, and Columbus. Chillicothe was the capital from 1803 to 1810. The capital was then moved to Zanesville for two years, as part of a state legislative compromise, in order to get a bill passed. The capital was then moved back to Chillicothe, which was the capital from 1812 to 1816. Finally, the capital was moved to Columbus, in order to have it near the geographic center of the state, where it would be more accessible to most citizens. Although many Native Americans had migrated west to evade American encroachment, others remained settled in the state, sometimes assimilating in part. Shawnee
Shawnee
leader Tecumseh
Tecumseh
led an American Indian confederacy in Tecumseh's Rebellion, from 1811 to 1813. In 1830 under President Andrew Jackson, the US government forced Indian Removal
Indian Removal
of most tribes to the Indian Territory
Indian Territory
west of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River. In 1835, Ohio
Ohio
fought with Michigan
Michigan
in the Toledo War, a mostly bloodless boundary war over the Toledo Strip. Only one person was injured in the conflict. Congress intervened, making Michigan's admittance as a state conditional on ending the conflict. In exchange for giving up its claim to the Toledo Strip, Michigan
Michigan
was given the western two-thirds of the Upper Peninsula, in addition to the eastern third that was already considered part of the state.

Ohio
Ohio
state welcome sign, in an older (1990s) style

Newer state sign, (US 52)

Ohio's central position and its population gave it an important place during the Civil War. The Ohio River
Ohio River
was a vital artery for troop and supply movements, as were Ohio's railroads. The industry of Ohio
Ohio
made the state one of the most important states in the union during the Civil war. Ohio
Ohio
contributed more soldiers per-capita than any other state in the Union. In 1862, the state's morale was badly shaken in the aftermath of the battle of Shiloh, a costly victory in which Ohio forces suffered 2,000 casualties.[71] Later that year, when Confederate troops under the leadership of Stonewall Jackson threatened Washington, D.C., Ohio
Ohio
governor David Tod
David Tod
still could recruit 5,000 volunteers to provide three months of service.[72] From July 12 to July 23, 1863, Southern Ohio
Ohio
and Indiana
Indiana
were attacked in Morgan's Raid. While this raid was insignificant and small, it aroused fear among people in Ohio
Ohio
and Indiana.[73] Almost 35,000 Ohioans died in the conflict, and 30,000 were physically wounded.[74] By the end of the Civil War, the Union's top three generals–Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh
Tecumseh
Sherman, and Philip Sheridan–were all from Ohio.[75][76] In 1912 a Constitutional Convention was held with Charles B. Galbreath as secretary. The result reflected the concerns of the Progressive Era. It introduced the initiative and the referendum. In addition, it allowed the General Assembly to put questions on the ballot for the people to ratify laws and constitutional amendments originating in the Legislature. Under the Jeffersonian principle that laws should be reviewed once a generation, the constitution provided for a recurring question to appear on Ohio's general election ballots every 20 years. The question asks whether a new convention is required. Although the question has appeared in 1932, 1952, 1972, and 1992, it has never been approved. Instead constitutional amendments have been proposed by petition to the legislature hundreds of times and adopted in a majority of cases. Eight US Presidents hailed from Ohio
Ohio
at the time of their elections, giving rise to its nickname "Mother of Presidents", a sobriquet it shares with Virginia. It is also termed "Modern Mother of Presidents",[77] in contrast to Virginia's status as the origin of presidents earlier in American history. Seven Presidents were born in Ohio, making it second to Virginia's eight. Virginia-born William Henry Harrison lived most of his life in Ohio
Ohio
and is also buried there. Harrison conducted his political career while living on the family compound, founded by his father-in-law, John Cleves Symmes, in North Bend, Ohio. The seven presidents born in Ohio
Ohio
were Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Benjamin Harrison (grandson of William Henry Harrison), William McKinley, William Howard Taft and Warren G. Harding. Demographics

Historical population

Census Pop.

1800 45,365

1810 230,760

408.7%

1820 581,434

152.0%

1830 937,903

61.3%

1840 1,519,467

62.0%

1850 1,980,329

30.3%

1860 2,339,511

18.1%

1870 2,665,260

13.9%

1880 3,198,062

20.0%

1890 3,672,329

14.8%

1900 4,157,545

13.2%

1910 4,767,121

14.7%

1920 5,759,394

20.8%

1930 6,646,697

15.4%

1940 6,907,612

3.9%

1950 7,946,627

15.0%

1960 9,706,397

22.1%

1970 10,652,017

9.7%

1980 10,797,630

1.4%

1990 10,847,115

0.5%

2000 11,353,140

4.7%

2010 11,536,504

1.6%

Est. 2017 11,658,609

1.1%

Source: 1910–2010[78] 2015 Estimate

Population From just over 45,000 residents in 1800, Ohio's population grew at rates of over 10% per decade (except for the 1940 census) until the 1970 census, which recorded just over 10.65 million Ohioans.[79] Growth then slowed for the next four decades.[80] The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Ohio
Ohio
was 11,613,423 on July 1, 2015, a 0.67% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[81] Ohio's population growth lags that of the entire United States, and Caucasians are found in a greater density than the United States average. As of 2000[update], Ohio's center of population is located in Morrow County,[82] in the county seat of Mount Gilead.[83] This is approximately 6,346 feet (1,934 m) south and west of Ohio's population center in 1990.[82]

Graph of Ohio's population growth from 1800 to 2000.

