A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information
about current events.
Newspapers can cover wide variety of fields such as politics,
business, sport and art and often include materials such as opinion
columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, obituaries,
birth notices, crosswords, editorial cartoons, comic strips, and
Most newspapers are businesses, and they pay their expenses with a
mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, and advertising
revenue. The journalism organizations that publish newspapers are
themselves often metonymically called newspapers.
Newspapers have traditionally been published in print (usually on
cheap, low-grade paper called newsprint). However, today most
newspapers are also published on websites as online newspapers, and
some have even abandoned their print versions entirely.
Newspapers developed in the 17th century, as information sheets for
businessmen. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well
as North and South America, published newspapers.
Some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism
quality, and large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record.
2.1 Gazettes and bulletins
2.2.4 Middle East
2.3 Industrial Revolution
3.1.2 Weekly and other
3.2 Geographical scope and distribution
3.2.1 Local or regional
3.3 Subject matter
4 Organization and personnel
5 Zoned and other editions
7 Circulation and readership
10 Impact of television and Internet
11 See also
13 Further reading
14 External links
Newspapers are typically published daily or weekly.
News magazines are
also weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest
newspapers typically publish news articles and feature articles on
national and international news as well as local news. The news
includes political events and personalities, business and finance,
crime, weather, and natural disasters; health and medicine, science,
and computers and technology; sports; and entertainment, society, food
and cooking, clothing and home fashion, and the arts.
Usually the paper is divided into sections for each of those major
groupings (labeled A, B, C, and so on, with pagination prefixes
yielding page numbers A1-A20, B1-B20, C1-C20, and so on). Most
traditional papers also feature an editorial page containing
editorials written by an editor (or by the paper's editorial board)
and expressing an opinion on a public issue, opinion articles called
"op-eds" written by guest writers (which are typically in the same
section as the editorial), and columns that express the personal
opinions of columnists, usually offering analysis and synthesis that
attempts to translate the raw data of the news into information
telling the reader "what it all means" and persuading them to concur.
Papers also include articles which have no byline; these articles are
written by staff writers.
A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. Besides
the aforementioned news, information and opinions, they include
weather forecasts; criticism and reviews of the arts (including
literature, film, television, theater, fine arts, and architecture)
and of local services such as restaurants; obituaries, birth notices
and graduation announcements; entertainment features such as
crosswords, horoscopes, editorial cartoons, gag cartoons, and comic
strips; advice columns, food, and other columns; and radio and
television listings (program schedules). As of 2017, newspapers may
also provide information about new movies and TV shows available on
streaming video services like Netflix.
Newspapers have classified ad
sections where people and businesses can buy small advertisements to
sell goods or services; as of 2013, the huge increase in Internet
websites for selling goods, such as
Craigslist and eBay has led to
significantly less classified ad sales for newspapers.
Most newspapers are businesses, and they pay their expenses with a
mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, and advertising
revenue (other businesses or individuals pay to place advertisements
in the pages, including display ads, classified ads, and their online
equivalents). Some newspapers are government-run or at least
government-funded; their reliance on advertising revenue and on
profitability is less critical to their survival. The editorial
independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of
someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government. Some newspapers
with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, and large
circulation are viewed as newspapers of record.
Many newspapers, besides employing journalists on their own payrolls,
also subscribe to news agencies (wire services) (such as the
Associated Press, Reuters, or Agence France-Presse), which employ
journalists to find, assemble, and report the news, then sell the
content to the various newspapers. This is a way to avoid duplicating
the expense of reporting from around the world. Circa 2005, there were
approximately 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395
million print copies a day (in the U.S., 1,450 titles selling
55 million copies). The late 2000s–early 2010s global
recession, combined with the rapid growth of free web-based
alternatives, has helped cause a decline in advertising and
circulation, as many papers had to retrench operations to stanch the
losses. Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in
2005-7, then plunged during the worldwide financial crisis of 2008-9.
Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major
publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the
The decline in advertising revenues affected both the print and online
media as well as all other mediums; print advertising was once
lucrative but has greatly declined, and the prices of online
advertising are often lower than those of their print precursors.
Besides remodeling advertising, the internet (especially the web) has
also challenged the business models of the print-only era by
crowdsourcing both publishing in general (sharing information with
others) and, more specifically, journalism (the work of finding,
assembling, and reporting the news). In addition, the rise of news
aggregators, which bundle linked articles from many online newspapers
and other sources, influences the flow of web traffic. Increasing
paywalling of online newspapers may be counteracting those effects.
The oldest newspaper still published is the Ordinari Post Tijdender,
which was established in
Stockholm in 1645.
Newspapers typically meet four criteria:
Public accessibility: Its contents are reasonably accessible to the
public, traditionally by the paper being sold or distributed at
newsstands, shops, and libraries, and, since the 1990s, made available
Internet with online newspaper websites. While online
newspapers have increased access to newspapers by people with Internet
access, people without
Internet or computer access (e.g., homeless
people, impoverished people and people living in remote or rural
regions may not be able to access the Internet, and thus will not be
able to read online news).
Literacy is also a factor which prevents
people who cannot read from being able to benefit from reading
newspapers (paper or online).
Periodicity: They are published at regular intervals, typically daily
or weekly. This ensures that newspapers can provide information on
newly-emerging news stories or events.
Currency: Its information is as up to date as its publication schedule
allows. The degree of up-to-date-ness of a print newspaper is limited
by the need of time to print and distribute the newspaper. In major
cities, there may be a morning edition and a later edition of the same
day's paper, so that the later edition can incorporate breaking news
that have occurred since the morning edition was printed. Online
newspapers can be updated as frequently as new information becomes
available, even a number of times per day, which means that online
editions can be very up-to-date.
