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Nero
Nero
(/ˈnɪərəʊ/; Latin: Nero
Nero
Claudius
Claudius
Caesar Augustus Germanicus;[i] 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius
Claudius
and became Claudius' heir and successor. Like Claudius, Nero
Nero
became emperor with the consent of the Praetorian Guard. Nero's mother, Agrippina the Younger, was likely implicated in Claudius' death and Nero's nomination as emperor. She dominated Nero's early life and decisions until he cast her off. Five years into his reign, he had her murdered. During the early years of his reign, Nero
Nero
was content to be guided by his mother, his tutor Lucius Annaeus Seneca and his Praetorian prefect, Sextus Afranius Burrus. As time passed, he started to play a more active and independent role in government and foreign policy. During his reign, the redoubtable general Corbulo
Corbulo
conducted a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire. His general Suetonius Paulinus
Suetonius Paulinus
crushed a major revolt in Britain, led by the Iceni
Iceni
Queen Boudica. The Bosporan Kingdom
Bosporan Kingdom
was briefly annexed to the empire, and the First Jewish–Roman War
First Jewish–Roman War
began.[1] Nero
Nero
focused much of his attention on diplomacy, trade and the cultural life of the empire, ordering theatres built and promoting athletic games. He made public appearances as an actor, poet, musician and charioteer. In the eyes of traditionalists, this undermined the dignity and authority of his person, status, and office. His extravagant, empire-wide program of public and private works was funded by a rise in taxes that was much resented by the middle and upper classes. Various plots against his life were revealed; the ringleaders, most of them Nero's own courtiers, were executed. In 68 AD Vindex, governor of the Gaulish territory Gallia Lugdunensis, rebelled. He was supported by Galba, the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis. Vindex's revolt failed in its immediate aim, but Nero fled Rome
Rome
when Rome's discontented civil and military authorities chose Galba
Galba
as emperor. He committed suicide on June 9, 68 AD, when he learned that he had been tried in absentia and condemned to death as a public enemy, making him the first Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
to commit suicide.[2] His death ended the Julio-Claudian dynasty, sparking a brief period of civil wars known as the Year of the Four Emperors. Nero's rule is usually associated with tyranny and extravagance.[3][4] Most Roman sources, such as Suetonius
Suetonius
and Cassius Dio, offer overwhelmingly negative assessments of his personality and reign; Tacitus
Tacitus
claims that the Roman people thought him compulsive and corrupt. Many Romans believed that the Great Fire of Rome
Rome
was instigated by Nero
Nero
to clear the way for his planned palatial complex, the Domus Aurea.[5] He was said to have seized Christians as scapegoats for the fire and burned them alive, seemingly motivated not by public justice but by personal cruelty.[6] Some modern historians question the reliability of the ancient sources on Nero's tyrannical acts.[7] A few sources paint Nero
Nero
in a more favorable light. There is evidence of his popularity among the Roman commoners, especially in the eastern provinces of the Empire, where a popular legend arose that Nero
Nero
had not died and would return. At least three leaders of short-lived, failed rebellions presented themselves as " Nero
Nero
reborn", to enlist popular support.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Nero's reign (54 AD–68 AD)

2.1 Early reign 2.2 Matricide 2.3 Decline 2.4 Great Fire of Rome 2.5 Later years 2.6 The revolt of Vindex and Galba
Galba
and the death of Nero 2.7 After Nero

3 Military conflicts

3.1 Boudicca's uprising 3.2 Peace with Parthia 3.3 The First Jewish War

4 Pursuits 5 Historiography 6 Nero
Nero
in Jewish and Christian tradition

6.1 Jewish tradition 6.2 Christian tradition

6.2.1 Martyrdoms of Peter and Paul 6.2.2 The Antichrist

7 Ancestry 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links

Early life Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, Nero, was born on 15 December 37 AD in Antium.[8][9]:87 He was the only son of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Agrippina the Younger. His maternal grandparents were Germanicus
Germanicus
and Agrippina the Elder. His mother was Caligula's sister.[10]:5 He was Augustus' great-great grandson, descended from the first Emperor's only daughter Julia.[11]:2 The ancient biographer Suetonius
Suetonius
was critical of Nero's ancestors. He wrote that Augustus
Augustus
had reproached Nero's grandfather for his unseemly enjoyment of violent gladiator games. Nero's father was said to be "irascible and brutal". According to Jürgen Malitz, Suetonius
Suetonius
wrote that both "enjoyed chariot races and theater performances to a degree not befitting their position."[11]:3 Nero's father, Domitius, died in 40. A few years before his death, Domitius had been involved in a political scandal that, according to Malitz, "could have cost him his life if Tiberius
Tiberius
had not died in the year 37."[11]:3 In the previous year, Nero's mother Agrippina had been caught up in a scandal of her own. Caligula's beloved sister Drusilla had recently died and Caligula
Caligula
began to feel threatened by his brother-in-law Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Agrippina was suspected of adultery with her brother-in-law and was forced to carry the funerary urn after Lepidus' execution. Caligula
Caligula
then banished his two surviving sisters, Agrippina and Julia Livilla, to a remote island in the Mediterranean Sea.[11]:4 According to The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome, Agrippina was exiled for plotting to overthrow Caligula.[8] Nero's inheritance was taken from him and he was sent to live with his paternal aunt Domitia Lepida, who was the mother of Claudius' third wife Valeria Messalina.[12]:11 Caligula's reign lasted from 37 until 41 .[12]:11 He died from multiple stab wounds in January of 41 after being ambushed by his own Praetorian Guard
Praetorian Guard
on the Palatine Hill.[13] Claudius
Claudius
succeeded Caligula as Emperor.[13] Agrippina married Claudius
Claudius
in 49 AD and became his fourth wife.[ii][8] By February 49, she had persuaded Claudius
Claudius
to adopt her son Nero.[iii] After Nero's adoption, "Claudius" became part of his name: Nero
Nero
Claudius
Claudius
Caesar Drusus Germanicus.[iv][14] Claudius had gold coins issued to mark the adoption.[15]:119 Classics professor Josiah Osgood has written that "the coins, through their distribution and imagery alike, showed that a new Leader was in the making."[16]:231 David Shotter noted that, despite events in Rome, Nero's step-brother Britannicus
Britannicus
was more prominent in provincial coinages during the early 50s.[14]:52 Nero
Nero
officially formally entered public life as an adult in 51 AD—he was around 14 years old.[14]:51 When he turned 16, Nero
Nero
married Claudius' daughter (his own step-sister), Claudia Octavia. Between the years 51 AD and 53 AD, he gave several speeches on behalf of various communities including the Ilians; the Apameans, requesting a five-year tax reprieve after an earthquake; and the northern colony of Bologna, after their settlement suffered a devastating fire.[16]:231

An aureus of Nero
Nero
and his mother, Agrippina, c. 54

Coin issued under Claudius
Claudius
celebrating young Nero
Nero
as the future emperor, c. 50

Claudius
Claudius
died in 54 AD; many ancient historians claim that he was poisoned by Agrippina.[17] Shotter has written that "Claudius' death in 54 AD has usually been regarded as an event hastened by Agrippina because of signs that Claudius
Claudius
was showing a renewed affection for his natural son," but he notes that among ancient sources Josephus
Josephus
was uniquely reserved in describing the poisoning as a rumor.[14]:53 Contemporary sources differ in their accounts. Tacitus says that Locusta
Locusta
prepared the poison, which was served to the Emperor by his food taster Halotus. Tacitus
Tacitus
also writes that Agrippina arranged for Claudius' doctor Xenophon to administer poison, in the event that the Emperor survived.[14]:53 Suetonius
Suetonius
differs in some details, but also implicates Halotus
Halotus
and Agrippina.[v] Like Tacitus, Cassius Dio writes that the poison was prepared by Locusta, but in Dio's account it is administered by Agrippina instead of Halotus. In Apocolocyntosis, Seneca the Younger
Seneca the Younger
does not mention mushrooms at all.[14]:54 Agrippina's involvement in Claudius' death is not accepted by all modern scholars.[19]:589 Before Claudius' death, Agrippina had maneuvered to remove Britannicus' tutors and replace them with tutors she had selected. She was also able to convince Claudius
Claudius
to replace with a single commander, Burrus, two prefects of the Praetorian guard who were suspected of supporting Brittanicus.[12]:13 Since Agrippina had replaced the guard officers with men loyal to her, Nero
Nero
was able to assume power without incident.[8][20]:417 Nero's reign (54 AD–68 AD) Most of what we know about Nero's reign comes from three ancient writers: Tacitus, Suetonius, and Greek historian Cassius Dio.[21]:37 According to ancient historians, Nero's construction projects were overly extravagant and the large number of expenditures under Nero left Italy "thoroughly exhausted by contributions of money" with "the provinces ruined."[22][23] Modern historians, though, note that the period was riddled with deflation and that it is likely that Nero's spending came in the form of public-works projects and charity intended to ease economic troubles.[24] Early reign

