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Nineveh
Nineveh
(/ˈnɪnɪvə/; Akkadian: 𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua) ; Syriac: ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ‎ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul
Mosul
in modern-day northern Iraq. It is located on the eastern bank of the Tigris
Tigris
River, and was the capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Nowadays it is a common name for the half of Mosul
Mosul
which lies on the eastern bank of the Tigris. It was the largest city in the world for some fifty years[1] until the year 612 BC when, after a bitter period of civil war in Assyria, it was sacked by a coalition of its former subject peoples, the Babylonians, Medes, Chaldeans, Persians, Scythians
Scythians
and Cimmerians. Its ruins are across the river from the modern-day major city of Mosul, in the Ninawa Governorate
Ninawa Governorate
of Iraq. The two main tells, or mound-ruins, within the walls are Kouyunjik
Kouyunjik
(Kuyuncuk), the Northern Palace, and Tell Nabī Yūnus. Large amounts of Assyrian sculpture
Assyrian sculpture
and other artifacts have been excavated and are now located in museums around the world. The Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant (ISIL) occupied the site during the mid-2010s, during which time they bulldozed several of the monuments there and caused considerable damage to the others. Iraqi forces recaptured the area in January 2017.

Nineveh
Nineveh
- Mashki Gate

Contents

1 Name 2 Geography 3 Early history

3.1 Ninevite 5 period 3.2 Old Assyrian period 3.3 Neo-Assyrians

3.3.1 Sennacherib 3.3.2 After Ashurbanipal

4 Biblical Nineveh 5 Classical history 6 Archaeology

6.1 Excavation history 6.2 Archaeological remains 6.3 City wall and gates

7 Threats to the site 8 Rogation of the Ninevites (Nineveh's Wish) 9 Popular culture 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links

Name[edit] The English placename Nineveh
Nineveh
comes from Latin
Latin
Ninive and Septuagint Greek Nineuḗ (Νινευή) under influence of the Biblical Hebrew Nīnewēh (נִינְוֶה),[2] from the Akkadian
Akkadian
Ninua (var. Ninâ)[3] or Old Babylonian Ninuwā.[2] The original meaning of the name is unclear but may have referred to a patron goddess. The cuneiform for Ninâ (𒀏) is a fish within a house (cf. Aramaic nuna, "fish"). This may have simply intended "Place of Fish" or may have indicated a goddess associated with fish or the Tigris, possibly originally of Hurrian origin.[3] The city was later said to be devoted to "the Ishtar
Ishtar
of Nineveh" and Nina was one of the Sumerian and Assyrian names of that goddess.[3] The city was also known as Ninii[4] or Ni[5] in Ancient Egyptian; Ninuwa in Mari;[3] Ninawa in Aramaic;[3] ܢܸܢܘܵܐ[clarification needed] in Syriac;[citation needed] and Nainavā (نینوا) in Persian. Nabī Yūnus is the Arabic for "Prophet Jonah". Kouyunjik
Kouyunjik
was, according to Layard, a Turkish name, and it was known as Armousheeah by the Arabs,[6] and is thought to have some connection with the Kara Koyunlu dynasty.[7] Geography[edit] The remains of ancient Nineveh, the mound-ruins of Kouyunjik
Kouyunjik
and Nabī Yūnus, are located on a level part of the plain near the junction of the Tigris
Tigris
and the Khosr Rivers within an area of 750 hectares (1,900 acres)[8] circumscribed by a 12-kilometre (7.5 mi) brick rampart. This whole extensive space is now one immense area of ruins overlaid in parts by new suburbs of the city of Mosul.[9] Nineveh
Nineveh
was an important junction for commercial routes crossing the Tigris
Tigris
on the great highway between the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and the Indian Ocean, thus uniting the East and the West, it received wealth from many sources, so that it became one of the greatest of all the region's ancient cities,[10] and the capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Early history[edit] Nineveh
Nineveh
was one of the oldest and greatest cities in antiquity. The area was settled as early as 6000 BC during the late Neolithic. The deep sounding at Nineveh
Nineveh
uncovered layers now dated to early Hassuna culture
Hassuna culture
period.[11] By 3000 BC, the area had become an important religious center for the Mesopotamian goddess Ishtar. The early city (and subsequent buildings) was constructed on a fault line and, consequently, suffered damage from a number of earthquakes. One such event destroyed the first temple of Ishtar, which was rebuilt in 2260 BC by the Akkadian
Akkadian
king Manishtushu. Texts from the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
period later offered an eponymous Ninus
Ninus
as the founder of Nineveh, although there is no historical basis for this. Ninevite 5 period[edit] The regional influence of Nineveh
Nineveh
became particularly pronounced during the archaeological period known as Ninevite 5, or Ninevite V (2900–2600 BC). This period is defined primarily by the characteristic pottery that is found widely throughout northern Mesopotamia.[12] Also, for the northern Mesopotamian region, the Early Jezirah chronology has been developed by archaeologists. According to this regional chronology, 'Ninevite 5' is equivalent to the Early Jezirah I–II period.[13] Ninevite 5 was preceded by the Late Uruk
Uruk
period. Ninevite 5 pottery is roughly contemporary to the Early Transcaucasian culture
Early Transcaucasian culture
ware, and the Jemdet Nasr
Jemdet Nasr
ware.[12] Iraqi Scarlet Ware culture also belongs to this period; this colourful painted pottery is somewhat similar to Jemdet Nasr ware. Scarlet Ware was first documented in the Diyala River
Diyala River
basin in Iraq. Later, it was also found in the nearby Hamrin Basin, and in Luristan. Old Assyrian period[edit] The historic Nineveh
Nineveh
is mentioned in the Old Assyrian Empire
Old Assyrian Empire
during reign of Shamshi-Adad I
Shamshi-Adad I
in about 1800 BC as a centre of worship of Ishtar, whose cult was responsible for the city's early importance. The goddess's statue was sent to Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Amenhotep III
Amenhotep III
of Egypt
Egypt
in the 14th century BC, by orders of the king of Mitanni. The Assyrian city of Nineveh
Nineveh
became one of Mitanni's vassals for half a century until the early 14th century BC, when the Assyrian king Ashur-uballit I reclaimed it in 1365 BC while overthrowing the Mitanni
Mitanni
Empire and creating the Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire
(1365–1050 BC).[14] There is a large body of evidence to show that Assyrian monarchs built extensively in Nineveh
Nineveh
during the late 3rd and 2nd millenniums BC; it appears to have been originally an "Assyrian provincial town". Later monarchs whose inscriptions have appeared on the high city include the Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire
kings Shalmaneser I
Shalmaneser I
(1274–1245 BC) and Tiglath-Pileser I
Tiglath-Pileser I
(1114–1076 BC), both of whom were active builders in Assur
Assur
(Ashur). Neo-Assyrians[edit] During the Neo-Assyrian Empire, particularly from the time of Ashurnasirpal II
Ashurnasirpal II
(ruled 883–859 BC) onward, there was considerable architectural expansion. Successive monarchs such as Tiglath-pileser III, Sargon II, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
kept in repair and founded new palaces, as well as temples to Sîn, Ashur, Nergal, Shamash, Ninurta, Ishtar, Tammuz, Nisroch and Nabiu.