Newspapers covers a range of topics, from political and
business news to updates on science and technology, arts, culture, and
Gazettes and bulletins
In Ancient Rome, Acta Diurna, or government announcement bulletins,
were produced. They were carved in metal or stone and posted in public
places. In China, early government-produced news-sheets, called Dibao,
circulated among court officials during the late
Han dynasty (second
and third centuries AD). Between 713 and 734, the Kaiyuan Za Bao
("Bulletin of the Court") of the Chinese
Tang Dynasty published
government news; it was handwritten on silk and read by government
officials. In 1582, there was the first reference to privately
published newssheets in Beijing, during the late Ming Dynasty.
In early modern Europe, the increased cross-border interaction created
a rising need for information which was met by concise handwritten
news-sheets. In 1556, the government of Venice first published the
monthly notizie scritte, which cost one gazette, a small coin.
These avvisi were handwritten newsletters and used to convey
political, military, and economic news quickly and efficiently to
Italian cities (1500–1700)—sharing some characteristics of
newspapers though usually not considered true newspapers. However,
none of these publications fully met the classical criteria for proper
newspapers, as they were typically not intended for the general public
and restricted to a certain range of topics.
Main article: History of newspaper publishing
List of the earliest newspapers
List of the earliest newspapers and
See also: History of British newspapers
Title page of Carolus' Relation from 1609, the earliest newspaper
The emergence of the new media in the 17th century has to be seen in
close connection with the spread of the printing press from which the
publishing press derives its name. The German-language Relation
aller Fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien, printed from 1605
Johann Carolus in Strasbourg, is often recognized as the
first newspaper. At the time,
Strasbourg was a free imperial
city in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation; the first
newspaper of modern
Germany was the Avisa, published in 1609 in
The Dutch Courante uyt Italien, Duytslandt, &c. ('Courant from
Italy, Germany, etc.') of 1618 was the first to appear in folio-
rather than quarto-size. Amsterdam, a center of world trade, quickly
became home to newspapers in many languages, often before they were
published in their own country. The first English-language
newspaper, Corrant out of Italy, Germany, etc., was published in
Amsterdam in 1620. A year and a half later, Corante, or weekely newes
from Italy, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Bohemia, France and the Low
Countreys. was published in
England by an "N.B." (generally thought to
Nathaniel Butter or Nicholas Bourne) and Thomas Archer.
The first newspaper in France was published in 1631, La Gazette
(originally published as Gazette de France). The first newspaper in
Portugal, A Gazeta da Restauração, was published in 1641 in
Lisbon. The first Spanish newspaper, Gaceta de Madrid, was
published in 1661.
Post- och Inrikes Tidningar (founded as Ordinari Post Tijdender) was
first published in Sweden in 1645, and is the oldest newspaper still
in existence, though it now publishes solely online. Opregte
Haarlemsche Courant from Haarlem, first published in 1656, is the
oldest paper still printed. It was forced to merge with the newspaper
Haarlems Dagblad in 1942 when
Germany occupied the Netherlands. Since
Haarlems Dagblad has appeared with the subtitle Oprechte
Haerlemse Courant 1656.
Merkuriusz Polski Ordynaryjny
Merkuriusz Polski Ordynaryjny was published in
Kraków, Poland in 1661. The first successful English daily, The Daily
Courant, was published from 1702 to 1735.
See also: History of American newspapers
Diario de Pernambuco, founded in November 1825 is the second oldest
circulating newspaper in South America, after El Peruano, founded in
October of that same year.
In Boston in 1690, Benjamin Harris published Publick Occurrences Both
Forreign and Domestick. This is considered the first newspaper in the
American colonies even though only one edition was published before
the paper was suppressed by the government. In 1704, the governor
The Boston News-Letter
The Boston News-Letter to be published and it became the first
continuously published newspaper in the colonies. Soon after, weekly
papers began publishing in New York and Philadelphia. These early
newspapers followed the British format and were usually four pages
long. They mostly carried news from Britain and content depended on
the editor's interests. In 1783, the Pennsylvania Evening Post became
the first American daily. Yet, paper during this time was a scarce
textile to come by. As a result, many newspapers were published using
old rags, thus coining the term "colonial rags" as a nickname.
John Bushell published the Halifax Gazette, which claims to
be "Canada's first newspaper." However, its official descendant, the
Royal Gazette, is a government publication for legal notices and
proclamations rather than a proper newspaper; In 1764, the Quebec
Gazette was first printed 21 June 1764 and remains the oldest
continuously published newspaper in North America as the Quebec
Chronicle-Telegraph. It is currently published as an English-language
weekly from its offices at 1040 Belvédère, suite 218,
Quebec, Canada. In 1808, the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro had its
first edition, printed in devices brought from England, publishing
news favourable for the government of the
United Kingdom of Portugal,
Brazil and the Algarves since it was produced by the official press
service of the Portuguese crown.
In 1821, after the ending of the ban of private newspaper circulation,
appears the first non-imperial printed publication, Diário do Rio de
Janeiro, though there existed already the Correio Braziliense,
published by Hipólito José da Costa at the same time as the Gazeta,
London and with forcefully advocated political and critical
ideas, aiming to expose the administration's flaws. The first
newspaper in Peru was El Peruano, established in October 1825 and
still published today, but with several name changes.
