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Oceania
Oceania
(UK: /ˌoʊʃiˈɑːniə, ˌoʊsi-/[3] or US: /ˌoʊʃiːˈæniə/[4]) is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia
Polynesia
and Australasia.[5] Spanning the eastern and western hemispheres, Oceania
Oceania
covers an area of 8,525,989 square kilometres (3,291,903 sq mi) and has a population of 40 million. Situated in the southeast of the Asia Pacific
Asia Pacific
region, Oceania is the smallest continental grouping in land area and the second smallest in population after Antarctica. The islands at the geographic extremes of Oceania
Oceania
are Bonin Islands, a politically integral part of Japan; Hawaii, a state of the United States; Clipperton Island, a possession of France; the Juan Fernández Islands, belonging to Chile; the Campbell Islands, belonging to New Zealand; and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, belonging to Australia. Oceania
Oceania
has a diverse mix of economies from the highly developed and globally competitive financial market of Australia
Australia
and New Zealand, which rank high in quality of life and human development index,[6][7] to the much less developed economies that belong to countries such as of Kiribati
Kiribati
and Tuvalu,[8] while also including medium-sized economies of Pacific
Pacific
islands such as Palau, Fiji
Fiji
and Tonga.[9] The largest and most populous country in Oceania
Oceania
is Australia, with Sydney
Sydney
being the largest city of both Oceania
Oceania
and Australia.[10] The first settlers of Australia, New Guinea, and the large islands just to the east arrived between 50,000 and 30,000 years ago. Oceania was first explored by Europeans from the 16th century onward. Portuguese navigators, between 1512 and 1526, reached the Tanimbar Islands, some of the Caroline Islands
Caroline Islands
and west Papua New Guinea. On his first voyage in the 18th century, James Cook, who later arrived at the highly-developed Hawaiian Islands, went to Tahiti
Tahiti
and followed the east coast of Australia
Australia
for the first time. The Pacific
Pacific
front saw major action during the Second World War, mainly between the belligerents the United States, its ally Australia, and Japan.[11] The arrival of European settlers in subsequent centuries resulted in a significant alteration in the social and political landscape of Oceania. In more contemporary times there has been increasing discussion on national flags and a desire by some Oceanians to display their distinguishable and individualistic identity.[12] The rock art of Australian Aborigines is the longest continuously practiced artistic tradition in the world.[13] Puncak Jaya
Puncak Jaya
in Papua is often considered the highest peak in Oceania.[14] Most Oceanian countries have a parliamentary representative democratic multi-party system, with tourism being a large source of income for the Pacific
Pacific
Islands nations.[15]

Contents

1 Definitions 2 History

2.1 Australia 2.2 Melanesia 2.3 Polynesia 2.4 Micronesia 2.5 European exploration

2.5.1 Colonization

2.6 Modern history

3 Geography

3.1 Regions 3.2 Geology 3.3 Flora 3.4 Fauna 3.5 Climate

4 Demographics

4.1 Religion 4.2 Languages 4.3 Immigration 4.4 Archaeogenetics

5 Economy

5.1 Australia
Australia
and New Zealand 5.2 Pacific
Pacific
Islands 5.3 Tourism

6 Politics

6.1 Australia 6.2 New Zealand 6.3 Pacific
Pacific
Islands

7 Culture

7.1 Australia 7.2 Hawaii 7.3 New Zealand 7.4 Samoa 7.5 Arts 7.6 Sport

8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Definitions[edit]

Regions of Oceania

The term was coined as Océanie circa 1812 by geographer Conrad Malte-Brun.[16] The word Océanie is a French word derived from the Latin word oceanus, and this from the Greek word ὠκεανός (ōkeanós), ocean. Natives and inhabitants of this region are called Oceanians or Oceanicans.[17] The term Oceania
Oceania
is used because, unlike the other continental groupings, it is the ocean that links the nations together.[18]

Biogeographically, as a synonym for the Australasian ecozone
Australasian ecozone
and the Pacific
Pacific
ecozone (Melanesia, Polynesia, and Micronesia), with New Zealand forming the south-western corner of the Polynesian Triangle. To note, New Zealand
New Zealand
may also be considered part of Australasia, despite being traditionally part of Polynesia.[19] As an ecozone, Oceania
Oceania
includes all of Micronesia, Fiji, and all of Polynesia
Polynesia
except New Zealand. New Zealand, along with New Guinea
New Guinea
and nearby islands, part of the Philippine islands, Australia, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and New Caledonia, constitute the separate Australasian ecozone.[20] In the geopolitical conception used by the United Nations, International Olympic Committee, and many atlases, Oceania
Oceania
includes Australia
Australia
and the nations of the Pacific
Pacific
from Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
east, but not the Indonesian New Guinea.[21]

History[edit] Main article: History of Oceania Australia[edit] Main articles: Prehistory
Prehistory
of Australia
Australia
and History of Indigenous Australians

A 19th-century engraving of an Aboriginal Australian encampment

Indigenous Australians
Indigenous Australians
are the original inhabitants of the Australian continent and nearby islands who migrated from Africa
Africa
to Asia
Asia
around 70,000 years ago[22] and arrived in Australia
Australia
around 50,000 years ago.[23] They are believed to be among the earliest human migrations out of Africa.[24] Although they likely migrated to Australia
Australia
through Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
they are not demonstrably related to any known Asian or Polynesian population.[25] There is evidence of genetic and linguistic interchange between Australians in the far north and the Austronesian peoples of modern-day New Guinea
New Guinea
and the islands, but this may be the result of recent trade and intermarriage.[26] They reached Tasmania
Tasmania
approximately 40,000 years ago by migrating across a land bridge from the mainland that existed during the last ice age.[27] It is believed that the first early human migration to Australia
Australia
was achieved when this landmass formed part of the Sahul continent, connected to the island of New Guinea
New Guinea
via a land bridge.[28] The Torres Strait Islanders
Torres Strait Islanders
are indigenous to the Torres Strait Islands, which are at the northernmost tip of Queensland
Queensland
near Papua New Guinea.[29] The earliest definite human remains found in Australia
Australia
are that of Mungo Man, which have been dated at about 40,000 years old.[30] Melanesia[edit]

Distribution of Melanesians

Main article: History of New Guinea The original inhabitants of the group of islands now named Melanesia were likely the ancestors of the present-day Papuan-speaking people. Migrating from South-East Asia, they appear to have occupied these islands as far east as the main islands in the Solomon Islands, including Makira
Makira
and possibly the smaller islands farther to the east.[31] Particularly along the north coast of New Guinea
New Guinea
and in the islands north and east of New Guinea, the Austronesian people, who had migrated into the area somewhat more than 3,000 years ago, came into contact with these pre-existing populations of Papuan-speaking peoples. In the late 20th century, some scholars theorized a long period of interaction, which resulted in many complex changes in genetics, languages, and culture among the peoples.[32] Polynesia[edit] Main articles: History of Hawaii
Hawaii
and History of New Zealand

Moai
Moai
at Ahu Tongariki on Rapa Nui (Easter Island)

The Polynesian people are considered to be by linguistic, archaeological and human genetic ancestry a subset of the sea-migrating Austronesian people
Austronesian people
and tracing Polynesian languages places their prehistoric origins in the Malay Archipelago, and ultimately, in Taiwan. Between about 3000 and 1000 BC speakers of Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
began spreading from Taiwan
Taiwan
into Island South-East Asia,[33][34][35] as tribes whose natives were thought to have arrived through South China about 8,000 years ago to the edges of western Micronesia
Micronesia
and on into Melanesia. In the archaeological record there are well-defined traces of this expansion which allow the path it took to be followed and dated with some certainty. It is thought that by roughly 1400 BC,[36] "Lapita Peoples", so-named after their pottery tradition, appeared in the Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago
of north-west Melanesia.[37][38] Easter Islanders claimed that a chief Hotu Matu'a[39] arrived on the island in one or two large canoes with his wife and extended family.[40] They are believed to have been Polynesian. Published literature suggests the island was settled around AD 300–400, or at about the time of the arrival of the earliest settlers in Hawaii. Around 1200, Tahitian explorers found and began settling the area. This date range is based on glottochronological calculations and on three radiocarbon dates from charcoal that appears to have been produced during forest clearance activities.[41] Moreover, a recent study which included radiocarbon dates from what is thought to be very early material suggests that the island was settled as recently as 1200.[42] Micronesia[edit] See also: History of the Federated States of Micronesia

Stone money transport to Yap Island
Yap Island
in Micronesia
Micronesia
(1880)