As of 2011, 27.6% of Ohio's children under the age of 1 belonged to minority groups.[84] 6.2% of Ohio's population is under 5 years of age, 23.7 percent under 18 years of age, and 14.1 percent were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51.2 percent of the population. Birth data Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother

Race 2013[85] 2014[86] 2015[87]

White 109,749 (79.0%) 110,003 (78.9%) 109,566 (78.7%)

> Non-Hispanic White 104,059 (74.9%) 104,102 (74.6%) 103,586 (74.4%)

Black 24,952 (18.0%) 24,931 (17.9%) 25,078 (18.0%)

Asian 3,915 (2.8%) 4,232 (3.0%) 4,367 (3.1%)

Native 320 (0.2%) 301 (0.2%) 253 (0.2%)

Hispanic (of any race) 6,504 (4.7%) 6,884 (4.9%) 6,974 (5.0%)

Total Ohio 138,936 (100%) 139,467 (100%) 139,264 (100%)

Ancestry According to the 2010 United States
United States
Census, the racial composition of Ohio
Ohio
was the following:[88][89]

White American: 82.7% (Non-Hispanic Whites: 81.1%) Black or African American: 12.2% Native American: 0.2% Asian: 1.7% (0.6% Indian, 0.4% Chinese, 0.1% Filipino, 0.1% Korean, 0.1% Vietnamese, 0.1% Japanese) Pacific Islander: 0.03% Two or more races: 2.1% Some other race: 1.1% Hispanic or Latinos (of any race) make up 3.1% (1.5% Mexican, 0.8% Puerto Rican, 0.1% Guatemalan, 0.1% Cuban)

Ohio
Ohio
Racial Breakdown of Population

Racial composition 1990[90] 2000[91] 2010[92]

White 87.8% 85.0% 82.7%

African American 10.6% 11.5% 12.2%

Asian 0.8% 1.2% 1.7%

Native 0.2% 0.2% 0.2%

Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific Islander – – –

Other race 0.5% 0.8% 1.1%

Two or more races – 1.4% 2.1%

In 2010, there were 469,700 foreign-born residents in Ohio, corresponding to 4.1% of the total population. Of these, 229,049 (2.0%) were naturalized US citizens and 240,699 (2.1%) were not.[1] The largest groups were:[93] Mexico
Mexico
(54,166), India
India
(50,256), China (34,901), Germany
Germany
(19,219), Philippines
Philippines
(16,410), United Kingdom (15,917), Canada
Canada
(14,223), Russia
Russia
(11,763), South Korea
South Korea
(11,307), and Ukraine
Ukraine
(10,681). Though predominantly white, Ohio
Ohio
has large black populations in all major metropolitan areas throughout the state, Ohio has a significant Hispanic population made up of Mexicans in Toledo and Columbus, and Puerto Ricans in Cleveland
Cleveland
and Columbus, and also has a significant and diverse Asian population in Columbus. The largest ancestry groups (which the Census defines as not including racial terms) in the state are:[1][94]

26.5% German 14.1% Irish 9.0% English 6.4% Italian 3.8% Polish 2.5% French 1.9% Scottish 1.7% Hungarian 1.6% Dutch 1.5% Mexican 1.2% Slovak 1.1% Welsh 1.1% Scotch-Irish

Ancestries claimed by less than 1% of the population include Sub-Saharan African, Puerto Rican, Swiss, Swedish, Arab, Greek, Norwegian, Romanian, Austrian, Lithuanian, Finnish, West Indian, Portuguese and Slovene.

Ohio
Ohio
population density map.

Languages About 6.7% of the population age 5 years and over reported speaking a language other than English, with 2.2% of the population speaking Spanish, 2.6% speaking other Indo-European languages, 1.1% speaking Asian and Austronesian languages, and 0.8% speaking other languages.[1] Numerically: 10,100,586 spoke English, 239,229 Spanish, 55,970 German, 38,990 Chinese, 33,125 Arabic, and 32,019 French. In addition 59,881 spoke a Slavic language
Slavic language
and 42,673 spoke another West Germanic language according to the 2010 Census.[95] Ohio
Ohio
also had the nation's largest population of Slovene speakers, second largest of Slovak speakers, second largest of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch (German) speakers, and the third largest of Serbian speakers.[96] Religion

Amish
Amish
children on the way to school.

According to a Pew Forum
Pew Forum
poll, as of 2008, 76% of Ohioans identified as Christian.[97] Specifically, 26% of Ohio's population identified as Evangelical Protestant, 22% as Mainline Protestant, and 21% as Catholic.[97] 17% of the population is unaffiliated with any religious body.[97] 1.3% (148,380) were Jewish.[98] There are also small minorities of Jehovah's Witnesses
Jehovah's Witnesses
(1%), Muslims (1%), Hindus (<0.5%), Buddhists (<0.5%), Mormons (<0.5%), and other faiths (1-1.5%).[97] According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), in 2010 the largest denominations by adherents were the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
with 1,992,567; the United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church
with 496,232; the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 223,253, the Southern Baptist Convention with 171,000, the Christian Churches and Churches of Christ with 141,311, the United Church of Christ
United Church of Christ
with 118,000, and the Presbyterian Church (USA)
Presbyterian Church (USA)
with 110,000.[99] With about 70,000 people in 2015 Ohio
Ohio
had the second largest Amish
Amish
population of all states of the US.[100] According to the same data, a majority of Ohioans, 55%, feel that religion is "very important," 30% say that it is "somewhat important," and 15% responded that religion is "not too important/not important at all."[97] 36% of Ohioans indicate that they attend religious services at least once weekly, 35% attend occasionally, and 27% seldom or never participate in religious services.[97]

Religion in Ohio
Ohio
(2014)[101]

Religion

Percent

Protestant

53%

Catholic

18%

None

22%

Mormon

1%

Jewish

1%

Jehovah's Witness

1%

Muslim

1%

Buddhist

1%

Other faith

2%

Economy Main article: Economy of Ohio See also: Ohio
Ohio
locations by per capita income

Cincinnati's Procter & Gamble is one of Ohio's largest companies in terms of revenue.

