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North Wales
Wales
(Welsh: Gogledd Cymru) is an unofficial region of Wales. Retail, transport and educational infrastructure are centred on Wrexham, Rhyl, Colwyn Bay, Llandudno
Llandudno
and Bangor. It is bordered to the rest of Wales
Wales
with the counties of Ceredigion
Ceredigion
and Powys, and to the east by the English counties of Shropshire, Merseyside, and Cheshire. North Wales
Wales
was traditionally divided into three regions: Upper Gwynedd
Gwynedd
(or Gwynedd
Gwynedd
above the Conwy), defined as the area north of the River Dyfi
River Dyfi
and west of the River Conwy); Lower Gwynedd
Gwynedd
(or Gwynedd below the Conwy, also known as the Perfeddwlad
Perfeddwlad
and defined as the region east of the River Conwy
River Conwy
and west of the River Dee; and Ynys Môn (or Anglesey), a large island off the north coast. The division with the rest of Wales
Wales
is arbitrary and depends on the particular use being made. For example, the boundary of North Wales
Wales
Police differs from the boundary of the North Wales
Wales
area of the Natural Resources Wales
Wales
and the North Wales
Wales
Regional Transport Consortium (Taith). The historic boundary follows the pre-1996 county boundaries of Merionethshire and Denbighshire
Denbighshire
which in turn closely follows the geographic features of the river Dovey to Aran Fawddwy, then crossing the high moorlands following the watershed until reaching Cadair Berwyn and then following the river Rhaeadr and river Tanat to the Shropshire
Shropshire
border. Montgomeryshire, one of the historic counties of Wales, is sometimes referred to as being in North Wales.

Contents

1 History

1.1 World Heritage & Biosphere Sites

2 Political divisions

2.1 Related constituencies

3 Geography 4 Geology 5 Language 6 Local media

6.1 Local newspapers

6.1.1 Trinity Mirror titles 6.1.2 NWN Media titles

6.2 Online 6.3 Radio 6.4 Television

7 Sport

7.1 Football 7.2 Rugby League 7.3 Rugby Union

8 See also 9 References 10 External links

History[edit] See also: Kingdom of Gwynedd The region is steeped in history and was for almost a millennium known as the Kingdom of Gwynedd. The mountainous stronghold of Snowdonia formed the nucleus of that realm and would become the last redoubt of independent Wales
Wales
— only overcome in 1283. To this day it remains a stronghold of the Welsh language
Welsh language
and a centre for Welsh national and cultural identity. World Heritage & Biosphere Sites[edit] The area is home to two of the three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Wales. These are Pontcysyllte Aqueduct
Pontcysyllte Aqueduct
and canal[1] and, collectively, the Edwardian castles and town walls of the region[2] which comprise those at Caernarfon, Beaumaris,[3] Conwy and Harlech. It also shares with Powys
Powys
and Ceredigion
Ceredigion
the distinction of hosting the only UNESCO Biosphere (from Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme to promote sustainable development) reserve in Wales, namely, Biosffer Dyfi Biosphere. Political divisions[edit] The region is made up of the following administrative areas:

the county borough of Wrexham
Wrexham
(Wrecsam) the county of Flintshire
Flintshire
(Sir y Fflint) the county of Denbighshire
Denbighshire
(Sir Ddinbych) the county borough of Conwy the county of Gwynedd the county of the Isle of Anglesey
Anglesey
(Ynys Môn)

In addition to the six Local Authority divisions, North Wales
Wales
is also divided into the following preserved counties for various ceremonial purposes:

the preserved county of Clwyd
Clwyd
(comprising Conwy, Denbighshire, Flintshire
Flintshire
and Wrexham) the preserved county of Gwynedd
Gwynedd
(comprising Gwynedd
Gwynedd
and Isle of Anglesey)