Statue of Nero
Nero
as a boy

Nero
Nero
became emperor in 54 aged sixteen years. AD. This made him the youngest sole emperor until Elagabalus, who became emperor aged 14 in 218.[25] The first five years of Nero's reign were described as Quinquennium Neronis by Trajan; the interpretation of the phrase is a matter of dispute amongst scholars.[11]:17 As Pharaoh of Egypt, Nero adopted the royal titulary Autokrator Neron Heqaheqau Meryasetptah Tjemaahuikhasut Wernakhtubaqet Heqaheqau Setepennenu Merur ("Emperor Nero, Ruler of rulers, chosen by Ptah, beloved of Isis, the sturdy-armed one who struck the foreign lands, victorious for Egypt, ruler or rulers, chosen of Nun who loves him").[26] Nero's tutor, Seneca, prepared Nero's first speech before the Senate. During this speech, Nero
Nero
spoke about "eliminating the ills of the previous regime".[11]:16 H.H. Scullard writes that "he promised to follow the Augustan model in his principate, to end all secret trials intra cubiculum, to have done with the corruption of court favorites and freedmen, and above all to respect the privileges of the Senate and individual Senators."[27]:257 His respect of the Senatorial autonomy, which distinguished him from Caligula
Caligula
and Claudius, was generally well received by the Roman Senate.[11]:18 Scullard writes that Nero's mother, Agrippina, "meant to rule through her son."[27]:257 Agrippina murdered her political rivals: Domitia Lepida, the aunt that Nero
Nero
had lived with during Agrippina's exile; Marcus Junius Silanus, a great grandson of Augustus; and Narcissus.[27]:257 One of the earliest coins that Nero
Nero
issues during his reign shows Agrippina on the coin's obverse side; usually, this would be reserved for a portrait of the emperor. The Senate also allowed Agrippina two lictors during public appearances, an honor that was customarily bestowed upon only magistrates and the Vestalis Maxima.[11]:16 In AD 55, Nero
Nero
removed Agrippina's ally Marcus Antonius Pallas from his position in the treasury. Shotter writes the following about Agrippina's deteriorating relationship with Nero: "What Seneca and Burrus probably saw as relatively harmless in Nero—his cultural pursuits and his affair with the slave girl Acte—were to her signs of her son's dangerous emancipation of himself from her influence."[12]:12 Britannicus
Britannicus
was poisoned after Agrippina threatened to side with him.[12]:12 Nero, who was having an affair with Acte,[vi] exiled Agrippina from the palace when she began to cultivate a relationship with his wife Octavia.[27]:257 Jürgen Malitz writes that ancient sources do not provide any clear evidence to evaluate the extent of Nero's personal involvement in politics during the first years of his reign. He describes the policies that are explicitly attributed to Nero
Nero
as "well-meant but incompetent notions" like Nero's failed initiative to abolish taxes in 58 AD. Scholars generally credit Nero's advisors Burrus and Seneca with the administrative successes of these years. Malitz writes that in later years, Nero
Nero
panicked when he had to make decisions on his own during times of crisis.[11]:19 Matricide

Coin of Nero
Nero
and Poppaea Sabina

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome
Rome
cautiously notes that Nero's reasons for killing his mother in 59 AD are "not fully understood."[8] According to Tacitus, the source of conflict between Nero
Nero
and his mother was Nero's affair with Poppaea Sabina. In Histories Tacitus
Tacitus
writes that the affair began while Poppaea was still married to Rufrius Crispinus, but in his later work Annals Tacitus says Poppaea was married to Otho
Otho
when the affair began.[10]:214 In Annals Tacitus
Tacitus
writes that Agrippina opposed Nero's affair with Poppaea because of her affection for his wife Octavia. Anthony Barrett writes that Tacitus' account in Annals "suggests that Poppaea's challenge drove [Nero] over the brink."[10]:215 A number of modern historians have noted that Agrippina's death would not have offered much advantage for Poppaea, as Nero
Nero
did not marry Poppaea until 62 AD.[28][10]:215 Barrett writes that Poppaea seems to serve as a "literary device, utilized [by Tacitus] because [he] could see no plausible explanation for Nero's conduct and also incidentally [served] to show that Nero, like Claudius, had fallen under the malign influence of a woman."[10]:215 According to Suetonius, Nero
Nero
had his former freedman Anicetus arrange a shipwreck; Agrippina survived the wreck, swam ashore and was executed by Anicetus, who reported her death as a suicide.[8][29] Decline Modern scholars believe that Nero's reign had been going well in the years before Agrippina's death. After Agrippina's exile, Burrus and Seneca were responsible for the administration of the Empire.[27]:258 However, Nero's "conduct became far more egregious" after his mother's death.[8]:22 Miriam T. Griffins suggests that Nero's decline began as early as 55 AD with the murder of his stepbrother Britannicus, but also notes that " Nero
Nero
lost all sense of right and wrong and listened to flattery with total credulity" after Agrippina's death.[21]:84 Griffin points out that Tacitus
Tacitus
"makes explicit the significance of Agrippina's removal for Nero's conduct".[21]:84[30] In 62 AD, Nero's adviser Burrus died.[8] That same year Nero called for the first treason trial of his reign (maiestas trial) against Antistius Sosianus.[21]:53[31] He also executed his rivals Cornelius Sulla and Rubellius Plautus.[11] Jurgen Malitz considers this to be a turning point in Nero's relationship with the Roman Senate. Malitz writes that " Nero
Nero
abandoned the restraint he had previously shown because he believed a course supporting the Senate promised to be less and less profitable."[11] After Burrus' death, Nero
Nero
appointed two new Praetorian Prefects: Faenius Rufus and Ofonius Tigellinus. Politically isolated, Seneca was forced to retire.[27]:26 According to Tacitus, Nero
Nero
divorced Octavia on grounds of infertility, and banished her.[21]:99[32] After public protests over Octavia's exile, Nero
Nero
accused her of adultery with Anicetus and she was executed.[21]:99[33] In 64 AD, Nero
Nero
married Pythagoras, a freedman.[citation needed] Great Fire of Rome Main article: Great Fire of Rome The Great Fire of Rome
Rome
erupted on the night of 18 July to 19 July, AD 64. The fire started on the slope of the Aventine overlooking the Circus Maximus.[34][35]

The Fire of Rome
Rome
by Hubert Robert
Hubert Robert
(1785)

Tacitus, the main ancient source for information about the fire, wrote that countless mansions, residences and temples were destroyed.[34] Tacitus
Tacitus
and Cassius Dio have both written of extensive damage to the Palatine, which has been supported by subsequent archaeological excavations.[36] The fire is reported to have burned for over a week.[27]:260 It destroyed three of fourteen Roman districts and severely damaged seven more.[27]:260[37]

Coin showing Nero
Nero
distributing charity to a citizen. c. 64–66.

