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New Jersey
Jersey
is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States. It is a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York; on the east, southeast, and south by the Atlantic Ocean; on the west by the Delaware River
Delaware River
and Pennsylvania; and on the southwest by the Delaware Bay
Delaware Bay
and Delaware. New Jersey
Jersey
is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017,[20] and the most densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. New Jersey
Jersey
lies entirely within the combined statistical areas of New York City
New York City
and Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and is the third-wealthiest state by median household income as of 2016.[21] New Jersey
Jersey
was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape
Lenape
along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes made the first European settlements in the state.[22] The English later seized control of the region,[23] naming it the Province of New Jersey
Province of New Jersey
after the largest of the Channel Islands, Jersey,[24] and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret
Sir George Carteret
and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton. New Jersey
Jersey
was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities (known as the "Big Six"[25]), Camden, Paterson, Newark, Trenton, Jersey
Jersey
City, and Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston
Boston
and New York City to the northeast, and Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C., to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state,[26][27] with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008.[28]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Colonial era 1.2 Revolutionary War era 1.3 19th century 1.4 20th century 1.5 21st century

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Demographics

3.1 State population 3.2 Birth data 3.3 Languages 3.4 Religion 3.5 Settlements 3.6 Wealth

4 Economy

4.1 Affluence 4.2 Fiscal policy 4.3 Federal taxation disparity 4.4 Industries

4.4.1 Tourism 4.4.2 Gambling

4.5 Natural resources

5 Education 6 Media and communication

6.1 Newspapers 6.2 Online news 6.3 Radio stations 6.4 Television and film

7 Transportation

7.1 Roadways 7.2 Airports 7.3 Rail and bus 7.4 Ferries 7.5 Private bus carriers

8 Governance

8.1 Executive 8.2 Legislative 8.3 Judicial 8.4 Counties 8.5 Municipalities

8.5.1 Forms of municipal government

8.6 Politics

8.6.1 Social attitudes and issues 8.6.2 Elections 8.6.3 Capital punishment

9 Points of interest

9.1 Museums 9.2 Entertainment and concert venues 9.3 Theme parks 9.4 Jersey
Jersey
Shore

10 Culture

10.1 General 10.2 Cuisine 10.3 Music 10.4 Comics and video games 10.5 Sports

10.5.1 Professional sports 10.5.2 College sports 10.5.3 High-school sports

11 State symbols 12 Notable people 13 See also 14 References 15 External links

15.1 State government 15.2 U.S. government 15.3 Other

History Main article: History of New Jersey Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa. The pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains. Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers that reached New Jersey. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers, swamps, and gorges.[29] New Jersey
Jersey
was originally settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni- Lenape
Lenape
being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape
Lenape
name for the land that is now New Jersey.[30] The Lenape
Lenape
were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware
Delaware
River, the lower Hudson River, and western Long Island Sound. The Lenape
Lenape
society was divided into matrilinear clans that were based upon common female ancestors. These clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle, Turkey, and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, and their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade. Colonial era Main article: Colonial history of New Jersey

The relative location of the New Netherland
New Netherland
and New Sweden
Sweden
settlements in eastern North America

The Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland
New Netherland
consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic
Middle Atlantic
states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India
India
Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled. The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which eventually became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware
Delaware
River established the colony of New Sweden. The entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls
Richard Nicolls
sailed into what is today New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey
Jersey
remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King. It was from the Royal Square in St. Helier
St. Helier
that Charles II of England
Charles II of England
was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York (later King James II), the region between New England
New England
and Maryland
Maryland
as a proprietary colony (as opposed to a royal colony). James then granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River
Delaware River
(the land that would become New Jersey) to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret
Sir George Carteret
and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.[31] The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey
Jersey
has been characterized by ethnic and religious diversity. New England
New England
Congregationalists
Congregationalists
settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed
Dutch Reformed
migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres (40 ha), a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers
Quakers
and Anglicans
Anglicans
owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony, Jamestown and other colonies, New Jersey
Jersey
was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey
Jersey
remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, and commercial farming developed sporadically. Some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River
Delaware River
and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City
New York City
and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, and New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River
Hackensack River
and Arthur Kill
Arthur Kill
– settlers came primarily from New York and New England. On March 18, 1673, Berkeley sold his half of the colony to Quakers
Quakers
in England, who settled the Delaware
Delaware
Valley region as a Quaker colony. ( William Penn
William Penn
acted as trustee for the lands for a time.) New Jersey
Jersey
was governed very briefly as two distinct provinces, East and West Jersey, for 28 years between 1674 and 1702, at times part of the Province of New York
Province of New York
or Dominion of New England. In 1702, the two provinces were reunited under a royal governor, rather than a proprietary one. Edward Hyde, Lord Cornbury, became the first governor of the colony as a royal colony. Britain believed that he was an ineffective and corrupt ruler, taking bribes and speculating on land. In 1708 he was recalled to England. New Jersey
Jersey
was then ruled by the governors of New York, but this infuriated the settlers of New Jersey, who accused those governors of favoritism to New York. Judge Lewis Morris led the case for a separate governor, and was appointed governor by King George II in 1738.[32] Revolutionary War era Main article: New Jersey
Jersey
in the American Revolution New Jersey
Jersey
was one of the Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution. The New Jersey
Jersey
Constitution of 1776 was passed July 2, 1776, just two days before the Second Continental Congress
Continental Congress
declared American Independence from Great Britain. It was an act of the Provincial Congress, which made itself into the state Legislature. To reassure neutrals, it provided that it would become void if New Jersey
Jersey
reached reconciliation with Great Britain. New Jersey
Jersey
representatives Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, John Hart, and Abraham Clark
Abraham Clark
were among those who signed the United States Declaration of Independence.

Washington Crossing the Delaware
Delaware
during the New York and New Jersey campaign, winter 1777

During the American Revolutionary War, British and American armies crossed New Jersey
Jersey
numerous times, and several pivotal battles took place in the state. Because of this, New Jersey
Jersey
today is often referred to as "The Crossroads of the American Revolution."[33] The winter quarters of the Continental Army
Continental Army
were established there twice by General George Washington
George Washington
in Morristown, which has been called "The Military Capital of the American Revolution".[34]

George Washington
George Washington
rallying his troops at the Battle of Princeton

On the night of December 25–26, 1776, the Continental Army under George Washington
George Washington
crossed the Delaware
Delaware
River. After the crossing, he surprised and defeated the Hessian troops in the Battle of Trenton. Slightly more than a week after victory at Trenton, American forces gained an important victory by stopping General Cornwallis's charges at the Second Battle of Trenton. By evading Cornwallis's army, Washington made a surprise attack on Princeton and successfully defeated the British forces there on January 3, 1777. Emanuel Leutze's painting of Washington Crossing the Delaware
Delaware
became an icon of the Revolution. American forces under Washington met the forces under General Henry Clinton at the Battle of Monmouth
Battle of Monmouth
in an indecisive engagement in June 1778. Washington attempted to take the British column by surprise; when the British army attempted to flank the Americans, the Americans retreated in disorder. The ranks were later reorganized and withstood the British charges. In the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
met in Nassau Hall
Nassau Hall
at Princeton University, making Princeton the nation's capital for four months. It was there that the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
learned of the signing of the Treaty of Paris (1783), which ended the war. On December 18, 1787, New Jersey
Jersey
became the third state to ratify the United States Constitution, which was overwhelmingly popular in New Jersey, as it prevented New York and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
from charging tariffs on goods imported from Europe. On November 20, 1789, the state became the first in the newly formed Union to ratify the Bill of Rights. The 1776 New Jersey
Jersey
State Constitution gave the vote to "all inhabitants" who had a certain level of wealth. This included women and blacks, but not married women, because they could not own property separately from their husbands. Both sides, in several elections, claimed that the other side had had unqualified women vote and mocked them for use of "petticoat electors", whether entitled to vote or not; on the other hand, both parties passed Voting Rights Acts. In 1807, the legislature passed a bill interpreting the constitution to mean universal white male suffrage, excluding paupers; the constitution was itself an act of the legislature and not enshrined as the modern constitution.[35] 19th century Main article: New Jersey
Jersey
in the 19th century On February 15, 1804, New Jersey
Jersey
became the last northern state to abolish new slavery and enacted legislation that slowly phased out existing slavery. This led to a gradual decrease of the slave population. By the close of the Civil War, about a dozen African Americans in New Jersey
Jersey
were still held in bondage.[36] New Jersey voters initially refused to ratify the constitutional amendments banning slavery and granting rights to the United States' black population.

A map of the 107-mile long Morris Canal
Morris Canal
across northern New Jersey

Industrialization
Industrialization
accelerated in the northern part of the state following completion of the Morris Canal
Morris Canal
in 1831. The canal allowed for coal to be brought from eastern Pennsylvania's Lehigh Valley
Lehigh Valley
to northern New Jersey's growing industries in Paterson, Newark, and Jersey
Jersey
City. In 1844, the second state constitution was ratified and brought into effect. Counties thereby became districts for the State Senate, and some realignment of boundaries (including the creation of Mercer County) immediately followed. This provision was retained in the 1947 Constitution, but was overturned by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1962 by the decision Baker v. Carr. While the Governorship was stronger than under the 1776 constitution, the constitution of 1844 created many offices that were not responsible to him, or to the people, and it gave him a three-year term, but he could not succeed himself. New Jersey
Jersey
was one of the few Union states (the others being Delaware and Kentucky) to select a candidate other than Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
twice in national elections, and sided with Stephen Douglas
Stephen Douglas
(1860) and George B. McClellan
George B. McClellan
(1864) during their campaigns. McClellan, a native Philadelphian, had New Jersey
Jersey
ties and formally resided in New Jersey at the time; he later became Governor of New Jersey
Governor of New Jersey
(1878–81). (In New Jersey, the factions of the Democratic party managed an effective coalition in 1860.) During the American Civil War, the state was led first by Republican Governor Charles Smith Olden, then by Democrat Joel Parker. During the course of the war, over 80,000 from the state enlisted in the Northern army; unlike many states, including some Northern ones, no battle was fought there.[citation needed]

View of state's largest city, Newark, in 1874

In the Industrial Revolution, cities like Paterson grew and prospered. Previously, the economy had been largely agrarian, which was problematically subject to crop failures and poor soil. This caused a shift to a more industrialized economy, one based on manufactured commodities such as textiles and silk. Inventor Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
also became an important figure of the Industrial Revolution, having been granted 1,093 patents, many of which for inventions he developed while working in New Jersey. Edison's facilities, first at Menlo Park and then in West Orange, are considered perhaps the first research centers in the U.S. Christie Street in Menlo Park was the first thoroughfare in the world to have electric lighting. Transportation was greatly improved as locomotion and steamboats were introduced to New Jersey. Iron
Iron
mining was also a leading industry during the middle to late 19th century. Bog iron
Bog iron
pits in the southern New Jersey
Jersey
Pinelands were among the first sources of iron for the new nation.[37] Mines such as Mt. Hope, Mine Hill and the Rockaway Valley Mines created a thriving industry. Mining
Mining
generated the impetus for new towns and was one of the driving forces behind the need for the Morris Canal. Zinc
Zinc
mines were also a major industry, especially the Sterling Hill Mine.

Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
in his laboratory, West Orange, New Jersey, 1901

20th century Main article: New Jersey
Jersey
in the 20th century New Jersey
Jersey
prospered through the Roaring Twenties. The first Miss America Pageant was held in 1921 in Atlantic City, the Holland Tunnel connecting Jersey
Jersey
City to Manhattan
Manhattan
opened in 1927, and the first drive-in movie was shown in 1933 in Camden. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, the state offered begging licenses to unemployed residents,[38] the zeppelin airship Hindenburg crashed in flames over Lakehurst, and the SS Morro Castle beached itself near Asbury Park after going up in flames while at sea. Through both World Wars, New Jersey
Jersey
was a center for war production, especially in naval construction, notably at Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company. Battleships, cruisers, and destroyers were made in the state. New Jersey
Jersey
manufactured 6.8 percent of total United States military armaments produced during World War
World War
II, ranking fifth among the 48 states.[39] In addition, Fort Dix (1917) (originally called "Camp Dix"),[40] Camp Merritt (1917)[41] and Camp Kilmer
Camp Kilmer
(1941)[42] were all constructed to house and train American soldiers through both World Wars. New Jersey
Jersey
also became a principal location for defense in the Cold War. Fourteen Nike Missile stations were constructed, especially for the defense of New York City
New York City
and Philadelphia. PT-109, a motor torpedo boat commanded by Lt. (j.g.) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
in World War II, was built at the Elco Boatworks in Bayonne. The aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CV-6)
USS Enterprise (CV-6)
was briefly docked at the Military Ocean Terminal in Bayonne in the 1950s before she was sent to Kearney to be scrapped.[43] In 1962, the world's first nuclear-powered cargo ship, the NS Savannah, was launched at Camden.

Marchers in Camden, New Jersey
Jersey
demanding jobs during the Great Depression, c. 1935

In 1951, the New Jersey
Jersey
Turnpike opened, permitting fast travel by car and truck between North Jersey
Jersey
(and metropolitan New York) and South Jersey
Jersey
(and metropolitan Philadelphia). In the 1960s, race riots erupted in many of the industrial cities of North Jersey. The first race riots in New Jersey
Jersey
occurred in Jersey City on August 2, 1964. Several others ensued in 1967, in Newark and Plainfield. Other riots followed the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in April 1968, just as in the rest of the country. A riot occurred in Camden in 1971. As a result of an order from the New Jersey
Jersey
Supreme Court to fund schools equitably, the New Jersey
Jersey
legislature passed an income tax bill in 1976. Prior to this bill, the state had no income tax.[44] 21st century Main article: New Jersey
Jersey
in the 21st century In the early part of the 2000s, two light rail systems were opened: the Hudson–Bergen Light Rail
Hudson–Bergen Light Rail
in Hudson County and the River Line between Camden and Trenton. The intent of these projects were to encourage transit-oriented development in North Jersey
Jersey
and South Jersey, respectively. The HBLR in particular was credited with a revitalization of Hudson County and Jersey
Jersey
City in particular.[45][46][47][48] Urban revitalization has continued in North Jersey
Jersey
in the 21st century. As of 2014, Jersey
Jersey
City's Census-estimated population was 262,146,[49] with the largest population increase of any municipality in New Jersey
Jersey
since 2010,[50] representing an increase of 5.9% from the 2010 United States Census, when the city's population was enumerated at 247,597.[51][52] In 2010, Newark experienced its first population increase since the 1950s. Geography

High Point Monument
High Point Monument
as seen from Lake Marcia at High Point, Sussex County, the highest elevation in New Jersey
Jersey
at 1803 feet above sea level.[53]

New Jersey
Jersey
shares the Delaware
Delaware
Water Gap with neighboring Pennsylvania

Sunset at Cape May
Cape May
on the Jersey
Jersey
Shore

Part of the Palisades Interstate Park, the cliffs of the New Jersey Palisades overlook the Hudson River

The New Jersey
Jersey
Botanical Garden at Skylands in Ringwood State Park, Passaic and Bergen counties

South Mountain Reservation
South Mountain Reservation
in Millburn, Essex County

The Great Falls of the Passaic River
Passaic River
in Paterson, dedicated as a U.S. National Park in November 2011, incorporates one of the largest waterfalls in the eastern United States.[54]

Main article: Geography of New Jersey See also: List of counties in New Jersey
Jersey
and Metropolitan Statistical Areas of New Jersey New Jersey
Jersey
is bordered on the north and northeast by New York (parts of which are across the Hudson River, Upper New York Bay, the Kill Van Kull, Newark Bay, and the Arthur Kill); on the east by the Atlantic Ocean; on the southwest by Delaware
Delaware
across Delaware
Delaware
Bay; and on the west by Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
across the Delaware
Delaware
River. New Jersey
Jersey
can be thought of as five regions, based upon natural geography and population concentration. Northeastern New Jersey, the Gateway Region, lies closest to Manhattan
Manhattan
in New York City, and up to a million residents commute daily into the city to work via automobile or mass transit.[55] Northwestern New Jersey, or the "Skylands", is, compared to the northeast, more wooded, rural, and mountainous. The "Shore", along the Atlantic Coast in the central-east and southeast, has its own natural, residential, and lifestyle characteristics owing to its location by the ocean. The Delaware
Delaware
Valley includes the southwestern counties of the state, which reside within the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Metropolitan Area. The fifth region is the Pine
Pine
Barrens in the interior of the southern part. Covered rather extensively by mixed pine and oak forest, it has a much lower population density than much of the rest of the state. New Jersey
Jersey
also can be broadly divided into three geographic regions: North Jersey, Central Jersey, and South Jersey. Some New Jersey residents do not consider Central Jersey
Jersey
a region in its own right, but others believe it is a separate geographic and cultural area from the North and South. The federal Office of Management and Budget
Office of Management and Budget
divides New Jersey's counties into seven Metropolitan Statistical Areas, including sixteen counties in the New York City
New York City
or Philadelphia
Philadelphia
metro areas. Four counties have independent metro areas, and Warren County is part of the Pennsylvania-based Lehigh Valley
Lehigh Valley
metro area. It is also at the center of the Northeast megalopolis. Additionally, the New Jersey
Jersey
Commerce, Economic Growth, & Tourism Commission divides the state into six distinct regions to facilitate the state's tourism industry. The regions are:

Gateway Region, encompassing Middlesex County, Union County, Essex County, Hudson County, Bergen County, and Passaic County. Skylands Region, encompassing Sussex County, Morris County, Warren County, Hunterdon County, and Somerset County. Shore Region, encompassing Monmouth County and Ocean County. Delaware River
Delaware River
Region, encompassing Mercer County, Burlington County, Camden County, Gloucester County, and Salem County. Greater Atlantic City
Atlantic City
Region, encompassing Atlantic County. Southern Shore Region, encompassing Cumberland County and Cape May County.

High Point, in Montague Township, Sussex County, is the highest elevation, at 1,803 feet (550 m). The Palisades are a line of steep cliffs on the lower west side of the Hudson River, in Bergen County and Hudson County. Major rivers include the Hudson, Delaware, Raritan, Passaic, Hackensack, Rahway, Musconetcong, Mullica, Rancocas, Manasquan, Maurice, and Toms rivers. Sandy Hook, along the eastern coast, is a popular recreational beach. It is a barrier spit and an extension of the Barnegat Peninsula
Peninsula
along the state's Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
coast. Long Beach Island
Long Beach Island
("LBI"), a barrier island along the eastern coast, has popular recreational beaches. The primary access point to the island is by a single bridge connection to the mainland. Barnegat Lighthouse is on the northern tip. Areas managed by the National Park Service
National Park Service
include:

Appalachian National Scenic Trail Delaware
Delaware
National Scenic River Delaware
Delaware
Water Gap National Recreation Area Ellis Island
Ellis Island
National Monument Gateway National Recreation Area
Gateway National Recreation Area
in Monmouth County Great Egg Harbor River Morristown National Historical Park
Morristown National Historical Park
in Morristown New Jersey
Jersey
Coastal Heritage Trail Route New Jersey
Jersey
Pinelands National Reserve Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
National Historical Park in West Orange

Prominent geographic features include:

Delaware
Delaware
Water Gap Great Bay Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Highlands Hudson Palisades Meadowlands Pine
Pine
Barrens South Mountain

Climate

Köppen climate types of New Jersey

There are two climatic conditions in the state. The south, central, and northeast parts of the state have a humid subtropical climate, while the northwest has a humid continental climate (microthermal), with much cooler temperatures due to higher elevation. New Jersey receives between 2,400 and 2,800 hours of sunshine annually.[56] Summers are typically hot and humid, with statewide average high temperatures of 82–87 °F (28–31 °C) and lows of 60–69 °F (16–21 °C); however, temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on average 25 days each summer, exceeding 100 °F (38 °C) in some years. Winters are usually cold, with average high temperatures of 34–43 °F (1–6 °C) and lows of 16 to 28 °F (−9 to −2 °C) for most of the state, but temperatures could, for brief periods, fall below 10 °F (−12 °C) and occasionally rise above 50 °F (10 °C). Northwestern parts of the state have significantly colder winters with sub-0 °F (−18 °C) being an almost annual occurrence. Spring and autumn may feature wide temperature variations, with lower humidity than summer. The USDA Plant Hardiness Zone classification ranges from 6 in the northwest of the state, to 7B near Cape May.[57] All-time temperature extremes recorded in New Jersey
Jersey
include 110 °F (43 °C) on July 10, 1936 in Runyon, Middlesex County and −34 °F (−37 °C) on January 5, 1904 in River Vale, Bergen County.[58] Average annual precipitation ranges from 43 to 51 inches (1,100 to 1,300 mm), uniformly spread through the year. Average snowfall per winter season ranges from 10–15 inches (25–38 cm) in the south and near the seacoast, 15–30 inches (38–76 cm) in the northeast and central part of the state, to about 40–50 inches (1.0–1.3 m) in the northwestern highlands, but this often varies considerably from year to year. Precipitation falls on an average of 120 days a year, with 25 to 30 thunderstorms, most of which occur during the summer. During winter and early spring, New Jersey
Jersey
can experience "nor'easters", which are capable of causing blizzards or flooding throughout the northeastern United States. Hurricanes and tropical storms (such as Tropical Storm Floyd in 1999[59]), tornadoes, and earthquakes are rare, although New Jersey
Jersey
was severely impacted by Hurricane
Hurricane
Sandy on October 29, 2012 with the storm making landfall in the state at 90 mph.

Average high and low temperatures in various cities of New Jersey
Jersey
°C (°F)[60][61][62]

City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Sussex 1/−9 (34/16) 3/−8 (38/18) 8/−4 (47/26) 15/2 (59/36) 21/7 (70/45) 25/12 (78/55) 28/16 (82/60) 27/14 (81/58) 23/10 (73/50) 17/4 (62/38) 11/−1 (51/31) 4/−6 (39/22)

Newark 4/−4 (39/24) 6/−3 (42/27) 10/1 (51/34) 17/7 (62/44) 22/12 (72/53) 28/17 (82/63) 30/20 (86/69) 29/20 (84/68) 25/15 (77/60) 18/9 (65/48) 13/4 (55/39) 6/−1 (44/30)

Atlantic City 5/−2 (42/29) 6/−1 (44/31) 10/3 (50/37) 14/8 (58/46) 19/13 (67/55) 24/18 (76/64) 27/21 (81/70) 27/21 (80/70) 24/18 (75/64) 18/11 (65/53) 13/6 (56/43) 8/1 (46/34)

Cape May 6/−2 (42/28) 7/−2 (44/29) 11/2 (51/35) 16/7 (61/44) 21/12 (70/53) 26/17 (79/63) 29/20 (85/68) 29/19 (83/67) 25/16 (78/61) 19/9 (67/50) 14/4 (57/41) 8/0 (47/32)

Demographics

Historical population

Census Pop.