Refined low-relief section of a bull-hunt frieze from Nineveh, alabaster, c. 695 BC (Pergamon Museum), Berlin.

Relief of the king hunting a Mesopotamian lion,[15] from the Northern Palace in Nineveh, as seen at the British Museum.

Sennacherib[edit] It was Sennacherib
Sennacherib
who made Nineveh
Nineveh
a truly magnificent city (c. 700 BC). He laid out new streets and squares and built within it the South West Palace, or "palace without a rival", the plan of which has been mostly recovered and has overall dimensions of about 503 by 242 metres (1,650 ft × 794 ft). It comprised at least 80 rooms, many of which were lined with sculpture. A large number of cuneiform tablets were found in the palace. The solid foundation was made out of limestone blocks and mud bricks; it was 22 metres (72 ft) tall. In total, the foundation is made of roughly 2,680,000 cubic metres (3,505,308 cu yd) of brick (approximately 160 million bricks). The walls on top, made out of mud brick, were an additional 20 metres (66 ft) tall. Some of the principal doorways were flanked by colossal stone lamassu door figures weighing up to 30,000 kilograms (30 t); these were winged Mesopotamian lions[15] or bulls, with human heads. These were transported 50 kilometres (31 mi) from quarries at Balatai, and they had to be lifted up 20 metres (66 ft) once they arrived at the site, presumably by a ramp. There are also 3,000 metres (9,843 ft) of stone Assyrian palace reliefs, that include pictorial records documenting every construction step including carving the statues and transporting them on a barge. One picture shows 44 men towing a colossal statue. The carving shows three men directing the operation while standing on the Colossus. Once the statues arrived at their destination, the final carving was done. Most of the statues weigh between 9,000 and 27,000 kilograms (19,842 and 59,525 lb).[16] The stone carvings in the walls include many battle scenes, impalings and scenes showing Sennacherib's men parading the spoils of war before him. The inscriptions boasted of his conquests: he wrote of Babylon: "Its inhabitants, young and old, I did not spare, and with their corpses I filled the streets of the city." A full and characteristic set shows the campaign leading up to the siege of Lachish
Lachish
in 701; it is the "finest" from the reign of Sennacherib, and now in the British Museum.[17] He later wrote about a battle in Lachish: "And Hezekiah
Hezekiah
of Judah who had not submitted to my yoke...him I shut up in Jerusalem his royal city like a caged bird. Earthworks I threw up against him, and anyone coming out of his city gate I made pay for his crime. His cities which I had plundered I had cut off from his land." [18] At this time, the total area of Nineveh
Nineveh
comprised about 7 square kilometres (1,730 acres), and fifteen great gates penetrated its walls. An elaborate system of eighteen canals brought water from the hills to Nineveh, and several sections of a magnificently constructed aqueduct erected by Sennacherib
Sennacherib
were discovered at Jerwan, about 65 kilometres (40 mi) distant.[19] The enclosed area had more than 100,000 inhabitants (maybe closer to 150,000), about twice as many as Babylon
Babylon
at the time, placing it among the largest settlements worldwide. Some scholars believe that the garden which Sennacherib
Sennacherib
built next to his palace, with its associated irrigation works, comprised the original Hanging Gardens of Babylon.[20] After Ashurbanipal[edit] Nineveh's greatness was short-lived. In around 627 BC, after the death of its last great king Ashurbanipal, the Neo-Assyrian empire began to unravel through a series of bitter civil wars between rival claimants for the throne, and in 616 BC Assyria
Assyria
was attacked by its own former vassals, the Babylonians, Chaldeans, Medes, Persians, Scythians
Scythians
and Cimmerians. In about 616 BC Kalhu
Kalhu
was sacked, the allied forces eventually reached Nineveh, besieging and sacking the city in 612 BC, following bitter house-to-house fighting, after which it was razed to the ground. Most of the people in the city who could not escape to the last Assyrian strongholds in the north and west were either massacred or deported out of the city and into the countryside where they founded new settlements. Many unburied skeletons were found by the archaeologists at the site. The Assyrian empire then came to an end by 605 BC; the Medes
Medes
and Babylonians dividing its colonies between them. Assyria, including the Nineveh
Nineveh
region, continued to exist as a geo-political entity (Achaemenid Assyria, Athura, Assuristan
Assuristan
etc.) under the rule of various empires until its dissolution in the mid-7th century AD. Following the defeat in 612 BC, the site remained largely unoccupied for centuries and the ruins remained largely intact during Achaemenid rule, though the library of Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
may still have been in use until around the time of Alexander the Great. The city is mentioned again in the Battle of Nineveh
Nineveh
in 627 AD, which was fought between the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
and the Sassanian Empire of Persia near the ancient city. From the Arab
Arab
Islamic Conquest
Islamic Conquest
in 637 AD until the modern period, the city of Mosul
Mosul
on the opposite bank of the Tigris
Tigris
became the successor of ancient Nineveh. Biblical Nineveh[edit] In the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible, Nineveh
Nineveh
is first mentioned in Genesis 10:11: " Ashur left that land, and built Nineveh". Some modern English translations interpret "Ashur" in the Hebrew
Hebrew
of this verse as the country "Assyria" rather than a person, thus making Nimrod, rather than Ashur, the founder of Nineveh.