Main articles: Print media in India, Japanese newspapers, and History
of Chinese newspapers
Tang Dynasty in China (618–906), the Kaiyuan Za Bao
published the government news; it was block-printed onto paper. It is
sometimes considered one of the earliest newspapers to be
published. The first recorded attempt to found a newspaper of the
modern type in South Asia was by William Bolts, a Dutchman in the
employ of the British East India Company in September 1768 in
Calcutta. However, before he could begin his newspaper, he was
deported back to Europe. A few years later, the first newsprint from
this region, Hicky's Bengal Gazette, was published by an Irishman,
James Augustus Hicky. He used it as a means to criticize the British
rule through journalism.
Main article: History of Middle Eastern newspapers
The history of Middle Eastern newspapers goes back to the 19th
century. Many editors were not only journalists but also writers,
philosophers and politicians. With unofficial journals, these
intellectuals encouraged public discourse on politics in the Ottoman
and Persian Empires. Literary works of all genres were serialized and
published in the press as well.
The first newspapers in the
Ottoman Empire were owned by foreigners
living there who wanted to make propaganda about the Western
world. The earliest was printed in 1795 by the Palais de France in
Pera. Indigenous Middle Eastern journalism started in 1828, when
Khedive of Egypt, ordered the local establishment of the
Vekayi-i Misriye (Egyptian Affairs). It was first paper
written in Ottoman Turkish and
Arabic on opposite pages, and later in
Arabic only, under the title "al-Waqa'i'a al-Masriya".
The first non-official Turkish newspaper, Ceride-i Havadis (Register
of Events), was published by an Englishman, William Churchill, in
1840. The first private newspaper to be published by Turkish
journalists, Tercüman-ı Ahvâl (Interpreter of Events), was founded
İbrahim Şinasi and
Agah Efendi and issued in 1860. The first
newspaper in Iran, Kaghaz-e Akhbar (The Newspaper), was created for
the government by
Mirza Saleh Shirazi in 1837. The first journals
Arabian Peninsula appeared in Hijaz, once it had become
independent of Ottoman rule, towards the end of World War I.One of the
earliest women to sign her articles in the Arab press was the female
medical practitioner Galila Tamarhan, who contributed articles to a
medical magazine called "Ya'asub al-Tib" (Leader in Medicine) in the
By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and
South America, published newspaper-type publications though not all of
them developed in the same way; content was vastly shaped by regional
and cultural preferences. Advances in printing technology related
Industrial Revolution enabled newspapers to become an even more
widely circulated means of communication, as new printing technologies
made printing less expensive and more efficient. In 1814, The Times
(London) acquired a printing press capable of making 1,100 impressions
per hour. Soon, this press was adapted to print on both sides of a
page at once. This innovation made newspapers cheaper and thus
available to a larger part of the population.
In 1830, the first inexpensive "penny press" newspaper came to the
market: Lynde M. Walter's Boston Transcript.
Penny press papers
cost about one sixth the price of other newspapers and appealed to a
wider audience, including less educated and lower-income people.
Émile de Girardin
Émile de Girardin started "La Presse" in 1836, introducing
cheap, advertising-supported dailies to France. In 1848, August Zang,
an Austrian who knew Girardin in Paris, returned to Vienna to
introduce the same methods with "Die Presse" (which was named for and
frankly copied Girardin's publication).
While most newspapers are aimed at a broad spectrum of readers,
usually geographically defined, some focus on groups of readers
defined more by their interests than their location: for example,
there are daily and weekly business newspapers (e.g., The Wall Street
Journal and India Today) and sports newspapers. More specialist still
are some weekly newspapers, usually free and distributed within
limited regional areas; these may serve communities as specific as
certain immigrant populations, the local gay community or indie rock
enthusiasts within a city or region.
A daily newspaper is printed every day, sometimes with the exception
of Sundays and occasionally Saturdays, (and some major holidays)
and often of some national holidays. Saturday and, where they exist,
Sunday editions of daily newspapers tend to be larger, include more
specialized sections (e.g., on arts, films, entertainment) and
advertising inserts, and cost more. Typically, the majority of these
newspapers' staff members work Monday to Friday, so the Sunday and
Monday editions largely depend on content done in advance or content
that is syndicated. Most daily newspapers are sold in the morning.
Afternoon or evening papers, once common but now scarce, are aimed
more at commuters and office workers. In practice (though this may
vary according to country), a morning newspaper is available in early
editions from before midnight on the night before its cover date,
further editions being printed and distributed during the night. The
later editions can include breaking news which was first revealed that
day, after the morning edition was already printed. Previews of
tomorrow's newspapers are often a feature of late night news programs,
Newsnight in the United Kingdom. In 1650, the first daily
newspaper appeared, Einkommende Zeitung, published by Timotheus
Ritzsch in Leipzig, Germany.
In the United Kingdom, unlike most other countries, "daily" newspapers
do not publish on Sundays. In the past there were independent Sunday
newspapers; nowadays the same publisher often produces a Sunday
newspaper, distinct in many ways from the daily, usually with a
related name; e.g.,
The Times and
The Sunday Times
The Sunday Times are distinct
newspapers owned by the same company, and an article published in the
latter would never be credited to The Times.
In some cases a Sunday edition is an expanded version of a newspaper
from the same publisher; in other cases, particularly in Britain, it
may be a separate enterprise, e.g., The Observer, not affiliated with
a daily newspaper from its founding in 1791 until it was acquired by
The Guardian in 1993. Usually, it is a specially expanded edition,
often several times the thickness and weight of the weekday editions
and contain generally special sections not found in the weekday
editions, such as Sunday comics, Sunday magazines (such as The New
The Sunday Times
The Sunday Times Magazine).