In 2010, Ohio
Ohio
was ranked No. 2 in the country for best business climate by Site Selection magazine, based on a business-activity database.[102] The state has also won three consecutive Governor's Cup awards from the magazine, based on business growth and developments.[103] As of 2016[update], Ohio's gross domestic product (GDP) was $626 billion.[104] This ranks Ohio's economy as the seventh-largest of all fifty states and the District of Columbia.[105] The Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council ranked the state No. 10 for best business-friendly tax systems in their Business Tax Index 2009, including a top corporate tax and capital gains rate that were both ranked No. 6 at 1.9%.[106] Ohio
Ohio
was ranked No. 11 by the council for best friendly-policy states according to their Small Business Survival Index 2009.[107] The Directorship's Boardroom Guide ranked the state No. 13 overall for best business climate, including No. 7 for best litigation climate.[108] Forbes ranked the state No. 8 for best regulatory environment in 2009.[109] Ohio
Ohio
has 5 of the top 115 colleges in the nation, according to U.S. News and World Report's 2010 rankings,[110] and was ranked No. 8 by the same magazine in 2008 for best high schools.[111] Ohio's unemployment rate stands at 4.5% as of February 2018, [112], down from 10.7% in May 2010.[113][114] The state still lacks 45,000 jobs compared to the prerecession numbers of 2007.[115] The labor force participation as of April 2015 is 63%, slightly above the national average.[115] Ohio's per capita income stands at $34,874.[105][116] As of 2016[update], Ohio's median household income is $52,334, [117] and 14.6% of the population is below the poverty line [118] The manufacturing and financial activities sectors each compose 18.3% of Ohio's GDP, making them Ohio's largest industries by percentage of GDP.[105] Ohio
Ohio
has the third largest manufacturing workforce behind California
California
and Texas. [119] [120] Ohio
Ohio
has the largest bioscience sector in the Midwest, and is a national leader in the "green" economy. Ohio
Ohio
is the largest producer in the country of plastics, rubber, fabricated metals, electrical equipment, and appliances.[121] 5,212,000 Ohioans are currently employed by wage or salary.[105] By employment, Ohio's largest sector is trade/transportation/utilities, which employs 1,010,000 Ohioans, or 19.4% of Ohio's workforce, while the health care and education sector employs 825,000 Ohioans (15.8%).[105] Government employs 787,000 Ohioans (15.1%), manufacturing employs 669,000 Ohioans (12.9%), and professional and technical services employs 638,000 Ohioans (12.2%).[105] Ohio's manufacturing sector is the third-largest of all fifty United States
United States
states in terms of gross domestic product.[105] Fifty-nine of the United States' top 1,000 publicly traded companies (by revenue in 2008) are headquartered in Ohio, including Procter & Gamble, Goodyear Tire & Rubber, AK Steel, Timken, Abercrombie & Fitch, and Wendy's.[122] Ohio
Ohio
is also one of 41 states with its own lottery,[123] the Ohio Lottery.[124] The Ohio Lottery has contributed over $15.5 billion to public education in its 34-year history.[125] Transportation Ground travel Many major east-west transportation corridors go through Ohio. One of those pioneer routes, known in the early 20th century as "Main Market Route 3", was chosen in 1913 to become part of the historic Lincoln Highway which was the first road across America, connecting New York City to San Francisco. In Ohio, the Lincoln Highway
Lincoln Highway
linked many towns and cities together, including Canton, Mansfield, Wooster, Lima, and Van Wert. The arrival of the Lincoln Highway
Lincoln Highway
to Ohio
Ohio
was a major influence on the development of the state. Upon the advent of the federal numbered highway system in 1926, the Lincoln Highway
Lincoln Highway
through Ohio
Ohio
became U.S. Route 30. Ohio
Ohio
also is home to 228 miles (367 km) of the Historic National Road, now U.S. Route 40. Ohio
Ohio
has a highly developed network of roads and interstate highways. Major east-west through routes include the Ohio Turnpike
Ohio Turnpike
(I-80/I-90) in the north, I-76 through Akron to Pennsylvania, I-70 through Columbus and Dayton, and the Appalachian Highway (State Route 32) running from West Virginia
West Virginia
to Cincinnati. Major north-south routes include I-75 in the west through Toledo, Dayton, and Cincinnati, I-71 through the middle of the state from Cleveland
Cleveland
through Columbus and Cincinnati
Cincinnati
into Kentucky, and I-77 in the eastern part of the state from Cleveland
Cleveland
through Akron, Canton, New Philadelphia and Marietta south into West Virginia. Interstate 75
Interstate 75
between Cincinnati
Cincinnati
and Dayton is one of the heaviest traveled sections of interstate in Ohio. Ohio
Ohio
also has a highly developed network of signed state bicycle routes. Many of them follow rail trails, with conversion ongoing. The Ohio to Erie Trail
Ohio to Erie Trail
(route 1) connects Cincinnati, Columbus, and Cleveland. U.S. Bicycle Route 50 traverses Ohio
Ohio
from Steubenville to the Indiana
Indiana
state line outside Richmond.[126] Ohio
Ohio
has several long-distance hiking trails, the most prominent is the Buckeye Trail
Buckeye Trail
which is a 1,444-mile (2,324 km)[1] hiking trail that loops around the state of Ohio. Part of it is on roads and part is on wooded trail. Additionally, the North Country Trail
North Country Trail
(the longest of the eleven National Scenic Trails authorized by Congress) and the American Discovery Trail
American Discovery Trail
(a system of recreational trails and roads that collectively form a coast-to-coast route across the mid-tier of the United States) pass through Ohio. Much of these 2 trails coincide with the Buckeye Trail. Air travel See also: List of airports in Ohio Ohio
Ohio
has 5 international airports, 4 commercial and 2 military. The 5 international includes Cleveland
Cleveland
Hopkins International Airport, John Glenn Columbus International Airport, and Dayton International Airport, Ohio's third largest airport. Akron Fulton International Airport handles cargo and for private use. Rickenbacker International Airport is one of two military airfields which is also home to the 7th largest FedEx building in America.[citation needed] The other military airfield is Wright Patterson Air Force Base
Wright Patterson Air Force Base
which is one of the largest Air Force bases in the United States. Other major airports are located in Toledo and Akron. Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky
Kentucky
International Airport is in Hebron, Kentucky
Kentucky
and therefore is not listed above. Transportation lists