The Prophet Jonah
Jonah
before the Walls of Nineveh, drawing by Rembrandt, c. 1655

Nineveh
Nineveh
was the flourishing capital of the Assyrian Empire[21] and was the home of King Sennacherib, King of Assyria, during the Biblical reign of King Hezekiah
Hezekiah
(יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ) and the lifetime of Judean prophet Isaiah
Isaiah
(ישעיה). As recorded in Hebrew scripture, Nineveh
Nineveh
was also the place where Sennacherib
Sennacherib
died at the hands of his two sons, who then fled to the vassal land of `rrt Urartu.[22] The book of the prophet Nahum
Nahum
is almost exclusively taken up with prophetic denunciations against Nineveh. Its ruin and utter desolation are foretold.[23][24] Its end was strange, sudden, and tragic. [25] According to the Bible, it was God's doing, His judgment on Assyria's pride ( Isaiah
Isaiah
10:5–19). In fulfillment of prophecy, God made "an utter end of the place". It became a "desolation". The prophet Zephaniah
Zephaniah
also[26] predicts its destruction along with the fall of the empire of which it was the capital. Nineveh
Nineveh
is also the setting of the Book of Tobit. The Book of Jonah, set in the days of the Assyrian empire, describes it[27][28] as an "exceedingly great city of three days journey in breadth", whose population at that time is given as "more than 120,000". But it is also possible that it took three days to cover all its neighborhoods by walking, which would match the size of ancient Nineveh. The ruins of Kouyunjik, Nimrud, Karamles
Karamles
and Khorsabad
Khorsabad
form the four corners of an irregular quadrangle. The ruins of Nineveh, with the whole area included within the parallelogram they form by lines drawn from the one to the other, are generally regarded as consisting of these four sites. The Book of Jonah
Jonah
depicts Nineveh
Nineveh
as a wicked city worthy of destruction. God
God
sent Jonah
Jonah
to preach to the Ninevites of their coming destruction, and they fasted and repented because of this. As a result, God
God
spared the city; when Jonah
Jonah
protests against this, God
God
states He is showing mercy for the population who are ignorant of the difference between right and wrong ("who cannot discern between their right hand and their left hand" [29]) and mercy for the animals in the city. Nineveh's repentance and salvation from evil can be found in the Christian
Christian
Bible, the Jewish Tanakh, and the Muslim
Muslim
Koran.[30] To this day, Syriac and Oriental Orthodox churches commemorate the three days Jonah
Jonah
spent inside the fish during the Fast of Nineveh. The Christians observing this holiday fast by refraining from food and drink. Churches encourage followers to refrain from meat, fish and dairy products.[31] Classical history[edit] Before the great archaeological excavations in the 19th century, there was almost no historical knowledge of the great Assyrian empire and of its magnificent capital. Other cities that had perished, such as Palmyra, Persepolis, and Thebes, had left ruins to mark their sites and tell of their former greatness; but of this city, imperial Nineveh, no vestige seemed to remain, and the very place on which it had stood became only a matter of conjecture. In the days of the Greek historians Ctesias and Herodotus, 400 BC, Nineveh
Nineveh
had become a thing of the past; and when Xenophon the historian passed the place in the Retreat of the Ten Thousand the very memory of its name had been lost. It was buried out of sight.[32] In his History of the World (written c. 1616) Sir Walter Raleigh erroneously asserted (attributing the information to Johannes Nauclerus c. 1425–1510) that Nineveh
Nineveh
had originally had the name Campsor before Ninus
Ninus
supposedly rebuilt it. This was still regarded as correct information when news of Layard's discoveries (see below) reached the west.[33] Archaeology[edit] The location of Ninevah was known, to some, continuously through the Middle Ages. Benjamin of Tudela
Benjamin of Tudela
visited it in 1170; Petachiah of Regensburg soon after.[34] Carsten Niebuhr
Carsten Niebuhr
recorded its location during the 1761–1767 Danish expedition. Niebuhr wrote afterwards that "I did not learn that I was at so remarkable a spot, till near the river. Then they showed me a village on a great hill, which they call Nunia, and a mosque, in which the prophet Jonah
Jonah
was buried. Another hill in this district is called Kalla Nunia, or the Castle of Nineveh. On that lies a village Koindsjug."[35] Excavation history[edit] In 1842, the French Consul General at Mosul, Paul-Émile Botta, began to search the vast mounds that lay along the opposite bank of the river. The locals whom he employed in these excavations, to their great surprise, came upon the ruins of a building at the mound of Khorsabad, which, on further exploration, turned out to be the royal palace of Sargon II, in which large numbers of reliefs were found and recorded, though they had been damaged by fire and were mostly too fragile to remove.