Daily newspapers are not published on Christmas Day, but weekly
newspapers would change their day e.g. Sunday newspapers are published
on Saturday December 24th,
Christmas Eve when
Christmas Day is falling
Weekly and other
Main article: Weekly newspaper
Weekly newspapers are published once a week, and tend to be smaller
than daily papers. Some newspapers are published two or three times a
week and are known as biweekly publications. Some publications are
published, for example, fortnightly (or bimonthly in American
parlance). They have a change from normal weekly day of the week
during the Christmas period depending the day of the week Christmas
Day is falling on.
Geographical scope and distribution
Local or regional
A local newspaper serves a region such as a city, or part of a large
city. Almost every market has one or two newspapers that dominate the
area. Large metropolitan newspapers often have large distribution
networks, and can be found outside their normal area, sometimes
widely, sometimes from fewer sources.
Newspaper stand in
Most nations have at least one newspaper that circulates throughout
the whole country: a national newspaper. Some national newspapers,
such as the
Financial Times and The Wall Street Journal, are
specialised (in these examples, on financial matters). There are many
national newspapers in the United Kingdom, but only a few in the
United States and Canada. In Canada,
The Globe and Mail
The Globe and Mail is sold
throughout the country. In the United States, in addition to national
newspapers as such,
The New York Times
The New York Times is available throughout the
International newspapers on sale in Paris, France
There is also a small group of newspapers which may be characterized
as international newspapers. Some, such as The New York Times
International Edition, (formerly The International Herald Tribune)
have always had that focus, while others are repackaged national
newspapers or "international editions" of national or large
metropolitan newspapers. In some cases, articles that might not
interest the wider range of readers are omitted from international
editions; in others, of interest to expatriates, significant national
news is retained. As English became the international language of
business and technology, many newspapers formerly published only in
non-English languages have also developed English-language editions.
In places as varied as
Jerusalem and Mumbai, newspapers are printed
for a local and international English-speaking public, and for
tourists. The advent of the
Internet has also allowed
non-English-language newspapers to put out a scaled-down English
version to give their newspaper a global outreach.
Similarly, in many countries with a large foreign-language-speaking
population or many tourists, newspapers in languages other than the
national language are both published locally and imported. For
example, newspapers and magazines from many countries, and locally
published newspapers in many languages, are readily to be found on
news-stands in central London. In the US state of Florida, so many
tourists from the French-speaking Canadian province of
for long stays during the winter ("snowbirds") that some newsstands
and stores sell French-language newspapers such as Le Droit.
General newspapers cover all topics, with different emphasis. While at
least mentioning all topics, some might have good coverage of
international events of importance; others might concentrate more on
national or local entertainment or sports. Specialised newspapers
might concentrate more specifically on, for example, financial
matters. There are publications covering exclusively sports, or
certain sports, horse-racing, theatre, and so on, although they may no
longer be called newspapers.
Soldiers in an East German tank unit reading about the erection of the
Berlin Wall in 1961 in the newspaper Neues Deutschland
For centuries newspapers were printed on paper and supplied physically
to readers either by local distribution, or in some cases by mail, for
example for British expatriates living in India or Hong Kong who
subscribed to British newspapers.
Newspapers can be delivered to
subscribers homes and/or businesses by a paper's own delivery people,
sent via the mail, sold at newsstands, grocery stores and convenience
stores, and delivered to libraries and bookstores. Newspaper
organizations need a large distribution system to deliver their papers
to these different distributors, which typically involves delivery
trucks and delivery people. In recent years, newspapers and other
media have adapted to the changing technology environment by starting
to offer online editions to cater to the needs of the public. In the
future, the trend towards more electronic delivery of the news will
continue with more emphasis on the Internet, social media and other
electronic delivery methods. However, while the method of delivery is
changing, the newspaper and the industry still has a niche in the
Main article: Online newspaper
As of 2007, virtually all major printed newspapers have online
editions distributed over the
Internet which, depending on the country
may be regulated by journalism organizations such as the Press
Complaints Commission in the UK. But as some publishers find their
print-based models increasingly unsustainable,
Web-based "newspapers" have also started to appear, such as the
Southport Reporter in the UK and the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, which
stopped publishing in print after 149 years in March 2009 and became
an online only paper.
A new trend in newspaper publishing is the introduction of
personalization through on-demand printing technologies or with online
news aggregator websites like Google news. Customized newspapers allow
the reader to create their individual newspaper through the selection
of individual pages from multiple publications. This "Best of"
approach allows revival of the print-based model and opens up a new
distribution channel to increase coverage beneath the usual boundaries
of distribution. Customized newspapers online have been offered by
MyYahoo, I-Google, CRAYON, ICurrent.com, Kibboko.com, Twitter.times
and many others. With these online newspapers, the reader can select
how much of each section (politics, sports, arts, etc.) they wish to
see in their news.
The newspaper has been a part of our daily life for several centuries.
They have been a way for the public to be informed of important events
that are occurring around the world.
Newspapers have undergone
dramatic changes over the course of history. Some of the earliest
newspapers date back to
Ancient Rome where important announcements
were carved in stone tablets and placed in highly populated areas
where citizens could be informed of the announcements.
Organization and personnel
The newsroom of Gazeta Lubuska in Zielona Góra, Poland
In the United States, the overall manager or chief executive of the
newspaper is the publisher. In small newspapers, the owner of the
publication (or the largest shareholder in the corporation that owns
the publication) is usually the publisher. Although he or she rarely
or perhaps never writes stories, the publisher is legally responsible
for the contents of the entire newspaper and also runs the business,
including hiring editors, reporters, and other staff members. This
title is less common outside the U.S. The equivalent position in the
film industry and television news shows is the executive
producer. Most newspapers have four main departments
devoted to publishing the newspaper itself—editorial,
production/printing, circulation, and advertising, although they are
frequently referred to by a variety of other names—as well as the
non-newspaper-specific departments also found in other businesses of
comparable size, such as accounting, marketing, human resources, and
Throughout the English-speaking world, the person who selects the
content for the newspaper is usually referred to as the editor.