1790 184,139

1800 211,149

14.7%

1810 245,562

16.3%

1820 277,575

13.0%

1830 320,823

15.6%

1840 373,306

16.4%

1850 489,555

31.1%

1860 672,035

37.3%

1870 906,096

34.8%

1880 1,131,116

24.8%

1890 1,444,933

27.7%

1900 1,883,669

30.4%

1910 2,537,167

34.7%

1920 3,155,900

24.4%

1930 4,041,334

28.1%

1940 4,160,165

2.9%

1950 4,835,329

16.2%

1960 6,066,782

25.5%

1970 7,168,164

18.2%

1980 7,364,823

2.7%

1990 7,730,188

5.0%

2000 8,414,350

8.9%

2010 8,791,894

4.5%

Est. 2017 9,005,644

2.4%

Source: 1910–2010[63] 2017 Estimate[6]

New Jersey
Jersey
population distribution

State population The United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
estimates that the population of New Jersey
Jersey
was 8,958,013 on July 1, 2015, a 1.89% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[64] Residents of New Jersey
Jersey
are most commonly referred to as "New Jerseyans" or, less commonly, as "New Jerseyites". As of the 2010 census, there were 8,791,894 people residing in the state. The racial makeup of the state was:

68.6% White American 13.7% African American 8.3% Asian American 0.3% Native American 2.7% Multiracial American 6.4% other races

17.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino (of any race).

New Jersey
Jersey
Racial Breakdown of Population

Racial composition 1970[65] 1990[65] 2000[66] 2010[67]

White 88.6% 79.3% 72.5% 68.6%

Black 10.7% 13.4% 13.6% 13.7%

Asian 0.3% 3.5% 5.7% 8.3%

Native 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3%

Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific Islander  –  –  –  –

Other race 0.3% 3.6% 5.4% 6.4%

Two or more races  –  – 2.5% 2.7%

Non-Hispanic Whites
Non-Hispanic Whites
were 58.9% of the population in 2011,[68] down from 85% in 1970.[69] In 2010, undocumented immigrants constituted an estimated 6.4% of the population. This was the fourth highest percentage of any state in the country.[70] There were an estimated 550,000 illegal immigrants in the state in 2010.[71] The United States Census Bureau, as of July 1, 2015[update], estimated New Jersey's population at 8,958,013,[64] which represents an increase of 166,119, or 1.89%, since the last census in 2010. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 343,965 people (that is, 933,185 births minus 589,220 deaths) and a decrease due to net migration of 53,930 people out of the state.[72] Immigration
Immigration
from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 384,687 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 438,617 people.[72] As of 2005[update], there were 1.6 million foreign-born living in the state (accounting for 19.2% of the population).[73] As of 2010, New Jersey
Jersey
is the eleventh-most populous state in the United States, and the most densely populated, at 1,185 residents per square mile (458 per km2), with most of the population residing in the counties surrounding New York City, Philadelphia, and along the eastern Jersey
Jersey
Shore, while the extreme southern and northwestern counties are relatively less dense overall. It is also the second wealthiest state according to the U.S. Census Bureau.[21] The center of population for New Jersey
Jersey
is located in Middlesex County, in the town of Milltown, just east of the New Jersey Turnpike.[74] New Jersey
Jersey
is home to more scientists and engineers per square mile than anywhere else in the world.[75][76][77] On October 21, 2013, same-sex marriages commenced in New Jersey.[78]

Race and ethnicity

New Jersey
Jersey
is one of the most ethnically and religiously diverse states in the country. As of 2011, 56.4% of New Jersey's children under the age of one belonged to racial or ethnic minority groups, meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white.[79] It has the second largest Jewish
Jewish
population by percentage (after New York);[80] the second largest Muslim
Muslim
population by percentage (after Michigan); the largest population of Peruvian Americans in the United States; the largest population of Cubans outside of Florida; the third highest Asian population by percentage; and the third highest Italian population by percentage, according to the 2000 Census. African Americans, Hispanics (Puerto Ricans and Dominicans), West Indians, Arabs, and Brazilian and Portuguese Americans are also high in number. New Jersey
Jersey
has the third highest Asian Indian
Asian Indian
population of any state by absolute numbers and the highest by percentage,[81][82][83][84] with Bergen County
Bergen County
home to America's largest Malayali
Malayali
community.[85] Overall, New Jersey
Jersey
has the third largest Korean population, with Bergen County
Bergen County
home to the highest Korean concentration per capita of any U.S. county[86] (6.9% in 2011). New Jersey
Jersey
also has the fourth largest Filipino population, and fourth largest Chinese population, per the 2010 U.S. Census. The five largest ethnic groups in 2000 were: Italian (17.9%), Irish (15.9%), African (13.6%), German (12.6%), Polish (6.9%). Newark was the fourth poorest of U.S. cities with over 250,000 residents in 2008,[87] but New Jersey
Jersey
as a whole had the second-highest median household income as of 2014.[21] This is largely because so much of New Jersey
Jersey
consists of suburbs, most of them affluent, of New York City
New York City
and Philadelphia. New Jersey
Jersey
is also the most densely populated state, and the only state that has had every one of its counties deemed "urban" as defined by the Census Bureau's Combined Statistical Area.[88]

Bergen County
Bergen County
is home to all of the nation's top ten municipalities by percentage of Korean population, led by Palisades Park (above), a borough where Koreans
Koreans
comprise the majority (52%) of the population.[89][90]

India
India
Square, Jersey
Jersey
City, known as Little Bombay,[91] home to the highest concentration of Asian Indians in the Western Hemisphere.[92] Immigrants
Immigrants
from India
India
constituted the largest foreign-born nationality in New Jersey
Jersey
in 2013.[93]

Metropolitan statistical areas and divisions of New Jersey. The New York City Metropolitan Area includes the counties shaded in blue hues, as well as Mercer and Warren counties, the latter representing part of the Lehigh Valley. Counties shaded in green hues, as well as Atlantic, Cape May, and Cumberland counties, belong to the Philadelphia Metropolitan Area.

In 2010, 6.2% of its population was reported as under age 5, 23.5% under 18, and 13.5% were 65 or older; and females made up approximately 51.3% of the population.[94] A study by the Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
found that in 2013, New Jersey
Jersey
was the only U.S. state
U.S. state
in which immigrants born in India
India
constituted the largest foreign-born nationality, representing roughly 10% of all foreign-born residents in the state.[93] For further information on various ethnic groups and neighborhoods prominently featured within New Jersey, see the following articles:

Indians in the New York City
New York City
metropolitan region Chinese in the New York City
New York City
metropolitan region List of U.S. cities with significant Korean American
Korean American
populations Filipinos in the New York City
New York City
metropolitan region Filipinos in New Jersey Russians in the New York City
New York City
metropolitan region Bergen County Jersey
Jersey
City India Square
India Square
in Jersey
Jersey
City, home to the highest concentration of Asian Indians in the Western Hemisphere Ironbound, a Portuguese and Brazilian enclave in Newark Five Corners, a Filipino enclave in Jersey
Jersey
City Havana on the Hudson, a Cuban enclave in Hudson County Koreatown, Fort Lee, a Korean enclave in southeast Bergen County Koreatown, Palisades Park, also a Korean enclave in southeast Bergen County Little Bangladesh, a Bangladeshi enclave in Paterson Little Istanbul, also known as Little Ramallah, a Middle Eastern enclave in Paterson Little Lima, a Peruvian enclave in Paterson

Birth data As of 2011, 56.4% of New Jersey's population younger than age 1 were minorities (meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white).[95] Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother

Race 2013[96] 2014[97] 2015[98]

White 71,729 (69.9%) 71,033 (68.8%) 72,400 (70.2%)

> Non-Hispanic White 48,018 (46.8%) 48,196 (46.6%) 47,425 (46.0%)

Black 19,139 (18.7%) 20,102 (19.4%) 18,363 (17.8%)

Asian 11,511 (11.2%) 11,977 (11.6%) 12,192 (11.8%)

Native 196 (0.2%) 193 (0.2%) 172 (0.2%)

Hispanic (of any race) 27,251 (26.6%) 27,267 (26.4%) 27,919 (27.1%)

Total New Jersey 102,575 (100%) 103,305 (100%) 103,127 (100%)

Languages

Top 10 Non-English Languages Spoken in New Jersey

Language Percentage of population (as of 2010)[99]

Spanish 14.59%

Chinese (including Cantonese
Cantonese
and Mandarin) 1.23%

Italian 1.06%

Portuguese 1.06%

Filipino 0.96%

Korean 0.89%

Gujarati 0.83%

Polish 0.79%

Hindi 0.71%

Arabic 0.62%

Russian 0.56%

As of 2010, 71.31% (5,830,812) of New Jersey
Jersey
residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 14.59% (1,193,261) spoke Spanish, 1.23% (100,217) Chinese (which includes Cantonese
Cantonese
and Mandarin), 1.06% (86,849) Italian, 1.06% (86,486) Portuguese, 0.96% (78,627) Tagalog, and Korean was spoken as a main language by 0.89% (73,057) of the population over the age of five. In total, 28.69% (2,345,644) of New Jersey's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.[99] A diverse collection of languages has since evolved amongst the state's population, given that New Jersey
Jersey
has become cosmopolitan and is home to ethnic enclaves of non-English-speaking communities:[100][101][102][103]

Albanian – Paterson, Garfield Arabic – Paterson, Jersey
Jersey
City Armenian – Bergen County Bahasa Indonesia – Middlesex, Somerset, and Union counties Bengali – Paterson Cantonese Farsi – Bergen County Greek – Bergen County Gujarati Hebrew Hindi
Hindi
Jersey
Jersey
City, Edison, Iselin Italian Japanese – Edgewater and Fort Lee boroughs in Bergen County Kannada Korean – Bergen County
Bergen County
(numerous municipalities); Cherry Hill Macedonian – Bergen County Malayalam
Malayalam
– Bergen County Mandarin Chinese Marathi Polish – Garfield; Wallington borough of Bergen County Portuguese – Ironbound
Ironbound
section of Newark; Elizabeth Punjabi Russian – Fair Lawn borough of Bergen County Spanish Tagalog Tamil Telugu Turkish – Little Istanbul
Little Istanbul
section of Paterson Ukrainian Urdu Vietnamese – Atlantic City, Camden/Cherry Hill, Edison Township, Jersey
Jersey
City Yiddish – Lakewood Township, Ocean County

High-rise
High-rise
residential complexes in the borough of Fort Lee, Bergen County

Paterson, known as the "Silk City",[104] has become a prime destination for an internationally diverse pool of immigrants,[105][106] with at least 52 distinct ethnic groups.[107]

Skyscrapers in Jersey
Jersey
City, one of the most ethnically diverse cities in the world.[108][109]

Federal Courthouse in Camden, which is connected to Philadelphia
Philadelphia
via the Benjamin Franklin Bridge
Benjamin Franklin Bridge
in the background

Religion See also: Category:Religion in New Jersey.