Bronze lion from Nineveh.

In 1847 the young British diplomat Austen Henry Layard
Austen Henry Layard
explored the ruins.[36][37][38][39] Layard did not use modern archaeological methods; his stated goal was "to obtain the largest possible number of well preserved objects of art at the least possible outlay of time and money."[40] In the Kuyunjik mound, Layard rediscovered in 1849 the lost palace of Sennacherib
Sennacherib
with its 71 rooms and colossal bas-reliefs. He also unearthed the palace and famous library of Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
with 22,000 cuneiform clay tablets. Most of Layard's material was sent to the British Museum, but two large pieces were given to Lady Charlotte Guest and eventually found their way to the Metropolitan Museum.[41] The study of the archaeology of Nineveh
Nineveh
reveals the wealth and glory of ancient Assyria
Assyria
under kings such as Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
(681–669 BC) and Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
(669–626 BC). The work of exploration was carried on by George Smith, Hormuzd Rassam (a modern Assyrian), and others, and a vast treasury of specimens of Assyria
Assyria
was incrementally exhumed for European museums. Palace after palace was discovered, with their decorations and their sculptured slabs, revealing the life and manners of this ancient people, their arts of war and peace, the forms of their religion, the style of their architecture, and the magnificence of their monarchs.[42][43] The mound of Kouyunjik
Kouyunjik
was excavated again by the archaeologists of the British Museum, led by Leonard William King, at the beginning of the 20th century. Their efforts concentrated on the site of the Temple of Nabu, the god of writing, where another cuneiform library was supposed to exist. However, no such library was ever found: most likely, it had been destroyed by the activities of later residents. The excavations started again in 1927, under the direction of Campbell Thompson, who had taken part in King's expeditions.[44][45][46][47] Some works were carried out outside Kouyunjik, for instance on the mound of Nebi Yunus, which was the ancient arsenal of Nineveh, or along the outside walls. Here, near the northwestern corner of the walls, beyond the pavement of a later building, the archaeologists found almost 300 fragments of prisms recording the royal annals of Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and Ashurbanipal, beside a prism of Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
which was almost perfect. After the Second World War, several excavations were carried out by Iraqi archaeologists. From 1951 to 1958 Mohammed Ali Mustafa worked the site.[48][49] The work was continued from 1967 through 1971 by Tariq Madhloom.[50][51][52] Some additional excavation occurred by Manhal Jabur in 1980, and Manhal Jabur in 1987. For the most part, these digs focused on Nebi Yunus. Most recently, British archaeologist and Assyriologist Professor David Stronach of the University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
conducted a series of surveys and digs at the site from 1987 to 1990, focusing his attentions on the several gates and the existent mudbrick walls, as well as the system that supplied water to the city in times of siege. The excavation reports are in progress.[53] Archaeological remains[edit]