Variations on this title such as editor-in-chief, executive editor,
and so on are common. For small newspapers, a single editor may be
responsible for all content areas. At large newspapers, the most
senior editor is in overall charge of the publication, while less
senior editors may each focus on one subject area, such as local news
or sports. These divisions are called news bureaus or "desks", and
each is supervised by a designated editor. Most newspaper editors copy
edit the stories for their part of the newspaper, but they may share
their workload with proofreaders and fact checkers.
A newsboy in 1905 selling the
Toronto Telegram in Canada
Reporters are journalists who primarily report facts that they have
gathered and those who write longer, less news-oriented articles may
be called feature writers. Photographers and graphic artists provide
images and illustrations to support articles. Journalists often
specialize in a subject area, called a beat, such as sports, religion,
or science. Columnists are journalists who write regular articles
recounting their personal opinions and experiences. Printers and press
operators physically print the newspaper.
Printing is outsourced by
many newspapers, partly because of the cost of an offset web press
(the most common kind of press used to print newspapers) and also
because a small newspaper's print run might require less than an hour
of operation, meaning that if the newspaper had its own press it would
sit idle most of the time. If the newspaper offers information online,
webmasters and web designers may be employed to upload stories to the
The staff of the circulation department liaise with retailers who sell
the newspaper; sell subscriptions; and supervise distribution of the
printed newspapers through the mail, by newspaper carriers, at
retailers, and through vending machines.
Free newspapers do not sell
subscriptions, but they still have a circulation department
responsible for distributing the newspapers. Sales staff in the
advertising department not only sell ad space to clients such as local
businesses, but also help clients design and plan their advertising
campaigns. Other members of the advertising department may include
graphic designers, who design ads according to the customers'
specifications and the department's policies. In an advertising-free
newspaper, there is no advertising department.
Zoned and other editions
Israeli daily newspaper Haaretz, seen in its
Hebrew and English
Newspapers often refine distribution of ads and news through zoning
and editioning. Zoning occurs when advertising and editorial content
change to reflect the location to which the product is delivered. The
editorial content often may change merely to reflect changes in
advertising—the quantity and layout of which affects the space
available for editorial—or may contain region-specific news. In rare
instances, the advertising may not change from one zone to another,
but there will be different region-specific editorial content. As the
content can vary widely, zoned editions are often produced in
parallel. Editioning occurs in the main sections as news is updated
throughout the night. The advertising is usually the same in each
edition (with the exception of zoned regionals, in which it is often
the 'B' section of local news that undergoes advertising changes). As
each edition represents the latest news available for the next press
run, these editions are produced linearly, with one completed edition
being copied and updated for the next edition. The previous edition is
always copied to maintain a
Newspaper of Record and to fall back on if
a quick correction is needed for the press. For example, both The New
York Times and
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal offer a regional edition,
printed through a local contractor, and featuring locale specific
content. The Journal's global advertising rate card provides a good
example of editioning.
See also Los Angeles Times suburban sections.
Yomiuri Shimbun, a broadsheet in Japan credited with having the
largest newspaper circulation in the world
Most modern newspapers are in one of three sizes:
Broadsheets: 600 mm × 380 mm (23½ × 15 inches),
generally associated with more intellectual newspapers, although a
trend towards "compact" newspapers is changing this. Examples include
The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph in the United Kingdom.
Tabloids: half the size of broadsheets at 380 mm × 300 mm
(15 × 11¾ inches), and often perceived as sensationalist in contrast
to broadsheets. Examples include The Sun, The
National Enquirer, The Star Magazine, New York Post, the Chicago
Sun-Times, The Princely State, The Globe.
"Microdaily" is infrequently used to refer to a tabloid-sized free
daily newspaper that offers lower ad rates than its broadsheet
competitors. The content of a microdaily can range from intense local
news coverage to a combination of local and national stories.
Berliner or Midi: 470 mm × 315 mm (18½ × 12¼ inches)
used by European papers such as
Le Monde in France,
La Stampa in
El País in Spain and, from 2005 until 2018,
The Guardian in
the United Kingdom.
Newspapers are usually printed on cheap, off-white paper known as
newsprint. Since the 1980s, the newspaper industry has largely moved
away from lower-quality letterpress printing to higher-quality,
four-color process, offset printing. In addition, desktop computers,
word processing software, graphics software, digital cameras and
digital prepress and typesetting technologies have revolutionized the
newspaper production process. These technologies have enabled
newspapers to publish color photographs and graphics, as well as
innovative layouts and better design. To help their titles stand out
on newsstands, some newspapers are printed on coloured newsprint. For
Financial Times is printed on a distinctive salmon pink
paper, and Sheffield's weekly sports publication derives its name, the
Green 'Un, from the traditional colour of its paper. The Italian
La Gazzetta dello Sport
La Gazzetta dello Sport is also printed on pink paper
L'Équipe (formerly L'Auto) is printed on yellow paper. Both the
latter promoted major cycling races and their newsprint colours were
reflected in the colours of the jerseys used to denote the race
leader; for example the leader in the
Giro d'Italia wears a pink
Circulation and readership
Main articles: List of newspapers in the World by circulation,
Newspaper circulation, and Ageing of newspaper readership
Newspaper vendor, Paddington, London, February 2005
The number of copies distributed, either on an average day or on
particular days (typically Sunday), is called the newspaper's
circulation and is one of the principal factors used to set
advertising rates. Circulation is not necessarily the same as copies
sold, since some copies or newspapers are distributed without cost.