Tacitus
Tacitus
wrote that some ancient accounts described the fire as an accident, while others had claimed that it was a plot of Nero's. Tacitus
Tacitus
is the only surviving source which does not blame Nero
Nero
for starting the fire; he says he is "unsure." Pliny the Elder, Suetonius and Cassius Dio all wrote that Nero
Nero
was responsible for the fire. These accounts give several reasons for Nero's alleged arson like Nero's envy of King Priam
Priam
and a dislike for the city's ancient construction. Suetonius
Suetonius
wrote that Nero
Nero
started the fire because he wanted the space to build his Golden House.[38] The Golden House, also called the Domus Aurea
Domus Aurea
included lush artificial landscapes and a 30-meter-tall statue of himself, the Colossus of Nero. The size of this complex is debated (from 100 to 300 acres).[39][40][41] Tacitus
Tacitus
wrote that Nero
Nero
accused Christians of starting the fire to remove suspicion from himself.[42] According to this account, many Christians were arrested and brutally executed by "being thrown to the beasts, crucified, and being burned alive".[43] Suetonius
Suetonius
and Cassius Dio alleged that Nero
Nero
sang the "Sack of Ilium" in stage costume while the city burned.[44][45] The popular legend that Nero
Nero
played the fiddle while Rome
Rome
burned "is at least partly a literary construct of Flavian propaganda[...]which looked askance on the abortive Neronian attempt to rewrite Augustan models of rule."[15]:2 According to Tacitus, Nero
Nero
was in Antium
Antium
during the fire. Upon hearing news of the fire, Nero
Nero
returned to Rome
Rome
to organize a relief effort, which he paid for from his own funds.[46] Nero's contributions to the relief extended to personally taking part in the search for and rescue of victims of the blaze, spending days searching the debris without even his bodyguards.[citation needed] After the fire, Nero
Nero
opened his palaces to provide shelter for the homeless, and arranged for food supplies to be delivered in order to prevent starvation among the survivors.[46] In the wake of the fire, he made a new urban development plan. Houses built after the fire were spaced out, built in brick, and faced by porticos on wide roads.[47] Nero
Nero
also built a new palace complex known as the Domus Aurea
Domus Aurea
in an area cleared by the fire. To find the necessary funds for the reconstruction, tributes were imposed on the provinces of the empire.[48] The cost to rebuild Rome
Rome
was immense, requiring funds the state treasury did not have. Nero
Nero
devalued the Roman currency
Roman currency
for the first time in the Empire's history. He reduced the weight of the denarius from 84 per Roman pound
Roman pound
to 96 (3.85 grams to 3.35 grams). He also reduced the silver purity from 99.5% to 93.5%—the silver weight dropping from 3.83 grams to 3.4 grams. Furthermore, Nero
Nero
reduced the weight of the aureus from 40 per Roman pound
Roman pound
to 45 (8 grams to 7.2 grams).[49] Later years

Nero, Sestertius
Sestertius
with countermark "X" of Legio X Gemina

Nero
Nero
coin, c. 66. Ara Pacis
Ara Pacis
on the reverse.

In 65 AD, Gaius Calpurnius Piso, a Roman statesman, organized a conspiracy against Nero
Nero
with the help of Subrius Flavus and Sulpicius Asper, a tribune and a centurion of the Praetorian Guard.[50] According to Tacitus, many conspirators wished to "rescue the state" from the emperor and restore the Republic.[51] The freedman Milichus discovered the conspiracy and reported it to Nero's secretary, Epaphroditos.[52] As a result, the conspiracy failed and its members were executed including Lucan, the poet.[53] Nero's previous advisor Seneca was accused by Natalis; he denied the charges but was still ordered to commit suicide as by this point he had fallen out of favor with Nero.[54] Nero
Nero
was said to have kicked Poppaea to death in 65 AD, before she could have his second child.[55] Modern historians, noting the probable biases of Suetonius, Tacitus, and Cassius Dio, and the likely absence of eyewitnesses to such an event, propose that Poppaea may have died after miscarriage or in childbirth.[56] Nero
Nero
went into deep mourning; Poppaea was given a sumptuous state funeral, divine honors, and was promised a temple for her cult. A year's importation of incense was burned at the funeral. Her body was not cremated, as would have been strictly customary, but embalmed after the Egyptian manner and entombed; it is not known where.[57] The revolt of Vindex and Galba
Galba
and the death of Nero

A marble bust of Nero, Antiquarium of the Palatine.

In March 68, Gaius Julius
Julius
Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, rebelled against Nero's tax policies.[58][59] Lucius Verginius Rufus, the governor of Germania Superior, was ordered to put down Vindex's rebellion.[60] In an attempt to gain support from outside his own province, Vindex called upon Servius Sulpicius Galba, the governor of Hispania
Hispania
Tarraconensis, to join the rebellion and further, to declare himself emperor in opposition to Nero.[61] At the Battle of Vesontio in May 68, Verginius' forces easily defeated those of Vindex and the latter committed suicide.[60] However, after putting down this one rebel, Verginius' legions attempted to proclaim their own commander as Emperor. Verginius refused to act against Nero, but the discontent of the legions of Germany and the continued opposition of Galba
Galba
in Spain did not bode well for him. While Nero
Nero
had retained some control of the situation, support for Galba
Galba
increased despite his being officially declared a public enemy ('hostis publicus'[62]). The prefect of the Praetorian Guard, Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus, also abandoned his allegiance to the Emperor and came out in support for Galba. In response, Nero
Nero
fled Rome
Rome
with the intention of going to the port of Ostia and, from there, to take a fleet to one of the still-loyal eastern provinces. According to Suetonius, Nero
Nero
abandoned the idea when some army officers openly refused to obey his commands, responding with a line from Virgil's Aeneid: "Is it so dreadful a thing then to die?" Nero
Nero
then toyed with the idea of fleeing to Parthia, throwing himself upon the mercy of Galba, or to appeal to the people and beg them to pardon him for his past offences "and if he could not soften their hearts, to entreat them at least to allow him the prefecture of Egypt". Suetonius
Suetonius
reports that the text of this speech was later found in Nero's writing desk, but that he dared not give it from fear of being torn to pieces before he could reach the Forum.[63] Nero
Nero
returned to Rome
Rome
and spent the evening in the palace. After sleeping, he awoke at about midnight to find the palace guard had left. Dispatching messages to his friends' palace chambers for them to come, he received no answers. Upon going to their chambers personally, he found them all abandoned. When he called for a gladiator or anyone else adept with a sword to kill him, no one appeared. He cried, "Have I neither friend nor foe?" and ran out as if to throw himself into the Tiber.[63] Returning, Nero
Nero
sought for some place where he could hide and collect his thoughts. An imperial freedman, Phaon, offered his villa, located 4 miles outside the city. Travelling in disguise, Nero
Nero
and four loyal freedmen, Epaphroditos, Phaon, Neophytus, and Sporus, reached the villa, where Nero
Nero
ordered them to dig a grave for him. At this time, a courier arrived with a report that the Senate had declared Nero
Nero
a public enemy and that it was their intention to execute him by beating him to death and that armed men had been sent to apprehend him for the act to take place in the Forum. The Senate actually was still reluctant and deliberating on the right course of action as Nero
Nero
was the last member of the Julio-Claudian Family. Indeed, most of the senators had served the imperial family all their lives and felt a sense of loyalty to the deified bloodline, if not to Nero
Nero
himself. The men actually had the goal of returning Nero
Nero
back to the Senate, where the Senate hoped to work out a compromise with the rebelling governors that would preserve Nero's life, so that at least a future heir to the dynasty could be produced.[64] Nero, however, did not know this, and at the news brought by the courier, he prepared himself for suicide, pacing up and down muttering Qualis artifex pereo ("What an artist dies in me").[65] Losing his nerve, he begged one of his companions to set an example by killing himself first. At last, the sound of approaching horsemen drove Nero to face the end. However, he still could not bring himself to take his own life but instead he forced his private secretary, Epaphroditos, to perform the task.[66] When one of the horsemen entered and saw that Nero
Nero
was dying, he attempted to stop the bleeding, but efforts to save Nero's life were unsuccessful. Nero's final words were "Too late! This is fidelity!" He died on 9 June 68, the anniversary of the death of Octavia, and was buried in the Mausoleum of the Domitii Ahenobarbi, in what is now the Villa Borghese
Villa Borghese
(Pincian Hill) area of Rome.[67] With his death, the Julio-Claudian dynasty
Julio-Claudian dynasty
ended.[68]:19 When news of his death reached Rome, the Senate posthumously declared Nero
Nero
a public enemy to appease the coming Galba
Galba
(as the Senate had initially declared Galba
Galba
as a public enemy) and proclaimed Galba
Galba
the new emperor. Chaos would ensue in the year of the Four Emperors.[69] After Nero See also: Nero Redivivus legend and Pseudo-Nero

Apotheosis
Apotheosis
of Nero, c. after 68. Artwork portraying Nero
Nero
rising to divine status after his death.