Micronesia
Micronesia
began to be settled several millennia ago, although there are competing theories about the origin and arrival of the first settlers. There are numerous difficulties with conducting archaeological excavations in the islands, due to their size, settlement patterns and storm damage. As a result, much evidence is based on linguistic analysis.[43] The earliest archaeological traces of civilization have been found on the island of Saipan, dated to 1500 BC or slightly before. The ancestors of the Micronesians settled there over 4,000 years ago. A decentralized chieftain-based system eventually evolved into a more centralized economic and religious culture centered on Yap
Yap
and Pohnpei.[44] The prehistory of many Micronesian islands such as Yap are not known very well.[45] The first people of the Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
navigated to the islands at some period between 4000 BC to 2000 BC from South-East Asia. They became known as the Chamorros, and spoke an Austronesian language called Chamorro. The ancient Chamorro left a number of megalithic ruins, including Latte stone. The Refaluwasch, or Carolinian, people came to the Marianas in the 1800s from the Caroline Islands. Micronesian colonists gradually settled the Marshall Islands during the 2nd millennium BC, with inter-island navigation made possible using traditional stick charts.[46] European exploration[edit] See also: Magellan–Elcano circumnavigation, Spanish East Indies, History of Australia
Australia
(1788–1850), and Colony of New Zealand

1852 map of Oceania
Oceania
by J. G. Barbie du Bocage. Includes regions of Polynesia, Micronesia, Melanesia
Melanesia
and Malaysia.

From 1527 to 1595 a number of other large Spanish expeditions crossed the Pacific
Pacific
Ocean, leading to the discovery of the Marshall Islands and Palau
Palau
in the North Pacific, as well as Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Solomon Islands, the Cook Islands
Cook Islands
and the Admiralty Islands
Admiralty Islands
in the South Pacific.[47] In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn
Pitcairn
and Vanuatu archipelagos, and sailed the Torres Strait
Torres Strait
between Australia
Australia
and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Willem Janszoon, made the first completely documented European landing in Australia (1606), in Cape York Peninsula.[48] Abel Janszoon Tasman circumnavigated and landed on parts of the Australian continental coast and discovered Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land
(now Tasmania), New Zealand
New Zealand
in 1642, and Fiji
Fiji
islands.[49] He was the first known European explorer to reach these islands.[50] On 23 April 1770 British explorer James Cook
James Cook
made his first recorded direct observation of indigenous Australians at Brush Island
Brush Island
near Bawley Point.[51] On 29 April, Cook and crew made their first landfall on the mainland of the continent at a place now known as the Kurnell Peninsula. It is here that James Cook
James Cook
made first contact with an aboriginal tribe known as the Gweagal. His expedition became the first recorded Europeans to have encountered its eastern coastline of Australia.[52] Colonization[edit] See also: Colonisation of Australia
Australia
and Colonisation of New Zealand

New Guinea
New Guinea
from 1884 to 1919. The Netherlands
Netherlands
controlled the western half of New Guinea, Germany the north-eastern part, and Britain the south-eastern part.

In 1789 the Mutiny on the Bounty
Mutiny on the Bounty
against William Bligh
William Bligh
led to several of the mutineers escaping the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
and settling on Pitcairn Islands, which later became a British colony. Britain also established colonies in Australia
Australia
in 1788, New Zealand
New Zealand
in 1840 and Fiji
Fiji
in 1872, with much of Oceania
Oceania
becoming part of the British Empire. The Gilbert Islands (now known as Kiribati) and the Ellice Islands (now known as Tuvalu) came under Britain's sphere of influence in the late 19th century.[53][54] French Catholic missionaries arrived on Tahiti
Tahiti
in 1834; their expulsion in 1836 caused France
France
to send a gunboat in 1838. In 1842, Tahiti
Tahiti
and Tahuata
Tahuata
were declared a French protectorate, to allow Catholic missionaries to work undisturbed. The capital of Papeetē was founded in 1843.[55] On 24 September 1853, under orders from Napoleon III, Admiral Febvrier Despointes took formal possession of New Caledonia and Port-de- France
France
(Nouméa) was founded 25 June 1854.[56] The Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar landed in the Marshall Islands in 1529. They were named by Krusenstern, after English explorer John Marshall, who visited them together with Thomas Gilbert in 1788, en route from Botany Bay
Botany Bay
to Canton (two ships of the First Fleet). In 1905 the British government transferred some administrative responsibility over south-east New Guinea
New Guinea
to Australia
Australia
(which renamed the area "Territory of Papua"); and in 1906, transferred all remaining responsibility to Australia. The Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
were claimed by Spain in 1874. Germany established colonies in New Guinea
New Guinea
in 1884, and Samoa
Samoa
in 1900. The United States
United States
also expanded into the Pacific, beginning with Baker Island
Baker Island
and Howland Island
Howland Island
in 1857, and with Hawaii
Hawaii
becoming a U.S. territory in 1898. Disagreements between the US, Germany and UK over Samoa
Samoa
led to the Tripartite Convention of 1899.[57] Modern history[edit] Main articles: Pacific
Pacific
War, Military history of Oceania, Military history of New Zealand, Military history of Australia
Australia
during World War I, Military history of Australia
Australia
during World War II, History of Guam, and History of Australia
Australia
(1901–1945)

New Zealand
New Zealand
troops land on Vella Lavella, in the Solomon Islands

One of the first land offensives in Oceania
Oceania
was the Occupation of German Samoa
Samoa
in August 1914 by New Zealand
New Zealand
forces. The campaign to take Samoa
Samoa
ended without bloodshed after over 1,000 New Zealanders landed on the German colony. Australian forces attacked German New Guinea in September 1914. A company of Australians and a British warship besieged the Germans and their colonial subjects, ending with a German surrender.[58] The attack on Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor
by the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters,[59][60] was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy
Imperial Japanese Navy
against the United States
United States
naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of 7 December 1941. The attack led to the United States' entry into World War II. The Japanese subsequently invaded New Guinea, the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
and other Pacific
Pacific
islands. The Japanese were turned back at the Battle of the Coral Sea
Battle of the Coral Sea
and the Kokoda Track campaign
Kokoda Track campaign
before they were finally defeated in 1945. Some of the most prominent Oceanic battlegrounds were the Battle of Bita Paka, Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
campaign, the Air raids on Darwin, the Kokada Track, and the Borneo campaign.[61][62] The United States
United States
fought the Battle of Guam
Guam
from July 21 to August 10, 1944, to recapture the island from Japanese military
Japanese military
occupation.[63] Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
became dominions in the 20th century, adopting the Statute of Westminster Act in 1942 and 1947 respectively. In 1946, Polynesians
Polynesians
were granted French citizenship and the islands' status was changed to an overseas territory; the islands' name was changed in 1957 to Polynésie Française (French Polynesia). Hawaii became a U.S. state
U.S. state
in 1959. Fiji
Fiji
and Tonga
Tonga
became independent in 1970. On 1 May 1979, in recognition of the evolving political status of the Marshall Islands, the United States
United States
recognized the constitution of the Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
and the establishment of the Government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The South Pacific
Pacific
Forum was founded in 1971, which became the Pacific Islands
Pacific Islands
Forum in 2000.[58] Geography[edit]

See also: List of Oceanian countries by population and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Oceania