Readership figures may be higher than circulation figures because many
copies are read by more than one person, although this is offset by
the number of copies distributed but not read (especially for those
distributed free). In the United States, the Alliance for Audited
Media maintains historical and current data on average circulation of
daily and weekly newspapers and other periodicals.
According to the Guinness
Book of Records, the daily circulation of
the Soviet newspaper Trud exceeded 21,500,000 in 1990, while the
Argumenty i Fakty
Argumenty i Fakty boasted a circulation of 33,500,000 in
1991. According to United Nations data from 1995 Japan has three daily
papers—the Yomiuri Shimbun, Asahi Shimbun, and Mainichi
Shimbun—with circulations well above 5.5 million. Germany's
Bild, with a circulation of 3.8 million, was the only other paper
in that category. In the United Kingdom, The Sun is the top seller,
with around 3.24 million copies distributed daily. In the U.S.,
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal has a daily circulation of approximately
2.02 million, making it the most widely distributed paper in the
While paid readership of print newspapers has been steadily declining
in the developed
OECD nations, it has been rising in the chief
developing nations (Brazil, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa),
whose paid daily circulation exceeded those of the developed nations
for the first time in 2008. In India,
The Times of India is
the largest-circulation English newspaper, with 3.14 million
copies daily. According to the 2009 Indian Readership Survey, the
Dainik Jagran is the most-read, local-language (Hindi) newspaper, with
55.7 million readers. According to
Tom Standage of The
Economist, India currently has daily newspaper circulation of 110
Buying a newspaper
A common measure of a newspaper's health is market penetration,
expressed as a percentage of households that receive a copy of the
newspaper against the total number of households in the paper's market
area. In the 1920s, on a national basis in the U.S., daily newspapers
achieved market penetration of 123 percent (meaning the average U.S.
household received 1.23 newspapers). As other media began to compete
with newspapers, and as printing became easier and less expensive
giving rise to a greater diversity of publications, market penetration
began to decline. It wasn't until the early 1970s, however, that
market penetration dipped below 100 percent. By 2000, it was 53
percent and still falling. Many paid-for newspapers offer a
variety of subscription plans. For example, someone might want only a
Sunday paper, or perhaps only Sunday and Saturday, or maybe only a
workweek subscription, or perhaps a daily subscription. Most
newspapers provide some or all of their content on the Internet,
either at no cost or for a fee. In some cases, free access is
available only for a matter of days or weeks, or for a certain number
of viewed articles, after which readers must register and provide
personal data. In other cases, free archives are provided.
1938 Dutch newspaper advertisement for women's clothing sold at
A newspaper typically generates 70–80% of its revenue from
advertising, and the remainder from sales and subscriptions. The
portion of the newspaper that is not advertising is called editorial
content, editorial matter, or simply editorial, although the last term
is also used to refer specifically to those articles in which the
newspaper and its guest writers express their opinions. (This
distinction, however, developed over time – early publishers
like Girardin (France) and Zang (Austria) did not always distinguish
paid items from editorial content.). The business model of having
advertising subsidize the cost of printing and distributing newspapers
(and, it is always hoped, the making of a profit) rather than having
subscribers cover the full cost was first done, it seems, in 1833 by
The Sun, a daily paper that was published in New York City. Rather
than charging 6 cents per copy, the price of a typical New York daily
at the time, they charged 1-cent, and depended on advertising to make
up the difference.
Advertising Revenue -
Newspaper Association of America
Newspapers in countries with easy access to the web have been hurt by
the decline of many traditional advertisers. Department stores and
supermarkets could be relied upon in the past to buy pages of
newspaper advertisements, but due to industry consolidation are much
less likely to do so now. Additionally, newspapers are seeing
traditional advertisers shift to new media platforms. The classified
category is shifting to sites including Craigslist, employment
websites, and auto sites. National advertisers are shifting to many
types of digital content including websites, rich media platforms, and
In recent years, the advertorial emerged. Advertorials are most
commonly recognized as an opposite-editorial which third parties pay a
fee to have included in the paper. Advertorials commonly advertise new
products or techniques, such as a new design for golf equipment, a new
form of laser surgery, or weight-loss drugs. The tone is usually
closer to that of a press release than of an objective news story.
Such articles are often clearly distinguished from editorial content
through either the design and layout of the page or with a label
declaring the article as an advertisement. However, there has been
growing concern over the blurring of the line between editorial and
Main article: Journalism
The editorial staff of newspaper "Severnyi Kray" in Yaroslavl, Russia
Since newspapers began as a journal (record of current events), the
profession involved in the making of newspapers began to be called
journalism. In the yellow journalism era of the 19th century, many
newspapers in the United States relied on sensational stories that
were meant to anger or excite the public, rather than to inform. The
restrained style of reporting that relies on fact checking and
accuracy regained popularity around World War II. Criticism of
journalism is varied and sometimes vehement. Credibility is questioned
because of anonymous sources; errors in facts, spelling, and grammar;
real or perceived bias; and scandals involving plagiarism and
In the past, newspapers have often been owned by so-called press
barons, and were used for gaining a political voice. After 1920 most
major newspapers became parts of chains run by large media
corporations such as Gannett, The McClatchy Company, Hearst
Corporation, Cox Enterprises, Landmark Media Enterprises LLC, Morris
Communications, The Tribune Company, Hollinger International, News
Corporation, Swift Communications, etc.