Related constituencies[edit] North Wales
Wales
was a European Parliament
European Parliament
constituency until 1999. Currently, there is an electoral region for the National Assembly for Wales
Wales
with the name (used, in parallel with the smaller constituencies, to elect top-up members under the Additional Member System), which covers the northeast of Wales
Wales
(specifically the entire area of the former pre-1996 county of Clwyd) as well as the northern-most coastal areas of north-western Wales; the rest of North Wales
Wales
is covered by Mid and West Wales. Geography[edit] The area is mostly rural with many mountains and valleys. This, in combination with its coast (on the Irish Sea), means tourism is the principal industry. Farming, which was once the principal economic force in the area, is now much reduced in importance. The average income per capita of the local population is the lowest in the UK and much of the region has EU Objective 1 status.[4] The eastern part of North Wales
Wales
contains the most populous areas, with more than 300,000 people living in the areas around Wrexham
Wrexham
and Deeside. Wrexham, with a population of 63,084 in 2001 is the largest town. The total population of North Wales
Wales
is 687,937 (2011). The majority of other settlements are along the coast, including some popular resort towns, such as Rhyl, Llandudno, Pwllheli
Pwllheli
and Tywyn. The A55 road
A55 road
links these towns to cities like Manchester, Liverpool
Liverpool
and Birmingham
Birmingham
and the port of Holyhead
Holyhead
for ferries to Ireland; The A470 runs from Llandudno
Llandudno
to Cardiff; and the A483
A483
from Wrexham
Wrexham
to Swansea. There are two cathedral cities – Bangor and St. Asaph – and a number of mediaeval castles (e.g., Criccieth, Dolbadarn, Dolwyddelan, Harlech, Caernarfon
Caernarfon
Castle, Beaumaris, Conwy) The area of North Wales
Wales
is about 6,172 square kilometres, making it slightly larger than the country of Brunei, or the island of Bali. The highest mountain in Wales, England
England
and Ireland, is Snowdon
Snowdon
in northwest Wales. Geology[edit] See also: Geology
Geology
of Wales North Wales
Wales
has a very diverse and complex geology with Precambrian schists along the Menai Strait
Menai Strait
and the great Cambrian
Cambrian
dome behind Harlech
Harlech
and underlying much of western Snowdonia. In the Ordovician period much volcanism deposited a range of minerals and rocks over the north western parts of Gwynedd
Gwynedd
whilst to the east of the River Conwy lies a large area of upland rolling hills underlain by the Silurian mudstones and grits comprising the Denbigh
Denbigh
and Migneint
Migneint
Moors. To the east, around Llangollen, to the north on Halkyn
Halkyn
Mountain
Mountain
and the Great Orme and in eastern Anglesey
Anglesey
are beds of limestone from which metals have been mined since pre-Roman times. Added to all this are the complexities posed by Parys Mountain
Mountain
and the outcrops of unusual minerals such as Jasper
Jasper
and Mona Marble which make the area of special interest to geologists. Language[edit]

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North Wales
Wales
has a distinct regional identity.[5] Its dialect of the Welsh language
Welsh language
differs from that of other regions such as South Wales in some ways: for example llefrith is used in most of the North instead of llaeth for "milk"; a simple sentence such as go upstairs now might be Dos i fyny'r grisiau rŵan in North Wales, and Cer lan y stâr nawr in South Wales. Colloquially, a person from North Wales (especially one who speaks with this dialect or accent) is known as a North Walian, or a Gog (from the Welsh gogledd, meaning "north"). Areas close to the border with Cheshire
Cheshire
can have Scouse
Scouse
accents of English, and along the coast Manchester
Manchester
accents are common. The Welsh accent has survived in North West Wales
Wales
as well as the Wrexham
Wrexham
and Holywell, Flintshire
Flintshire
areas, but has been replaced in places such as Abergele by Manchester
Manchester
and Merseyside
Merseyside
accents due to an influx of migrants from those areas. Local media[edit] Local newspapers[edit] Two daily newspapers are published in the region. The region-wide "North Wales
Wales
edition" of the Daily Post, based at Trinity Mirror's offices in Llandudno
Llandudno
Junction, is distributed from Monday to Saturday, whilst The Leader (formerly the Evening Leader) publishes three editions for Wrexham, Chester and Flintshire
Flintshire
and is based at the headquarters of NWN Media in Mold. Additionally, nine weekly newspapers provide local and community news:

Trinity Mirror titles[edit]

Caernarfon
Caernarfon
and Denbigh
Denbigh
Herald (Arfon and Dwyfor editions) The Mail (Bangor/ Anglesey
Anglesey
and Holyhead/ Anglesey
Anglesey
editions) North Wales
Wales
Weekly News (General, Colwyn Bay
Colwyn Bay
and Conwy Valley editions)

NWN Media titles[edit]

Denbighshire
Denbighshire
Free Press Flintshire
Flintshire
Standard The Journal (Rhyl, Prestatyn and Abergele editions) North Wales
Wales
Chronicle (North Gwynedd
Gwynedd
and Anglesey) North Wales
Wales
Pioneer ( Llandudno
Llandudno
and Colwyn Bay
Colwyn Bay
editions) Wrexham
Wrexham
Leader

The weekly Aberyswyth-based Cambrian
Cambrian
News covers southern Gwynedd
Gwynedd
and publishes separate editions for the Arfon/Dwyfor and Meirionydd districts. A weekly Welsh-language newspaper, Y Cymro
Y Cymro
is published each week by the Cambrian
Cambrian
News from its Porthmadog
Porthmadog
office alongside two localised Welsh titles, Y Cyfnod (Bala) and Y Dydd (Dolgellau). Yr Herald Gymraeg is distributed by Trinity Mirror as a pull-out section in the Wednesday edition of the Daily Post. There are also 24 Papurau Bro (area papers) providing community news and generally published each month. Online[edit] A number of hyper-local websites in the area provide locally sourced news online. In Conwy county, BaeColwyn.com gives Welsh language coverage of the Colywn Bay area since 2011 and AbergelePost.com has been serving the Abergele area since 2010. Wrexham.com is a full-time operation covering Wrexham
Wrexham
and the surrounding area, and is based at offices in Wrexham
Wrexham
town centre. A full-time citizen led online news site Deeside.com started in early 2013 and covers Connah's Quay, Mancot, Pentre, Shotton, Queensferry, Sealand, Broughton, Hawarden, Ewloe, Sandycroft and parts of Saltney. Radio[edit] Although no BBC
BBC
local radio stations exist in Wales, the Corporation's national services BBC
BBC
Radio Wales
Wales
and BBC Radio Cymru
BBC Radio Cymru
cover the region from their broadcasting centres in Bangor, and Wrexham. The Bangor studios produce a large number of Radio Cymru programmes with some music and feature output for Radio Wales
Wales
originating from Wrexham. Three commercial radio stations serve the area — Capital North West and Wales
Wales
broadcasts local breakfast and drivetime programming for Wrexham, Flintshire, Denbighshire
Denbighshire
and Conwy county as well as Cheshire and the Wirral with a Welsh language
Welsh language
opt-out service for the former Coast FM area on 96.3 FM. Capital Cymru
Capital Cymru
airs an extended local programming service, predominantly in the Welsh language, for Gwynedd and Anglesey. Across the entire region, Heart North Wales
Wales
also airs local peak-time programming in English, including an extended news programme on weeknights. All three stations broadcast from studios in Gwersyllt
Gwersyllt
on the outskirts of Wrexham. Four community radio stations broadcast on FM — Calon FM serving Wrexham
Wrexham
County Borough and parts of southern Flintshire, Tudno FM broadcasting to Llandudno
Llandudno
and surrounding areas, Point FM serving Rhyl, parts of the Vale of Clwyd
Clwyd
and eastern areas of Conwy county and Môn FM across the Isle of Anglesey. Radio Glan Clwyd
Clwyd
- an extension of hospital service Radio Ysbyty Glan Clwyd
Clwyd
- broadcasts on 1287 AM in the Bodelwyddan, St Asaph, Rhuddlan, Towyn and Kinmel Bay areas. Towards the western side of North Wales, local hills mean national BBC FM coverage can be quite poor, often suffering interference from Irish stations from the west. Television[edit] News coverage of North Wales
Wales
is generally provided within the BBC's Wales
Wales
Today, Newyddion
Newyddion
and Ffeil programmes (the latter two broadcast on S4C) and on ITV's ITV News Cymru Wales. BBC
BBC
Cymru Wales
Wales
news teams are based at the Corporation's Bangor, Wrexham
Wrexham
and Mold studios while ITV Cymru Wales
Wales
runs a newsroom in Colwyn Bay. S4C
S4C
has an administrative office in Caernarfon, where a cluster of independent production companies are also based or partly based including Rondo Media, Cwmni Da, Antena, Owain Roberts Animations and Tinopolis. Sport[edit] Football[edit]