Religion in New Jersey
Jersey
(2014)[110]

religion

percent

Catholic

34%

Protestant

31%

No religion

18%

Jewish

6%

Hindu

3%

Muslim

3%

Mormon

1%

Eastern Orthodox

1%

Jehovah's Witness

1%

Other faith

2%

Don't know

1%

By number of adherents, the largest denominations in New Jersey, according to the Association of Religion Data Archives in 2010, were the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church with 3,235,290; Islam
Islam
with 160,666; and the United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church
with 138,052.[111] The world's largest Hindu temple was inaugurated in Robbinsville, Mercer County, in central New Jersey
Jersey
during 2014, a BAPS
BAPS
temple.[112]

Cathedral Basilica of the Sacred Heart in Newark, the fifth-largest cathedral in North America, is the seat of the city's Roman Catholic Archdiocese.

Temple Sharey Tefilo-Israel, in South Orange, Essex County. New Jersey is home to the second-highest Jewish American
Jewish American
(Hebrew) population per capita, after New York.

Swaminarayan Akshardham (Devnagari) in Robbinsville, Mercer County, inaugurated in 2014 as the world's largest Hindu
Hindu
temple.[113]

Little Ramallah
Ramallah
in Paterson is an increasingly popular destination for Muslim
Muslim
immigrants.

Settlements See also: List of counties in New Jersey

Bergen County: 905,116[68] Middlesex County: 809,858 Essex County: 783,969 Hudson County: 634,266 Monmouth County: 630,380 Ocean County: 576,567 Union County: 536,499 Camden County: 513,657 Passaic County: 501,226 Morris County: 492,276

See also: List of municipalities in New Jersey For its overall population and nation-leading population density, New Jersey
Jersey
has a relative paucity of classic large cities. This paradox is most pronounced in Bergen County, New Jersey's most populous county, whose more than 930,000 residents in 2014 inhabited 70 municipalities, the most populous being Hackensack, with 44,519 residents estimated in 2014. Many urban areas extend far beyond the limits of a single large city, as New Jersey
Jersey
cities (and indeed municipalities in general) tend to be geographically small; three of the four largest cities in New Jersey
Jersey
by population have under 20 square miles of land area, and eight of the top ten, including all of the top five have land area under 30 square miles. As of the United States 2010 Census[update], only four municipalities had populations in excess of 100,000, although Edison and Woodbridge came very close.

Largest municipalities in New Jersey
Jersey
in terms of area

Rank Name Area (sq.mi.) Area (km2) County

1 Galloway Township 115.2 298 Atlantic County

2 Hamilton Township 113.0 293 Atlantic County

3 Washington Township 102.9 267 Burlington County

4 Jackson Township 100.1 259 Ocean County

5 Lacey Township 98.5 255 Ocean County

6 Woodland Township 96.4 250 Burlington County

7 Maurice River
Maurice River
Township 95.7 248 Cumberland County

8 Middle Township 83.1 215 Cape May
Cape May
County

9 Manchester Township 82.9 215 Ocean County

10 West Milford 80.4 208 Passaic County

11 Bass River Township 78.2 203 Burlington County

12 Egg Harbor Township 75.0 194 Atlantic County

13 Little Egg Harbor Township 73.2 190 Ocean County

14 Lower Alloways Creek Township 72.6 188 Salem County

15 Vernon Township 70.5 183 Sussex County

16 Upper Township 68.5 177 Cape May
Cape May
County

17 Wantage Township 67.5 175 Sussex County

18 Dennis Township 64.3 167 Cape May
Cape May
County

19 Pemberton Township 62.5 162 Burlington County

20 Howell Township 61.0 158 Monmouth County

21 Middletown Township 59.3 154 Monmouth County

22 Hopewell Township 58.7 152 Mercer County

23 Winslow Township 58.1 150 Camden County

24 Mullica Township 56.9 147 Atlantic County

25 Berkeley Township 55.8 145 Ocean County

26 Hillsborough Township 54.8 142 Somerset County

26 Stafford Township 54.8 142 Ocean County

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in New Jersey Source: [114][115]

Rank Name County Pop.

Newark

Jersey
Jersey
City 1 Newark Essex 281,764

Paterson

Elizabeth

2 Jersey
Jersey
City Hudson 264,152

3 Paterson Passaic 147,100

4 Elizabeth Union 128,640

5 Edison Middlesex 101,996

6 Woodbridge Township Middlesex 101,389

7 Lakewood Township Ocean 100,758

8 Toms River Ocean 91,837

9 Hamilton Township (Mercer) Mercer 88,400

10 Trenton Mercer 84,056

Wealth Main article: New Jersey
Jersey
locations by per capita income Economy See also: New Jersey
Jersey
locations by per capita income

Employment by industries

The New Jersey
Jersey
State Quarter, released in 1999, with a depiction of Washington Crossing the Delaware

The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis
Bureau of Economic Analysis
estimates that New Jersey's gross state product in 2016 was $575 billion.[116] New Jersey's estimated taxpayer burden in 2015 was $59,400 per taxpayer.[117] Affluence New Jersey's per capita gross state product in 2008 was $54,699, second in the U.S. and above the national per capita gross domestic product of $46,588.[118] Its per capita income was the third highest in the nation with $51,358.[118] In 2013, the state had the second-largest number of millionaires per capita in the United States (ratio of 7.49%), according to a study by Phoenix Marketing International.[119] It is ranked second in the nation by the number of places with per capita incomes above national average with 76.4%. Nine of New Jersey's counties are in the wealthiest 100 of the country.

A heat map showing median income distribution by county in New Jersey.

Fiscal policy New Jersey
Jersey
has seven tax brackets that determine state income tax rates, which range from 1.4% (for income below $20,000) to 8.97% (for income above $500,000).[120] The standard sales tax rate as of January 1, 2018, is 6.625%, applicable to all retail sales unless specifically exempt by law. Tax exemptions include most food items for at-home preparation, medications, most clothing, footwear and disposable paper products for use in the home.[121] There are 27 Urban Enterprise Zone statewide, including sections of Paterson, Elizabeth and Jersey
Jersey
City. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3.3125% sales tax rate (half the rate rate charged statewide) at eligible merchants.[122][123][124] New Jersey
Jersey
has the highest cumulative tax rate of all 50 states with residents paying a total of $68 billion in state and local taxes annually with a per capita burden of $7,816 at a rate of 12.9% of income.[125] All real property located in the state is subject to property tax unless specifically exempted by statute. New Jersey
Jersey
does not assess an intangible personal property tax, but it does impose an inheritance tax. Federal taxation disparity New Jersey
Jersey
consistently ranks as having one of the highest proportional levels of disparity of any state in the United States based upon what it receives from the federal government relative to what it gives. In 2015, WalletHub ranked New Jersey
Jersey
the state least dependent upon federal government aid overall and having the fourth lowest return on taxpayer investment from the federal government, at 48 cents per dollar.[126] New Jersey
Jersey
has one of the highest tax burdens in the nation.[127] Factors for this include the large federal tax liability which is not adjusted for New Jersey's higher cost of living and Medicaid funding formulas. As shown by the study, incomes tend to be higher in New Jersey, which puts those in higher tax brackets especially vulnerable to the alternative minimum tax. Industries

Cranberry
Cranberry
harvest

Further information: Biotech and pharmaceutical companies in New Jersey New Jersey's economy is multifaceted but is nevertheless centered upon the pharmaceutical industry, the financial industry, chemical development, telecommunications, food processing, electric equipment, printing, publishing, and tourism. New Jersey's agricultural outputs are nursery stock, horses, vegetables, fruits and nuts, seafood, and dairy products.[128] New Jersey
Jersey
ranks second among states in blueberry production, third in cranberries and spinach, and fourth in bell peppers, peaches, and head lettuce.[129] New Jersey
Jersey
harvests the fourth-largest number of acres planted with asparagus.[130] Although New Jersey
Jersey
is home to many energy-intensive industries, its energy consumption is only 2.7% of the U.S. total, and its carbon dioxide emissions are 0.8% of the U.S. total. Its comparatively low greenhouse gas emissions can be attributed to nuclear power. According to the Energy Information Administration, nuclear power dominates New Jersey's electricity market, typically supplying more than one-half of State generation. New Jersey
Jersey
has three nuclear power plants, including the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, which came online in 1969 and is the oldest operating nuclear plant in the country.[131] New Jersey
Jersey
has a strong scientific economy and is home to major pharmaceutical and telecommunications firms. There is also a strong service economy in New Jersey
Jersey
serving residents who work in New York City or Philadelphia
Philadelphia
in retail sales, education, and real estate. Furthermore, New Jersey
Jersey
draws upon its large and well-educated labor pool, which also supports the myriad of industries that exists today. Shipping is a strong industry in New Jersey
Jersey
because of the state's strategic geographic location, the Port
Port
of New York and New Jersey being the busiest port on the East Coast. The Port
Port
Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal was the world's first container port and is one of the world's largest container ports. New Jersey
Jersey
also has a strong presence in chemical development, refining, and food processing operations. New Jersey
Jersey
hosts several business headquarters, including twenty-four Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies.[132] Paramus in Bergen County
Bergen County
has become the top retail zip code (07652) in the United States, with the municipality generating over $5 billion in annual retail sales.[133][134] Several New Jersey
Jersey
counties such as Somerset (7), Morris (10), Hunterdon (13), Bergen (21), Monmouth (42) counties are ranked among the highest-income counties in the United States. Four others are also in the top 100. Tourism

Atlantic City, looking southward, is an oceanfront resort and the nexus of New Jersey's gaming industry.

New Jersey's location as a crossroads of commerce and its extensive transportation system have put over one third of all United States residents and many Canadian residents within overnight distance by land. This accessibility to consumer revenue has enabled seaside resorts such as Atlantic City
Atlantic City
and the remainder of the Jersey
Jersey
Shore, as well as the state's other natural and cultural attractions, to contribute significantly to New Jersey's record tourism revenue of $43.4 billion and 95 million tourist visitations in 2015, directly supporting 318,330 jobs and sustaining more than 512,000 jobs including peripheral impacts.[135] Gambling Main article: Gambling in New Jersey In 1976, a referendum of New Jersey
Jersey
voters approved casino gambling in Atlantic City, where the first legalized casino opened in 1978.[136] At that time, Las Vegas was the only mega-casino resort in the country.[137] Several casinos lie along the Atlantic City Boardwalk,[138] the first and longest boardwalk in the world.[139] On February 26, 2013, Governor Chris Christie
Chris Christie
signed online gambling into law.[140] Atlantic City
Atlantic City
experienced a dramatic contraction in its stature as a gambling destination after 2010, including the closure of multiple casinos since 2014, spurred by competition from the advent of legalized gambling in other northeastern U.S. states.[141][142] Natural resources Forests cover 45%, or approximately 2.1 million acres, of New Jersey's land area.[143] The chief tree of the northern forests is the oak. The Pine
Pine
Barrens, consisting of pine forests, is in the southern part of the state. Some mining activity of zinc, iron, and manganese still takes place in the area in and around the Franklin Furnace. New Jersey
Jersey
is second in the nation in solar power installations,[144] enabled by one of the country's most favorable net metering policies, and the renewable energy certificates program. The state has more than 10,000 solar installations.[145] Education See also: Post-secondary education in New Jersey, Primary education in the United States, Secondary education in the United States, Higher education in the United States, and Education in the United States

Bishop House at Rutgers University, the flagship of public higher education in New Jersey, in New Brunswick, Middlesex County

Cleveland Tower in Princeton University, one of the world's most prominent research universities,[146] Princeton, Mercer County