Newspapers have, in the modern
world, played an important role in the exercise of freedom of
expression. Whistle-blowers, and those who "leak" stories of
corruption in political circles often choose to inform newspapers
before other mediums of communication, relying on the perceived
willingness of newspaper editors to expose the secrets and lies of
those who would rather cover them. However, there have been many
circumstances of the political autonomy of newspapers being curtailed.
Recent research has examined the effects of a newspaper's closing on
the reelection of incumbents, voter turnout, and campaign
Opinions of other writers and readers are expressed in the op-ed
("opposite the editorial page") and letters to the editors sections of
the paper. Some ways newspapers have tried to improve their
credibility are: appointing ombudsmen, developing ethics policies and
training, using more stringent corrections policies, communicating
their processes and rationale with readers, and asking sources to
review articles after publication.
Impact of television and Internet
Main article: Future of newspapers
Further information: Online newspapers
Newspaper press in Limoges, France
By the late 1990s, the availability of news via 24-hour television
channels and then the availability of online journalism posed an
ongoing challenge to the business model of most newspapers in
developed countries. Paid circulation has declined, while advertising
revenue—which makes up the bulk of most newspapers' income—has
been shifting from print to the new media (social media websites and
news websites), resulting in a general decline in print newspapers'
revenues and profits. Many newspapers around the world launched online
editions in the 2000s, in an attempt to follow or stay ahead of their
audience. One of the big challenges is that a number of online news
websites, such as Google news, are free to access. Some online news
sites are free, and rely on online advertising; other online news
sites have a paywall and require paid subscription for access.
However, in the non-developed countries, cheaper printing and
distribution, increased literacy, the growing middle class and other
factors have more than compensated for the emergence of electronic
media and newspapers continue to grow.
On 10 April 1995, The American
Reporter became the first daily
Internet-based newspaper, with its own paid reporters around the world
and all-original content. The editor-in-chief and founder is Joe Shea.
The site is owned by 400 journalists. The future of newspapers in
countries with high levels of
Internet access has been widely debated
as the industry has faced down soaring newsprint prices, slumping ad
sales, the loss of much classified advertising to Craigslist, eBay and
other websites, and precipitous drops in circulation. In the late
1990s the number of newspapers slated for closure, bankruptcy or
severe cutbacks has risen—especially in the United States, where the
industry has shed a fifth of its journalists since 2001. Revenue
has plunged while competition from internet media has squeezed older
The debate has become more urgent lately, as the 2008-2009 recession
shaved newspapers' profits, and as once-explosive growth in newspaper
web revenues has leveled off, forestalling what the industry hoped
would become an important source of revenue. At issue is whether
the newspaper industry faces a cyclical trough (or dip), or whether
new technology has rendered print newspapers obsolete, at least in
their traditional paper format. As of 2017, an increasing percentage
of Millennials (young adults) get their news from social media
websites such as Facebook. In the 2010s, many traditional newspapers
have begun offering "digital editions", which can be accessed via
desktop computer, laptops, and mobile devices such as tablet computers
Online newspapers may offer new advertising
opportunities to newspaper companies, as online advertising enables
much more precise targeting of ads; with an online newspaper, for
example, different readers, such as Baby boomers and Millennials can
be sent different advertisements.
List of newspaper comic strips
Lists of newspapers
^ "''A Daily Miracle: A student guide to journalism and the newspaper
business'' (2007)" (PDF). Retrieved 21 May 2012.
^ Plambeck, Joseph (26 April 2010). "
Newspaper Circulation Falls
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^ Suzanne Vranica and Jack Marshall, "Plummeting
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^ Werner Faulstich: "Grundwissen Medien", 4th ed., ya UTB, 2000,
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^ Margarete Rehm (25 April 2000). "Margarete Rehm: Information und
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^ Brook, Timothy. (1998). The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and
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^ Infelise, Mario. "Roman Avvisi: Information and Politics in the
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^ Weber, Johannes (2006). "Strassburg, 1605: The Origins of the
Newspaper in Europe". German History. 24 (3): 387–412 (387).
At the same time, then as the printing press in the physical
technological sense was invented, 'the press' in the extended sense of
the word also entered the historical stage. The phenomenon of
publishing was now born.
^ "Weber, Johannes: Straßburg 1605: Die Geburt der Zeitung, in:
Jahrbuch für Kommunikationsgeschichte, Vol. 7 (2005), S. 3–27"
(PDF) (in German). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 April
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^ a b Stephens, Mitchell. "History of Newspapers". Nyu.edu. Retrieved
21 May 2012.
^ "Concise History of the British
Newspaper in the Seventeenth
^ "Biblioteca Nacional Digital – Gazeta..., Em Lisboa,
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^ Concise History of the British
Newspaper in the Eighteenth
^ "Benjamin Towne: The Precarious Career of a Persistent Printer".
Magazine of History and Biography. 89 (3). July
^ "Textiles and Independence in Colonial America"
^ Novo Milênio: MNDLP - Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, de 1808
^ Norman, Jeremy. "One of the Earliest Newspapers, Written on Silk".
historyofinformation.com. Jeremy Norman & Co., Inc. Retrieved 3
^ "Exclusive: Corrupt system and media". Zee News. 4 April 2014.
Retrieved 3 January 2015.
^ Stavrianos, p. 211.
^ E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936,
^ Tripp (ed.), p. 2; Amin, Fortna & Frierson, p. 99; Hill,
^ Ágoston & Masters, p. 433.
^ Camron Michael Amin (2014). "The Press and Public Diplomacy in Iran,
1820–1940". Iranian Studies. doi:10.1080/00210862.2013.871145.
Retrieved 2 October 2014.
^ Sakr, p. 40.
^ "Newspaper – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com.
Retrieved 21 February 2012.