Humvee down after isis attack

Today, Nineveh's location is marked by two large mounds, Kouyunjik
Kouyunjik
and Nabī Yūnus "Prophet Jonah", and the remains of the city walls (about 12 kilometres (7 mi) in circumference). The Neo-Assyrian levels of Kouyunjik
Kouyunjik
have been extensively explored. The other mound, Nabī Yūnus, has not been as extensively explored because there was an Arab Muslim
Muslim
shrine dedicated to that prophet on the site. On July 24, 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant destroyed the shrine as part of a campaign to destroy religious sanctuaries it deems "un-Islamic."[54] The ruin mound of Kuyunjik rises about 20 metres (66 ft) above the surrounding plain of the ancient city. It is quite broad, measuring about 800 by 500 metres (2,625 ft × 1,640 ft). Its upper layers have been extensively excavated, and several Neo-Assyrian palaces and temples have been found there. A deep sounding by Max Mallowan revealed evidence of habitation as early as the 6th millennium BC. Today, there is little evidence of these old excavations other than weathered pits and earth piles. In 1990, the only Assyrian remains visible were those of the entry court and the first few chambers of the Palace of Sennacherib. Since that time, the palace chambers have received significant damage by looters. Portions of relief sculptures that were in the palace chambers in 1990 were seen on the antiquities market by 1996. Photographs of the chambers made in 2003 show that many of the fine relief sculptures there have been reduced to piles of rubble.

Winged Bull
Bull
excavated at Nebi Yunus by Iraqi archaeologists

Nebi Yunus is located about 1 kilometre (0.6 mi) south of Kuyunjik and is the secondary ruin mound at Nineveh. On the basis of texts of Sennacherib, the site has traditionally been identified as the "armory" of Nineveh, and a gate and pavements excavated by Iraqis in 1954 have been considered to be part of the "armory" complex. Excavations in 1990 revealed a monumental entryway consisting of a number of large inscribed orthostats and "bull-man" sculptures, some apparently unfinished. City wall and gates[edit]

Simplified plan of ancient Nineveh
Nineveh
showing city wall and location of gateways.

The ruins of Nineveh
Nineveh
are surrounded by the remains of a massive stone and mudbrick wall dating from about 700 BC. About 12 km in length, the wall system consisted of an ashlar stone retaining wall about 6 metres (20 ft) high surmounted by a mudbrick wall about 10 metres (33 ft) high and 15 metres (49 ft) thick. The stone retaining wall had projecting stone towers spaced about every 18 metres (59 ft). The stone wall and towers were topped by three-step merlons. Five of the gateways have been explored to some extent by archaeologists:

Mashki Gate

Translated "Gate of the Watering Places", it was perhaps used to take livestock to water from the Tigris
Tigris
which currently flows about 1.5 kilometres (0.9 mi) to the west. It has been reconstructed in fortified mudbrick to the height of the top of the vaulted passageway. The Assyrian original may have been plastered and ornamented.

Nergal
Nergal
Gate

Named for the god Nergal, it may have been used for some ceremonial purpose, as it is the only known gate flanked by stone sculptures of winged bull-men (lamassu). The reconstruction is conjectural, as the gate was excavated by Layard in the mid-19th century and reconstructed in the mid-20th century.

Adad
Adad
Gate

Photograph of the restored Adad
Adad
Gate, taken prior to the gate's destruction by ISIL
ISIL
in April 2016[55]

Adad
Adad
Gate was named for the god Adad. A reconstruction was begun in the 1960s by Iraqis but was not completed. The result was a mixture of concrete and eroding mudbrick, which nonetheless does give some idea of the original structure. The excavator left some features unexcavated, allowing a view of the original Assyrian construction. The original brickwork of the outer vaulted passageway was well exposed, as was the entrance of the vaulted stairway to the upper levels. The actions of Nineveh's last defenders could be seen in the hastily built mudbrick construction which narrowed the passageway from 4 to 2 metres (13 to 7 ft). Around April 13, 2016, ISIL demolished both the gate and the adjacent wall by flattening them with a bulldozer.[56][55]

Shamash
Shamash
Gate

Eastern city wall and Shamash
Shamash
Gate.

Named for the Sun
Sun
god Shamash, it opens to the road to Arbil. It was excavated by Layard in the 19th century. The stone retaining wall and part of the mudbrick structure were reconstructed in the 1960s. The mudbrick reconstruction has deteriorated significantly. The stone wall projects outward about 20 metres (66 ft) from the line of main wall for a width of about 70 metres (230 ft). It is the only gate with such a significant projection. The mound of its remains towers above the surrounding terrain. Its size and design suggest it was the most important gate in Neo-Assyrian times.

