A NEWSPAPER is a periodical publication containing written information about current events .
Most newspapers are businesses, and they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales , and advertising revenue. The journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves often metonymically called newspapers.
Some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, and large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record .
* 1 Overview
* 1.1 Definitions
* 2 History
* 2.1 Gazettes and bulletins
* 2.2.1 Europe
* 2.2.2 Americas
* 2.2.3 Asia
* 3 Categories
* 3.1.1 Daily * 3.1.2 Weekly and other
* 3.2 Geographical scope and distribution
* 3.2.1 Local or regional * 3.2.2 National
* 3.3 Subject matter
* 3.4 Technology
* 3.4.1 Print * 3.4.2 Online
* 4 Organization and personnel
* 5 Zoned and other editions
* 6 Format
* 7 Circulation and readership
* 14 External links
Usually the paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings (labeled A, B, C, and so on, with pagination prefixes yielding page numbers A1-A20, B1-B20, C1-C20, and so on). Most traditional papers also feature an editorial page containing editorials written by an editor (or by the paper's editorial board) and expressing an opinion on a public issue, opinion articles called "op-eds " written by guest writers (which are typically in the same section as the editorial), and columns that express the personal opinions of columnists , usually offering analysis and synthesis that attempts to translate the raw data of the news into information telling the reader "what it all means" and persuading them to concur. Papers also include articles which have no byline ; these articles are written by staff writers.
A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. Besides
the aforementioned news, information and opinions, they include
weather forecasts; criticism and reviews of the arts (including
literature , film , television , theater , fine arts , and
architecture ) and of local services such as restaurants; obituaries ,
birth notices and graduation announcements; entertainment features
such as crosswords, horoscopes, editorial cartoons , gag cartoons ,
and comic strips ; advice columns, food , and other columns; and radio
and television listings (program schedules). As of 2017, newspapers
may also provide information about new movies and TV shows available
on streaming video services like
Most newspapers are businesses, and they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales , and advertising revenue (other businesses or individuals pay to place advertisements in the pages, including display ads , classified ads , and their online equivalents ). Some newspapers are government-run or at least government-funded; their reliance on advertising revenue and on profitability is less critical to their survival. The editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government. Some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, and large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record .
Many newspapers, besides employing journalists on their own payrolls,
also subscribe to news agencies (wire services) (such as the
The decline in advertising revenues affected both the print and
online media as well as all other mediums; print advertising was once
lucrative but has greatly declined, and the prices of online
advertising are often lower than those of their print precursors.
Besides remodeling advertising, the internet (especially the web ) has
also challenged the business models of the print-only era by
crowdsourcing both publishing in general (sharing information with
others) and, more specifically, journalism (the work of finding,
assembling, and reporting the news). In addition, the rise of news
aggregators , which bundle linked articles from many online newspapers
and other sources, influences the flow of web traffic . Increasing
paywalling of online newspapers may be counteracting those effects.
The oldest newspaper still published is the ORDINARI POST TIJDENDER ,
which was established in
* Public accessibility: Its contents are reasonably accessible to
the public, traditionally by the paper being sold or distributed at
newsstands, shops, and libraries, and, since the 1990s, made available
GAZETTES AND BULLETINS
In early modern Europe , the increased cross-border interaction created a rising need for information which was met by concise handwritten news-sheets. In 1556, the government of Venice first published the monthly notizie scritte , which cost one gazette, a small coin. These avvisi were handwritten newsletters and used to convey political, military, and economic news quickly and efficiently to Italian cities (1500–1700)—sharing some characteristics of newspapers though usually not considered true newspapers. However, none of these publications fully met the classical criteria for proper newspapers, as they were typically not intended for the general public and restricted to a certain range of topics.
History of British newspapers
The emergence of the new media in the 17th century has to be seen in
close connection with the spread of the printing press from which the
publishing press derives its name. The German-language Relation aller
Fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien , printed from 1605 onwards
Johann Carolus in
The Dutch Courante uyt Italien, Duytslandt, "> Diario de Pernambuco , founded in November 1825 is the second oldest circulating newspaper in South America, after El Peruano , founded in October of that same year.