Aoraki / Mount Cook, located on the South Island
South Island
of New Zealand

Puncak Jaya
Puncak Jaya
/ Carstensz Pyramid, highest summit in Oceania

Oceania
Oceania
was originally conceived as the lands of the Pacific
Pacific
Ocean, stretching from the Strait of Malacca
Strait of Malacca
to the coast of the Americas. It comprised four regions: Polynesia, Micronesia, Malaysia (now called the Malay Archipelago), and Melanesia.[64] Today, parts of three geological continents are included in the term "Oceania": Eurasia, Australia, and Zealandia, as well the non-continental volcanic islands of the Philippines, Wallacea, and the open Pacific. Oceania
Oceania
extends to New Guinea
New Guinea
in the west, the Bonin Islands
Bonin Islands
in the northwest, the Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
in the northeast, Rapa Nui and Sala y Gómez Island in the east, and Macquarie Island
Macquarie Island
in the south. Not included are the Pacific
Pacific
islands of Taiwan, the Ryukyu Islands, the Japanese archipelago, and the Maluku Islands, all on the margins of Asia, and the Aleutian Islands
Aleutian Islands
of North America. In its periphery, Oceania
Oceania
sprawls 28 degrees north to the Bonin Islands
Bonin Islands
in the northern hemisphere, and 55 degrees south to Macquarie Island
Macquarie Island
in the southern hemisphere.[65] Oceanian islands are of four basic types: continental islands, high islands, coral reefs and uplifted coral platforms. High islands
High islands
are of volcanic origin, and many contain active volcanoes. Among these are Bougainville, Hawaii, and the Solomon Islands.[66] Oceania
Oceania
is one of eight terrestrial ecozones, which constitute the major ecological regions of the planet. Related to these concepts are Near Oceania, that part of western Island Melanesia
Melanesia
which has been inhabited for tens of millennia, and Remote Oceania which is more recently settled. Although the majority of the Oceanian islands lie in the South Pacific, a few of them are not restricted to the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
Kangaroo Island
Kangaroo Island
and Ashmore and Cartier Islands, for instance, are situated in the Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
and Indian Ocean, respectively, and Tasmania's west coast faces the Southern Ocean.[67] The coral reefs of the South Pacific
Pacific
are low-lying structures that have built up on basaltic lava flows under the ocean's surface. One of the most dramatic is the Great Barrier Reef
Great Barrier Reef
off northeastern Australia with chains of reef patches. A second island type formed of coral is the uplifted coral platform, which is usually slightly larger than the low coral islands. Examples include Banaba (formerly Ocean
Ocean
Island) and Makatea
Makatea
in the Tuamotu
Tuamotu
group of French Polynesia.[68][69] Regions[edit] Micronesia, which lies north of the equator and west of the International Date Line, includes the Mariana Islands
Mariana Islands
in the northwest, the Caroline Islands
Caroline Islands
in the center, the Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
to the west and the islands of Kiribati
Kiribati
in the southeast.[70][71] Melanesia, to the southwest, includes New Guinea, the world's second largest island after Greenland
Greenland
and by far the largest of the Pacific islands. The other main Melanesian groups from north to south are the Bismarck Archipelago, the Solomon Islands, Santa Cruz, Vanuatu, Fiji and New Caledonia.[72] Polynesia, stretching from Hawaii
Hawaii
in the north to New Zealand
New Zealand
in the south, also encompasses Tuvalu, Tokelau, Samoa, Tonga
Tonga
and the Kermadec Islands to the west, the Cook Islands, Society Islands
Society Islands
and Austral Islands in the center, and the Marquesas Islands, Tuamotu, Mangareva Islands, and Easter Island
Easter Island
to the east.[73] Australasia
Australasia
comprises Australia, New Zealand, the island of New Guinea, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific
Pacific
Ocean. Most of Australasia
Australasia
lies on the southern portion of the Indo-Australian Plate, flanked by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
to the west and the Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
to the south.[74] The bulk of Australasia
Australasia
sits on the Indo-Australian Plate, together with India.[75]

Various maps of Oceania

Satellite image of Oceania 

A map of Oceania
Oceania
from the CIA World Factbook 

Political map of Oceania 

Map of Oceania, from a CIA factbook 

Geology[edit] Main articles: Geography of Fiji, Geology
Geology
of New Zealand, Geology
Geology
of Australia, and Geography of Samoa

The Pacific Plate
Pacific Plate
comprises most of Oceanian regions, excluding Australasia
Australasia
and western portion of Melanesia.

The Pacific
Pacific
Plate, which makes up most of Oceania, is an oceanic tectonic plate that lies beneath the Pacific
Pacific
Ocean. At 103 million square kilometres (40,000,000 sq mi), it is the largest tectonic plate. The plate contains an interior hot spot forming the Hawaiian Islands.[76] It is almost entirely oceanic crust.[77] The oldest member disappearing by way of the plate tectonics cycle is early- Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(145 to 137 million years ago).[78] Australia, being part of the Indo-Australian plate, is the lowest, flattest, and oldest landmass on Earth[79] and it has had a relatively stable geological history. Geological forces such as tectonic uplift of mountain ranges or clashes between tectonic plates occurred mainly in Australia's early history, when it was still a part of Gondwana. Australia
Australia
is situated in the middle of the tectonic plate, and therefore currently has no active volcanism.[80] The geology of New Zealand
New Zealand
is noted for its volcanic activity, earthquakes and geothermal areas because of its position on the boundary of the Australian Plate
Australian Plate
and Pacific
Pacific
Plates. Much of the basement rock of New Zealand
New Zealand
was once part of the super-continent of Gondwana, along with South America, Africa, Madagascar, India, Antarctica
Antarctica
and Australia. The rocks that now form the continent of Zealandia
Zealandia
were nestled between Eastern Australia
Australia
and Western Antarctica.[81] The Australia- New Zealand
New Zealand
continental fragment of Gondwana
Gondwana
split from the rest of Gondwana
Gondwana
in the late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
time (95–90 Ma). By 75 Ma, Zealandia
Zealandia
was essentially separate from Australia
Australia
and Antarctica, although only shallow seas might have separated Zealandia
Zealandia
and Australia
Australia
in the north. The Tasman Sea, and part of Zealandia
Zealandia
then locked together with Australia
Australia
to form the Australian Plate
Australian Plate
(40 Ma), and a new plate boundary was created between the Australian Plate
Australian Plate
and Pacific
Pacific
Plate. Most islands in the Pacific
Pacific
are high islands (volcanic islands), such as, Easter Island, American Samoa
Samoa
and Fiji, among others, having peaks up to 1300 m rising abruptly from the shore.[82] The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
were formed approximately 7 to 30 million years ago, as shield volcanoes over the same volcanic hotspot that formed the Emperor Seamounts
Emperor Seamounts
to the north and the Main Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
to the south.[83] Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea
Mauna Kea
is 13,796 ft (4,205 m) above mean sea level.[84] Flora[edit] Main articles: Geography of Australia, Environment of New Zealand, Flora of Australia, Flora of New Zealand, and Endemism
Endemism
in the Hawaiian Islands

New Zealand
New Zealand
countryside

Uluru
Uluru
(Ayers Rock) in Central Australia

The most diverse country of Oceania
Oceania
when it comes to the environment is Australia, with tropical rainforests in the north-east, mountain ranges in the south-east, south-west and east, and dry desert in the centre.[85] Desert or semi-arid land commonly known as the outback makes up by far the largest portion of land.[86] The coastal uplands and a belt of Brigalow grasslands lie between the coast and the mountains, while inland of the dividing range are large areas of grassland.[87] The northernmost point of the east coast is the tropical-rainforested Cape York Peninsula.[88][89][90][91][92] Prominent features of the Australian flora are adaptations to aridity and fire which include scleromorphy and serotiny. These adaptations are common in species from the large and well-known families Proteaceae
Proteaceae
(Banksia), Myrtaceae
Myrtaceae
( Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus
– gum trees), and Fabaceae
Fabaceae
( Acacia
Acacia
– wattle). The flora of Fiji, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu
Vanuatu
and New Caledonia
New Caledonia
is tropical dry forest, with tropical vegetation that includes palm trees, premna protrusa, psydrax odorata, gyrocarpus americanus and derris trifoliata.[93] New Zealand's landscape ranges from the fjord-like sounds of the southwest to the tropical beaches of the far north. South Island
South Island
is dominated by the Southern Alps. There are 18 peaks of more than 3000 metres (9800 ft) in the South Island. All summits over 2,900 m are within the Southern Alps, a chain that forms the backbone of the South Island; the highest peak of which is Aoraki/Mount Cook, at 3,754 metres (12,316 ft). Earthquakes are common, though usually not severe, averaging 3,000 per year.[94] There is a wide variety of native trees, adapted to all the various micro-climates in New Zealand.[95] In Hawaii, one endemic plant, Brighamia, now requires hand-pollination because its natural pollinator is presumed to be extinct.[96] The two species of Brighamia—B. rockii and B. insignis—are represented in the wild by around 120 individual plants. To ensure these plants set seed, biologists rappel down 3,000-foot (910 m) cliffs to brush pollen onto their stigmas.[97] Fauna[edit] Main articles: Fauna of Australia, Birds of Australia, Birds of New Zealand, Fauna of New Zealand, Mammals of Australia, List of birds of Australia, and List of birds of New Zealand

The Pacific robin
Pacific robin
inhabits the islands of the south western Pacific.[98]