According to Suetonius
Suetonius
and Cassius Dio, the people of Rome
Rome
celebrated the death of Nero.[70][71] Tacitus, though, describes a more complicated political environment. Tacitus
Tacitus
mentions that Nero's death was welcomed by Senators, nobility and the upper class.[72] The lower-class, slaves, frequenters of the arena and the theater, and "those who were supported by the famous excesses of Nero", on the other hand, were upset with the news.[72] Members of the military were said to have mixed feelings, as they had allegiance to Nero, but had been bribed to overthrow him.[73] Eastern sources, namely Philostratus II and Apollonius of Tyana, mention that Nero's death was mourned as he "restored the liberties of Hellas with a wisdom and moderation quite alien to his character"[74] and that he "held our liberties in his hand and respected them."[75] Modern scholarship generally holds that, while the Senate and more well-off individuals welcomed Nero's death, the general populace was "loyal to the end and beyond, for Otho
Otho
and Vitellius
Vitellius
both thought it worthwhile to appeal to their nostalgia."[76] Nero's name was erased from some monuments, in what Edward Champlin regards as an "outburst of private zeal".[77] Many portraits of Nero were reworked to represent other figures; according to Eric R. Varner, over fifty such images survive.[78] This reworking of images is often explained as part of the way in which the memory of disgraced emperors was condemned posthumously[79] (see damnatio memoriae).[78] Champlin, however, doubts that the practice is necessarily negative and notes that some continued to create images of Nero
Nero
long after his death.[80] The civil war during the year of the Four Emperors was described by ancient historians as a troubling period.[69] According to Tacitus, this instability was rooted in the fact that emperors could no longer rely on the perceived legitimacy of the imperial bloodline, as Nero and those before him could.[72] Galba
Galba
began his short reign with the execution of many of Nero's allies.[81] One such notable enemy included Nymphidius Sabinus, who claimed to be the son of Emperor Caligula.[82] Otho
Otho
overthrew Galba. Otho
Otho
was said to be liked by many soldiers because he had been a friend of Nero's and resembled him somewhat in temperament.[83] It was said that the common Roman hailed Otho
Otho
as Nero himself.[84] Otho
Otho
used "Nero" as a surname and reerected many statues to Nero.[84] Vitellius
Vitellius
overthrew Otho. Vitellius
Vitellius
began his reign with a large funeral for Nero
Nero
complete with songs written by Nero.[85] After Nero's suicide in 68, there was a widespread belief, especially in the eastern provinces, that he was not dead and somehow would return.[86] This belief came to be known as the Nero
Nero
Redivivus Legend. The legend of Nero's return lasted for hundreds of years after Nero's death. Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
wrote of the legend as a popular belief in 422.[87] At least three Nero
Nero
imposters emerged leading rebellions. The first, who sang and played the cithara or lyre and whose face was similar to that of the dead emperor, appeared in 69 during the reign of Vitellius.[88] After persuading some to recognize him, he was captured and executed.[88] Sometime during the reign of Titus
Titus
(79–81), another impostor appeared in Asia and sang to the accompaniment of the lyre and looked like Nero
Nero
but he, too, was killed.[89] Twenty years after Nero's death, during the reign of Domitian, there was a third pretender. He was supported by the Parthians, who only reluctantly gave him up,[90] and the matter almost came to war.[69] Military conflicts Boudicca's uprising In Britannia in 59 AD, Prasutagus, leader of the Iceni
Iceni
tribe, a client king of Rome's during Claudius' reign died. The client state arrangement was unlikely to survive the death of the former Emperor. Prasutagus' will leaving control of Iceni
Iceni
to his wife Boudicca
Boudicca
was denied and when Catus Decianus scourged Boudicca
Boudicca
and raped her daughters, the Iceni
Iceni
revolted. They were joined by the Trinovantes tribe, and their uprising became the most significant provincial rebellion of the 1st century AD.[12]:32[27]:254 Under Boudicca the towns of Camulodunum (Colchester), Londinium (London) and Verulamium (St Albans) were burned and a substantial body of legion infantry destroyed. The governor of the province Gaius Suetonius Paulinus assembled his remaining forces and defeated the Britons and restored order but for a while Nero
Nero
considered abandoning the province.[91] Julius
Julius
Classicianus replaced Decianus as procurator. Classicianus advised Nero
Nero
to replace Paulinus, who continued to punish the population even after the rebellion was over.[27]:265 Nero
Nero
decided to adopt a more lenient approach to governing the province, and appointed a new governor, Petronius Turpilianus.[12]:33 Peace with Parthia Further information: Roman–Parthian War of 58–63 Nero
Nero
began preparing for war in the early years of his reign, after the Parthian king Vologeses set his brother Tiridates on the Armenian throne. Around 57 AD and 58 AD Domitius Corbulo
Corbulo
and his legions advanced on Tiridates and captured the Armenian capital Artaxata. Tigranes was chosen to replace Tiridates on the Armenian throne. When Tigranes attacked Adiabene, Nero
Nero
had to send further legions to defend Armenia and Syria from Parthia. The Roman victory came at a time when the Parthians were troubled by revolts; when this was dealt with they were able to devote resources to the Armenian situation. A Roman army under Paetus surrendered under humiliating circumstances and though both Roman and Partisan forces withdrew from Armenia, it was under Parthian control. The triumphal arch for Corbulo's earlier victory was part-built when Parthian envoys arrived in 63 AD to discuss treaties. Given imperium over the eastern regions, Corbulo
Corbulo
organised his forces for an invasion but was met by a Parthian delegation. An agreement was reached with the Parthians: Rome would recognize Tiridates as king of Armenia, only if he agreed to receive his diadem from Nero. A coronation ceremony was held in Italy 66 AD. Dio reports that Tiridates said "I have come to you, my God, worshiping you as Mithras." Shotter says this parallels other divine designations that were commonly applied to Nero
Nero
in the East including "The New Apollo" and "The New Sun." After the coronation, friendly relations were established between Rome
Rome
and the eastern kingdoms of Parthia
Parthia
and Armenia. Artaxata
Artaxata
was temporarily renamed Neroneia.[27]:265–66[12]:35 The First Jewish War Main article: First Jewish-Roman War In 66, there was a Jewish revolt in Judea stemming from Greek and Jewish religious tension.[92] In 67, Nero
Nero
dispatched Vespasian
Vespasian
to restore order.[93] This revolt was eventually put down in 70, after Nero's death.[94] This revolt is famous for Romans breaching the walls of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and destroying the Second Temple of Jerusalem.[95] Pursuits Nero
Nero
studied poetry, music, painting and sculpture. He both sang and played the cithara (a type of lyre). Many of these disciplines were standard education for the Roman elite, but Nero's devotion to music exceeded what was socially acceptable for a Roman of his class.[21]:41–2 Ancient sources were critical of Nero's emphasis on the arts, chariot-racing and athletics. Pliny described Nero
Nero
as an "actor-emperor" (scaenici imperatoris) and Suetonius
Suetonius
wrote that he was "carried away by a craze for popularity...since he was acclaimed as the equal of Apollo
Apollo
in music and of the Sun in driving a chariot, he had planned to emulate the exploits of Hercules as well."[36]:53 In 67AD Nero
Nero
participated in the Olympics. He had bribed organizers to postpone the games for a year so he could participate[96], and artistic competitions were added to the athletic events. Nero
Nero
won every contest in which he was a competitor. During the games Nero
Nero
sang and played his lyre on stage, acted in tragedies and raced chariots. He won a 10-horse chariot race, despite being thrown from the chariot and leaving the race. He was crowned on the basis that he would have won if he had completed the race. After he died a year later, his name was removed from the list of winners.[97] Champlin writes that though Nero's participation "effectively stifled true competition, [Nero] seems to have been oblivious of reality."[36]:54–5 Nero
Nero
established the Neronian games in 60 AD. Modeled on Greek style games, these games included "music" "gymnastic" and "questrian" contents. According to Suetonius
Suetonius
the gymnastic contests were held in the Saepta area of the Campus Martius.[36]:288 Historiography

A circa 18th C woodcut of the historian Josephus
Josephus
(c. 37–100) who accused other historians of slandering Nero.