In 2010, there were 605 school districts in the state.[147] Secretary of Education Rick Rosenberg, appointed by Governor Jon Corzine, created the Education Advancement Initiative (EAI) to increase college admission rates by 10% for New Jersey's high school students, decrease dropout rates by 15%, and increase the amount of money devoted to schools by 10%. Rosenberg retracted this plan when criticized for taking the money out of healthcare to fund this initiative. In 2010, the state government paid all of the teachers' premiums for health insurance,[147] but currently all NJ public teachers pay a portion of their own health insurance premiums. In 2015, New Jersey
Jersey
spent more per each public school student than any other U.S. state
U.S. state
except New York, Alaska, and Connecticut, amounting to $18,235 spent per pupil. Over 50% of the expenditure was allocated to student instruction.[148] According to 2011 Newsweek
Newsweek
statistics, students of High Technology High School in Lincroft, Monmouth County and Bergen County
Bergen County
Academies in Hackensack, Bergen County
Bergen County
registered average SAT
SAT
scores of 2145 and 2100, respectively,[149] representing the second- and third-highest scores, respectively, of all listed U.S. high schools.[149] Princeton University
Princeton University
in Princeton, Mercer County, was ranked the top U.S. national university per the 2018 list of U.S. News & World Report.[146] In 2013, Rutgers University
Rutgers University
gained medical and dental schools intended to augment its profile as a national research university.[150] In 2014, New Jersey's school systems were ranked at the top of all fifty U.S. states by financial website Wallethub.com.[151] Nine New Jersey
Jersey
high schools were ranked among the top 25 in the U.S. on the Newsweek
Newsweek
"America's Top High Schools 2016" list, more than from any other state.[152] A 2017 UCLA Civil Rights project found that New Jersey
Jersey
has the sixth-most segregated classrooms in the United States.[153] Media and communication

New Jersey's area codes

Newspapers Major New Jersey
Jersey
newspapers including the following:

Asbury Park Press Burlington County Times Courier News Courier-Post Cranford Chronicle Daily Record (Morristown)[154] The Express-Times Gloucester County Times Herald News Home News Tribune Hunterdon County Democrat Independent Press Jersey
Jersey
Journal The New Jersey
Jersey
Herald[155] The News of Cumberland County The Press of Atlantic City The Record[156] The Record-Press and Suburban News The Reporter (Somerset) The Star-Ledger The Times (Trenton) Today's Sunbeam Trentonian
Trentonian
(Mercer) The Warren Reporter

Online news Since 2006 there have been a growing number of hyperlocal news sites, such as Patch.[157][158] These sites provide relevant news for their respective communities.[159] Radio stations Main article: List of radio stations in New Jersey Television and film Main article: Television and film of New Jersey Motion picture technology was developed by Thomas Edison, with much of his early work done at his West Orange laboratory. Edison's Black Maria was the first motion picture studio. America's first motion picture industry started in 1907 in Fort Lee and the first studio was constructed there in 1909.[160] DuMont Laboratories
DuMont Laboratories
in Passaic developed early sets and made the first broadcast to the private home. A number of television shows and films have been filmed in New Jersey. Since 1978, the state has maintained a Motion Picture and Television Commission to encourage filming in-state.[161] New Jersey
Jersey
has long offered tax credits to television producers. Governor Chris Christie suspended the credits in 2010, but the New Jersey
Jersey
State Legislature
Legislature
in 2011 approved the restoration and expansion of the tax credit program. Under bills passed by both the state Senate and Assembly, the program offers 20 percent tax credits (22% in urban enterprise zones) to television and film productions that shoot in the state and meet set standards for hiring and local spending.[162] Transportation Main article: Transportation in New Jersey Roadways

Map of New Jersey
Jersey
showing major transportation networks and cities

The George Washington
George Washington
Bridge, connecting Fort Lee (foreground) in Bergen County
Bergen County
across the Hudson River
Hudson River
to New York City, is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge.[163][164]

See also: List of New Jersey
Jersey
State Highways The New Jersey
Jersey
Turnpike is one of the most prominent and heavily trafficked roadways in the United States. This toll road carries Interstate 95
Interstate 95
traffic between Delaware
Delaware
and New York, and the East Coast in general. Commonly referred to as simply "the Turnpike," it is known for its numerous rest areas named after prominent New Jerseyans as diverse as inventor Thomas Edison; United States Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton; United States Presidents Grover Cleveland and Woodrow Wilson; writers James Fenimore Cooper, Joyce Kilmer, and Walt Whitman; patriot Molly Pitcher; Red Cross founder Clara Barton; and football coach Vince Lombardi. The Garden State Parkway, or simply "the Parkway," carries relatively more in-state traffic than interstate traffic and runs from the town of Montvale along New Jersey's northern border to its southernmost tip at Cape May
Cape May
for 172.4 miles (277.5 km). It is the trunk that connects the New York metropolitan area
New York metropolitan area
to the Jersey
Jersey
Shore and is consistently one of the safest roads in the nation. With a total of 15 travel and 6 shoulder lanes, the Driscoll Bridge
Driscoll Bridge
on the Parkway, spanning the Raritan River
Raritan River
in Middlesex County, is the widest motor vehicle bridge in the world by number of lanes[165] as well as one of the busiest. New Jersey
Jersey
is connected to New York City
New York City
via various bridges and tunnels. The double-decked George Washington
George Washington
Bridge
Bridge
carries the heaviest load of motor vehicle traffic of any bridge in the world,[163][164] at 102 million vehicles per year, over fourteen lanes, from Fort Lee, New Jersey
Jersey
in Bergen County
Bergen County
across the Hudson River to the Trans- Manhattan
Manhattan
Expressway in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Upper Manhattan
Manhattan
in New York City; Interstate 95
Interstate 95
and U.S. Route 1/9
U.S. Route 1/9
cross the Hudson River
Hudson River
via the "GWB", while U.S. Route 46, which lies entirely within New Jersey, ends halfway across the bridge at the state border with New York. The Lincoln Tunnel
Tunnel
connects to Midtown Manhattan
Manhattan
carrying New Jersey
Jersey
State Route 495 and the Holland Tunnel
Holland Tunnel
connects to Lower Manhattan
Manhattan
carrying Interstate 78. New Jersey
Jersey
is also connected to Staten Island
Staten Island
by three bridges — from south to north: the Outerbridge Crossing, Goethals Bridge, and Bayonne Bridge. Other expressways in New Jersey
Jersey
include the Atlantic City
Atlantic City
Expressway, the Palisades Interstate Parkway, Interstate 76, Interstate 78, Interstate 80, Interstate 95, Interstate 195, Interstate 278, Interstate 280, Interstate 287, Interstate 295, and Interstate 676. Other major roadways include U.S. 1, New Jersey
Jersey
Route 4, U.S. 9, New Jersey
Jersey
Route 10, and New Jersey
Jersey
Route 17. New Jersey
Jersey
has interstate compacts with all three of its neighboring states. The Port
Port
Authority of New York and New Jersey, the Delaware River Port
Port
Authority (with Pennsylvania), and the Delaware River
Delaware River
and Bay Authority (with Delaware) operate most of the major transportation routes into and out of New Jersey. Bridge
Bridge
tolls are collected in one direction only – it is free to cross into New Jersey, but motorists must pay when exiting the state. Exceptions to this are the Dingman's Ferry Bridge
Bridge
and the Delaware River
Delaware River
– Turnpike Toll Bridge
Bridge
where tolls are charged both ways. The Washington Crossing and Scudders Falls (on I-95) bridges near Trenton, as well as Trenton's Calhoun Street and Bridge
Bridge
Street ("Trenton Makes") bridges, are toll-free. In addition, Riverton-Belvidere Bridge, Northampton Street Bridge, Riegelsville Bridge, and Upper Black Eddy-Milford Bridge
Bridge
are free Delaware River
Delaware River
bridges into and out of NJ. New Jersey
Jersey
became the only U.S. state
U.S. state
where all fuel dispensing stations are required to sell full-service gasoline to customers at all times, after Oregon's introduction of restricted self-service gasoline availability took effect in 2016.[166] It is unlawful for a customer to serve oneself gasoline in New Jersey. Airports Newark Liberty International Airport
Newark Liberty International Airport
is one of the busiest airports in the United States. Operated by the Port
Port
Authority of New York and New Jersey, which runs the other two major airports in the New York metropolitan area ( John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
International Airport and LaGuardia Airport), it is one of the three main airports serving the New York City area. United Airlines
United Airlines
is the facility's largest tenant, operating an entire terminal at Newark, which it uses as one of its primary hubs. FedEx Express
FedEx Express
operates a large cargo hub there as well. The adjacent Newark Airport railroad station provides access to the trains of Amtrak
Amtrak
and NJ Transit
NJ Transit
along the Northeast Corridor
Northeast Corridor
Line. Two smaller commercial airports, Atlantic City
Atlantic City
International Airport and Trenton-Mercer Airport, also operate in other parts of New Jersey. Teterboro Airport, in Bergen County, is a general aviation airport popular with private and corporate aircraft, due to its proximity to New York City. Millville Municipal Airport, in Cumberland County, is a general aviation airport popular with private and corporate aircraft, due to its proximity to the shore. Rail and bus Main article: New Jersey
Jersey
Transit Further information: New Jersey
Jersey
Transit Bus Operations, New Jersey Transit Rail Operations, Port
Port
Authority Trans-Hudson, and PATCO Speedline

A NJ Transit
NJ Transit
train heads down the Northeast Corridor
Northeast Corridor
through Rahway, New Jersey

Two Hudson-Bergen Light Rail
Hudson-Bergen Light Rail
trains in Jersey
Jersey
City, New Jersey

The NJ Transit
NJ Transit
Corporation operates extensive rail and bus service throughout the state. NJ Transit
NJ Transit
is a state-run corporation that began with the consolidation of several private bus companies in North Jersey. In the early 1980s, it acquired the commuter train operations of Conrail
Conrail
that connect towns in northern and central New Jersey
Jersey
to New York City. NJ Transit
NJ Transit
has eleven train lines that run throughout different parts of the state. Most of the trains start at various points in the state and most end at either Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Station, in New York City, or Hoboken Terminal
Hoboken Terminal
in Hoboken. NJ Transit
NJ Transit
began service between Atlantic City
Atlantic City
and Lindenwold in 1989 and extended it to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in the 1990s. NJ Transit
NJ Transit
also operates three light rail systems in the state. The Hudson-Bergen Light Rail
Hudson-Bergen Light Rail
connects Bayonne to North Bergen, through Hoboken and Jersey
Jersey
City with planned expansion into Bergen County communities. The Newark Light Rail
Newark Light Rail
is partially underground, and connects downtown Newark with other parts of the city. The River Line connects Trenton and Camden. The PATH is a subway and above-ground railway which links Hoboken, Jersey
Jersey
City, Harrison and Newark with New York City. The PATH operates four lines that connect various points in North Jersey
Jersey
and New York. The lines all terminate in Hudson County, Essex County or Manhattan
Manhattan
in New York City. The PATCO High Speedline links Camden County and Philadelphia. PATCO operates a single elevated and subway line that runs from Lindenwold to Center City Philadelphia. PATCO operates stations in Lindenwold, Voorhees, Cherry Hill, Haddonfield, Haddon Township, Collingswood, and Camden, along with four stations in Philadelphia. Amtrak
Amtrak
also operates numerous long-distance passenger trains in New Jersey
Jersey
to and from neighboring states and around the country. In addition to the Newark Airport connection, other major Amtrak
Amtrak
railway stations include Trenton Rail Station, Metropark, and the grand historic Newark Penn Station. SEPTA also has two lines that operate into New Jersey. The Trenton Line terminates at the Trenton Transit Center, and the West Trenton Line terminates at the West Trenton Rail Station
West Trenton Rail Station
in Ewing. AirTrain Newark
AirTrain Newark
is a monorail connecting the Amtrak/ NJ Transit
NJ Transit
station on the Northeast Corridor
Northeast Corridor
to the airport's terminals and parking lots. Some private bus carriers still remain in New Jersey. Most of these carriers operate with state funding to offset losses and state owned buses are provided to these carriers, of which Coach USA
Coach USA
companies make up the bulk. Other carriers include private charter and tour bus operators that take gamblers from other parts of New Jersey, New York City, Philadelphia, and Delaware
Delaware
to the casino resorts of Atlantic City. Ferries