List of Ohio
Ohio
state highways List of Ohio
Ohio
train stations List of Ohio
Ohio
railroads List of Ohio
Ohio
rivers Historic Ohio
Ohio
Canals

Law and government Main article: Government of Ohio

The Ohio State Capitol
Ohio State Capitol
located in Columbus, Ohio.

The state government of Ohio
Ohio
consists of the executive,[127] judicial,[128] and legislative[129] branches. Executive branch The executive branch is headed by the Governor of Ohio.[127] The current governor is John Kasich,[13] a Republican elected in 2010. A lieutenant governor succeeds the governor in the event of any removal from office,[130] and performs any duties assigned by the governor.[131] The current lieutenant governor is Mary Taylor. The other elected constitutional offices in the executive branch are the secretary of state (Jon A. Husted), auditor (Dave Yost), treasurer (Josh Mandel), and attorney general (Mike DeWine).[127] Judicial branch There are three levels of the Ohio
Ohio
state judiciary. The lowest level is the court of common pleas: each county maintains its own constitutionally mandated court of common pleas, which maintain jurisdiction over "all justiciable matters".[132] The intermediate-level court system is the district court system.[133] Twelve courts of appeals exist, each retaining jurisdiction over appeals from common pleas, municipal, and county courts in a set geographical area.[132] A case heard in this system is decided by a three-judge panel, and each judge is elected.[132] The highest-ranking court, the Ohio
Ohio
Supreme Court, is Ohio's "court of last resort".[134] A seven-justice panel composes the court, which, by its own discretion, hears appeals from the courts of appeals, and retains original jurisdiction over limited matters.[135] Legislative branch The Ohio General Assembly
Ohio General Assembly
is a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate and House of Representatives.[136] The Senate is composed of 33 districts, each of which is represented by one senator. Each senator represents approximately 330,000 constituents.[137] The House of Representatives is composed of 99 members.[138] National politics See also: Politics of Ohio, Political party strength in Ohio, Ohio Democratic Party, and Ohio
Ohio
Republican Party

This section needs to be updated. In particular: Missing up-to-date information on current voter demographics.. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (March 2017)

Presidential elections results[139]