The history of Nero's reign is problematic in that no historical sources survived that were contemporary with Nero. These first histories, while they still existed, were described as biased and fantastical, either overly critical or praising of Nero.[98] The original sources were also said to contradict on a number of events.[99] Nonetheless, these lost primary sources were the basis of surviving secondary and tertiary histories on Nero
Nero
written by the next generations of historians.[100] A few of the contemporary historians are known by name. Fabius Rusticus, Cluvius Rufus and Pliny the Elder all wrote condemning histories on Nero
Nero
that are now lost.[101] There were also pro- Nero
Nero
histories, but it is unknown who wrote them or for what deeds Nero
Nero
was praised.[102] The bulk of what is known of Nero
Nero
comes from Tacitus, Suetonius
Suetonius
and Cassius Dio, who were all of the senatorial class. Tacitus
Tacitus
and Suetonius
Suetonius
wrote their histories on Nero
Nero
over fifty years after his death, while Cassius Dio wrote his history over 150 years after Nero's death. These sources contradict one another on a number of events in Nero's life including the death of Claudius, the death of Agrippina, and the Roman fire of 64, but they are consistent in their condemnation of Nero. A handful of other sources also add a limited and varying perspective on Nero. Few surviving sources paint Nero
Nero
in a favourable light. Some sources, though, portray him as a competent emperor who was popular with the Roman people, especially in the east.[citation needed]

Cassius Dio

Cassius Dio (c. 155–229) was the son of Cassius Apronianus, a Roman senator. He passed the greater part of his life in public service. He was a senator under Commodus
Commodus
and governor of Smyrna after the death of Septimius Severus; and afterwards suffect consul around 205, and also proconsul in Africa and Pannonia.[citation needed] Books 61–63 of Dio's Roman History describe the reign of Nero. Only fragments of these books remain and what does remain was abridged and altered by John Xiphilinus, an 11th-century monk.[citation needed]

Dio Chrysostom

Dio Chrysostom
Dio Chrysostom
(c. 40–120), a Greek philosopher and historian, wrote the Roman people were very happy with Nero
Nero
and would have allowed him to rule indefinitely. They longed for his rule once he was gone and embraced imposters when they appeared:

Indeed the truth about this has not come out even yet; for so far as the rest of his subjects were concerned, there was nothing to prevent his continuing to be Emperor for all time, seeing that even now everybody wishes he were still alive. And the great majority do believe that he still is, although in a certain sense he has died not once but often along with those who had been firmly convinced that he was still alive.[103]

Epictetus

Epictetus
Epictetus
(c. 55–135) was the slave to Nero's scribe Epaphroditos.[104] He makes a few passing negative comments on Nero's character in his work, but makes no remarks on the nature of his rule. He describes Nero
Nero
as a spoiled, angry and unhappy man.[citation needed]

Josephus

The historian Josephus
Josephus
(c. 37–100), while calling Nero
Nero
a tyrant, was also the first to mention bias against Nero. Of other historians, he said:

But I omit any further discourse about these affairs; for there have been a great many who have composed the history of Nero; some of which have departed from the truth of facts out of favour, as having received benefits from him; while others, out of hatred to him, and the great ill-will which they bore him, have so impudently raved against him with their lies, that they justly deserve to be condemned. Nor do I wonder at such as have told lies of Nero, since they have not in their writings preserved the truth of history as to those facts that were earlier than his time, even when the actors could have no way incurred their hatred, since those writers lived a long time after them.[105]

Lucan

Though more of a poet than historian, Lucanus (c. 39–65) has one of the kindest accounts of Nero's rule. He writes of peace and prosperity under Nero
Nero
in contrast to previous war and strife. Ironically, he was later involved in a conspiracy to overthrow Nero
Nero
and was executed.[106]

Philostratus

Philostratus II "the Athenian" (c. 172–250) spoke of Nero
Nero
in the Life of Apollonius Tyana
Life of Apollonius Tyana
(Books 4–5). Though he has a generally bad or dim view of Nero, he speaks of others' positive reception of Nero in the East.[citation needed]

Pliny the Elder

The history of Nero
Nero
by Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(c. 24–79) did not survive. Still, there are several references to Nero
Nero
in Pliny's Natural Histories. Pliny has one of the worst opinions of Nero
Nero
and calls him an "enemy of mankind."[107]

Plutarch

Plutarch
Plutarch
(c. 46–127) mentions Nero
Nero
indirectly in his account of the Life of Galba
Galba
and the Life of Otho, as well as in the Vision of Thespesius in Book 7 of the Moralia, where a voice orders that Nero's soul be transferred to a more offensive species.[108] Nero
Nero
is portrayed as a tyrant, but those that replace him are not described as better.

Seneca the Younger

It is not surprising that Seneca (c. 4 BC–65), Nero's teacher and advisor, writes very well of Nero.[109]

Suetonius

Main article: Lives of the Twelve Caesars Suetonius
Suetonius
(c. 69–130) was a member of the equestrian order, and he was the head of the department of the imperial correspondence. While in this position, Suetonius
Suetonius
started writing biographies of the emperors, accentuating the anecdotal and sensational aspects.[citation needed]

Tacitus

Main article: Annals (Tacitus) The Annals by Tacitus
Tacitus
(c. 56–117) is the most detailed and comprehensive history on the rule of Nero, despite being incomplete after the year 66 AD. Tacitus
Tacitus
described the rule of the Julio-Claudian emperors as generally unjust. He also thought that existing writing on them was unbalanced:

The histories of Tiberius, Caius, Claudius
Claudius
and Nero, while they were in power, were falsified through terror, and after their death were written under the irritation of a recent hatred.[110]

Tacitus
Tacitus
was the son of a procurator, who married into the elite family of Agricola. He entered his political life as a senator after Nero's death and, by Tacitus' own admission, owed much to Nero's rivals. Realising that this bias may be apparent to others, Tacitus
Tacitus
protests that his writing is true.[111]

Girolamo Cardano

In 1562 Girolamo Cardano
Girolamo Cardano
published in Basel his Encomium Neronis, which was one of the first historical references of the Modern era
Modern era
to portray Nero
Nero
in a positive light.[citation needed] Nero
Nero
in Jewish and Christian tradition Jewish tradition At the end of 66 AD, conflict broke out between Greeks and Jews in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Caesarea. According to the Talmud, Nero
Nero
went to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and shot arrows in all four directions. All the arrows landed in the city. He then asked a passing child to repeat the verse he had learned that day. The child responded, "I will lay my vengeance upon Edom by the hand of my people Israel" (Ez. 25,14). Nero
Nero
became terrified, believing that God wanted the Temple in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to be destroyed, but would punish the one to carry it out. Nero
Nero
said, "He desires to lay waste His House and to lay the blame on me," whereupon he fled and converted to Judaism to avoid such retribution.[112] Vespasian
Vespasian
was then dispatched to put down the rebellion. The Talmud
Talmud
adds that the sage Reb Meir Baal HaNess, Rabbi Meir
Rabbi Meir
or Rabbi Meir
Rabbi Meir
Baal HaNes ( Rabbi Meir
Rabbi Meir
the miracle maker) was a Jewish sage who lived in the time of the Mishna
Mishna
a prominent supporter of the Bar Kokhba rebellion against Roman rule. He was considered one of the greatest of the Tannaim of the third generation (139-163). According to the Talmud, his father was a descendant of the Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
Nero who had converted to Judaism. His wife Bruriah is one of the few women cited in the Gemara. He is the third most frequently mentioned sage in the Mishnah.[113] Roman and Greek sources nowhere report Nero's alleged trip to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
or his alleged conversion to Judaism.[114] There is also no record of Nero
Nero
having any offspring who survived infancy: his only recorded child, Claudia Augusta, died aged 4 months. Christian tradition

A Christian Dirce, by Henryk Siemiradzki. A Christian woman is martyred in this re-enactment of the myth of Dirce.