Halzi Gate

Near the south end of the eastern city wall. Exploratory excavations were undertaken here by the University of California
University of California
expedition of 1989–1990. There is an outward projection of the city wall, though not as pronounced as at the Shamash
Shamash
Gate. The entry passage had been narrowed with mudbrick to about 2 metres (7 ft) as at the Adad Gate. Human remains from the final battle of Nineveh
Nineveh
were found in the passageway. [57] Threats to the site[edit] The site of Nineveh
Nineveh
is exposed to decay of its reliefs by a lack of proper protective roofing, vandalism and looting holes dug into chamber floors.[58] Future preservation is further compromised by the site's proximity to expanding suburbs. The ailing Mosul
Mosul
Dam is a persistent threat to Nineveh
Nineveh
as well as the city of Mosul. This is in no small part due to years of disrepair (in 2006, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
cited it as the most dangerous dam in the world), the cancellation of a second dam project in the 1980s to act as flood relief in case of failure, and occupation by ISIL
ISIL
in 2014 resulting in fleeing workers and stolen equipment. If the dam fails, the entire site could be under as much as 45 feet (14 m) underwater.[59] In an October 2010 report titled Saving Our Vanishing Heritage, Global Heritage Fund named Nineveh
Nineveh
one of 12 sites most "on the verge" of irreparable destruction and loss, citing insufficient management, development pressures and looting as primary causes.[60] By far, however, the greatest threat to Nineveh
Nineveh
has been purposeful human actions by ISIL, which occupied that area in mid-2010s. In early 2015 they announced their intention to destroy the walls of Nineveh
Nineveh
if the Iraqis try to liberate the city. They also threatened to destroy artifacts. On February 26 they destroyed several items and statues in the Mosul
Mosul
Museum and are believed to have plundered others to sell overseas. The items were mostly from the Assyrian exhibit, which ISIL declared blasphemous and idolatrous. There were 300 items in the museum out of a total of 1,900, with the other 1,600 being taken to the National Museum of Iraq
Iraq
in Baghdad
Baghdad
for security reasons prior to the 2014 Fall of Mosul.[according to whom?] Some of the artifacts sold and/or destroyed were from Nineveh.[61][62] Just a few days after the destruction of the museum pieces, they demolished remains at major UNESCO world heritage sites Khorsabad, Nimrud, and Hatra. Rogation of the Ninevites (Nineveh's Wish)[edit] Assyrians of the Ancient Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church, Syriac Catholic Church, Syriac Orthodox Church, Assyrian Church of the East and Saint Thomas Christians
Saint Thomas Christians
of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church observe a fast called Ba'uta d-Ninwe (ܒܥܘܬܐ ܕܢܝܢܘܐ) which means Nineveh's Prayer. Copts
Copts
and Ethiopian Orthodox also maintain this fast.[63] Popular culture[edit] The English Romantic poet Edwin Atherstone wrote an epic The Fall of Nineveh.[64] The work tells of an uprising against its king Sardanapalus of all the nations that were dominated by the Assyrian empire. He is a great criminal. He has had one hundred prisoners of war executed. After a long struggle the town is conquered by Median and Babylonian troops led by prince Arbaces and priest Belesis. The king sets his own palace on fire and dies inside together with all his concubines.

John Martin, The Fall of Nineveh

Atherstone's friend, the artist John Martin, created a painting of the same name inspired by the poem. The English poet John Masefield's well-known 1903 poem Cargoes mentions Nineveh
Nineveh
in its first line (though whether there were ever quinqueremes in Nineveh
Nineveh
must be doubtful, and how one might stray into the Mediterranean is not explained). Nineveh
Nineveh
is also mentioned in Rudyard Kipling's 1897 poem Recessional. The 1962 Italian peplum movie, War Gods of Babylon, is based on the sacking and fall of Nineveh
Nineveh
by the combined rebel armies led by the Babylonians. See also[edit]

Cities of the ancient Near East Destruction of cultural heritage by ISIL Historical urban community sizes Isaac
Isaac
of Nineveh List of megalithic sites Short chronology timeline Tel Keppe

Notes[edit]