The aptly-named Pacific kingfisher
Pacific kingfisher
is found in the Pacific Islands,[99] as is the Red-vented bulbul,[100] Polynesian starling,[101] Brown goshawk,[102] Pacific
Pacific
Swallow[103] and the Cardinal myzomela, among others.[104] Birds breeding on Pitcairn include the fairy tern, common noddy and red-tailed tropicbird. The Pitcairn
Pitcairn
reed warbler, endemic to Pitcairn
Pitcairn
Island, was added to the endangered species list in 2008.[105] Native to Hawaii
Hawaii
is the Hawaiian crow, which has been extinct in the wild since 2002.[106] The brown tree snake is native to northern and eastern coasts of Australia, Papua New Guinea, Guam
Guam
and the Solomon Islands.[107] Native to Australia, New Guinea
New Guinea
and proximate islands are birds of paradise, honeyeaters, Australasian treecreeper, Australasian robin, kingfishers, butcherbirds and bowerbirds.[108][109] A unique feature of Australia's fauna is the relative scarcity of native placental mammals, and dominance of the marsupials — a group of mammals that raise their young in a pouch, including the macropods, possums and dasyuromorphs. The passerines of Australia, also known as songbirds or perching birds, include wrens, the magpie group, thornbills, corvids, pardalotes, lyrebirds.[110] Predominant bird species in the country include the Australian magpie, Australian raven, the pied currawong, crested pigeons and the laughing kookaburra.[111] The koala, emu, platypus and kangaroo are national animals of Australia,[112] and the Tasmanian devil
Tasmanian devil
is also one of the well-known animals in the country.[113] The goanna is a predatory lizard native to the Australian mainland.[114] The birds of New Zealand
New Zealand
evolved into an avifauna that included a large number of endemic species. As an island archipelago New Zealand accumulated bird diversity and when Captain James Cook
James Cook
arrived in the 1770s he noted that the bird song was deafening. The mix includes species with unusual biology such as the kakapo which is the world's only flightless, nocturnal, lek breeding parrot, but also many species that are similar to neighboring land areas. Some of the more well known and distinctive bird species in New Zealand
New Zealand
are the kiwi, kea, takahe, kakapo, mohua, tui and the bellbird.[115] The tuatara is a notable reptile endemic to New Zealand.[116] Climate[edit] Main articles: Climate of Australia, Climate of New Zealand, and Climate of Hawaii

August 2011 winter's snowfall in Dunedin, Otago

The Pacific Islands
Pacific Islands
are ruled by a tropical rainforest and tropical savanna climate. In the tropical and subtropical Pacific, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affects weather conditions.[117] In the tropical western Pacific, the monsoon and the related wet season during the summer months contrast with dry winds in the winter which blow over the ocean from the Asian landmass.[118] November is the only month in which all the tropical cyclone basins are active.[119] To the southwest of the region, in the Australian landmass, the climate is mostly desert or semi-arid, with the southern coastal corners having a temperate climate, such as oceanic and humid subtropical climate in the east coast and Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
in the west. The northern parts of the country have a tropical climate.[120] Snow falls frequently on the highlands near the east coast, in the states of Victoria, New South Wales, Tasmania
Tasmania
and in the Australian Capital Territory.[121] Most regions of New Zealand
New Zealand
belong to the temperate zone with a maritime climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb) characterised by four distinct seasons. Conditions vary from extremely wet on the West Coast of the South Island
South Island
to almost semi-arid in Central Otago and subtropical in Northland.[122][123] Snow falls in New Zealand's South Island
South Island
and at higher altitudes in the North Island. It is extremely rare at sea level in the North Island.[124] Hawaii, although being in the tropics, experiences many different climates, depending on latitude and its geography. The island of Hawaii
Hawaii
for example hosts 4 (out of 5 in total) climate groups on a surface as small as 4,028 square miles (10,430 km2) according to the Köppen climate types: tropical, arid, temperate and polar. The Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
receive most of their precipitation during the winter months (October to April).[125] A few islands in the northwest, such as Guam, are susceptible to typhoons in the wet season.[126] The highest recorded temperature in Oceania
Oceania
occurred in Oodnadatta, South Australia
Australia
(2 January 1960), where the temperature reached 50.7 °C (123.3 °F).[127] The lowest temperature ever recorded in Oceania
Oceania
was −25.6 °C (−14.1 °F), at Ranfurly in Otago
Otago
in 1903, with a more recent temperature of −21.6 °C (−6.9 °F) recorded in 1995 in nearby Ophir.[128] Pohnpei
Pohnpei
of the Senyavin Islands
Senyavin Islands
in Micronesia
Micronesia
is the wettest place in Oceania, and one of the wettest places on earth, with annual recorded rainfall exceeding 7,600 millimetres (300 in) each year in certain mountainous locations.[129] The summit of Mount Waialeale received 460.0 inches (11,684 mm) in the 1912–45 averages.[130][131]

Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
of selected regions in Oceania

Australia 

Hawaii 

New Zealand 

Papua New Guinea 

Australasia
Australasia
and adjacent islands 

Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Oceania The linked map below shows the Exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of the islands of Oceania
Oceania
and neighbouring areas, as a guide to the following table. (There are no political boundaries that can be drawn on a map of the Pacific
Pacific
at this scale.)

Australia New Zealand Chatham Hawaii Wake Federated States of Micronesia Palau Papua New Guinea Easter Island French Polynesia Cook Islands New Caledonia Fiji Tuvalu Kiribati (Gilberts) (Phoenix) (Line) Solomon Islands Tokelau Marshall Islands Nauru Vanuatu Tonga Pitcairn Guam Norfolk Northern Marianas Samoa AS WF Niue Cocos Christmas Daito Bonin Parece Vela Marcus Midway Johnston Clipperton Socorro Howland Baker Kingman Palmyra Jarvis Coral Sea Lord Howe Kermadec Bounties Antipodes Aucklands Campbell Ashmore & Cartier Macquarie Indonesia Philippines Sarawak BN Sabah Maluku Papua East Timor Paracels Spratlys

This template:

view talk edit

The demographic table below shows the subregions and countries of geopolitical Oceania. The countries and territories in this table are categorised according to the scheme for geographic subregions used by the United Nations. The information shown follows sources in cross-referenced articles; where sources differ, provisos have been clearly indicated. These territories and regions are subject to various additional categorisations, depending on the source and purpose of each description.

Arms Flag Name of region, followed by countries[132] Area (km²) Population (2016)[1] Population density (per km²) Capital ISO 3166-1

Australasia[133]

Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
(Australia) 199

Australia 7,686,850 24,125,848 2.7 Canberra AU

Coral Sea Islands
Coral Sea Islands
(Australia) 10 4

New Zealand[134] 268,680 4,660,833 16.5 Wellington NZ

Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island
(Australia) 35 2,302 61.9 Kingston NF

Melanesia[135]

Fiji 18,270 898,760 46.9 Suva FJ

New Caledonia
New Caledonia
(France) 19,060 272,677 12.6 Nouméa NC

Papua (Indonesia)[note 1][136] 319,036 3,486,432 11 Jayapura

West Papua (Indonesia)[note 2][137] 140,375 760,855 5.4 Manokwari

Papua New Guinea[138] 462,840 8,084,991 11.2 Port Moresby PG

Solomon Islands 28,450 599,419 17.4 Honiara SB

Vanuatu 12,200 270,402 19.7 Port Vila VU

Micronesia

Federated States of Micronesia 702 104,937 193.5 Palikir FM

Guam
Guam
(United States) 549 162,896 292.9 Hagåtña GU

Kiribati 811 114,395 118.8 South Tarawa KI

Marshall Islands 181 53,066 406.8 Majuro MH

Nauru 21 11,347 587.1 Yaren (de facto) NR

Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
(United States) 477 55,023 162.1 Saipan MP

Palau 458 21,503 42.4 Ngerulmud[139] PW

Wake Island
Wake Island
(United States) 2 150

Wake Island UM

Polynesia

American Samoa
Samoa
(United States) 199 55,599 345.2 Pago Pago, Fagatogo[140] AS

Cook Islands
Cook Islands
(New Zealand) 240 17,379 86.7 Avarua CK

Easter Island
Easter Island
(Chile) 164 5,761 31 Hanga Roa CL

French Polynesia
French Polynesia
(France) 4,167 280,208 61.9 Papeete PF

Hawaii
Hawaii
(United States) 16,636 1,360,301 81.8 Honolulu US

Niue
Niue
(New Zealand) 260 1,624 8.2 Alofi NU

Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
(United Kingdom) 47 47 10 Adamstown PN

Samoa 2,944 195,125 63.2 Apia WS

Tokelau
Tokelau
(New Zealand) 10 1,282 143.1 Nukunonu TK

Tonga 748 107,122 141.9 Nukuʻalofa TO

Tuvalu 26 11,097 428.7 Funafuti TV

Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna
(France) 274 11,899 56.9 Mata-Utu WF

Total 8,919,530 45,725,020 5.1

Total minus mainland Australia 1,232,680 21,599,172 16.6

^ According to Act of Papua Autonomy (Undang-Undang Otonomi Khusus bagi Provinsi Papua) section 2 verse 2, the province itself has their own flag & arms, similar with other provinces. However, the flag & arms is not a representation of sovereignty over Republic of Indonesia ^ West Papua was split from Papua province in 2003 but still retain the autonomy status as Papua Province

Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Oceania

Saione, the church of the King, a Free Wesleyan Church in Kolomotuʻa, Tonga. Due to missionary efforts undertaken by various organizations, particularly British and American societies, diverse Protestant denominations like Methodist, Congregationalist, Baptist, Anglican, Adventist, Pentecostal, Presbyterian
Presbyterian
or United Protestant
Protestant
churches were introduced throughout Oceania.