Nero's Torches

Non-Christian historian Tacitus
Tacitus
describes Nero
Nero
extensively torturing and executing Christians after the fire of 64.[6] Suetonius
Suetonius
also mentions Nero
Nero
punishing Christians, though he does so because they are "given to a new and mischievous superstition" and does not connect it with the fire.[115] Christian writer Tertullian
Tertullian
(c. 155–230) was the first to call Nero the first persecutor of Christians. He wrote, "Examine your records. There you will find that Nero
Nero
was the first that persecuted this doctrine".[116] Lactantius
Lactantius
(c. 240–320) also said that Nero
Nero
"first persecuted the servants of God".[117] as does Sulpicius Severus.[118] However, Suetonius
Suetonius
writes that, "since the Jews constantly made disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus, the [emperor Claudius] expelled them from Rome" ("Iudaeos impulsore Chresto assidue tumultuantis Roma expulit").[119] These expelled "Jews" may have been early Christians, although Suetonius
Suetonius
is not explicit. Nor is the Bible explicit, calling Aquila of Pontus and his wife, Priscilla, both expelled from Italy at the time, "Jews".[120] Martyrdoms of Peter and Paul The first text to suggest that Nero
Nero
ordered the execution of an apostle is a letter by Clement to the Corinthians traditionally dated to around 96 A.D.[121]:123– The apocryphal Ascension of Isaiah, a Christian writing from the 2nd century, says, "the slayer of his mother, who himself (even) this king, will persecute the plant which the Twelve Apostles of the Beloved have planted. Of the Twelve one will be delivered into his hands"; this is interpreted as referring to Nero.[122] Bishop
Bishop
Eusebius
Eusebius
of Caesarea
Caesarea
(c. 275–339) was the first to write explicitly that Paul was beheaded in Rome
Rome
during the reign of Nero.[123] He states that Nero's persecution led to Peter and Paul's deaths, but that Nero
Nero
did not give any specific orders. However, several other accounts going back to the 1st century have Paul surviving his two years in Rome
Rome
and travelling to Hispania, before facing trial in Rome
Rome
again prior to his death.[124] Peter is first said to have been crucified upside-down in Rome
Rome
during Nero's reign (but not by Nero) in the apocryphal Acts of Peter
Acts of Peter
(c. 200).[125] The account ends with Paul still alive and Nero
Nero
abiding by God's command not to persecute any more Christians. By the 4th century, a number of writers were stating that Nero
Nero
killed Peter and Paul.[126] The Antichrist Main articles: Antichrist, The Beast (Revelation), and Number of the Beast The Sibylline Oracles, Book 5 and 8, written in the 2nd century, speak of Nero
Nero
returning and bringing destruction.[127][128] Within Christian communities, these writings, along with others,[129] fueled the belief that Nero
Nero
would return as the Antichrist. In 310, Lactantius
Lactantius
wrote that Nero
Nero
"suddenly disappeared, and even the burial place of that noxious wild beast was nowhere to be seen. This has led some persons of extravagant imagination to suppose that, having been conveyed to a distant region, he is still reserved alive; and to him they apply the Sibylline verses", Lactantius
Lactantius
maintains that it is not right to believe this.[117][121]:20– In 422, Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
wrote about 2 Thessalonians 2:1–11, where he believed Paul mentioned the coming of the Antichrist. Though he rejects the theory, Augustine mentions that many Christians believed Nero
Nero
was the Antichrist
Antichrist
or would return as the Antichrist. He wrote, "so that in saying, 'For the mystery of iniquity doth already work,'[130] he alluded to Nero, whose deeds already seemed to be as the deeds of Antichrist."[87] Some modern biblical scholars[131][132] such as Delbert Hillers (Johns Hopkins University) of the American Schools of Oriental Research and the editors of the Oxford Study Bible and Harper Collins Study Bible, contend that the number 666 in the Book of Revelation
Book of Revelation
is a code for Nero,[133] a view that is also supported in Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Biblical commentaries.[134][135] Ancestry

Ancestors of Nero

16. Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus

8. Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 32 BC)

17. Porcia (sister of Cato the Younger)

4. Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 16 BC)

18. ???

9. Aemilia Lepida

19. ???

2. Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 32)

20. Marcus Antonius Creticus

10. Mark Antony

21. Julia

5. Antonia Major

22. Gaius Octavius

11. Octavia

23. Atia

1. Nero

24. Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
Nero
Nero
(praetor 42 BC)

12. Drusus

25. Livia

6. Germanicus

26. Mark Antony

13. Antonia Minor

27. Octavia

3. Agrippina the Younger

28. Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa

14. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa

29. ???

7. Agrippina the Elder

30. Augustus

15. Julia the Elder

31. Scribonia

See also

Nero
Nero
in popular culture

Notes

^ Classical Latin
Latin
spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation of the names of Nero: LVCIVS DOMITIVS AHENOBARBVS IPA: ['luː.ki.ʊs dɔ'mɪ.ti.ʊs a.eː.nɔ'bar.bʊs], NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS IPA: ['nɛ.roː 'klau̯.di.ʊs ˈkae̯.sar au̯ˈgʊs.tʊs gɛr'maː.nɪ.kʊs] ^ Tacitus
Tacitus
wrote the following about Agrippina's marriage to Claudius: "From this moment the country was transformed. Complete obedience was accorded to a woman—and not a woman like Messalina who toyed with national affairs. This was a rigorous, almost masculine, despotism. In public, Agrippina was austere and often arrogant. Her private life was chaste—unless power was to be gained. Her passion to acquire money was unbounded; she wanted it as a stepping stone to supremacy.[12]:11 ^ According to The Oxford Encyclopedia of Greece and Rome
Rome
Nero
Nero
was adopted in 50 AD.[8] ^ For further information see adoption in Rome. ^ Suetonius
Suetonius
wrote "It is commonly agreed that Claudius
Claudius
was killed by poison. There is, however, disagreement as to where and by whom it was administered. Some record that, when he was at a feast with priests on the citadel, it was given to him by his taster, the eunuch Halotus, others that it was given him at a family dinner by Agrippina herself, offering him the drug in a dish of mushrooms, a kind of food to which he was very partial...His death was concealed until all arrangements were in place with regard to his successor."[18]:193 ^ Sources describe Acte as a slave girl (Shotter) and a freedwoman (Champlin and Scullard).