The badge of Wrexham
Wrexham
A.F.C.

Wrexham
Wrexham
A.F.C. play in the English football league system; having been a member of the Football League for over 80 years, in 2008 they were relegated into the Conference National
Conference National
for the first time in their existence. They now play in the Vanarama National League. They remain the highest ranked team in the region, and play at the Racecourse Ground in Wrexham
Wrexham
and train at Colliers Park, Gresford. Colwyn Bay F.C. also play in the English pyramid at Northern Premier level. There are a number of teams including Bangor City F.C.
Bangor City F.C.
who have appeared in UEFA
UEFA
competitions, playing within the semi-professional domestic leagues the Welsh Premier League
Welsh Premier League
and the Cymru Alliance. Due to the close proximity of North Wales
Wales
to the North West of England, support for the English clubs of Liverpool
Liverpool
F.C., Everton F.C. and Manchester
Manchester
United F.C. has been historically strong. Rugby League[edit] Wales
Wales
was represented in the European Super League
Super League
by Crusaders Rugby League, they re-located to Wrexham
Wrexham
for the 2010 season from south Wales. They played at the Racecourse Ground
Racecourse Ground
and trained at Stansty Park both in Wrexham
Wrexham
before folding in 2011. They have now been replaced by the Championship 1 side, North Wales
Wales
Crusaders. North Wales
Wales
has its own amateur league, the North Wales
Wales
Championship. Rugby Union[edit] In September 2008 it was announced by the Welsh Rugby Union
Welsh Rugby Union
that a development team based in North Wales
Wales
would be created, with a long-term goal of becoming the fifth Welsh team in the Celtic League.[6] It was envisaged that this would both help the growth of the game in the area, and provide a larger pool of players for the Welsh national team to be selected from.[7] The team was named RGC 1404. See also[edit]

Geography of Wales South Wales West Wales Mid Wales The North Wales
Wales
Regional Hospital, Wrexham North Wales
Wales
Police North Wales
Wales
Police and Crime Commissioner North Wales
Wales
Fire and Rescue Service Kingdom of Gwynedd

References[edit]

^ Pontcysyllte Aqueduct
Pontcysyllte Aqueduct
World Heritage Site, UNESCO ^ Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd
Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd
World Heritage Site, UNESCO ^ Beaumaris Castle, Anglesey, A World Heritage Site  ^ Structural Funds: Eligible areas in region West Wales
Wales
& The Valleys for Objective 1 between 2000 and 2006, European Commission Regional Policy, archived from the original on 2007-09-22  ^ "Heritage, Language & Culture". Visit North Wales. Visit North Wales. Retrieved 2016-05-09.  ^ "WRU plan for northern development team". The Independent. 9 September 2008.  ^ Crump, Eryl; Rob Griffiths (9 September 2008). "Strongest hint yet that North Wales
Wales
will be fifth rugby region". Daily Post. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for North Wales.

"Ancient Tenures of North Wales" (PDF).  PDF book by Alfred Neobard Palmer published in 1910 Things to do in North Wales

Coordinates: 52°56′13″N 3°39′32″W / 52.937°N 3.659°W / 52.937; -3.659

Authority control

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