In Boston in 1690, Benjamin Harris published Publick Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick . This is considered the first newspaper in the American colonies even though only one edition was published before the paper was suppressed by the government. In 1704, the governor allowed The Boston News-Letter to be published and it became the first continuously published newspaper in the colonies. Soon after, weekly papers began publishing in New York and Philadelphia. These early newspapers followed the British format and were usually four pages long. They mostly carried news from Britain and content depended on the editor's interests. In 1783, the Pennsylvania Evening Post became the first American daily.
John Bushell published the
Halifax Gazette , which claims to
be "Canada's first newspaper." However, its official descendant, the
Royal Gazette, is a government publication for legal notices and
proclamations rather than a proper newspaper; In 1764, the Quebec
Gazette was first printed 21 June 1764 and remains the oldest
continuously published newspaper in North America as the Quebec
Chronicle-Telegraph. It is currently published as an English-language
weekly from its offices at 1040 Belvédère, suite 218,
In 1821, after the ending of the ban of private newspaper
circulation, appears the first non-imperial printed publication,
Diário do Rio de Janeiro , though there existed already the Correio
Braziliense , published by Hipólito José da Costa at the same time
as the Gazeta, but from
The history of Middle Eastern newspapers goes back to the 19th century. Many editors were not only journalists but also writers, philosophers and politicians. With unofficial journals, these intellectuals encouraged public discourse on politics in the Ottoman and Persian Empires. Literary works of all genres were serialized and published in the press as well.
The first newspapers in the
The first non-official Turkish newspaper, Ceride-i Havadis (Register
of Events), was published by an Englishman, William Churchill, in
1840. The first private newspaper to be published by Turkish
journalists, Tercüman-ı Ahvâl (Interpreter of Events), was founded
İbrahim Şinasi and
Agah Efendi and issued in 1860. The first
newspaper in Iran, Kaghaz-e Akhbar (The Newspaper), was created for
the government by
Mirza Saleh Shirazi in 1837. The first journals in
By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North
and South America, published newspaper-type publications though not
all of them developed in the same way; content was vastly shaped by
regional and cultural preferences. Advances in printing technology
related to the
In 1830, the first inexpensive "penny press " newspaper came to the
market: Lynde M. Walter's Boston Transcript .
While most newspapers are aimed at a broad spectrum of readers, usually geographically defined, some focus on groups of readers defined more by their interests than their location: for example, there are daily and weekly business newspapers (e.g., The Wall Street Journal and India Today ) and sports newspapers. More specialist still are some weekly newspapers, usually free and distributed within limited regional areas; these may serve communities as specific as certain immigrant populations, the local gay community or indie rock enthusiasts within a city or region.
A DAILY NEWSPAPER is printed every day, sometimes with the exception
of Sundays and occasionally Saturdays, (and some major holidays) and
often of some national holidays . Saturday and, where they exist,
Sunday editions of daily newspapers tend to be larger, include more
specialized sections (e.g., on arts, films, entertainment) and
advertising inserts, and cost more. Typically, the majority of these
newspapers' staff members work Monday to Friday, so the
Afternoon or evening papers, once common but now scarce, are aimed
more at commuters and office workers. In practice (though this may
vary according to country), a morning newspaper is available in early
editions from before midnight on the night before its cover date ,
further editions being printed and distributed during the night. The
later editions can include breaking news which was first revealed that
day, after the morning edition was already printed. Previews of
tomorrow's newspapers are often a feature of late night news programs,
Newsnight in the
In the United Kingdom, unlike most other countries, "daily"
newspapers do not publish on Sundays. In the past there were
In some cases a
Daily newspapers are not published on
Weekly And Other
Main article: Weekly newspaper
Weekly newspapers are published once a week, and tend to be smaller than daily papers. Some newspapers are published two or three times a week and are known as biweekly publications. Some publications are published, for example, fortnightly (or bimonthly in American parlance). They have a change from normal weekly day of the week during the Christmas period depending the day of the week Christmas Day is falling on.
GEOGRAPHICAL SCOPE AND DISTRIBUTION
Local Or Regional
A LOCAL NEWSPAPER serves a region such as a city, or part of a large city. Almost every market has one or two newspapers that dominate the area. Large metropolitan newspapers often have large distribution networks, and can be found outside their normal area, sometimes widely, sometimes from fewer sources.