Year Republican Democratic

2016 51.69% 2,841,005 43.56% 2,394,164

2012 47.60% 2,661,437 50.58% 2,827,709

2008 46.80% 2,677,820 51.38% 2,940,044

2004 50.81% 2,859,768 48.71% 2,741,167

2000 49.97% 2,351,209 46.46% 2,186,190

1996 41.02% 1,859,883 47.38% 2,148,222

1992 38.35% 1,894,310 40.18% 1,984,942

1988 55.00% 2,416,549 44.15% 1,939,629

1984 58.90% 2,678,560 40.14% 1,825,440

1980 51.51% 2,206,545 40.91% 1,752,414

1976 48.65% 2,000,505 48.92% 2,011,621

1972 59.63% 2,441,827 38.07% 1,558,889

1968 45.23% 1,791,014 42.95% 1,700,586

1964 37.06% 1,470,865 62.94% 2,498,331

1960 53.28% 2,217,611 46.72% 1,944,248

Treemap
Treemap
of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

Ohio, nicknamed the "Mother of Presidents," has sent seven of its native sons (Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Benjamin Harrison, William McKinley, William Howard Taft, and Warren G. Harding) to the White House.[140] All seven were Republicans. Virginia
Virginia
native William Henry Harrison, a Whig, resided in Ohio.[140] Historian R. Douglas Hurt asserts that not since Virginia
Virginia
"had a state made such a mark on national political affairs".[141] The Economist notes that "This slice of the mid-west contains a bit of everything American — part north-eastern and part southern, part urban and part rural, part hardscrabble poverty and part booming suburb",[142] Ohio
Ohio
is the only state that has voted for the winning Presidential candidate in each election since 1964, and in 33 of the 37 held since the Civil War. No Republican has ever won the presidency without winning Ohio. As of 2008[update], Ohio's voter demographic leans towards the Democratic Party.[143] An estimated 2,408,178 Ohioans are registered to vote as Democrats, while 1,471,465 Ohioans are registered to vote as Republicans.[143][dead link] These are changes from 2004 of 72% and 32%, respectively, and Democrats have registered over 1,000,000 new Ohioans since 2004.[143][dead link] Unaffiliated voters have an attrition of 15% since 2004, losing an estimated 718,000 of their kind.[143][dead link] The total now rests at 4,057,518 Ohioans.[143][dead link] In total, there are 7,937,161 Ohioans registered to vote.[143][dead link] In United States
United States
presidential election of 2008, then-Senator Barack Obama
Barack Obama
of Illinois
Illinois
won 51.50% of Ohio's popular vote, 4.59 percentage points more than his nearest rival, Senator John McCain
John McCain
of Arizona
Arizona
(with 46.91% of the popular vote).[144] However, Obama won only 22 of Ohio's 88 counties.[145] Since 2010, the Republicans have largely controlled Ohio
Ohio
state politics, including a super-majority in the state's House, a majority in the state Senate, the Governorship, etc.[146] As of 2014, the state Senate is 1 Republican away from a super-majority.[146] Following the 2000 census, Ohio
Ohio
lost one congressional district in the United States
United States
House of Representatives, which leaves Ohio
Ohio
with 18 districts, and consequently, 18 representatives. The state lost two more seats following the 2010 Census, leaving it with 16 votes for the next 3 presidential elections in 2012, 2016 and 2020.[147] The 2008 elections, Democrats gained three seats in Ohio's delegation to the House of Representatives.[148] This leaves eight Republican-controlled seats in the Ohio
Ohio
delegation.[149] Ohio's U.S. Senators in the 112th Congress are Republican Rob Portman
Rob Portman
and Democrat Sherrod Brown.[150] Marcy Kaptur (D-9) is the dean, or most senior member, of the Ohio delegation to the United States
United States
House of Representatives.[151] Education Ohio's system of public education is outlined in Article VI of the state constitution, and in Title XXXIII of the Ohio
Ohio
Revised Code. Ohio University, the first university in the Northwest Territory, was also the first public institution in Ohio. Substantively, Ohio's system is similar to those found in other states. At the State level, the Ohio Department of Education, which is overseen by the Ohio
Ohio
State Board of Education, governs primary and secondary educational institutions. At the municipal level, there are approximately 700 school districts statewide. The Ohio Board of Regents coordinates and assists with Ohio's institutions of higher education which have recently been reorganized into the University System of Ohio under Governor Strickland. The system averages an annual enrollment of over 400,000 students, making it one of the five largest state university systems in the U.S.

A tree map depicting the distribution of bachelor's degrees awarded in Ohio
Ohio
in 2014.

Colleges and universities Main article: List of colleges and universities in Ohio

13 state universities

Bowling Green State University
Bowling Green State University
(Bowling Green) Central State University
Central State University
(Wilberforce) Cleveland
Cleveland
State University (Cleveland) Kent State University
Kent State University
(Kent) Miami University
Miami University
(Oxford) The Ohio State University
The Ohio State University
(Columbus) Ohio University
Ohio University
(Athens) Shawnee State University
Shawnee State University
(Portsmouth) University of Akron
University of Akron
(Akron) University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
(Cincinnati) University of Toledo
University of Toledo
(Toledo) Wright State University
Wright State University
(Dayton/Fairborn) Youngstown State University
Youngstown State University
(Youngstown)

24 state university branch and regional campuses 46 private colleges and universities 6 free-standing state-assisted medical schools

Boonshoft School of Medicine (formerly known as The Wright State University School of Medicine) Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio
Ohio
University Northeast Ohio
Northeast Ohio
Medical University The Ohio State University
The Ohio State University
College of Medicine and Public Health University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
College of Medicine University of Toledo
University of Toledo
College of Medicine (formerly Medical University of Ohio)

15 community colleges 8 technical colleges 24 independent non-profit colleges

Libraries Ohio
Ohio
is home to some of the nation's highest-ranked public libraries.[152] The 2008 study by Thomas J. Hennen Jr. ranked Ohio
Ohio
as number one in a state-by-state comparison.[153] For 2008, 31 of Ohio's library systems were all ranked in the top ten for American cities of their population category.[152]

500,000 books or more

Columbus Metropolitan Library
Columbus Metropolitan Library
(First) Cuyahoga County Public Library
Cuyahoga County Public Library
(Second) Public Library of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
and Hamilton County (Tenth)

The Ohio Public Library Information Network (OPLIN)
Ohio Public Library Information Network (OPLIN)
is an organization that provides Ohio
Ohio
residents with internet access to their 251 public libraries. OPLIN also provides Ohioans with free home access to high-quality, subscription research databases. Ohio
Ohio
also offers the OhioLINK program, allowing Ohio's libraries (particularly those from colleges and universities) access to materials for the other libraries. The program is largely successful in allowing researchers for access to books and other media that might not be otherwise available. Culture Arts