The predominant religion in Oceania
Oceania
is Christianity
Christianity
(73%).[141][142] A 2011 survey found that 92% in Melanesia,[141] 93% in Micronesia[141] and 96% in Polynesia
Polynesia
described themselves as Christians.[141] Traditional religions are often animist, and prevalent among traditional tribes is the belief in spirits (masalai in Tok Pisin) representing natural forces.[143] In the 2013 census, 48% of New Zealanders affiliated themselves with Christianity
Christianity
and 42% declared no religion.[144] In the 2016 Census, 52% of the Australian population declared some variety of Christianity
Christianity
and 30% stated "no religion".[145] In recent Australian and New Zealand
New Zealand
censuses, large proportions of the population say they belong to "no religion" (which includes atheism, agnosticism, deism, secular humanism, and rationalism). In Tonga, everyday life is heavily influenced by Polynesian traditions and especially by the Christian faith. The Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
mosque in Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
is the only mosque in Micronesia.[146] Another one in Tuvalu
Tuvalu
belongs to the same sect. The Bahá'í House of Worship
Bahá'í House of Worship
in Tiapapata, Samoa, is one of seven designations administered in the Bahá'í Faith. Other religions in the region include Islam, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Hinduism, which are prominent minority religions in Australia
Australia
and New Zealand. Judaism, Sikhism
Sikhism
and Jainism
Jainism
are also present. Sir Isaac Isaacs
Isaac Isaacs
was the first Australian born Governor General of Australia
Australia
and was the first Jewish vice-regal representative in the British Empire.[147] Prince Philip Movement
Prince Philip Movement
is followed around Yaohnanen
Yaohnanen
village on the southern island of Tanna in Vanuatu. Languages[edit] Main articles: Languages of Australia, Languages of New Zealand, Languages of Fiji, and Languages of Tonga Native languages of Oceania
Oceania
fall into three major geographic groups:

The large Austronesian language family, with such languages as Malay (Indonesian), and Polynesian languages
Polynesian languages
such as Maori and Hawaiian The Aboriginal Australian languages, including the large Pama–Nyungan
Pama–Nyungan
family The Papuan languages
Papuan languages
of New Guinea
New Guinea
and neighbouring islands, including the large Trans– New Guinea
New Guinea
family

Colonial languages include English in Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, and many other territories; French in New Caledonia
New Caledonia
and French Polynesia, Japanese in the Bonin Islands, Spanish on Easter Island. There are also Creoles formed from the interaction of Malay or the colonial languages with indigenous languages, such as Tok Pisin, Bislama, Chavacano, various Malay trade and creole languages, Hawaiian Pidgin, Norfuk, and Pitkern. Contact between Austronesian and Papuan resulted in several instances in mixed languages such as Maisin. Immigrants brought their own languages to the region, such as Mandarin, Italian, Arabic, Polish, Hindi, German, Spanish, Korean, Cantonese
Cantonese
and Greek, among others, namely in Australia
Australia
and New Zealand,[148] or Fiji
Fiji
Hindi in Fiji. Immigration[edit] Main articles: Post-war immigration to Australia, Immigration
Immigration
to Australia, Immigration
Immigration
to New Zealand, Refugees in Australia, and Refugees in New Zealand

Dutch immigrants arriving in Australia
Australia
(1954)

The most multicultural areas in Oceania, which have a high degree of immigration, are Australia, New Zealand
New Zealand
and Hawaii. Since 1945, more than 7 million people have settled in Australia. From the late 1970s, there was a significant increase in immigration from Asian and other non-European countries, making Australia
Australia
a multicultural country.[149] Sydney
Sydney
is the most multicultural city in Oceania, having more than 250 different languages spoken with about 40 percent of residents speaking a language other than English at home.[150] Furthermore, 36 percent of the population reported having been born overseas, with top countries being Italy, Lebanon, Vietnam and Iraq, among others.[151][152] Melbourne
Melbourne
is also fairly multicultural, having the largest Greek-speaking population outside of Europe,[153] and the second largest Asian population in Australia
Australia
after Sydney.[154][155][156] European migration to New Zealand
New Zealand
provided a major influx following the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi
Treaty of Waitangi
in 1840. Subsequent immigration has been chiefly from the British Isles, but also from continental Europe, the Pacific, The Americas
Americas
and Asia.[157][158] Auckland
Auckland
is home to over half (51.6 percent) of New Zealand's overseas born population, including 72 percent of the country's Pacific
Pacific
Island-born population, 64 percent of its Asian-born population, and 56 percent of its Middle Eastern and African born population.[159]

Many Portuguese immigrants in Hawaii
Hawaii
were Azorean or Madeiran.

Hawaii
Hawaii
is a majority-minority state.[160] Chinese workers on Western trading ships settled in Hawaii
Hawaii
starting in 1789. In 1820, the first American missionaries arrived to preach Christianity
Christianity
and teach the Hawaiians Western ways.[161] As of 2015[update], a large proportion of Hawaii's population have Asian ancestry—especially Filipino, Japanese, Korean and Chinese. Many are descendants of immigrants brought to work on the sugarcane plantations in the mid-to-late 19th century. Almost 13,000 Portuguese immigrants had arrived by 1899; they also worked on the sugarcane plantations.[162] Puerto Rican immigration to Hawaii
Hawaii
began in 1899 when Puerto Rico's sugar industry was devastated by two hurricanes, causing a worldwide shortage of sugar and a huge demand for sugar from Hawaii.[163] Between 2001 and 2007 Australia's Pacific Solution
Pacific Solution
policy transferred asylum seekers to several Pacific
Pacific
nations, including the Nauru detention centre. Australia, New Zealand
New Zealand
and other nations took part in the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
from 2003 after a request for aid.[164] Archaeogenetics[edit] Archaeology, linguistics, and existing genetic studies indicate that Oceania
Oceania
was settled by two major waves of migration. The first migration took place approximately 40 thousand years ago, and these migrants, Papuans, colonised much of Near Oceania. Approximately 3.5 thousand years ago, a second expansion of Austronesian speakers arrived in Near Oceania, and the descendants of these people spread to the far corners of the Pacific, colonising Remote Oceania.[165] Mitochondrial DNA
Mitochondrial DNA
(mtDNA) studies quantify the magnitude of the Austronesian expansion and demonstrate the homogenising effect of this expansion. With regards to Papuan influence, autochthonous haplogroups support the hypothesis of a long history in Near Oceania, with some lineages suggesting a time depth of 60 thousand years. Santa Cruz, a population located in Remote Oceania, is an anomaly with extreme frequencies of autochthonous haplogroups of Near Oceanian origin.[165] Large areas of New Guinea
New Guinea
are unexplored by scientists and anthropologists due to extensive forestation and mountainous terrain. Known indigenous tribes in Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
have very little contact with local authorities aside from the authorities knowing who they are. Many remain preliterate and, at the national or international level, the names of tribes and information about them is extremely hard to obtain. The Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua on the island of New Guinea
New Guinea
are home to an estimated 44 uncontacted tribal groups.[166] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Oceania Australia
Australia
and New Zealand[edit] Main articles: Economy of Australia
Australia
and Economy of New Zealand

The skyline of Sydney.