References

^ Talmudic sources say that Nero
Nero
refrained from attacking Jerusalem, and even converted to Judaism. ( Gittin 56a) ^ Suetonius
Suetonius
states that Nero
Nero
committed suicide in Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero
Nero
49; Sulpicius Severus, who possibly used Tacitus' lost fragments as a source, reports that it was uncertain whether Nero
Nero
committed suicide, Sulpicius Severus, Chronica II.29, also see T.D. Barnes, "The Fragments of Tacitus' Histories", Classical Philology (1977), p. 228. ^ Galba
Galba
criticized the excesses (luxuria) of Nero's public and private spending. See Kragelund, Patrick, "Nero's Luxuria, in Tacitus
Tacitus
and in the Octavia", in The Classical Quarterly, 2000, pp. 494–515. Kragelund is citing Tacitus, Annals I.16 ^ References to Nero's matricide appear in the Sibylline Oracles 5.490–520, Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales
Canterbury Tales
The Monk's Tale
The Monk's Tale
and William Shakespeare's Hamlet
Hamlet
3.ii. ^ " Suetonius
Suetonius
• Vita Neronis". penelope.uchicago.edu.  ^ a b Tacitus, Annals. XV.44. ^ On fire and Christian persecution, see F.W. Clayton, " Tacitus
Tacitus
and Christian Persecution", The Classical Quarterly, pp. 81–85; B.W. Henderson, Life and Principate
Principate
of the Emperor Nero, p. 437; On general bias against Nero, see Edward Champlin, Nero, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003, pp. 36–52 (ISBN 0-674-01192-9 ^ a b c d e f g h i Barrett, Anthony A. (2010). "Nero". In Gagarin, Michael. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195388398. Retrieved 2017-07-01. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Dando-Collins, Stephen (2010). The great fire of Rome: the fall of the emperor Nero
Nero
and his city. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81890-5.  ^ a b c d e Barrett, Anthony A.; Fantham, Elaine; Yardley, John C. (2016-07-12). The Emperor Nero: A Guide to the Ancient Sources. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-8110-9.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Malitz, Jürgen (2005). Nero. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub. ISBN 978-1-4051-4475-9.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Shotter, David (2012-10-02). Nero. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-36432-9.  ^ a b Hurley, Donna W. "Caligula". In Gagarin, Michael. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2017-07-01.  ^ a b c d e f Shotter, David (2016). Nero
Nero
Caesar Augustus: Emperor of Rome. S.l.: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-14015-8.  ^ a b Buckley, Emma; Dinter, Martin (2013-05-03). A Companion to the Neronian Age. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-31653-5.  ^ a b Osgood, Josiah (2011). Claudius
Claudius
Caesar: Image and Power in the Early Roman Empire. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-88181-4.  ^ Grimm-Samuel, Veronika (1 May 1991). "On the Mushroom that Deified the Emperor Claudius". The Classical Quarterly. 41 (1): 178–182. doi:10.1017/S0009838800003657. Retrieved 18 September 2016 – via Cambridge Core.  ^ Catharine Edwards; Suetonius
Suetonius
[Gaius Suetonius
Suetonius
Tranquillus] (2008). Oxford World's Classics: Suetonius: Lives of the Caesars. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-953756-3.  ^ Garzetti, Albino (2014-06-17). From Tiberius
Tiberius
to the Antonines (Routledge Revivals): A History of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
AD 14-192. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-69844-9.  ^ Bradley, Pamela (2014-08-19). The Ancient World Transformed. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-67443-1.  ^ a b c d e f g Griffin, Miriam T (2013). Nero: the end of a dynasty. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-21464-3.  ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero
Nero
31. ^ Tacitus, Annals wikisource:The Annals (Tacitus)/Book 15#45 XV.45. ^ Thornton, Mary Elizabeth Kelly (1971). "Nero's New Deal". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. 102: 629.  ^ " Nero
Nero
Roman emperor". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-07-02.  ^ "Nero". The Royal Titulary of Ancient Egypt. Retrieved March 13, 2018.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Scullard, H. H (2011). From the Gracchi to Nero: a history of Rome
Rome
133 B.C. to A.D. 68. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-58488-3.  ^ Dawson, Alexis. "Whatever Happened to Lady Agrippina?". The Classical Journal. 1969: 254.  ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero
Nero
34. ^ Tacitus, Annals, XIV.13 ^ Tacitus, Annals XIV.48. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIV.60. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIV.64. ^ a b Champlin, Nero, p. 122 ^ Tacitus, Annals, XV.38 ^ a b c d Champlin, Nero, p. 125 ^ Tacitus, Annals, XV.40 ^ Champlin, Nero, p.182 ^ Roth, Leland M. (1993). Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History and Meaning, First, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 227–8. ISBN 0-06-430158-3. ^ Ball, Larry F. (2003). The Domus Aurea
Domus Aurea
and the Roman architectural revolution. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82251-3. ^ Warden reduces its size to under 100 acres (0.40 km2). Warden, P.G., "The Domus Aurea
Domus Aurea
Reconsidered," Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 40 (1981) pp. 271–278. ^ Champlin, Nero, p.121 ^ Champlin, Nero, pp. 121-22 ^ Champlin, Nero, p. 77 ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero, 38; Cassius Dio, Roman History LXII.16. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals, XV.39 ^ Tacitus, Annals, XV.43 ^ Tacitus, Annals XV.45. ^ "Roman Currency of the Principate". Tulane University. Archived from the original on 2001-02-10. Retrieved 2011-07-13.  ^ Tacitus, Annals XV.49. ^ Tacitus, Annals XV.50. ^ Tacitus, Annals XV.55. ^ Tacitus, Annals XV.70. ^ Tacitus, Annals XV.60–62. ^ Farquhar, Michael (2001). A Treasure of Royal Scandals, p.216. Penguin Books, New York. ISBN 0-7394-2025-9. ^ Rudich, Vasily, Political Dissidence Under Nero, pp. 135-136. ^ Counts, Derek B., "Regum Externorum Consuetudine: The Nature and Function of Embalming in Rome", Classical Antiquity, Vol. 15 No. 2, Oct., 1996; pp. 189-190: 193, note 18 "We should not consider it an insult that Poppaea was not buried in the Mausoleum of Augustus, as were other members of the imperial family until the time of Nerva." 196 (note 37, citing Pliny the elder, Natural History, 12.83. DOI: 10.2307/25011039  – via  JSTOR
JSTOR
(subscription required) ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LXIII.22. ^ Donahue. ^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History LXIII.24. ^ Plutarch, The Parallel Lives, Life of Galba
Galba
5. ^ Albino Garzetti (2014): From Tiberius
Tiberius
to the Antonines: A History of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
AD 14-192, p. 220 (online) ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero
Nero
47. ^ Tacitus, Annals XV.72. ^ Buckley, Emma; Dinter, Martin T. (2013). A Companion to the Neronian Age. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-31659-7. Retrieved 2013-10-28.  ^ Bunson, Matthew (2009). Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4381-1027-1. Retrieved 2013-10-28.  ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero
Nero
49. ^ Barrett, A. A (1996). Agrippina: sister of Caligula, wife of Claudius, mother of Nero. London: Batsford.  ^ a b c Tacitus, Histories I.2. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History 63. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero
Nero
57. ^ a b c Tacitus, Histories I.4. ^ Tacitus, Histories I.5. ^ Philostratus II, The Life of Apollonius 5.41. ^ Letter from Apollonius to Emperor Vespasian, Philostratus II, The Life of Apollonius 5.41. ^ M. T. Griffin, Nero
Nero
(1984), p. 186; Gibbon, Edward, The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
Vol. I, Chap. III. ^ Champlin (2003), p. 29. ^ a b John Pollini (September 2006), Review of Mutilation and Transformation: Damnatio Memoriae and Roman Imperial Portraiture by Eric R. Varner, The Art Bulletin. ^ Russell, M. and Manley, H. (2016) Sanctioning Memory: Changing Identity. Using 3D laser scanning to identify two 'new' portraits of the Emperor Nero
Nero
in English antiquarian collections, Internet Archaeology 42. Retrieved 15 June 2016 ^ Champlin (2003), pp. 29–31. ^ Tacitus, Histories I.6. ^ Plutarch, The Parallel Lives, The Life of Galba
Galba
9. ^ Tacitus, Histories I.13. ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Otho
Otho
7. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Vitellius
Vitellius
11. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero
Nero
57; Tacitus, Histories II.8; Cassius Dio, Roman History LXVI.19. ^ a b Augustine of Hippo, City of God .XX.19.3. ^ a b Tacitus, Histories II.8. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LXVI.19. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caears, Life of Nero
Nero
57. ^ Suetonius, Nero
Nero
18, 39-40 ^ Josephus, War of the Jews II.13.7. ^ Josephus, War of the Jews III.1.3. ^ Josephus, War of the Jews VI.10.1. ^ Josephus, War of the Jews VII.1.1. ^ Judith., Swaddling, (1984, ©1980). The ancient Olympic games (1st University of Texas Press ed ed.). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 9780292703735. OCLC 10759486.  Check date values in: date= (help)CS1 maint: Extra text (link) ^ "Going for Gold: A History of Olympic Controversies". www.randomhistory.com. Retrieved 2018-01-11.  ^ Tacitus, Annals I.1; Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XX.8.3; Tacitus, Life of Gnaeus Julius
Julius
Agricola 10; Tacitus, Annals XIII.20. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIII.20; Tacitus, Annals XIV.2. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIII.20; Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.13. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIII.20. ^ Tacitus, Annals I.1; Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XX.8.3. ^ Dio Chrysostom, Discourse XXI, On Beauty. ^ " Epictetus
Epictetus
- The Core Curriculum". www.college.columbia.edu. Retrieved 29 September 2017.  ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XX.8.3. ^ Marcus Annaeus Lucanus, Pharsalia (Civil War) (c. 65). ^ Pliny the Elder, Natural Histories VII.8.46. ^ Plutach, Moralia, ed. by G. P. Goold, trans. by Phillip H. De Lacy and Benedict Einarson, Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959), 7: 269–99. ^ Seneca the Younger, Apocolocyntosis
Apocolocyntosis
4. ^ Tacitus, Annals I.1. ^ Tacitus, History I.1. ^ Talmud, tractate Gitin 56a-b ^ Drew Kaplan, "Rabbinic Popularity in the Mishnah VII: Top Ten Overall [Final Tally] Drew Kaplan's Blog (5 July 2011). ^ Isaac, Benjamin (2004) The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity pp. 440–491. Princeton. ^ Suetonius
Suetonius
The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero, chapter 16. ^ Tertullian
Tertullian
Apologeticum, lost text quoted in [1], Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, II.25.4. ^ a b Lactantius, Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died II. ^ Sulpicius Severus, Chronica II.28. ^ Suetonius
Suetonius
The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Claudius
Claudius
25. ^ Acts of the Apostles 18:2. ^ a b Edward Champlin (1 July 2009). Nero. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-02936-1.  ^ Ascension of Isaiah Chapter 4.2. ^ Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History II.25.5. ^ In the apocryphal Acts of Paul, in the apocryphal Acts of Peter, in the First Epistle of Clement 5:6, and in The Muratorian Fragment. ^ Apocryphal
Apocryphal
Acts of Peter. ^ Lactantius
Lactantius
wrote that Nero
Nero
"crucified Peter, and slew Paul.", Lactantius, Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died II; John Chrysostom wrote Nero
Nero
knew Paul personally and had him killed, John Chrysostom, Concerning Lowliness of Mind 4; Sulpicius Severus
Sulpicius Severus
says Nero
Nero
killed Peter and Paul, Sulpicius Severus, Chronica II.28–29. ^ Sibylline Oracles
Sibylline Oracles
5.361–376, 8.68–72, 8.531–157. ^ Miriam T. Griffin; Tutor in Ancient History and Fellow Miriam T Griffin (11 September 2002). Nero: The End of a Dynasty. Routledge. pp. 15–. ISBN 978-1-134-61044-0.  ^ Sulpicius Severus
Sulpicius Severus
and Victorinus of Pettau
Victorinus of Pettau
also say that Nero
Nero
is the Antichrist, Sulpicius Severus, Chronica II.28–29; Victorinus
Victorinus
of Pettau, Commentary on the Apocalypse 17. ^ "2 Thessalonians 2:7 – Passage Lookup – King James Version". BibleGateway.com. Retrieved 2010-11-09.  ^ The Book of Revelation, Catherine A. Cory. ^ Revelation, Alan John Philip Garrow. ^ Hillers, Delbert, "Rev. 13, 18 and a scroll from Murabba'at", Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 170 (1963) 65. ^ The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. Ed. Raymond E. Brown, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Roland E. Murphy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1990. 1009. ^ Just, S.J., Ph.D., Prof. Felix. "The Book of Revelation, Apocalyptic Literature, and Millennial Movements, University of San Francisco, USF Jesuit Community". Retrieved 2007-05-18. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