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Sports Main article: Sport in Ohio Professional sports teams Ohio
Ohio
is home to major professional sports teams in baseball, basketball, football, hockey, lacrosse and soccer. The state's major professional sporting teams include: Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Reds (Major League Baseball),[154] Ohio Machine
Ohio Machine
(Major League Lacrosse), Cleveland Indians (Major League Baseball),[155] Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Bengals (National Football League),[156] Cleveland
Cleveland
Browns (National Football League),[156] Cleveland
Cleveland
Cavaliers (National Basketball Association),[157] Columbus Blue Jackets
Columbus Blue Jackets
(National Hockey League),[158] and the Columbus Crew
Columbus Crew
(Major League Soccer).[159] Ohio
Ohio
played a central role in the development of both Major League Baseball and the National Football League. Baseball's first fully professional team, the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Red Stockings of 1869, were organized in Ohio.[160] An informal early 20th century American football association, the Ohio
Ohio
League, was the direct predecessor of the NFL, although neither of Ohio's modern NFL franchises trace their roots to an Ohio League club. The Pro Football Hall of Fame
Pro Football Hall of Fame
is located in Canton. On a smaller scale, Ohio
Ohio
hosts minor league baseball, arena football, indoor football, mid-level hockey, and lower division soccer. Individual sports The Mid-Ohio Sports Car Course
Mid-Ohio Sports Car Course
has hosted several auto racing championships, including CART World Series, IndyCar Series, NASCAR Nationwide Series, Can-Am, Formula 5000, IMSA GT Championship, American Le Mans Series
American Le Mans Series
and Rolex Sports Car Series. The Grand Prix of Cleveland
Cleveland
also hosted CART races from 1982 to 2007. The Eldora Speedway is a major dirt oval that hosts NASCAR
NASCAR
Camping World Truck Series, World of Outlaws
World of Outlaws
Sprint Cars and USAC Silver Crown Series races. Ohio
Ohio
hosts two PGA Tour
PGA Tour
events, the WGC-Bridgestone Invitational
WGC-Bridgestone Invitational
and Memorial Tournament. The Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Masters is an ATP World Tour Masters 1000 and WTA Premier 5 tennis tournament. College sports Ohio
Ohio
has eight NCAA Division I FBS college football teams, divided among three different conferences. It has also experienced considerable success in the secondary and tertiary tiers of college football divisions. In Division I-A, representing the Big Ten, the Ohio
Ohio
State Buckeyes football team ranks 5th among all-time winningest programs,[citation needed] with seven national championships and seven Heisman Trophy winners. Their biggest rivals are the Michigan
Michigan
Wolverines, whom they traditionally play each year as the last game of their regular season schedule. Ohio
Ohio
has six teams represented in the Mid-American Conference: the University of Akron, Bowling Green, Kent State, Miami University, Ohio University and the University of Toledo. The MAC headquarters are in Cleveland. The University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Bearcats represent Ohio
Ohio
in the American Athletic Conference. State symbols Main article: List of Ohio
Ohio
state symbols See also: Lists of U.S. state
U.S. state
insignia

Ohio
Ohio
buckeyes, the seed from the Ohio buckeye
Ohio buckeye
tree.

Ohio's state symbols:

State capital: Columbus[4] (1816)[161] State herb capital: Gahanna (1972)[162]

See also

Ohio
Ohio
portal

Outline of Ohio
Outline of Ohio
– organized list of topics about Ohio Index of Ohio-related articles