Most nations have at least one newspaper that circulates throughout
the whole country: a NATIONAL NEWSPAPER. Some national newspapers,
such as the
Financial Times and
The Wall Street Journal
There is also a small group of newspapers which may be characterized
as INTERNATIONAL NEWSPAPERS. Some, such as The New York Times
International Edition , (formerly The International Herald Tribune)
have always had that focus, while others are repackaged national
newspapers or "international editions" of national or large
metropolitan newspapers. In some cases, articles that might not
interest the wider range of readers are omitted from international
editions; in others, of interest to expatriates , significant national
news is retained. As English became the international language of
business and technology, many newspapers formerly published only in
non-English languages have also developed English-language editions.
In places as varied as
Similarly, in many countries with a large foreign-language-speaking
population or many tourists, newspapers in languages other than the
national language are both published locally and imported. For
example, newspapers and magazines from many countries, and locally
published newspapers in many languages , are readily to be found on
news-stands in central London. In the US state of
General newspapers cover all topics, with different emphasis. While at least mentioning all topics, some might have good coverage of international events of importance; others might concentrate more on national or local entertainment or sports. Specialised newspapers might concentrate more specifically on, for example, financial matters. There are publications covering exclusively sports, or certain sports, horse-racing, theatre, and so on, although they may no longer be called newspapers.
For centuries newspapers were printed on paper and supplied
physically to readers either by local distribution, or in some cases
by mail, for example for British expatriates living in India or Hong
Kong who subscribed to British newspapers.
Main article: Online newspaper
As of 2007, virtually all major printed newspapers have online
editions distributed over the
A new trend in newspaper publishing is the introduction of
personalization through on-demand printing technologies or with online
news aggregator websites like
The newspaper has been a part of our daily life for several
centuries. They have been a way for the public to be informed of
important events that are occurring around the world.
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL
The newsroom of Gazeta Lubuska in Zielona Góra , Poland
In the United States, the overall manager or chief executive of the newspaper is the publisher. In small newspapers, the owner of the publication (or the largest shareholder in the corporation that owns the publication) is usually the publisher. Although he or she rarely or perhaps never writes stories, the publisher is legally responsible for the contents of the entire newspaper and also runs the business, including hiring editors, reporters, and other staff members. This title is less common outside the U.S. The equivalent position in the film industry and television news shows is the executive producer. Most newspapers have four main departments devoted to publishing the newspaper itself—editorial, production/printing, circulation, and advertising, although they are frequently referred to by a variety of other names—as well as the non-newspaper-specific departments also found in other businesses of comparable size, such as accounting, marketing, human resources, and IT.
Throughout the English-speaking world, the person who selects the content for the newspaper is usually referred to as the editor. Variations on this title such as editor-in-chief, executive editor, and so on are common. For small newspapers, a single editor may be responsible for all content areas. At large newspapers, the most senior editor is in overall charge of the publication, while less senior editors may each focus on one subject area, such as local news or sports. These divisions are called news bureaus or "desks", and each is supervised by a designated editor. Most newspaper editors copy edit the stories for their part of the newspaper, but they may share their workload with proofreaders and fact checkers . A newsboy in 1905 selling the Toronto Telegram in Canada
Reporters are journalists who primarily report facts that they have
gathered and those who write longer, less news-oriented articles may
be called feature writers. Photographers and graphic artists provide
images and illustrations to support articles. Journalists often
specialize in a subject area, called a beat , such as sports,
religion, or science. Columnists are journalists who write regular
articles recounting their personal opinions and experiences. Printers
and press operators physically print the newspaper.
The staff of the circulation department liaise with retailers who sell the newspaper; sell subscriptions; and supervise distribution of the printed newspapers through the mail, by newspaper carriers , at retailers, and through vending machines. Free newspapers do not sell subscriptions, but they still have a circulation department responsible for distributing the newspapers. Sales staff in the advertising department not only sell ad space to clients such as local businesses, but also help clients design and plan their advertising campaigns. Other members of the advertising department may include graphic designers , who design ads according to the customers' specifications and the department's policies. In an advertising-free newspaper , there is no advertising department.