The Cape May–Lewes Ferry
Cape May–Lewes Ferry
connects New Jersey
Jersey
and Delaware
Delaware
across the Delaware
Delaware
Bay

In the Port
Port
of New York and New Jersey, New York Waterway has ferry terminals at Belford Harbor, Jersey
Jersey
City, Hoboken, Weehawken, and Edgewater Landing. There are slips at Port
Port
Liberte, Liberty
Liberty
Harbor, Exchange Place in Jersey
Jersey
City, Port
Port
Imperial and Lincoln Harbor
Lincoln Harbor
in Weehawken, Hoboken Terminal
Hoboken Terminal
and 14th Street in Hoboken. Manhattan terminals are located at Wall Street/Pier 11, Battery Park City (BPC) or West Midtown Ferry Terminal. Liberty Water Taxi
Liberty Water Taxi
in Jersey
Jersey
City has ferries from Paulus Hook
Paulus Hook
and Liberty State Park
Liberty State Park
to (BPC). Statue Cruises has service from Liberty State Park
Liberty State Park
and Statue of Liberty National Monument, including Ellis Island. (Although there is a bridge from Ellis Island
Ellis Island
to the park built for renovations on the island it is not open for public use.) SeaStreak
SeaStreak
offers services from the Raritan Bayshore
Raritan Bayshore
to Manhattan
Manhattan
and during the Met's season to Shea Stadium. The ferries on leave from Atlantic Highlands and two terminals in Highlands. Ferry service from Keyport and Perth Amboy have been also been proposed. Service from Elizabeth at Newark Bay
Newark Bay
is proposed in conjunction with re-development plans on the shore near Jersey
Jersey
Gardens.[167] On the Delaware
Delaware
Bay, the Delaware River
Delaware River
and Bay Authority operates the Cape May–Lewes Ferry. The agency also operates the Forts Ferry Crossing for passengers across the Delaware
Delaware
River. The Delaware
Delaware
River Port
Port
Authority operates the RiverLink Ferry
RiverLink Ferry
between the Camden waterfront and Penn's Landing
Penn's Landing
in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Private bus carriers Several private bus lines provide transportation service in the state of New Jersey. Below is a list of major carriers and their areas of operation:

Academy – commuter bus service from Burlington, Middlesex, Monmouth, and Ocean counties to lower and midtown Manhattan Broadway Bus – local bus service in Bayonne Coach USA

Community Coach
Community Coach
– commuter bus service from Essex and Morris counties ONE Bus/Olympia Trails – local bus service in Essex and Union counties, commuter bus service from the Raritan Valley to Manhattan Red & Tan in Hudson County – local bus service in Hudson County Rockland Coaches
Rockland Coaches
– commuter and local bus service from Bergen County to Manhattan Suburban Trails
Suburban Trails
– commuter bus service from Middlesex County to Manhattan, local bus service in Middlesex County

DeCamp Bus Lines
DeCamp Bus Lines
– commuter bus service from Essex County to Manhattan Greyhound – interstate bus service from terminals in Newark, Atlantic City, and Mount Laurel Lakeland Bus Lines
Lakeland Bus Lines
– commuter and local bus service from Morris, Somerset, Union, and Sussex counties to Manhattan Martz Trailways
Martz Trailways
– service from Warren County to Manhattan Montgomery & West Side IBOA—local bus service in Jersey
Jersey
City Trans- Bridge
Bridge
Lines – service from the Skylands Region
Skylands Region
to and from Manhattan

Governance Main article: Government of New Jersey Executive Further information: Governor of New Jersey
Governor of New Jersey
and Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey

Phil Murphy
Phil Murphy
(D) 56th Governor since January 16, 2018

Sheila Oliver
Sheila Oliver
(D) 2nd Lt. Governor since January 16, 2018

The position of Governor of New Jersey
Governor of New Jersey
has been considered one of the most powerful in the nation. Until 2010, the governor was the only statewide elected executive official in the state and appointed numerous government officials. Formerly, an acting governor was even more powerful as he simultaneously served as President of the New Jersey
Jersey
State Senate, thus directing half of the legislative and all of the executive process. In 2002 and 2007, President of the State Senate Richard Codey
Richard Codey
held the position of acting governor for a short time, and from 2004 to 2006 Codey became a long-term acting governor due to Jim McGreevey's resignation. A 2005 amendment to the state Constitution prevents the Senate President from becoming acting governor in the event of a permanent gubernatorial vacancy without giving up her or his seat in the state Senate. Phil Murphy
Phil Murphy
(D) is the Governor. The governor's mansion is Drumthwacket, located in Princeton. Before 2010, New Jersey
Jersey
was one of the few states without a lieutenant governor. Republican Kim Guadagno
Kim Guadagno
was elected the first Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey
Governor of New Jersey
and took office on January 19, 2010. She was elected on the Republican ticket with Governor-Elect Chris Christie
Chris Christie
in the November 2009 NJ gubernatorial election. The position was created as the result of a Constitutional amendment to the New Jersey
Jersey
State Constitution passed by the voters on November 8, 2005 and effective as of January 17, 2006. Legislative Main articles: New Jersey
Jersey
Legislature
Legislature
and 2006 New Jersey
Jersey
State Government Shutdown

The New Jersey
Jersey
State House is topped by its golden dome in Trenton.

The current version of the New Jersey
Jersey
State Constitution was adopted in 1947. It provides for a bicameral New Jersey
Jersey
Legislature, consisting of an upper house Senate of 40 members and a lower house General Assembly of 80 members. Each of the 40 legislative districts elects one State Senator and two Assembly members. Assembly members are elected for a two-year term in all odd-numbered years; State Senators are elected in the years ending in 1, 3, and 7 and thus serve either four- or two-year terms. New Jersey
Jersey
is one of only five states that elects its state officials in odd-numbered years. (The others are Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Virginia.) New Jersey
Jersey
holds elections for these offices every four years, in the year following each federal Presidential election year. Thus, the last year when New Jersey elected a Governor was 2017; the next gubernatorial election will occur in 2021, with future gubernatorial elections to take place in 2025, 2029, 2033, etc.

Robert Menendez (D) Senior U.S. Senator

Cory Booker
Cory Booker
(D) Junior U.S. Senator

Judicial Main article: Judiciary of New Jersey The New Jersey
Jersey
Supreme Court[168] consists of a Chief Justice and six Associate Justices. All are appointed by the Governor with the advice and consent of a majority of the membership of the State Senate. Justices serve an initial seven-year term, after which they can be reappointed to serve until age 70. Most of the day-to-day work in the New Jersey
Jersey
courts is carried out in the Municipal Courts, where simple traffic tickets, minor criminal offenses, and small civil matters are heard. More serious criminal and civil cases are handled by the Superior Court for each county. All Superior Court judges are appointed by the Governor with the advice and consent of a majority of the membership of the State Senate. Each judge serves an initial seven-year term, after which he or she can be reappointed to serve until age 70. New Jersey's judiciary is unusual in that it still has separate courts of law and equity, like its neighbor Delaware
Delaware
but unlike most other U.S. states. The New Jersey
Jersey
Superior Court is divided into Law and Chancery Divisions at the trial level; the Law Division hears both criminal cases and civil lawsuits where the plaintiff's primary remedy is damages, while the Chancery Division hears family cases, civil suits where the plaintiff's primary remedy is equitable relief, and probate trials. The Superior Court also has an Appellate Division, which functions as the state's intermediate appellate court. Superior Court judges are assigned to the Appellate Division by the Chief Justice. There is also a Tax Court, which is a court of limited jurisdiction. Tax Court judges hear appeals of tax decisions made by County Boards of Taxation. They also hear appeals on decisions made by the Director of the Division of Taxation on such matters as state income, sales and business taxes, and homestead rebates. Appeals from Tax Court decisions are heard in the Appellate Division of Superior Court. Tax Court judges are appointed by the Governor for initial terms of seven years, and upon reappointment are granted tenure until they reach the mandatory retirement age of 70. There are 12 Tax Court judgeships. Counties Further information: List of New Jersey
Jersey
counties New Jersey
Jersey
is divided into 21 counties; 13 date from the colonial era. New Jersey
Jersey
was completely divided into counties by 1692; the present counties were created by dividing the existing ones; most recently Union County in 1857. New Jersey
Jersey
is the only state in the nation where elected county officials are called "Freeholders," governing each county as part of its own Board of Chosen Freeholders. The number of freeholders in each county is determined by referendum, and must consist of three, five, seven or nine members. Depending on the county, the executive and legislative functions may be performed by the Board of Chosen Freeholders or split into separate branches of government. In 16 counties, members of the Board of Chosen Freeholders perform both legislative and executive functions on a commission basis, with each Freeholder assigned responsibility for a department or group of departments. In the other 5 counties (Atlantic, Bergen, Essex, Hudson and Mercer), there is a directly elected County Executive who performs the executive functions while the Board of Chosen Freeholders retains a legislative and oversight role. In counties without an Executive, a County Administrator (or County Manager) may be hired to perform day-to-day administration of county functions. Municipalities New Jersey
Jersey
currently has 565 municipalities; the number was 566 before Princeton Township and Princeton Borough merged to form the municipality of Princeton on January 1, 2013. Unlike other states, all New Jersey
Jersey
land is part of a municipality. In 2008, Governor Jon Corzine proposed cutting state aid to all towns under 10,000 people, to encourage mergers to reduce administrative costs.[169] In May 2009, the Local Unit Alignment Reorganization and Consolidation Commission began a study of about 40 small communities in South Jersey
Jersey
to decide which ones might be good candidates for consolidation.[170] Forms of municipal government