Notes

^ a b c d Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder2.census.gov.  ^ a b "Why is Ohio
Ohio
known as the Buckeye State and why are Ohioans known as Buckeyes?" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 28, 2008. Retrieved April 28, 2008.  ^ " Ohio
Ohio
Quick Facts". Ohio
Ohio
Historical Society. Retrieved March 26, 2009.  ^ a b "City of Columbus: Fun Facts". City of Columbus, Ohio. 2006. Archived from the original on May 1, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2009.  ^ U.S. Census: Columbus metro bigger than that of Cleveland, gaining on Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Retrieved March 24, 2018 ^ According to the U.S. Census July 2013 Annual Estimate Archived June 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., Greater Cleveland
Greater Cleveland
is the largest Metropolitan Statistical Area
Metropolitan Statistical Area
(MSA) that is entirely within Ohio, with a population of 2,064,725; and Greater Cincinnati
Greater Cincinnati
is the largest MSA that is at least partially within Ohio, with a population of 2,137,406, approximately 25% of which is in Indiana
Indiana
or Kentucky. Which MSA is the largest in Ohio
Ohio
depends on the context. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. June 22, 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2017.  ^ "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 9, 2016.  ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved October 24, 2011.  ^ a b Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988. ^ a b Mary Stockwell. Ohio
Ohio
Adventure. Gibbs Smith. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-4236-2382-3.  ^ "Creation of the Board of Elections". Mahoning County Board of Elections. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved March 25, 2009.  ^ a b "The Governors of Ohio". Ohio
Ohio
Historical Society. January 8, 2007. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved March 25, 2009.  ^ Hershey, William (November 8, 2006). "Strickland becomes first Dem governor since '91". Middletown Journal. Archived from the original on May 12, 2011. Retrieved March 25, 2009.  ^ "About Lee". Office of the Governor. 2009. Archived from the original on March 23, 2009. Retrieved March 25, 2009.  ^ "Democrats Jennifer Brunner, Lee Fisher to run for U.S. Senate". Associated Press. February 17, 2009. Archived from the original on July 29, 2012. Retrieved March 27, 2009.  ^ a b "Sherrod Brown". Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 25, 2008. Retrieved March 27, 2009.  ^ "Official USPS Abbreviations". United States
United States
Postal Service. 1998. Archived from the original on March 28, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2009.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Ohio's State Symbols". Ohio
Ohio
Governor's Residence and State Garden. Retrieved March 26, 2009.  ^ "Ohio's State Motto". Ohio
Ohio
Historical Society. July 1, 2005. Retrieved March 27, 2009.  ^ "Ohio's State Rock Song". Ohio
Ohio
Historical Society. July 1, 2005. Retrieved March 27, 2009.  ^ "Quick Facts About the State of Ohio". Ohio
Ohio
History Central. Retrieved July 2, 2010. From Iroquois
Iroquois
word meaning 'great river'  ^ Mithun, Marianne (1999). "Borrowing". The Languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 311–3. ISBN 978-0-521-29875-9. Ohio
Ohio
('large creek')  ^ "Native Ohio". American Indian Studies. Ohio
Ohio
State University. Archived from the original on February 2, 2007. Retrieved February 25, 2007. Ohio
Ohio
comes from the Seneca (Iroquoian) ohiiyo' 'good river'  ^ William M. Davidson (1902). A History of the United States. Scott, Foresman and Company. p. 265.  ^ Berg-Andersson, Richard E. (2000). "The Math Behind the 2000 Census Apportionment of Representatives". The Green Papers. Retrieved March 25, 2009.  ^ a b Pollard, Kelvin (2008). "Swing, Bellwether, and Red and Blue States". Population Reference Bureau. Retrieved March 25, 2009.  ^ Froman, Frances & Keye, Alfred J. "English-Cayuga/Cayuga-English Dictionary" 2014. ^ "Transportation delivers for Ohio". Ohio: Department of Transportation. February 12, 2003. Archived from the original on January 24, 2008. Retrieved December 22, 2005.  ^ " Ohio
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Coastal Counties". Ohio: Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved September 3, 2008.  ^ a b " Ohio
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v. Kentucky, 444 U.S. 335". Find law. January 21, 1980. Retrieved August 15, 2016.  ^ "History of the Appalachian Regional Commission". Appalachian Regional Commission. Archived from the original on December 22, 2005. Retrieved January 3, 2006.  ^ "Counties in Appalachia" Archived September 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., Appalachian Regional Commission. Retrieved January 3, 2006. ^ "GCT-T1 Ohio
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County Population Estimates—2005", The United States Census Bureau, retrieved January 3, 2006. True summation of Ohio Appalachia counties population (1,476,384) obtained by adding the 29 individual county populations together (July 1, 2005 data). Percentage obtained by dividing that number into that table's estimate of Ohio population as of July 1, 2005 (11,464,042) ^ "The History of the MCD: The Conservancy Act". Miami Conservancy District. Archived from the original on March 14, 2007. Retrieved January 13, 2007.  ^ " Ohio
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climate averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved November 12, 2015.  ^ "All-Time Temperature Maximums By State (2003)" (PDF). National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved November 7, 2006.  ^ "All-Time Temperature Minimums By State (2003)" (PDF). National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved November 7, 2006.  ^ McLeod, Jaime (February 6, 2012). "The Great Blizzard of 1899: Deep South, Deep Freeze". The Farmer's Almanac. Retrieved February 5, 2016.  ^ ODNR Updates Ohio
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Earthquake Map to Reflect Statewide Seismic Activity Since 2002 (news release), Ohio
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Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey (September 18, 2007) ^ Ohio
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Seismic Network, What was the biggest earthquake in Ohio? ^ Historic Earthquakes: Western Ohio
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Archived December 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., U.S. Geological Survey. ^ "Historic United States
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Earthquakes". US: Geological Survey. Archived from the original on October 7, 2009.  contribution= ignored (help) ^ "Historic Earthquakes". US: Geological Survey. Archived from the original on September 9, 2009.  contribution= ignored (help) ^ "Historic Earthquakes". US: Geological Survey. Archived from the original on September 9, 2009.  contribution= ignored (help) ^ "Historic Earthquakes". US: Geological Survey. Archived from the original on September 9, 2009.  contribution= ignored (help) ^ "The Ohio
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Seismic Network". Ohio
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Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved September 13, 2009.  contribution= ignored (help) ^ "Magnitude 4.0 – Youngstown‐Warren urban area, OH". US: Geological Survey. Archived from the original on January 7, 2012. Retrieved December 31, 2011.  ^ "The Ohio
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Seismic Network". OH: Department of natural resources.  ^ Catalog of Ohio
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Earthquakes, at the Ohio
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Department of Natural Resources web site ^ " Ohio