New Zealand
New Zealand
and Australia
Australia
are the only developed nations in the region, although the economy of Australia
Australia
is by far the largest and most dominant economy in the region and one of the largest in the world. Australia's per-capita GDP is higher than that of the UK, Canada, Germany, and France
France
in terms of purchasing power parity.[167] New Zealand
New Zealand
is also one of the most globalised economies and depends greatly on international trade.[168][169] The Australian Securities Exchange
Australian Securities Exchange
in Sydney
Sydney
is the largest stock exchange in Australia
Australia
and in the South Pacific.[170] New Zealand
New Zealand
is the 53rd-largest national economy in the world measured by nominal gross domestic product (GDP) and 68th-largest in the world measured by purchasing power parity (PPP). In 2012, Australia
Australia
was the 12th largest national economy by nominal GDP and the 19th-largest measured by PPP-adjusted GDP.[171] Mercer Quality of Living Survey
Mercer Quality of Living Survey
ranks Sydney
Sydney
tenth in the world in terms of quality of living,[172] making it one of the most livable cities.[173] It is classified as an Alpha+ World City
World City
by GaWC.[174][175] Melbourne
Melbourne
also ranked highly in the world's most liveable city list,[176] and is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
region.[177][178] Auckland
Auckland
and Wellington, in New Zealand, are frequently ranked among the world's most liveable cities.[179][180] The majority of people living in Australia
Australia
and to a lesser extent, New Zealand work in mining, electrical and manufacturing sectors also. Australia
Australia
boasts the largest amount of manufacturing in the region, producing cars, electrical equipment, machinery and clothes. Pacific
Pacific
Islands[edit] Main articles: Economy of Fiji, Economy of Samoa, and Economy of Tonga

Honolulu
Honolulu
viewed from Diamond Head crater

The overwhelming majority of people living in the Pacific
Pacific
islands work in the service industry which includes tourism, education and financial services. Oceania's largest export markets include Japan, China, the United States
United States
and South Korea. The smallest Pacific
Pacific
nations rely on trade with Australia, New Zealand
New Zealand
and the United States
United States
for exporting goods and for accessing other products. Australia
Australia
and New Zealand's trading arrangements are known as Closer Economic Relations. Australia
Australia
and New Zealand, along with other countries, are members of Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the East Asia
Asia
Summit (EAS), which may become trade blocs in the future particularly EAS. The main produce from the pacific is copra or coconut, but timber, beef, palm oil, cocoa, sugar and ginger are also commonly grown across the tropics of the Pacific. Fishing
Fishing
provides a major industry for many of the smaller nations in the Pacific, although many fishing areas are exploited by other larger countries, namely Japan. Natural Resources, such as lead, zinc, nickel and gold, are mined in Australia
Australia
and the Solomon Islands. Oceania's largest export markets include Japan, China, the United States, India, South Korea and the European Union. Endowed with forest, mineral, and fish resources, Fiji
Fiji
is one of the most developed of the Pacific
Pacific
island economies, though it remains a developing country with a large subsistence agriculture sector.[181] Agriculture accounts for 18% of gross domestic product, although it employed some 70% of the workforce as of 2001. Sugar
Sugar
exports and the growing tourist industry are the major sources of foreign exchange. Sugar
Sugar
cane processing makes up one-third of industrial activity. Coconuts, ginger, and copra are also significant. The history of Hawaii's economy can be traced through a succession of dominant industries; sandalwood,[182] whaling,[183] sugarcane, pineapple, the military, tourism and education.[184] Hawaiian exports include food and clothing. These industries play a small role in the Hawaiian economy, due to the shipping distance to viable markets, such as the West Coast of the contiguous U.S. The state's food exports include coffee, macadamia nuts, pineapple, livestock, sugarcane and honey.[185] As of 2015[update], Honolulu
Honolulu
was ranked high on world livability rankings, and was also ranked as the 2nd safest city in the U.S.[186][187] Tourism[edit]

Shangri-La's Fijian Resort

Tourists mostly come from Japan, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the United States. Fiji
Fiji
currently draws almost half a million tourists each year; more than a quarter from Australia. This contributes $1 billion or more since 1995 to Fiji's economy but the Government of Fiji
Fiji
islands underestimate these figures due to invisible economy inside tourism industry. Vanuatu
Vanuatu
is widely recognised as one of the premier vacation destinations for scuba divers wishing to explore coral reefs of the South Pacific
Pacific
region. Tourism
Tourism
has been promoted, in part, by Vanuatu being the site of several reality-TV shows. The ninth season of the reality TV series Survivor
Survivor
was filmed on Vanuatu, entitled Survivor: Vanuatu—Islands of Fire. Two years later, Australia's Celebrity Survivor
Survivor
was filmed at the same location used by the US version.[188]

Dandenong Ranges
Dandenong Ranges
in Victoria are popular among tourists.

Tourism
Tourism
in Australia
Australia
is an important component of the Australian economy. In the financial year 2014/15, tourism represented 3% of Australia's GDP contributing A$47.5 billion to the national economy.[189] In 2015, there were 7.4 million visitor arrivals.[190] Popular Australian destinations include the Sydney
Sydney
Harbour (Sydney Opera House, Sydney
Sydney
Harbour Bridge, Royal Botanic Garden, etc.), Gold Coast (theme parks such as Warner Bros. Movie World, Dreamworld
Dreamworld
and Sea World), Walls of Jerusalem National Park
Walls of Jerusalem National Park
and Mount Field National Park in Tasmania, Royal Exhibition Building
Royal Exhibition Building
in Melbourne, the Great Barrier Reef in Queensland, The Twelve Apostles in Victoria, Uluru (Ayers Rock) and the Australian outback.[191] Tourism
Tourism
in New Zealand
New Zealand
contributes NZ$7.3 billion (or 4%) of the country's GDP in 2013, as well as directly supporting 110,800 full-time equivalent jobs (nearly 6% of New Zealand's workforce). International tourist spending accounted for 16% of New Zealand's export earnings (nearly NZ$10 billion). International and domestic tourism contributes, in total, NZ$24 billion to New Zealand's economy every year. Tourism
Tourism
New Zealand, the country's official tourism agency, is actively promoting the country as a destination worldwide.[192] Milford Sound
Milford Sound
in South Island
South Island
is acclaimed as New Zealand's most famous tourist destination.[193] In 2003 alone, according to state government data, there were over 6.4 million visitors to the Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
with expenditures of over $10.6 billion.[194] Due to the mild year-round weather, tourist travel is popular throughout the year. In 2011, Hawaii
Hawaii
saw increasing arrivals and share of foreign tourists from Canada, Australia
Australia
and China increasing 13%, 24% and 21% respectively from 2010.[195] Politics[edit] Australia[edit] Main article: Politics of Australia

Elizabeth is Head of the Commonwealth
Head of the Commonwealth
and Queen of five Oceanian countries: Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu.

Australia
Australia
is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy[196] with Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
at its apex as the Queen of Australia, a role that is distinct from her position as monarch of the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen is represented in Australia
Australia
by the Governor-General at the federal level and by the Governors at the state level, who by convention act on the advice of her ministers.[197][198] There are two major political groups that usually form government, federally and in the states: the Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
and the Coalition which is a formal grouping of the Liberal Party and its minor partner, the National Party.[199][200] Within Australian political culture, the Coalition is considered centre-right and the Labor Party is considered centre-left.[201] The Australian Defence Force
Australian Defence Force
is by far the largest military force in Oceania.[202] New Zealand[edit] Main article: Politics of New Zealand New Zealand
New Zealand
is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy,[203] although its constitution is not codified.[204] Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
is the Queen of New Zealand
New Zealand
and the head of state.[205] The Queen is represented by the Governor-General, whom she appoints on the advice of the Prime Minister.[206] The New Zealand
New Zealand
Parliament holds legislative power and consists of the Queen and the House of Representatives.[207] A parliamentary general election must be called no later than three years after the previous election.[208] New Zealand is identified as one of the world's most stable and well-governed states,[209][210] with high government transparency and among the lowest perceived levels of corruption.[211] Pacific
Pacific
Islands[edit]

Government building in the capital Apia
Apia
housing administrative ministerial offices.