ZONED AND OTHER EDITIONS
See also Los Angeles Times suburban sections .
Yomiuri Shimbun , a broadsheet in Japan credited with having the largest newspaper circulation in the world
Most modern newspapers are in one of three sizes:
* Broadsheets : 600 mm × 380 mm (23½ × 15 inches), generally associated with more intellectual newspapers, although a trend towards "compact" newspapers is changing this. Examples include The Daily Telegraph in the United Kingdom.
* Tabloids : half the size of broadsheets at 380 mm × 300 mm (15 ×
11¾ inches), and often perceived as sensationalist in contrast to
broadsheets. Examples include The Sun ,
The National Enquirer , The
* "Microdaily" is infrequently used to refer to a tabloid -sized free daily newspaper that offers lower ad rates than its broadsheet competitors. The content of a microdaily can range from intense local news coverage to a combination of local and national stories.
* Berliner or Midi : 470 mm × 315 mm (18½ × 12¼ inches) used by
European papers such as
CIRCULATION AND READERSHIP
The number of copies distributed, either on an average day or on particular days (typically Sunday), is called the newspaper's circulation and is one of the principal factors used to set advertising rates. Circulation is not necessarily the same as copies sold, since some copies or newspapers are distributed without cost. Readership figures may be higher than circulation figures because many copies are read by more than one person, although this is offset by the number of copies distributed but not read (especially for those distributed free). In the United States, the Alliance for Audited Media maintains historical and current data on average circulation of daily and weekly newspapers and other periodicals.
According to the
Guinness Book of Records
While paid readership of print newspapers has been steadily declining
in the developed
A common measure of a newspaper's health is market penetration,
expressed as a percentage of households that receive a copy of the
newspaper against the total number of households in the paper's market
area. In the 1920s, on a national basis in the U.S., daily newspapers
achieved market penetration of 123 percent (meaning the average U.S.
household received 1.23 newspapers). As other media began to compete
with newspapers, and as printing became easier and less expensive
giving rise to a greater diversity of publications, market penetration
began to decline. It wasn't until the early 1970s, however, that
market penetration dipped below 100 percent. By 2000, it was 53
percent and still falling. Many paid-for newspapers offer a variety
of subscription plans. For example, someone might want only a Sunday
paper, or perhaps only
In recent years, the advertorial emerged. Advertorials are most commonly recognized as an opposite-editorial which third parties pay a fee to have included in the paper. Advertorials commonly advertise new products or techniques, such as a new design for golf equipment, a new form of laser surgery, or weight-loss drugs. The tone is usually closer to that of a press release than of an objective news story . Such articles are often clearly distinguished from editorial content through either the design and layout of the page or with a label declaring the article as an advertisement. However, there has been growing concern over the blurring of the line between editorial and advertorial content.
Since newspapers began as a journal (record of current events), the
profession involved in the making of newspapers began to be called
journalism. In the yellow journalism era of the 19th century, many
newspapers in the United States relied on sensational stories that
were meant to anger or excite the public, rather than to inform. The
restrained style of reporting that relies on fact checking and
accuracy regained popularity around
World War II
In the past, newspapers have often been owned by so-called press
barons , and were used for gaining a political voice. After 1920 most
major newspapers became parts of chains run by large media
corporations such as
Opinions of other writers and readers are expressed in the op-ed ("opposite the editorial page") and letters to the editors sections of the paper. Some ways newspapers have tried to improve their credibility are: appointing ombudsmen , developing ethics policies and training, using more stringent corrections policies, communicating their processes and rationale with readers, and asking sources to review articles after publication.
IMPACT OF TELEVISION AND INTERNET
By the late 1990s, the availability of news via 24-hour television
channels and then the availability of online journalism posed an
ongoing challenge to the business model of most newspapers in
developed countries. Paid circulation has declined, while advertising
revenue—which makes up the bulk of most newspapers' income—has
been shifting from print to the new media (social media websites and
news websites), resulting in a general decline in print newspapers'
revenues and profits. Many newspapers around the world launched online
editions in the 2000s, in an attempt to follow or stay ahead of their
audience. One of the big challenges is that a number of online news
websites, such as
On 10 April 1995, The American
Links: ------ /wiki/Periodical_literature