^ Matt T. Rosenberg. "Largest Cities Through History". geography.about.com. Retrieved 6 May 2013.  ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. "Ninevite, n. and adj." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 2013. ^ a b c d e "Nineveh", Encyclopaedia Judaica, Gale Group, 2008 . ^ Cooper, William Ricketts (1876), "Ninii", An Archaic Dictionary: Biographical, Historical, and Mythological; from the Egyptian, Assyrian, and Etruscan Monuments and Papyri, London: Samuel
Samuel
Bagster & Sons, p. 382 . ^ Rawlinson, George (1886), Ancient Egypt, 10th ed., Ch. XII, London: T. Fisher Unwin . ^ Layard, 1849, p.xxi, "...called Kouyunjik
Kouyunjik
by the Turks, and Armousheeah by the Arabs" ^ "Koyundjik", E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, p. 1083 . ^ Mieroop, Marc van de (1997). The Ancient Mesopotamian City. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 95. ISBN 9780191588457.  ^ Geoffrey Turner, Tell Nebi Yūnus: The ekal māšarti of Nineveh, Iraq, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 68–85, 1970 ^ "Proud Nineveh" is an emblem of earthly pride in the Old Testament prophecies: "And He will stretch out His hand against the north And destroy Assyria, And He will make Nineveh
Nineveh
a desolation, Parched like the wilderness." ( Zephaniah
Zephaniah
2:13). ^ Kouyounjik / Nebi Yunis (ancient: Nineveh) colostate.edu ^ a b Ian Shaw, A Dictionary of Archaeology. John Wiley & Sons, 2002 ISBN 0631235833 p427 ^ Polish-Syrian Expedition to Tell Arbid 2015 ^ Genesis 10:11 attributes the founding of Nineveh
Nineveh
to an Asshur: "Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh". ^ a b Ashrafian, H. (2011). "An extinct Mesopotamian lion
Mesopotamian lion
subspecies". Veterinary Heritage. 34 (2): 47–49.  ^ "The Seventy Wonders of the Ancient World" edited by Chris Scarre 1999 (Thames and Hudson) ^ Reade, Julian, Assyrian Sculpture, pp. 56 (quoted), 65–71, 1998 (2nd edn.), The British Museum
British Museum
Press, ISBN 9780714121413 ^ Time Life Lost Civilizations series: Mesopotamia: The Mighty Kings. (1995) ^ Thorkild Jacobsen and Seton Lloyd, Sennacherib's Aqueduct at Jerwan, Oriental Institute Publication 24, University of Chicago Press, 1935 ^ Dalley, Stephanie, (2013) The Mystery of the Hanging Garden
Garden
of Babylon: an elusive World Wonder traced, Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-966226-5 ^ 2 Kings 19:36 ^ Isa. 37:37–38 ^ Nahum
Nahum
1:14 ^ 3:19 ^ Nahum
Nahum
2:6–11 ^ 2:13–15 ^ Jonah
Jonah
3:3 ^ 4:11 ^ Mechon Mamre Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
translation, Jonah
Jonah
4 ^ Also see these scriptural references: Gospel of Matthew
Gospel of Matthew
(12:41) and the Gospel of Luke
Gospel of Luke
(11:32) ^ "Three Day Fast of Nineveh". Syrian Orthodox Church. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2012.  ^ Menko Vlaardingerbroek, The Founding of Nineveh
Nineveh
and Babylon
Babylon
in Greek Historiography, Iraq, vol. 66, Nineveh. Papers of the 49th Rencontre Assriologique Internationale, Part One, pp. 233–241, 2004 ^ "Dr. Layard and Nineveh", Bentley's Miscellany Vol 29 (1851), p. 102 ^ Liverani 2016, p. 23. "Toward 1170 the rabbi Benjamin of Tudela, who was traveling throughout the Near East passing from one Hebrew community to another, having arrived at Mosul
Mosul
(which he called 'Assur the Great') had a clear idea (thanks to information given to him by his local colleagues) that across the Tigris
Tigris
was the famous Ninevah, in ruins but covered with villages and farms [...] Ten years later another rabbi, Petachia of Ratisbon, also arriving at Mosul
Mosul
(which he called the 'New Ninevah') and crossing the river, visited 'Old Ninevah', which he described as desolate and 'overthrown like Sodom' with the land black like pitch, without a blade of grass. [...] Myths apart, the localization of Ninevah remained a matter of common knowledge and beyond argument; various western travelers (such as Jean Baptiste Tavernier in 1644, and then Bourguignon d'Anville in 1779) confirmed it, and some soundings followed." ^ Pusey, Edward Bouverie (1888), The Minor Prophets, with a Commentary, Explanatory and Practical, and Introductions to the Several Books, Volume II, p.123 ^ A. H. Layard, Nineveh
Nineveh
and Its Remains, John Murray, 1849 ^ A. H. Layard, Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh
Nineveh
and Babylon, John Murray, 1853 ^ A. H. Layard, The Monuments of Nineveh; From Drawings Made on the Spot, John Murray, 1849 ^ A. H. Layard, A second series of the monuments of Nineveh, John Murray, 1853 ^ Liverani 2016, pp. 32–33. ^ John Malcolm Russell, From Nineveh
Nineveh
to New York: The Strange Story of the Assyrian Reliefs
Reliefs
in the Metropolitan Museum
Metropolitan Museum
& the Hidden Masterpiece at Canford School, Yale University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-300-06459-4 ^ George Smith, Assyrian Discoveries: An Account of Explorations and Discoveries on the Site of Nineveh, During 1873 and 1874, S. Low-Marston-Searle and Rivington, 1876 ^ Hormuzd Rassam
Hormuzd Rassam
and Robert William Rogers, Asshur and the Land of Nimrod, Curts & Jennings, 1897 ^ R. Campbell Thompson and R. W. Hutchinson, "The excavations on the temple of Nabu
Nabu
at Nineveh," Archaeologia, vol. 79, pp. 103–148, 1929 ^ R. Campbell Thompson and R. W. Hutchinson, "The site of the palace of Ashurnasirpal II
Ashurnasirpal II
at Nineveh
Nineveh
excavated in 1929–30," Liverpool Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology, vol. 18, pp. 79–112, 1931 ^ R. Campbell Thompson and R. W. Hamilton, "The British Museum excavations on the temple of Ishtar
Ishtar
at Nineveh
Nineveh
1930–31," Liverpool Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology, vol. 19, pp. 55–116, 1932 ^ R. Campbell Thompson and M E L Mallowan, "The British Museum excavations at Nineveh
Nineveh
1931–32," Liverpool Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology, vol. 20, pp. 71–186, 1933 ^ Mohammed Ali Mustafa, Sumer, vol. 10, pp. 110–11, 1954 ^ Mohammed Ali Mustafa, Sumer, vol. 11, pp. 4, 1955 ^ Tariq Madhloom, Excavations at Nineveh: A preliminary report, Sumer, vol. 23, pp. 76–79, 1967 ^ Tariq Madhloom, Excavations at Nineveh: The 1967–68 Campaign, Sumer, vol 24, pp. 45–51, 1968 ^ Tariq Madhloom, Excavations at Nineveh: The 1968–69 Campaign, Sumer, vol. 25, pp. 43–49, 1969 ^ Shelby White – Leon Levy Program for Archaeological Publications – Nineveh
Nineveh
Publication Grant ^ "Officials: ISIS blows up Jonah's tomb in Iraq". CNN.com. 2014-07-24. Retrieved 2014-07-24.  ^ a b Romey, Kristin (19 April 2016), "Exclusive Photos Show Destruction of Nineveh
Nineveh
Gates by ISIS", National Geographic, The National Geographical Society  ^ "Iraqi Digital Investigation Team Confirms ISIS Destruction of Gate in Nineveh". Bellingcat. August 29, 2016. Retrieved August 30, 2016.  ^ Diana Pickworth, Excavations at Nineveh: The Halzi Gate, Iraq, vol. 67, no. 1, Nineveh. Papers of the 49th Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Part Two, pp. 295–316, 2005 ^ "Cultural Assessment of Iraq: The State of Sites and Museums in Northern Iraq
Iraq
– Nineveh". National Geographic News. May 2003.  ^ Borger, Julian. " Mosul
Mosul
dam engineers warn it could fail at any time, killing 1m people". The Guardian. guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 22 March 2016.  ^ Globalheritagefund.org Archived 2012-08-20 at the Wayback Machine. ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/iraq-isis-militants-pledge-to-destroy-remaining-archaeological-treasures-in-nimrud-10076133.html ^ http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/2/26/isil-seen-in-new-video-destroying-7th-century-artifacts.html ^ Warda, W, Christians of Iraq: Ba-oota d' Ninevayee or the Fast of the Ninevites, re-accessed 11 September 2016 ^ Herbert F. Tucker, Epic. Britain's Heroic Muse 1790–1910, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2008, p. 256-261.