^ Philip B. Meggs, A History of Graphic Design (1998) pp 130–133
^ David R. Spencer, The Yellow
Journalism (2007) p. 22.
^ Bird, S. Elizabeth. For Enquiring Minds: A Cultural Study of
Supermarket Tabloids. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1992:
^ Wurzbach, C. (1891). Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums
Oesterreich, enthaltend die Lebensskizzen der denkwürdigen Personen,
welche seit 1750 in den österreichischen Kronländern geboren wurden
oder darin gelebt und gewirkt haben, (162–165); Jim Chevallier,
August Zang and the French Croissant: How Viennoiserie Came to
France", p. 3–30; Diepresse.com Article in "Die Presse" on its
^ Example of Monday to Friday-only publishing: the
Standard, once a paid newspaper, now free-of-charge, aimed largely at
commuters, does not publish on Saturdays
^ Johannes Weber, . "Strassburg, 1605: The origins of the newspaper in
Europe." German History 24.3 (2006): 387-412.
^ Herszenhorn, David (29 August 2001). "Ask a Reporter".
global.nytimes.com. Retrieved 23 January 2015. As of January of this
year , the national editions of
The Times were being printed at
19 different locations across the United States and home delivery was
available in 195 markets throughout the country.
Journalism Magazine". Journalism.co.uk. 19 January 2007. Retrieved
21 February 2012.
^ Bureau of Labor Statistics (17 December 2009). "Career Guide to
Industries, 2010–11 Edition: Publishing, Except Software". U.S.
Department of Labor. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
^ "WSJ Advertising: Rates". Advertising.wsj.com. Archived from the
original on 29 October 2008. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
^ See K.G. Barnhurst and J. Nerone, The Form of News, A History (2001)
for an overview of newspaper form from the late 17th to late 20th
^ Liedtke, Michael (26 October 2009). "
Newspaper circulation drop
accelerates April–Sept". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 26 October
OECD Working Party on the Information Economy (11 June 2010). "The
evolution of news and the internet" (PDF). Retrieved 14 July
2011. "Growth in the BIICS countries by about 35% from 2000 to
2008 very much contributed to this growth, most notably India with a
45% increase in circulation between 2000 and 2008, South Africa (34%)
and China (an estimated 29%). Gains are not only occurring there but
also in other countries and continents, including Africa and South
America." p. 24
^ "Hindi Newspaper". Dainik Jagran. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
^ "Dailies add 12.6 million readers". NRS Chennai. 29 August
2009. Archived from the original on 16 January 2008.
^ Standage, Tom (13 July 2011). "The
Kojo Nnamdi Show" (Interview).
Interview with Kojo Nnamdi. Washington, D.C.: WAMU.
access-date= requires url= (help) See also Print media in
^ "Newspapers: Audience – State of the Media 2004".
^ Mensing, Donica (Spring 2007). "Online Revenue Business Model Has
Changed Little Since 1996".
Newspaper Research Journal.
^ "Reinventing the newspaper". The Economist. 7 July 2011. Retrieved
13 July 2011.
^ "Trends & Numbers".
Newspaper Association of America. 14 March
2012. Archived from the original on 18 September 2012. Retrieved 18
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^ Frédéric, Filloux (16 May 2011). "Dangerous blend: how lines
between editorial and advertising are blurring". The Guardian.
Retrieved 5 October 2014.
^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, Do
Newspapers Matter?, 2011
^ N. Ram,
Newspaper futures: India and the world, 15 August 2007, The
^ J.D. Lasica, "Net Gain", American
Journalism Review, Vol. 18,
^ a b Saba, Jennifer (16 March 2009). "Specifics on
News Media' Report". Editor & Publisher. Retrieved 17
^ Clifford, Stephanie (12 October 2008). "Newspapers' Web Revenue is
Stalling". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 April 2010.
Willings Press Guide (134th ed. 3 vol. 2010), comprehensive guide to
world press. Vol 1 UK, Vol 2 Europe and Vol 3 World.
Editor and Publisher International Year
Book (90th ed. 2009),
comprehensive guide to American newspapers
Kevin G. Barnhurst, and John Nerone. The Form of News, A History
(2001) excerpt and text search
Conley, David, and Stephen Lamble. The Daily Miracle: An Introduction
Journalism (3rd ed. 2006), 518pp; global viewpoint
Harrower, Tim. The
Newspaper Designer's Handbook (6th ed. 2007)
excerpt and text search
Jones, Alex. Losing the News: The Future of the
News That Feeds
Sousa, Jorge Pedro Sousa (Coord.); Maria do Carmo Castelo Branco;
Mário Pinto; Sandra Tuna; Gabriel Silva; Eduardo Zilles Borba;
Mônica Delicato; Carlos Duarte; Nair Silva; Patrícia Teixeira. A
Gazeta "da Restauração": Primeiro Periódico Português. Uma
análise do discurso VOL. II — Reproduções(2011)
Walravens, Hartmut, ed.
Newspapers in Central And Eastern Europe
Williams, Kevin. Read All About It!: A History of the British
Newspaper (2009) excerpt and text search
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Newspaper
Look up newspaper in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Newspapers.
"Newspaper". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.
NewsTornado – Worldwide
Newspaper Circulation Map
Print Culture at A History of Central
Chart – Real and Fake
News (2016)/Vanessa Otero (basis) (Mark
Chart – Real and Fake
News (2014) (2016)/Pew Research Center
Newspapercat – University of
Florida Historical Digital
Newspaper Catalog Collection
Historical newspapers from 1700s–Present : Newspapers.com
Historical newspaper database, from NewspaperARCHIVE.com
More than 8m pages of Historic European newspapers Free
Chronicling America: Historic American
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