In Samoan politics, the Prime Minister of Samoa
Samoa
is the head of government. The 1960 constitution, which formally came into force with independence from New Zealand
New Zealand
in 1962, builds on the British pattern of parliamentary democracy, modified to take account of Samoan customs. The national government (malo) generally controls the legislative assembly.[212] Politics of Tonga
Tonga
takes place in a framework of a constitutional monarchy, whereby the King
King
is the Head of State. Fiji
Fiji
has a multiparty system with the Prime Minister of Fiji
Fiji
as head of government. The executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power
Legislative power
is vested in both the government and the Parliament of Fiji. Fiji's Head of State is the President. He is elected by Parliament of Fiji
Fiji
after nomination by the Prime Minister or the Leader of the Opposition, for a three-year term. In the politics of Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
the Prime Minister is the head of government. In Kiribati, the President of Kiribati
Kiribati
is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. New Caledonia
New Caledonia
remains an integral part of the French Republic. Inhabitants of New Caledonia
New Caledonia
are French citizens and carry French passports. They take part in the legislative and presidential French elections. New Caledonia
New Caledonia
sends two representatives to the French National Assembly
French National Assembly
and two senators to the French Senate. Hawaii
Hawaii
is dominated by the Democratic Party. As codified in the Constitution of Hawaii, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. The governor is the only state public official elected statewide; all others are appointed by the governor. The lieutenant governor acts as the Secretary of State. The governor and lieutenant governor oversee twenty agencies and departments from offices in the State Capitol. Culture[edit] Australia[edit] Main articles: Culture of Australia
Australia
and Cuisine of Australia

On 28 June 2007, the Sydney
Sydney
Opera House became a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site.[213]

Since 1788, the primary influence behind Australian culture has been Anglo-Celtic Western culture, with some Indigenous influences.[214][215] The divergence and evolution that has occurred in the ensuing centuries has resulted in a distinctive Australian culture.[216][217] Since the mid-20th century, American popular culture has strongly influenced Australia, particularly through television and cinema.[218] Other cultural influences come from neighbouring Asian countries, and through large-scale immigration from non-English-speaking nations.[218][219] The Story of the Kelly Gang (1906), the world's first feature length film, spurred a boom in Australian cinema during the silent film era.[220][221] The Australian Museum
Museum
in Sydney
Sydney
and the National Gallery of Victoria
National Gallery of Victoria
in Melbourne
Melbourne
are the oldest and largest museums in Oceania.[222][223] The city's New Year's Eve celebrations are the largest in Oceania.[224] Australia
Australia
is also known for its cafe and coffee culture in urban centres.[225] Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
were responsible for the flat white coffee. Most Indigenous Australian tribal groups subsisted on a simple hunter-gatherer diet of native fauna and flora, otherwise called bush tucker.[226][227] The first settlers introduced British food to the continent, much of which is now considered typical Australian food, such as the Sunday roast.[228][229] Multicultural immigration transformed Australian cuisine; post- World War II
World War II
European migrants, particularly from the Mediterranean, helped to build a thriving Australian coffee culture, and the influence of Asian cultures has led to Australian variants of their staple foods, such as the Chinese-inspired dim sim and Chiko Roll.[230]

The ʻ Iolani Palace
Iolani Palace
in Honolulu, formerly the residence of the Hawaiian monarch, was restored and opened to the public as a museum in 1978.

Hawaii[edit] Main articles: Culture of Hawaii, Cuisine of Hawaii, and Hawaiian religion The music of Hawaii
Hawaii
includes traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip hop. Hawaii's musical contributions to the music of the United States
United States
are out of proportion to the state's small size. Styles such as slack-key guitar are well-known worldwide, while Hawaiian-tinged music is a frequent part of Hollywood soundtracks. Hawaii
Hawaii
also made a major contribution to country music with the introduction of the steel guitar.[231] The Hawaiian religion
Hawaiian religion
is polytheistic and animistic, with a belief in many deities and spirits, including the belief that spirits are found in non-human beings and objects such as animals, the waves, and the sky.[232] The cuisine of Hawaii
Hawaii
is a fusion of many foods brought by immigrants to the Hawaiian Islands, including the earliest Polynesians
Polynesians
and Native Hawaiian cuisine, and American, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Polynesian and Portuguese origins. Native Hawaiian musician and Hawaiian sovereignty activist Israel Kamakawiwoʻole, famous for his medley of "Somewhere Over the Rainbow/What a Wonderful World", was named "The Voice of Hawaii" by NPR
NPR
in 2010 in its 50 great voices series.[233] New Zealand[edit] Main articles: Culture of New Zealand
New Zealand
and Cuisine of New Zealand

The Hobbiton Movie Set, located near Matamata, was used for The Lord of the Rings film trilogy.[234]

New Zealand
New Zealand
as a culture is a Western culture, which is influenced by the cultural input of the indigenous Māori and the various waves of multi-ethnic migration which followed the British colonisation of New Zealand. Māori people
Māori people
constitute one of the major cultures of Polynesia. The country has been broadened by globalisation and immigration from the Pacific
Pacific
Islands, East Asia
Asia
and South Asia.[235] New Zealand
New Zealand
marks two national days of remembrance, Waitangi Day
Waitangi Day
and ANZAC Day, and also celebrates holidays during or close to the anniversaries of the founding dates of each province.[236] The New Zealand
New Zealand
recording industry began to develop from 1940 onwards and many New Zealand
New Zealand
musicians have obtained success in Britain and the United States.[237] Some artists release Māori language songs and the Māori tradition-based art of kapa haka (song and dance) has made a resurgence.[238] The country's diverse scenery and compact size, plus government incentives,[239] have encouraged some producers to film big budget movies in New Zealand, including Avatar, The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit, The Chronicles of Narnia, King
King
Kong and The Last Samurai.[240] The national cuisine has been described as Pacific
Pacific
Rim, incorporating the native Māori cuisine
Māori cuisine
and diverse culinary traditions introduced by settlers and immigrants from Europe, Polynesia
Polynesia
and Asia.[241] New Zealand yields produce from land and sea—most crops and livestock, such as maize, potatoes and pigs, were gradually introduced by the early European settlers.[242] Distinctive ingredients or dishes include lamb, salmon, kōura (crayfish),[243] dredge oysters, whitebait, pāua (abalone), mussels, scallops, pipis and tuatua (both are types of New Zealand
New Zealand
shellfish),[244] kūmara (sweet potato), kiwifruit, tamarillo and pavlova (considered a national dish).[245][241] Samoa[edit]

A fale on Manono Island

Main articles: Culture of Samoa
Samoa
and Polynesian culture The fa'a Samoa, or traditional Samoan way, remains a strong force in Samoan life and politics. Despite centuries of European influence, Samoa
Samoa
maintains its historical customs, social and political systems, and language. Cultural customs such as the Samoa
Samoa
'ava ceremony are significant and solemn rituals at important occasions including the bestowal of matai chiefly titles. Items of great cultural value include the finely woven 'ie toga. The Samoan word for dance is siva with unique gentle movements of the body in time to music and which tell a story, although the Samoan male dances can be more snappy.[246] The sasa is also a traditional dance where rows of dancers perform rapid synchronised movements in time to the rhythm of wooden drums (pate) or rolled mats. Another dance performed by males is called the fa'ataupati or the slap dance, creating rhythmic sounds by slapping different parts of the body. As with other Polynesian cultures (Hawaiian, Tahitian and Māori) with significant and unique tattoos, Samoans have two gender specific and culturally significant tattoos.[247] Arts[edit] Main articles: Oceanian art, Samoan art, Hawaiian art, Maori art, and Indigenous Australian art

Bradshaw rock paintings
Bradshaw rock paintings
found in the north-west Kimberley region of Western Australia

The artistic creations of native Oceanians varies greatly throughout the cultures and regions. The subject matter typically carries themes of fertility or the supernatural. Petroglyphs, Tattooing, painting, wood carving, stone carving and textile work are other common art forms.[248] Art of Oceania
Oceania
properly encompasses the artistic traditions of the people indigenous to Australia
Australia
and the Pacific Islands.[249] These early peoples lacked a writing system, and made works on perishable materials, so few records of them exist from this time.[250] Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest unbroken tradition of art in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites.[251][252] These rock paintings served several functions. Some were used in magic, others to increase animal populations for hunting, while some were simply for amusement.[253] Sculpture in Oceania
Oceania
first appears on New Guinea
New Guinea
as a series of stone figures found throughout the island, but mostly in mountainous highlands. Establishing a chronological timeframe for these pieces in most cases is difficult, but one has been dated to 1500 BC.[254] By 1500 BC the Lapita
Lapita
culture, descendants of the second wave, would begin to expand and spread into the more remote islands. At around the same time, art began to appear in New Guinea, including the earliest examples of sculpture in Oceania. Starting around 1100 AD, the people of Easter Island
Easter Island
would begin construction of nearly 900 moai (large stone statues). At about 1200 AD, the people of Pohnpei, a Micronesian island, would embark on another megalithic construction, building Nan Madol, a city of artificial islands and a system of canals.[255] Hawaiian art
Hawaiian art
includes wood carvings, feather work, petroglyphs, bark cloth (called kapa in Hawaiian and tapa elsewhere in the Pacific) and tattoos. Native Hawaiians had neither metal nor woven cloth.[256] Sport[edit] See also: Sport in Oceania

