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The NORTHERN HAN kingdom (simplified Chinese : 北汉; traditional Chinese : 北漢; pinyin : Běi Hàn) was a state of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period . It was founded by Liu Min (劉旻), formerly known as Liu Chong (劉崇), and lasted from 951 to 979.

CONTENTS

* 1 Founding of the Northern Han
Northern Han
* 2 Territorial extent * 3 Wedge between Liao and Song * 4 Fall of the Northern Han
Northern Han
* 5 Rulers * 6 The family tree of the Later Han and Northern Han
Northern Han
rulers

* 7 References

* 7.1 Notes * 7.2 Sources

FOUNDING OF THE NORTHERN HAN

The short-lived state of Later Han fell in 950. Liu Min founded the Northern Han
Northern Han
Kingdom, sometimes referred to as the Eastern Han, in 951 claiming that he was the legitimate heir to the imperial throne of Later Han . Liu Min immediately restored the traditional relationship with the Khitans , who had founded the Liao Dynasty
Liao Dynasty
.

Sources conflict as to the origin of the Later Han and Northern Han emperors; some indicate sinicized Shatuo ancestry while another claims that the emperors claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry.

TERRITORIAL EXTENT

The Northern Han
Northern Han
was a small kingdom located in Shanxi with its capital located at Taiyuan
Taiyuan
. Shanxi had been a traditional base of power since the fading days of the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
in the late ninth century and early tenth century. It was wedged between the two major powers of the day, the Liao Dynasty
Liao Dynasty
to the north and the Song Dynasty to the south. It also shared a border with the Tangut kingdom of Western Xia
Western Xia
.

WEDGE BETWEEN LIAO AND SONG

The existence of the Northern Han
Northern Han
was one of the two major thorns in relations between the Liao Dynasty
Liao Dynasty
and the Song Dynasty, the other being the continued possession of the Sixteen Prefectures by the Liao Dynasty. The Northern Han
Northern Han
had placed itself under the protection of the Liao.

Emperor Taizu was successful in nearly completing the incorporation of the southern kingdoms into the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
by his death in 976. His younger brother, Emperor Taizong wished to emulate his older brother’s successes. Wuyue was brought into the realm in 978.

FALL OF THE NORTHERN HAN

Emboldened by his success to the south, Emperor Taizong decided to embark on a campaign to finally destroy the Northern Han. Leading the army himself, he brought his forces to the Northern Han
Northern Han
capital of Taiyuan, which was laid under siege in June. An initial relief force sent by the Liao was easily defeated by Song. After a two-month siege of the capital, the leader of the Northern Han
Northern Han
surrendered and the kingdom was incorporated into the Song Dynasty.

RULERS

SOVEREIGNS IN Northern Han
Northern Han
Kingdom 951–979 TEMPLE NAMES (MIAO HAO 廟號) POSTHUMOUS NAMES (SHI HAO 諡號) PERSONAL NAMES PERIOD OF REIGNS ERA NAMES (NIAN HAO 年號) AND THEIR ACCORDING RANGE OF YEARS

世祖 Shìzǔ 神武帝 Shénwǔdì Liu Min (劉旻) 951–954 Qiányòu (乾祐) 951–954

睿宗 Ruìzōng 孝和帝 Xiàohédì Liu Jun (劉鈞) 954–968 Qiányòu (乾祐) 954–957

Tiānhuì (天會) 957–968

少主 Shàozhǔ Did not exist Liu Ji\'en (劉繼恩) 968 Did not exist

Did not exist 英武帝 Yīngwǔdì Liu Jiyuan (劉繼元) 968–979 Guǎngyùn (廣運) 968–979

THE FAMILY TREE OF THE LATER HAN AND NORTHERN HAN RULERS

THE FAMILY TREE OF THE LATER HAN AND NORTHERN HAN RULERS

  - Later Han emperors;   - Northern Han
Northern Han
emperors

adopted

Marriage

Liu Tian 劉琠 Xianzu 显祖

Liu Zhiyuan 劉知遠 895–948 Gaozu 高祖 947–948

Liu Min 劉旻 895–954 SHIZU 世祖 951–954

Liu Chengyou 劉承祐 931–951 YINDI 隱帝 948–951

LIU YUN 劉贇 d.951; r.950

Liu Jun 劉钧 926–968 RUIZONG 睿宗 954–968 Xue Zhao 薛钊 Lady Liu 劉氏 Mr. He 何某

Liu Jien 劉继恩 d. 968 SHAOZHU 少主 968 Liu Jiyuan 劉继元 d. 992 YINGWUDI 英武帝 968–979

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ Endymion Porter Wilkinson (2000). Chinese History: A Manual. p. 12. * ^ Mote, Frederick W (2003). Imperial China
China
900-1800. pp. 67–68.

* ^ According to Old History of the Five Dynasties , vol. 99, and New History of the Five Dynasties , vol. 10. Liu Zhiyuan was of Shatuo origin. According to Wudai Huiyao , vol. 1 Liu Zhiyuan's great-great-grandfather Liu Tuan (劉湍) (titled as Emperor Mingyuan posthumously, granted the temple name of Wenzu) descended from Liu Bing (劉昞), Prince of Huaiyang, a son of Emperor Ming of Han

SOURCES

* Mote, F.W. (1999). Imperial China: 900-1800 . Harvard University Press . pp. 16, 106–108. ISBN 0-674-01212-7 .

* v * t * e

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period

FIVE DYNASTIES

* Later Liang * Later Tang
Later Tang
* Later Jin * Later Han * Later Zhou
Later Zhou

TEN KINGDOMS (STATES)

* Wu * Former Shu * Chu * Wuyue * Min * Southern Han * Jingnan * Later Shu * Southern Tang * Northern Han

OTHER STATES

* Jin * Qi * Zhao * Yan * Yin

DE FACTO INDEPENDENT ENTITIES

* Yiwu Jiedushi * Dingnan Jiedushi * Qingyuan Jiedushi * Jinghai Jiedushi * Wuping Jiedushi * Guiyi Jiedushi

NEIGHBORING STATES

* Balhae
Balhae
* Gansu Uyghur Kingdom * Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
* Tibetan kingdoms * Dali * Ngô dynasty

HISTORIES

* Old History of the Five Dynasties * New History of the Five Dynasties * Spring and Autumn Annals of the Ten Kingdoms * Wudai Huiyao

Xia → Shang → Zhou → Qin → Han → 3 Kingdoms → Jìn / 16 Kingdoms → N. & S. Dynasties → Sui → Tang → 5 Dynasties

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