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(USA): State, Major Cities, Villages & Places". City Population. February 19, 2011. Retrieved July 13, 2015.  ^ a b Knepper (1989), p. 9. ^ a b c Knepper (1989), p. 10. ^ a b Knepper (1989), p. 11. ^ Douglas T. Price; Gary M. Feinman (2008). Images of the Past, 5th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 274–277. ^ a b c Knepper (1989), p. 13. ^ "Monongahela culture-AD 1050-1635". Fort Hill Archeology. Retrieved 2010-01-14. ^ Knepper (1989), p. 14. ^ Roseboom (1967), p. 20. ^ "EARLY INDIAN MIGRATION IN OHIO". GenealogyTrails.com. Retrieved August 17, 2017. ^ louis, franquelin, jean baptiste. "Franquelin's map of Louisiana.". LOC.gov. Retrieved August 17, 2017. ^ Knepper (1989), pp. 14–17. ^ Knepper (1989), pp. 43–44. ^ "Pontiac's Rebellion" Archived April 3, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., Ohio
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History Central, July 1, 2005. ^ Cayton (2002), p. 3. ^ "Religion and the Congress of the Confederation, 1774–89". Library of Congress. Retrieved April 11, 2012.  ^ An act to provide for the due execution of the laws of the United States, within the state of Ohio, ch. 7, 2 Stat. 201 (February 19, 1803). ^ a b Blue, Frederick J. (Autumn 2002). "The Date of Ohio
Ohio
Statehood". Ohio
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Academy of History Newsletter. Archived from the original on September 11, 2010.  ^ Joint Resolution for admitting the State of Ohio
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Morgan's Raid
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Census Bureau. 1970. Retrieved March 27, 2009.  ^ Balistreri, Kelly (February 2001). " Ohio
Ohio
Population News: Why did Ohio
Ohio
lose a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives?" (PDF). Center for Family and Demographic Research at Bowling Green State University. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 16, 2008. Retrieved March 27, 2009.  ^ "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". U.S. Census Bureau. December 23, 2015. Archived from the original (CSV) on December 23, 2015. Retrieved December 23, 2015.  ^ a b "2000 Population and Geographic Centers of Ohio" (PDF). Ohio Department of Development, Office of Strategic Research. March 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 24, 2005. Retrieved March 26, 2009.  ^ "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 22, 2013. Retrieved December 6, 2008.  ^ "Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". The Plain Dealer. June 3, 2012. ^ https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_01.pdf ^ https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_12.pdf ^ https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr66/nvsr66_01.pdf ^ American FactFinder – Results Archived March 5, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ American FactFinder – Results Archived December 18, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". July 25, 2008.  ^ Population of Ohio: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts[permanent dead link] ^ "US Census Bureau 2010 Census". www.census.gov.  ^ "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder2.census.gov.  ^ "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder2.census.gov.  ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder2.census.gov.  ^ "Data Center Language List".  ^ a b c d e f "Religious Composition of Ohio". The Pew Forum
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Virtual Library. Retrieved May 14, 2013.  ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives State Membership Report". www.thearda.com. Retrieved December 16, 2013.  ^ Amish
Amish
Studies: "Population Change 2010–2015" Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Religious Landscape Study". May 11, 2015.  ^ "Site Selection Rankings". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved October 17, 2011.  ^ "Columbus Chamber Announces Ohio
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Ranked on 'Top 10 Business Climates' List for 2009", Earth Times. Retrieved November 19, 2009. ^ Analysis, US Department of Commerce, BEA, Bureau of Economic. "Bureau of Economic Analysis". www.bea.gov.  ^ a b c d e f g "Economic Overview" (PDF). Ohio
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Department of Development. February 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 26, 2009. Retrieved March 31, 2009.  ^ "Business Tax Index 2009" Archived April 19, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., SMALL BUSINESS & ENTREPRENEURSHIP COUNCIL. Retrieved December 2, 2009. ^ "SMALL BUSINESS SURVIVAL INDEX 2009" Archived December 28, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., SMALL BUSINESS & ENTREPRENEURSHIP COUNCIL. Retrieved December 2, 2009. ^ "The Best States for Business", Directorship. Retrieved December 2, 2009. ^ "The Best States For Business", Forbes. Retrieved December 2, 2009. ^ "Best Colleges 2010" Archived December 2, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved December 2, 2009. ^ "Best High Schools: State by State Statistics" Archived April 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved December 2, 2009. ^ Ohio
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unemployment rate 4.5% in February; state gained 13,400 jobs Retrieved March 24, 2018 ^ Bls.gov; Local Area Unemployment Statistics ^ "Jobless rates fall again in southeastern Ohio" Archived November 1, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., Zanesville Times-Recorder. June 23, 2010. Retrieved June 25, 2010. ^ a b Olivera Perkins (May 22, 2015) Ohio's unemployment rate up to 5.2 percent: 5 things you need to know Cleveland.com. ^ "Strickland: Mature leader needed, rival Kasich is too radical", Dayton Daily News. June 22, 2010. Retrieved June 25, 2010. ^ Ohio
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Household Income Accessed March 24, 2018 ^ [1] Retrieved March 24, 2018 ^ Manufacturing
Manufacturing
a High-Wage Ohio
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Accessed March 24, 2018 ^ Ohio
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Remains Among The Top Three States for Manufacturing
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Employment and Wages Retrieved March 24, 2018 ^ "Economic Overview" Archived March 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., Ohio
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Department of Development, p. 1. Retrieved November 19, 2009. ^ "Fortune 500 2008". . May 5, 2008. Retrieved March 31, 2009.  ^ "Lottery Results" (SHTML). Office of Citizen Services and Communications, General Services Administration. Retrieved March 31, 2009.  ^ "About the Ohio
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Lottery". Ohio Lottery Commission. 2008. Retrieved March 31, 2009.  ^ Kissell, Margo R. (March 24, 2009). "Englewood Man Wins $250,000 in Lottery". Englewood, O.H.: Dayton Daily News. Retrieved March 31, 2009.  ^ Vitale, Marty (May 29, 2014). "Report to SCOH". Louisville, Kentucky: Special
Special
Committee on U.S. Route Numbering, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Archived from the original (Office Open XML) on May 31, 2014. Retrieved June 1, 2014.  ^ a b c "Constitution Online". Ohio
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Secretary of State. November 4, 2008. Retrieved March 10, 2015.  ^ Hallett, Joe; Mark Niquette; Jonathan Riskind (November 6, 2008). "Total-state Approach Aided Obama". Columbus Dispatch. Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. Retrieved March 29, 2009.  ^ a b " Ohio
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References

Cayton, Andrew R. L. (2002). Ohio: The History of a People. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University
The Ohio State University
Press. ISBN 0-8142-0899-1 Knepper, George W. (1989). Ohio
Ohio
and Its People. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press. ISBN 978-0-87338-791-0 Mithun, Marianne (1999). Languages of Native North America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Morris, Roy, Jr. (1992). Sheridan: The Life and Wars of General Phil Sheridan. New York: Crown Publishing. ISBN 0-517-58070-5. Holli, Melvin G. (1999). The American Mayor. State College, PA: Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
State University Press. ISBN 0-271-01876-3 Roseboom, Eugene H.; Weisenburger, Francis P. (1967). A History of Ohio. Columbus: The Ohio
Ohio
Historical Society.

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