Fiji
Fiji
playing Wales at seven-a-side rugby

Rugby union
Rugby union
is one of the region's most prominent sports,[257] and is the national sport of New Zealand, Samoa, Fiji
Fiji
and Tonga. The most popular sport in Australia
Australia
is cricket, the most popular sport among Australian women is netball, while Australian rules football
Australian rules football
is the most popular sport in terms of spectatorship and television ratings.[258][259][260] Rugby is the most popular sport among New Zealanders.[261] In Papua New Guinea, the most popular sport is the Rugby league.[262] Australian rules football
Australian rules football
is the national sport in Nauru[263] and is the most popular football code in Australia
Australia
in terms of attendance.[264] It has a large following in Papua New Guinea, where it is the second most popular sport after Rugby League.[265][266][267] It attracts significant attention across New Zealand
New Zealand
and the Pacific Islands.[268] Fiji's sevens team is one of the most successful in the world, as is New Zealand's.[269] Currently, Vanuatu
Vanuatu
is the only country in Oceania
Oceania
to call association football its national sport. However, it is also the most popular sport in Kiribati, the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
and Tuvalu, and has a significant (and growing) popularity in Australia. In 2006, Australia joined the Asian Football Confederation
Asian Football Confederation
and qualified for the 2010 and 2014 World Cups as an Asian entrant.[270] Australia
Australia
has hosted two Summer Olympics: Melbourne
Melbourne
1956 and Sydney 2000. Also, Australia
Australia
has hosted four editions of the Commonwealth Games ( Sydney
Sydney
1938, Perth
Perth
1962, Brisbane
Brisbane
1982, Melbourne
Melbourne
2006), and is scheduled for a fifth ( Gold
Gold
Coast 2018). Meanwhile, New Zealand
New Zealand
has hosted the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
three times: Auckland
Auckland
1950, Christchurch 1974 and Auckland
Auckland
1990. The Pacific
Pacific
Games (formerly known as the South Pacific
Pacific
Games) is a multi-sport event, much like the Olympics on a much smaller scale, with participation exclusively from countries around the Pacific. It is held every four years and began in 1963. Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
competed in the games for the first time in 2015.[271] See also[edit]

Geography portal Oceania
Oceania
portal

Europeans in Oceania Festival of Pacific
Pacific
Arts Flags of Oceania List of cities in Oceania Oceanic cuisine Oceania
Oceania
(journal) Pacific
Pacific
Union Secretariat of the Pacific
Pacific
Community United Nations geoscheme
United Nations geoscheme
for Oceania

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– Climate Summary". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 21, 2010.  ^ Regions and constituents as per UN categorisations/map except notes 2–3, 6. Depending on definitions, various territories cited below (notes 3, 5–7, 9) may be in one or both of Oceania
Oceania
and Asia
Asia
or North America. ^ The use and scope of this term varies. The UN designation for this subregion is " Australia
Australia
and New Zealand." ^ New Zealand
New Zealand
is often considered part of Polynesia
Polynesia
rather than Australasia. ^ Excludes parts of Indonesia, island territories in Southeast Asia (UN region) frequently reckoned in this region. ^ Indonesian Act of Papua Autonomy, Act 21 year 2001 (Indonesian: UU 21 tahun 2001). Available at: http://www.kinerja.or.id/pdf/8bbcd469-bc2c-4d89-bf63-c2d81804ae27.pdf ^ "Papuan province changes name from West Irian Jaya to West Papua". Radio New Zealand
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International. 7 February 2007. Retrieved 27 December 2008.  ^ Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
is often considered part of Australasia
Australasia
and Melanesia. It is sometimes included in the Malay Archipelago
Malay Archipelago
of Southeast Asia. ^ On 7 October 2006, government officials moved their offices in the former capital of Koror
Koror
to Ngerulmud
Ngerulmud
in the state of Melekeok, located 20 km (12 mi) northeast of Koror
Koror
on Babelthuap Island. ^ Fagatogo is the seat of government of American Samoa. ^ a b c d Christianity
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Museum
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Further reading[edit]

Frank Harary
Frank Harary
& Per Hage (1991) Exchange in Oceania: A Graph Theoretic Analysis, Oxford Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology, Oxford University Press. Frank Harary
Frank Harary
& Per Hage (2007) Island Networks: Communication, Kinship, and Classification Structures in Oceania, Structural Analysis in the Social Sciences, Cambridge University Press.

External links[edit]

Find more aboutOceaniaat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Oceania
Oceania
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) " Australia
Australia
and Oceania" from National Geographic

Articles related to Oceania

v t e

Countries and territories of Oceania

Sovereign states

Entire

Australia Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

In part

Chile

Easter Island Juan Fernández Islands

Indonesia

West Papua Papua

Japan

Bonin Islands Minami-Tori-Shima

United States

Hawaii Palmyra Atoll

Associated states of New Zealand

Niue Cook Islands

Dependencies and other territories

Australia

Ashmore and Cartier Islands Coral Sea
Coral Sea
Islands Norfolk Island

United States

American Samoa Baker Island Guam Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

New Zealand

Tokelau

France

French Polynesia New Caledonia Wallis and Futuna

United Kingdom

Pitcairn
Pitcairn
Islands

v t e

Capitals of Oceania

Dependent territories are in italics

Australasia

Canberra, Australia Kingston, Norfolk Island1 Wellington, New Zealand2

Melanesia

Honiara, Solomon Islands Nouméa, New Caledonia3 Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea4 Port Vila, Vanuatu Suva, Fiji

Micronesia

Hagåtña, Guam5 Majuro, Marshall Islands11 Ngerulmud, Palau11 Palikir, Federated States of Micronesia11 Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands5 South Tarawa/Bairiki, Kiribati Yaren, Nauru
Nauru
(de facto)

Polynesia

Adamstown, Pitcairn
Pitcairn
Islands6 Alofi, Niue8 Apia, Samoa Avarua, Cook Islands8 Fakaofo, Tokelau8 Funafuti, Tuvalu Hanga Roa, Easter Island9 Honolulu, Hawaii10 Mata-Utu, Wallis and Futuna3 Nukuʻalofa, Tonga Pago Pago, American Samoa5 Papeete, French Polynesia3

1Territory of Australia 2Often included in Polynesia 3 Overseas collectivity
Overseas collectivity
of France 4Often included in Australasia 5 Insular area
Insular area
of the United States 6Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom 7In free association with New Zealand 8 New Zealand
New Zealand
dependent territory 9 Special
Special
territory of Chile's oceanic region 10U.S. state 11In free association with the United States

v t e

Regions of the world

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold
Gold
Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

v t e

Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan
Japan
Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

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Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific
Pacific
Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
(archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva
Mangareva
Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific
Pacific
Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King
King
Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

  Book   Category

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Continents of the world

   

Africa

Antarctica

Asia

Australia

Europe

North America

South America

   

Afro-Eurasia

America

Eurasia

Oceania

   

Former supercontinents Gondwana Laurasia Pangaea Pannotia Rodinia Columbia Kenorland Nena Sclavia Ur Vaalbara

Historical continents Amazonia Arctica Asiamerica Atlantica Avalonia Baltica Cimmeria Congo craton Euramerica Kalaharia Kazakhstania Laurentia North China Siberia South China East Antarctica India

   

Submerged continents Kerguelen Plateau Zealandia

Possible future supercontinents Pangaea
Pangaea
Ultima Amasia Novopangaea

Mythical and hypothesised continents Atlantis Kumari Kandam Lemuria Meropis Mu Hyperborea Terra Australis

See also Regions of the world Continental fragment

Book Category

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Oceania articles

History

Chronology

Colonisation

exploration

Slavery Military

Geography

Countries and territories Islands Regions Rivers

Politics

Heads of government Heads of state Pan-Oceanianism Politics

parties

Economy

Countries by GDP (nominal) Countries by HDI Renewable energy Stock exchanges

Society

Languages Women

Culture

Art Cinema

films film festivals

Cuisine Literature Media

radio stations TV stations

Religion World Heritage Sites

Sport

Oceania
Oceania
National Olympic Committees Athletics Australian-rules football Basketball Football Hockey Rugby union Swimming

Demographics

Countries by population List of Oceanian countries by area

By year

2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Outline

Category Portal Maps

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 253275800 GND: 40442

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