Bibliography Primary sources

Tacitus, Histories, I–IV (c. 105) Tacitus, Annals, XIII–XVI (c. 117) Josephus, War of the Jews, Books II–VI (c. 94) Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XX (c. 94) Cassius Dio, Roman History, Books 61–63 (c. 229) Plutarch, The Parallel Lives, The Life of Galba
Galba
(c. 110) Philostratus II, Life of Apollonius Tyana, Books 4–5, (c. 220) Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, the Life of Nero
Nero
(c. 121)

Secondary sources

Benario, Herbert W. Nero
Nero
at De Imperatoribus Romanis. Champlin, Edward (2005). Nero. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01822-8.  Cronin, Vincent. Nero. London: Stacey International, 2010 (ISBN 1-906768-14-5). Donahue, John, " Galba
Galba
(68–69 A.D.)" at De Imperatoribus Romanis. Grant, Michael. Nero. New York: Dorset Press, 1989 (ISBN 0-88029-311-X). Griffin, Miriam T. Nero: The End of a Dynasty. New Haven, CT; London: Yale University Press, 1985 (hardcover, ISBN 0-300-03285-4); London; New York: Routledge, 1987 (paperback, ISBN 0-7134-4465-7). Holland, Richard. Nero: The Man Behind the Myth. Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 2000 (paperback ISBN 0-7509-2876-X). (in French) Minaud, Gérard, Les vies de 12 femmes d'empereur romain - Devoirs, Intrigues & Voluptés , Paris, L'Harmattan, 2012, ch. 4, La vie de Poppée, femme de Néron, p. 97–120 (ISBN 978-2-336-00291-0). Rogers, Robert Samuel (1955). "Heirs and Rivals to Nero". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. Johns Hopkins University Press. 86: 190–212. doi:10.2307/283618. ISSN 0065-9711. JSTOR 283618 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)).  Warmington, Brian Herbert. Nero: Reality and Legend. London: Chatto & Windus, 1969 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7011-1438-X); New York: W.W Norton & Company, 1970 (paperback, ISBN 0-393-00542-9); New York: Vintage, 1981 (paperback, ISBN 0-7011-1454-1). (Russian) Mikhail Berman-Tsikinovsky "The Pisonian Conspiracy"(Заговор Пизона)docudrama based on Tacitus Annals 15 and other sources. Failed conspiracy against Nero
Nero
led to tragic death of 26 year old Great Roman poet Lucan
Lucan
and his famous uncle Seneca, executed by Nero
Nero
order. Moscow, Wagrius plus, 2008. ISBN 978-598525-045-9 Nero
Nero
Nero: The Actor-Emperor Nero
Nero
entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith Nero
Nero
basic data & select quotes posted by Romans On Line THE LIFE AND TIMES OF NERO By CARLO MARIA FRANZERO (BTM format). Nero's depiction in Tacitus' Annals Nero
Nero
Claudius
Claudius
Drusus Germanicus
Germanicus
entry in the Illustrated History of the Roman Empire.  Pelham, Henry Francis (1911). "Nero". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 390–393. 

External links

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Nero

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nero.

Russell, Miles; Manley, Harry (2013). "Finding Nero: shining a new light on Romano-British sculpture". Internet Archaeology (32). doi:10.11141/ia.32.5.  International Society for Neronian Studies Nero, Roman Emperor, Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
online The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the First Century: Nero, PBS.org Nero
Nero
(37 AD - 68 AD), BBC.co.uk Emperor Nero: Facts & Biography, Live Science online Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
Nero: Rethinking Nero, National Geographic online

Nero Julio-Claudian dynasty Born: 15 December 37 Died: 9 June 68

Political offices

Preceded by Claudius Roman Emperor 54–68 Succeeded by Galba

Julio-Claudian dynasty 54–68 Dynasty
Dynasty
ended

Preceded by Marcus Aefulanus, and ignotus as Suffect consuls Consul of the Roman Empire 55 with Lucius Antistius Vetus Succeeded by Numerius Cestius as Suffect consul

Preceded by Lucius Duvius Avitus, and Publius Clodius Thrasea Paetus as Suffect consuls Consul of the Roman Empire 57–58 with Lucius Calpurnius Piso (57) Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus (58) Succeeded by Gaius Fonteius Agrippa as Suffect consul

Preceded by Titus
Titus
Sextius Africanus, and Marcus Ostorius Scapula as Suffect consuls Consul of the Roman Empire 60 with Cossus Cornelius Lentulus Succeeded by Gaius Velleius Paterculus, and Marcus Manilius Vopiscus as Suffect consuls

Preceded by Tiberius
Tiberius
Catius Asconius Silius Italicus, and Publius Galerius
Galerius
Trachalus as Ordinary consuls Suffect consul of the Roman Empire 68 sine collega Succeeded by Gaius Bellicius Natalis, and Publius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus as Suffect consuls

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Maxentius
Maxentius
(West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Licinius
Licinius
I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius
Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II
Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius
Julius
Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
(first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II
Justinian II
(second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian
with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II
Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.

v t e

Ancient Olympic Games

Sports

Foot races

Diaulos Dolichos Hoplitodromos Stadion

Horse races

Apene Chariot of polos Decapolon Kalpe Keles Perfect chariot Polos Synoris Synoris
Synoris
of polos Tethrippon Tethrippon
Tethrippon
of polos

Combat

Boxing Pankration Wrestling

Special

Herald and Trumpet contest Pentathlon

Winners

Acanthus of Sparta Agasias of Arcadia Agesarchus of Tritaea Alcibiades
Alcibiades
of Athens Alexander I of Macedon Anaxilas
Anaxilas
of Messenia Aratus of Sicyon Archelaus I of Macedon Arrhichion
Arrhichion
of Phigalia Arsinoe II Astylos of Croton Berenice I of Egypt Bilistiche Chaeron of Pellene Chilon of Patras Chionis of Sparta Cimon Coalemos Coroebus of Elis Cylon of Athens Cynisca
Cynisca
of Sparta Damarchus Demaratus
Demaratus
of Sparta Desmon of Corinth Diagoras of Rhodes Diocles of Corinth Ergoteles of Himera Euryleonis Herodorus of Megara Hiero I of Syracuse Hypenus of Elis Hysmon
Hysmon
of Elis Iccus of Taranto Leonidas of Rhodes Leophron Milo of Croton Nero
Nero
Caesar Augustus Oebotas of Dyme Onomastus of Smyrna Orsippus
Orsippus
of Megara Peisistratos
Peisistratos
of Athens Phanas of Pellene Philinus of Cos Philip II of Macedon Philippus of Croton Phrynon
Phrynon
of Athens Polydamas of Skotoussa Pythagoras of Laconia Pythagoras of Samos Sostratus of Pellene Theagenes of Thasos Theron of Acragas Tiberius
Tiberius
Caesar Augustus Timasitheus of Delphi Troilus of Elis Varazdat
Varazdat
of Armenia Xenophon of Aegium Xenophon of Corinth

Lists of winners

Ancient Olympic victors Stadion race Archaic period Classical period Hellenistic period Roman period

Olympia Archaeological Museum of Olympia Statue of Zeus at Olympia Temple of Zeus at Olympia Modern Olympic Games Ancient Greek Olympic festivals

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 84036175 LCCN: n50065376 ISNI: 0000 0001 2141 6409 GND: 118586998 SELIBR: 221204 SUDOC: 027292320 BNF: cb11936625x (data) ULAN: 500115696 NDL: 00621202 BNE: XX1047

.