References[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George (1897). "Nineveh". Easton's Bible
Bible
Dictionary (New and revised ed.). T. Nelson and Sons. 

Russell, John Malcolm (1992), Sennacherib's "Palace without Rival" at Nineveh, University Of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-73175-8  Barnett, Richard David
David
(1976), Sculptures from the north palace of Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
at Nineveh
Nineveh
(668-627 B.C.), British Museum Publications Ltd, ISBN 0-7141-1046-9  Campbell Thompson, R.; Hutchinson, R. W. (1929), A century of exploration at Nineveh, Luzac  Bezold, Carl, Catalogue of the Cuneiform
Cuneiform
Tablets in the Kouyunjik Collection of the British Museum 

Volume I, 1889  Volume II, 1891  Volume III, 1893  Volume IV, 1896  Volume V, 1899 

Catalogue of the Cuneiform
Cuneiform
Tablets in the Kouyunjik
Kouyunjik
Collection of the British Museum, British Museum 

King, W. L. (1914), Supplement I  Lambert, W. G. (1968), Supplement II  Lambert, W. G. (1992), Supplement III, ISBN 0-7141-1131-7 

Liverani, Mario (2016) [2013], Immaginare Babele [Imagining Babylon: The Modern Story of an Ancient City], translated by Campbell, Alisa, De Gruyter, ISBN 978-1-61451-602-6  Scott, M. Louise; MacGinnis, John (1990), Notes on Nineveh, Iraq, 52, pp. 63–73  Trümpler, C., ed. (2001), Agatha Christie and Archaeology, The British Museum
British Museum
Press, ISBN 978-0714111483  - Nineveh
Nineveh
5, Vessel Pottery 2900 BC Leick, Gwendolyn (2010), The A to Z of Mesopotamia, Scarecrow Press  - Early worship of Ishtar, Early / Prehistoric Nineveh Durant, Will (1954), Our oriental heritage, Simon & Schuster  – Early / Prehistoric Nineveh

External links[edit]

Look up Nineveh
Nineveh
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nineveh.

Joanne Farchakh-Bajjaly photos of Nineveh
Nineveh
taken in May 2003 showing damage from looters John Malcolm Russell, "Stolen stones: the modern sack of Nineveh" in Archaeology; looting of sculptures in the 1990s Nineveh
Nineveh
page at the British Museum's website. Includes photographs of items from their collection. University of California
University of California
Digital Nineveh
Nineveh
Archives A teaching and research tool presenting a comprehensive picture of Nineveh
Nineveh
within the history of archaeology in the Near East, including a searchable data repository for meaningful analysis of currently unlinked sets of data from different areas of the site and different episodes in the 160-year history of excavations CyArk
CyArk
Digital Nineveh
Nineveh
Archives, publicly accessible, free depository of the data from the previously linked UC Berkeley
UC Berkeley
Nineveh
Nineveh
Archives project, fully linked and georeferenced in a UC Berkeley/CyArk research partnership to develop the archive for open web use. Includes creative commons-licensed media items. Photos of Nineveh, 1989–1990 ABC 3: Babylonian Chronicle Concerning the Fall of Nineveh Layard's Nineveh
Nineveh
and its Remains- full text A history Austen Henry Layard
Austen Henry Layard
Nineveh
Nineveh
and Its Remains full book readable

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam (Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (titl

.