New Jersey
Jersey
municipal government

Traditional forms

Borough Township

City Town Village

Modern forms

Walsh Act commission

1923 municipal manager

Faulkner Act forms

Mayor–council Council–manager

Small municipality

Mayor–council–administrator

Nonstandard forms

Special
Special
charter

Changing form of municipal government

Charter Study Commission

This box:

view talk edit

Starting in the 20th century, largely driven by reform-minded goals, a series of six modern forms of government was implemented. This began with the Walsh Act, enacted in 1911 by the New Jersey
Jersey
Legislature, which provided for a three- or five-member commission elected on a non-partisan basis. This was followed by the 1923 Municipal Manager Law, which offered a non-partisan council, provided for a weak mayor elected by and from the members of the council, and introduced a Council-manager government structure with an appointed manager responsible for day-to-day administration of municipal affairs. The Faulkner Act, originally enacted in 1950 and substantially amended in 1981, offers four basic plans: Mayor-Council, Council-Manager, Small Municipality, and Mayor-Council-Administrator. The act provides many choices for communities with a preference for a strong executive and professional management of municipal affairs and offers great flexibility in allowing municipalities to select the characteristics of its government: the number of seats on the Council; seats selected at-large, by wards, or through a combination of both; staggered or concurrent terms of office; and a mayor chosen by the Council or elected directly by voters. Most large municipalities and a majority of New Jersey's residents are governed by municipalities with Faulkner Act charters. Municipalities can also formulate their own unique form of government and operate under a Special
Special
Charter with the approval of the New Jersey
Jersey
Legislature.[citation needed] While municipalities retain their names derived from types of government, they may have changed to one of the modern forms of government, or further in the past to one of the other traditional forms, leading to municipalities with formal names quite baffling to the general public. For example, though there are four municipalities that are officially of the village type, Loch Arbour is the only one remaining with the village form of government. The other three villages – Ridgefield Park (now with a Walsh Act form), Ridgewood (now with a Faulkner Act Council-Manager charter) and South Orange (now operates under a Special
Special
Charter) – have all migrated to other non-village forms.[citation needed] Politics Main article: Politics of New Jersey Social attitudes and issues Socially, New Jersey
Jersey
is considered one of the more liberal states in the nation. Polls indicate that 60% of the population are self-described as pro-choice, although a majority are opposed to late trimester and intact dilation and extraction and public funding of abortion.[171][172] In a 2009 Quinnipiac University Polling Institute poll, a plurality supported same-sex marriage 49% to 43% opposed,[173] On October 18, 2013, the New Jersey
Jersey
Supreme Court rendered a provisional, unanimous (7–0 vote) order authorizing same-sex marriage in the state, pending a legal appeal by Governor Chris Christie,[174] who then withdrew this appeal hours after the inaugural same-sex marriages took place on October 21, 2013.[78] See also: LGBT rights in New Jersey New Jersey
Jersey
also has some of the most stringent gun control laws in the U.S. These include bans on assault firearms, hollow-nose bullets and even slingshots. No gun offense in New Jersey
Jersey
is graded less than a felony. BB guns
BB guns
and black-powder guns are all treated as modern firearms. New Jersey
Jersey
does not recognize out-of-state gun licenses and aggressively enforces its own gun laws.[175] Elections Main article: Elections in New Jersey See also: Political party strength in New Jersey

Presidential election results[176]

Year Republican Democratic

2016 41.20% 1,583,058 54.79% 2,105,250

2012 40.62% 1,478,088 58.34% 2,122,786

2008 41.61% 1,613,207 57.14% 2,215,422

2004 46.24% 1,670,003 52.92% 1,911,430

2000 40.29% 1,284,173 56.13% 1,788,850

1996 35.86% 1,103,078 53.72% 1,652,329

1992 40.58% 1,356,865 42.95% 1,436,206

1988 56.24% 1,743,192 42.60% 1,320,352

1984 60.09% 1,933,630 39.20% 1,261,323

1980 51.97% 1,546,557 38.56% 1,147,364

1976 50.08% 1,509,688 47.92% 1,444,653

1972 61.57% 1,845,502 36.77% 1,102,211

1968 46.10% 1,325,467 43.97% 1,264,206

1964 33.86% 963,843 65.61% 1,867,671

1960 49.16% 1,363,324 49.96% 1,385,415

1956 64.68% 1,606,942 34.23% 850,337

1952 56.81% 1,374,613 41.99% 1,015,902

1948 50.33% 981,124 49.96% 1,385,415

In past elections, New Jersey
Jersey
was a Republican bastion, but recently has become a Democratic stronghold. Currently, New Jersey
Jersey
Democrats have majority control of both houses of the New Jersey
Jersey
Legislature (Senate, 24–16, and Assembly, 47–33), a 7–5 split of the state's twelve seats in the U.S. House of Representatives, and both U.S. Senate seats. Although the Democratic Party is very successful statewide, the state had a Republican governor from 1994 to 2002, as Christie Todd Whitman
Christie Todd Whitman
won twice with 47% and 49% of the votes, and in the 2009 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie
Chris Christie
defeated incumbent Democrat Jon Corzine
Jon Corzine
with 48%. In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Christie won reelection with over 60% of the votes. Because each candidate for lieutenant governor runs on the same ticket as the party's candidate for governor, the current Governor and Lieutenant Governor are members of the Democratic Party. The governor's appointments to cabinet and non-cabinet positions may be from either party; for instance, the Attorney General is a Democrat. In federal elections, the state leans heavily towards the Democratic Party. For many years in the past, however, it was a Republican stronghold, having given comfortable margins of victory to the Republican candidate in the close elections of 1948, 1968, and 1976. New Jersey
Jersey
was a crucial swing state in the elections of 1960, 1968, and 1992. The last elected Republican to hold a Senate seat from New Jersey
Jersey
was Clifford P. Case in 1979. Newark Mayor Cory Booker
Cory Booker
was elected in October 2013 to join Robert Menendez to make New Jersey
Jersey
the first state with concurrent serving black and Latino U.S. senators.[177] The state's Democratic strongholds include Camden County, Essex County (typically the state's most Democratic county—it includes Newark, the state's largest city), Hudson County (the second-strongest Democratic county, including Jersey
Jersey
City, the state's second-largest city); Mercer County (especially around Trenton and Princeton), Middlesex County, and Union County (including Elizabeth, the state's fourth-largest city).[178] The suburban northwestern and southeastern counties of the state are reliably Republican: Republicans have support along the coast in Ocean County and in the mountainous northwestern part of the state, especially Morris County, Sussex County, and Warren County. Other suburban counties, especially Bergen County
Bergen County
and Burlington County had the majority of votes go to the Democratic Party. In the 2008 election, President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
won New Jersey
Jersey
with approximately fifty-seven percent of the vote, compared to McCain's forty-one percent. Independent candidate Ralph Nader
Ralph Nader
garnered less than one percent of the vote. About one-third of the state's counties are considered "swing" counties, but some go more one way than others. For example, Salem County, the same is true with Passaic County, with a highly populated Hispanic Democratic south (including Paterson, the state's third-largest city) and a rural, Republican north; with the "swing" township of Wayne in the middle. Other "swing" counties like Monmouth County, Somerset County, and Cape May
Cape May
County tend to go Republican, as they also have population in conservative areas, although Somerset has recently trended Democratic. To be eligible to vote in a U.S. election, all New Jerseyans are required to start their residency in the state 30 days prior to an election and register 21 days prior to election day.[179] Capital punishment Main article: Capital punishment in New Jersey On December 17, 2007, Governor Jon Corzine
Jon Corzine
signed into law a bill that would eliminate the death penalty in New Jersey. New Jersey
Jersey
is the first state to pass such legislation since Iowa
Iowa
and West Virginia eliminated executions in 1965.[180] Corzine also signed a bill that would downgrade the Death Row prisoners' sentences from "Death" to "Life in Prison with No Parole."[181] Points of interest Museums See also: List of museums in New Jersey

Museum Location Year opened Type

New Jersey
Jersey
State Museum Trenton 1895 General Education

Liberty
Liberty
Science Center Liberty
Liberty
State Park, Jersey
Jersey
City 1993 Science museum

Maywood Station Museum Maywood 2004 Railroad museum

Montclair Art Museum Montclair 1914 Art museum

Newark Museum Newark 1909 Natural Science & Art museum

Princeton University
Princeton University
Art Museum Princeton 1884 Art museum

Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
Museum Menlo Park 1938 Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
museum

The Jersey
Jersey
City skyline from Liberty
Liberty
Island

Entertainment and concert venues

View of Wildwood, Cape May
Cape May
County from the Mariner's Landing Ferris wheel at night

Visitors and residents take advantage of and contribute to performances at the numerous music, theater, and dance companies and venues located throughout the state, including:

Venue Type Location Year opened

Prudential Center Arena Newark 2007

Meadowlands Arena Arena Meadowlands Sports Complex 1981

PNC Bank Arts Center Amphitheater Holmdel 1977

NJPAC Concert Hall Newark 1997

Paper Mill Playhouse Regional Theater Millburn 1968

State Theater Regional Theater New Brunswick 1921

Boardwalk
Boardwalk
Hall Arena Atlantic City 1926

Susquehanna Bank Center Amphitheater Camden 1995

Sun National Bank Center Arena Trenton 1999

Theme parks

Skyline of Six Flags Great Adventure
Six Flags Great Adventure
in Jackson Township, Ocean County, the world's largest theme park as of 2013.[182] To the far left is Kingda Ka, the world's tallest roller coaster.[183]

Main Park Other Parks Location Year opened

Six Flags Great Adventure Six Flags Hurricane
Hurricane
Harbor Jackson 1974

Clementon Amusement Park Splash World Clementon 1907

Land of Make Believe Pirate's Cove Hope 1958

Morey's Piers Raging Waters and Ocean Oasis Waterparks Wildwood 1969

Mountain Creek Waterpark None Vernon 1998

Casino
Casino
Pier None Seaside Heights 1960

Jersey
Jersey
Shore Main article: Jersey
Jersey
Shore

Belmar, on the Jersey
Jersey
Shore.

Culture General Like every state, New Jersey
Jersey
has its own cuisine, religious communities, museums, and halls of fame. New Jersey
Jersey
is the birthplace of modern inventions such as: FM radio, the motion picture camera, the lithium battery, the light bulb, transistors, and the electric train. Other New Jersey
Jersey
creations include: the drive-in movie, the cultivated blueberry, cranberry sauce, the postcard, the boardwalk, the zipper, the phonograph, saltwater taffy, the dirigible, the seedless watermelon,[184] the first use of a submarine in warfare, and the ice cream cone.[185]

A 1950s-style diner in Orange

There are mineral museums in Franklin and Ogdensburg. Diners are common in New Jersey. The state is home to many diner manufacturers and has more diners than any other state: over 600. There are more diners in the state of New Jersey
Jersey
than any other place in the world.[186] New Jersey
Jersey
is the only state without a state song. I'm From New Jersey is incorrectly listed on many websites as being the New Jersey
Jersey
state song, but it was not even a contender when in 1996 the New Jersey
Jersey
Arts Council submitted their suggestions to the New Jersey Legislature.[187] New Jersey
Jersey
is frequently the target of jokes in American culture,[188] especially from New York City-based television shows, such as Saturday Night Live. Academic Michael Aaron Rockland attributes this to New Yorkers' view that New Jersey
Jersey
is the beginning of Middle America. The New Jersey
Jersey
Turnpike, which runs between two major East Coast cities, New York City
New York City
and Philadelphia, is also cited as a reason, as people who traverse through the state may only see its industrial zones.[189] Reality television shows like Jersey
Jersey
Shore and The Real Housewives of New Jersey
Jersey
have reinforced stereotypical views of New Jersey culture,[190] but Rockland cited The Sopranos
The Sopranos
and the music of Bruce Springsteen as exporting a more positive image.[189] Cuisine Main article: Cuisine of New Jersey New Jersey
Jersey
is known for several foods developed within the region, including pork roll (or Taylor ham), cheesesteaks, and scrapple. Credit for the development of submarine sandwiches is claimed by several states with substantial Italian American populations, including New Jersey.[191] Music Main article: Music of New Jersey New Jersey
Jersey
has long been an important area for both rock and rap music. Some prominent musicians from or with significant connections to New Jersey
Jersey
are:

Singer Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
was born in Hoboken. He sang with a neighborhood vocal group, the Hoboken Four, and appeared in neighborhood theater amateur shows before he became an Academy Award–winning actor. Bruce Springsteen, who has sung of New Jersey
Jersey
life on most of his albums, is from Freehold. Some of his songs that represent New Jersey life are "Born to Run", "Spirit In The Night," "Rosalita (Come Out Tonight)", "Thunder Road", "Atlantic City", and "Jungleland". The Jonas Brothers
Jonas Brothers
all reside in Wyckoff, New Jersey, where the eldest and youngest brothers of the group, Kevin and Frankie Jonas, were born. Irvington's Queen Latifah
Queen Latifah
was the first female rapper to succeed in music, film, and television.[citation needed] Lauryn Hill
Lauryn Hill
is from South Orange, New Jersey. Her 1998 debut solo album, The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill, sold 10 million copies internationally.[citation needed] She also sold millions with The Fugees second album The Score.[citation needed] Southside Johnny, eponymous leader of Southside Johnny
Southside Johnny
and the Asbury Jukes was raised in Ocean Grove. He is considered the "Grandfather of the New Jersey
Jersey
Sound"[citation needed] and is cited by Jersey-born Jon Bon Jovi
Bon Jovi
as his reason for singing.[citation needed] Redman (Reggie Noble) was born, raised, and resides in Newark. He is the most successful African-American solo hip-hop artist out of New Jersey.[citation needed] All members of The Sugarhill Gang
The Sugarhill Gang
were born in Englewood.[citation needed] Roc-A-Fella Records rap producer Just Blaze
Just Blaze
is from Paterson, New Jersey.[192] Jon Bon Jovi, from Sayreville, reached fame in the 1980s with hard rock outfit Bon Jovi. The band has also written many songs about life in New Jersey
Jersey
including "Livin' On A Prayer"[citation needed] and named one of their albums after the state. (see New Jersey) Singer Dionne Warwick
Dionne Warwick
was born in East Orange.[193] Singer Whitney Houston
Whitney Houston
(who is Dionne Warwick's cousin) was born in Newark, and grew up in neighboring East Orange.[194] Jazz
Jazz
pianist and bandleader Count Basie
Count Basie
was born in Red Bank in 1904.[195] In the 1960s, he collaborated on several albums with fellow New Jersey
Jersey
native Frank Sinatra.[citation needed] The Count Basie Theatre in Red Bank is named in his honor. Parliament-Funkadelic, the funk music collective, was formed in Plainfield by George Clinton.[citation needed] Asbury Park is home of The Stone Pony, which Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
and Bon Jovi frequented early in their careers[196] Hip-hop
Hip-hop
pioneers Naughty By Nature
Naughty By Nature
are from East Orange.[197] In 1964, the Isley Brothers founded the record label T-Neck Records, named after Teaneck, their home at the time.[198] The Broadway musical " Jersey
Jersey
Boys" is based on the lives of the members of the Four Seasons, three of whose members were born in New Jersey
Jersey
(Tommy DeVito, Frankie Valli, and Nick Massi) while a fourth Bob Gaudio was born out of state but raised in Bergenfield, NJ.[citation needed] Jazz
Jazz
pianist Bill Evans
Bill Evans
was born in Plainfield in 1929.[199] Post-hardcore
Post-hardcore
band Thursday was formed in New Brunswick, New Jersey.[200] Numerous songs reference the city.[citation needed] Horror punk band The Misfits hail from Lodi, as well as their founder Glenn Danzig.[201] Punk rock poet Patti Smith
Patti Smith
is from Mantua.[202] Indie rock veterans Yo La Tengo
Yo La Tengo
are based in Hoboken.[citation needed] They also have a song called "The Night Falls on Hoboken". New Jersey
Jersey
was the East Coast hub for ska music in the 1990s. Some of the most popular ska bands, such as Catch 22 and Streetlight Manifesto, come from East Brunswick.[citation needed] Black Label Society's and Ozzy Osbourne's famed guitarist Zakk Wylde was born in Bayonne and raised in Jackson[citation needed] The Bouncing Souls
The Bouncing Souls
original four members grew up in Basking Ridge and formed in New Brunswick in the late 1980s.[citation needed] As a child, singer Akon
Akon
grew up in Union City, New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey, and Jersey
Jersey
City, New Jersey. My Chemical Romance's Frank Iero, Gerard Way, Mikey Way, and Ray Toro all are from New Jersey.[citation needed] Cobra Starship
Cobra Starship
frontman Gabe Saporta is from New Jersey[citation needed] Punk band The Gaslight Anthem
The Gaslight Anthem
hails from New Brunswick, New Jersey.[203] Experimental metal band The Dillinger Escape Plan
The Dillinger Escape Plan
are from Morris Plains, NJ.[citation needed] Debbie Harry, born in Miami, Florida, in 1945 but raised by her adoptive parents in Hawthorne.

Comics and video games

The fictional Gotham City, home to Batman, is depicted in DC Comics and the DC Extended Universe
DC Extended Universe
as being located in New Jersey.[204][205][206][207][208][209][210][211] The Lost and Damned
The Lost and Damned
(2009), The Ballad of Gay Tony
The Ballad of Gay Tony
and Max Payne 3 (2012) take place in New Jersey. The Grand Theft Auto
Grand Theft Auto
series has parodied the state multiple times, with "New Guernsey" and " Alderney
Alderney
City" appearing as locations in games in the series.

Sports

MetLife Stadium
MetLife Stadium
in East Rutherford, home to the NFL's New York Giants and New York Jets.[212]

Main article: Sports in New Jersey Professional sports New Jersey
Jersey
currently has four teams from major professional sports leagues playing in the state, although the Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer
team and two National Football League
National Football League
teams identify themselves as being from New York.

The Prudential Center
Prudential Center
in Newark, home of the NHL's New Jersey
Jersey
Devils

Red Bull Arena
Arena
in Harrison, home of the MLS's New York Red Bulls

The National Hockey League's New Jersey
Jersey
Devils, based in Newark at the Prudential Center, is the only major league franchise to bear the state's name. The Metropolitan Area's two National Football League teams, the New York Giants
New York Giants
and the New York Jets, both play in East Rutherford, Bergen County, at MetLife Stadium.[213] Completed at a cost of approximately $1.6 billion[214] it is the most expensive stadium ever built.[212] On February 2, 2014, MetLife Stadium
MetLife Stadium
hosted Super Bowl XLVIII, the first Super Bowl played outdoors in a cold-weather city. The New York Red Bulls
New York Red Bulls
of Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer
play in Red Bull Arena, a soccer-specific stadium located in Harrison outside of downtown Newark. The sports complex is also home to the Meadowlands Racetrack, one of three major harness racing tracks in the state. The Meadowlands Racetrack along with Freehold Raceway
Freehold Raceway
in Freehold are two of the major harness racing tracks in North America. Monmouth Park Racetrack
Monmouth Park Racetrack
in Oceanport is also a popular spot for thoroughbred racing in New Jersey and the northeast. It hosted the Breeders' Cup
Breeders' Cup
in 2007, and its turf course was renovated in preparation. Additionally, New Jersey
Jersey
is home to two MLB
MLB
affiliated Minor League Baseball teams: the Trenton Thunder
Trenton Thunder
( New York Yankees
New York Yankees
affiliate) and the Lakewood BlueClaws
Lakewood BlueClaws
( Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Phillies affiliate). The following table shows the major league sports teams in the state:

New Jersey
Jersey
teams

Club Sport League Stadium (capacity) Established Titles

New Jersey
Jersey
Devils Ice hockey NHL Prudential Center
Prudential Center
(16,514) 1974 3

New York Giants Football NFL MetLife Stadium
MetLife Stadium
(82,500) 1925 8

New York Jets Football NFL MetLife Stadium
MetLife Stadium
(82,500) 1959 1

New York Red Bulls Soccer MLS Red Bull Arena
Arena
(25,000) 1994 0

College sports See also: List of college athletic programs in New Jersey New Jerseyans' collegiate allegiances are predominantly split among the four major NCAA Division I programs in the state – the Seton Hall University Pirates, the Rutgers University
Rutgers University
Scarlet Knights, the NJIT Highlanders, and the Princeton University
Princeton University
Tigers. Rutgers joined the Big Ten Conference
Big Ten Conference
in 2014. Seton Hall's basketball team has been one of the most storied programs in the Big East Conference,[citation needed] and it plays its home games at the Prudential Center
Prudential Center
in Newark. The Hall have 3 Big East Tournament Championships with wins in 1991, 1993 and most recently in 2016. Seton Hall was the national runner-up in the 1989 NCAA Tournament when they lost to the Michigan
Michigan
Wolverines in overtime. The Pirates made a huge comeback as a program in 2014 with a top-5 recruiting class nationally. The Pirates have support in the predominantly Roman Catholic
Catholic
areas of the northern part of the state and the Jersey
Jersey
Shore.[citation needed] Rutgers and Princeton have an intense rivalry – stemming from the first intercollegiate football game in 1869 – though the two schools have not met on the football field since 1980. They continue to play each other annually in other sports. Rutgers, which fields 24 teams in various sports, is nationally known for its excellent football and women's basketball programs.[citation needed] The university is planning an expansion to Rutgers Stadium, and the teams play in Piscataway, which is adjacent to the New Brunswick campus. The university also fields rising basketball and baseball programs.[citation needed] Rutgers' fan base is mostly derived from the western parts of the state and Middlesex County,[citation needed] and its alumni base is the largest in the state. High-school sports New Jersey
Jersey
high schools are divided into divisions under the New Jersey
Jersey
State Interscholastic Athletic Association.(NJSIAA)[215]'[216] Founded in 1918, the NJSIAA currently represents 22,000 schools, 330,000 coaches, and almost 4.5 million athletes. Sports are divided between 3 seasons (fall, winter, and spring). State symbols Main article: List of New Jersey
Jersey
state symbols

State animal Horse (Equus caballus)[14]

State bird Eastern goldfinch (Carduelis tristis)[10]

State freshwater fish Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)[11]

State folk dance Square dance[16]

State insect European honey bee (Apis mellifera)[13]

State flower Common meadow violet (Viola sororia)[12]

State motto " Liberty
Liberty
and Prosperity"

State song None[217]

State tree Northern red oak (Quercus borealis maxima) (syn. Quercus rubra)[15]

State dinosaur Hadrosaurus
Hadrosaurus
foulkii[18]

State soil Downer

State color Buff and Jersey
Jersey
Blue[218]

State ship A. J. Meerwald[219]

State fruit Northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)[17]

State vegetable Jersey
Jersey
tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

State shell Knobbed whelk (Busycon carica gmelin)[220]

State memorial tree Dogwood (Cornus florida)[15]

State slogan Come See For Yourself

Notable people Further information: List of people from New Jersey See also

New Jersey
Jersey
portal

Outline of New Jersey
Jersey
– organized list of topics about New Jersey Index of New Jersey-related articles

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Preceded by Pennsylvania List of U.S. states
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by date of admission to the Union Ratified Constitution on December 18, 1787 (3rd) Succeeded by Georgia

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Coordinates: 40°00′N 74°30′W / 40°N 74.5°W / 40; -74.5

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 157102040 LCCN: n80046086 ISNI: 0000 0004 0424 706X GND: 4042004-8 BNF:

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