League of German Girls
National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise
National Socialist Women\'s League
Fewer than 60 (1920)
8.5 million (1945)
Black, white, red
(official, German imperial colours)
"Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein
Führer " (English: "One People, One
Nation, One Leader") (unofficial)
"Horst Wessel Song"
Politics of Germany
* Political parties
The NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS\' PARTY (German :
Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (help ·info ),
abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the NAZI PARTY
(/ˈnɑːtsi/ ), was a far-right political party in Germany that was
active between 1920 and 1945 and practised the ideology of
Its precursor, the German Workers\' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei;
DAP), existed from 1919 to 1920.
Part of a series on
* National Socialist German
Workers' Party (NSDAP) *
* Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo)
Hitler Youth (HJ)
Deutsches Jungvolk (DJ)
League of German Girls (BDM)
* National Socialist German Students\' League (NSDStB)
National Socialist League
National Socialist League of the
Reich for Physical Exercise
National Socialist Flyers Corps
National Socialist Flyers Corps (NSFK)
National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK)
* National Socialist Women\'s League (NSF)
* Combat League of Revolutionary National Socialists (KGRNS)
* Early timeline
* Hitler\'s rise to power
* Religion in
Night of the Long Knives
World War II
World War II
* Anti-democratic thought
Houston Stewart Chamberlain
Arthur de Gobineau
Arthur de Gobineau
* Hitler\'s political views
The Myth of the Twentieth Century
National Socialist Program
* New Order
Preussentum und Sozialismus
* Religious aspects
* Women in
Blood and Soil
Blood and Soil
An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races
The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century
Greater Germanic Reich
Greater Germanic Reich
Heim ins Reich
Heim ins Reich
The Passing of the Great Race
* Racial policy of
* Concentration camps
* Doctors\' trial
* Extermination camps
* Human experimentation
* Labour camps
* Racial segregation
Nazism outside of Germany
American Nazi Party
Aria Party (Persia)
Arrow Cross Party
Arrow Cross Party (Hungary)
Azure Party (Persia)
Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party
German American Bund
German National Movement in Liechtenstein
Greek National Socialist Party
South African Gentile National Socialist Movement
Hungarian National Socialist Party
Nasjonal Samling (Norway)
National Movement of Switzerland
National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands
National Socialist Bloc (Sweden)
National Socialist League
National Socialist League (UK)
National Socialist Movement of Chile
* National Socialist Movement
(United States) * National Socialist Workers\' Party of Denmark
National Unity Party (Canada)
Nazism in Brazil
Nationalist Liberation Alliance (Argentina)
Ossewabrandwag (South Africa)
World Union of National Socialists
* Books by or about
* Nazi ideologues
Nazi Party leaders and officials
Nazi Party members
* Speeches given by
* SS personnel
Enabling Act of 1933
* Glossary of
Nazi Party emerged from the German nationalist , racist and
Freikorps paramilitary culture, which fought against the
communist uprisings in post-
World War I
World War I Germany. The party was
created as a means to draw workers away from communism and into
völkisch nationalism. Initially, Nazi political strategy focused on
anti-big business , anti-bourgeois and anti-capitalist rhetoric,
although such aspects were later downplayed in order to gain the
support of industrial entities and in the 1930s the party's focus
shifted to anti-Semitic and anti-Marxist themes.
Pseudo-scientific racism theories were central to Nazism. The Nazis
propagated the idea of a "people's community" (
Their aim was to unite "racially desirable" Germans as national
comrades, while excluding those deemed either to be political
dissidents, physically or intellectually inferior, or of a foreign
race (Fremdvölkische). The Nazis sought to improve the stock of the
Germanic people through racial purity and eugenics , broad social
welfare programs and a collective subordination of individual rights,
which could be sacrificed for the good of the state and the "Aryan
master race ". To maintain the supposed purity and strength of the
Aryan race, the Nazis sought to exterminate
Jews , Romani and Poles
along with the vast majority of other Slavs and the physically and
mentally handicapped . They imposed exclusionary segregation on
homosexuals , Africans , Jehovah\'s Witnesses and political opponents.
The persecution reached its climax when the party-controlled German
state organized the systematic genocidal killing of an estimated 5.5
to 6 million
Jews and millions of other targeted victims , in what has
become known as the Holocaust .
The party's leader since 1921,
Adolf Hitler , was appointed
Chancellor of Germany
Chancellor of Germany by President
Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January
Hitler rapidly established a totalitarian regime known as
Reich . Following the defeat of the Third
Reich at the
World War II
World War II in Europe, the party was "declared to be
illegal" by the Allied powers , who carried out denazification in the
years after the war.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Origins and early existence: 1918–1923
* 2.2 Rise to power: 1925–1933
* 2.2.1 Ascension and consolidation
* 2.3 After taking power: intertwining of party and state
* 2.4 Defeat and abolition
* 3 Political program
* 4 Party composition
* 4.1 Command structure
* 4.1.1 Top leadership
* 4.1.3 Political leadership corps
* 4.1.4 Ordinary members
Nazi Party offices
* 4.3 Paramilitary groups
* 4.4 Affiliated organizations
* 5 Regional administration
Nazi Party Gaue
* 5.2 Gaue dissolved before 1945
* 5.3 Associated organizations abroad
* 5.3.1 Gaue in Switzerland
* 6 Membership
* 6.1 General membership
* 6.2 Military membership
* 6.3 Student membership
* 6.4 Women membership
* 6.5 Membership outside Germany
* 7 Party symbols
* 8 Ranks and rank insignia
* 9 Slogans and songs
* 10 See also
* 11 Notes
* 12 References
* 12.1 Online
* 13 External links
The term "Nazi" derives from the name given in German to a party
member Nationalsozialist (German pronunciation: ) and was coined in
response to the German term Sozi (pronounced ), an abbreviation of
Sozialdemokrat (member of the
Social Democratic Party of Germany
Social Democratic Party of Germany ).
Members of the party referred to themselves as Nationalsozialisten
(National Socialists), rarely as Nazis. The term Parteigenosse (party
member) was commonly used among Nazis, with the feminine form
Parteigenossin used when it was appropriate.
The term was in use before the rise of the party as a colloquial and
derogatory word for a backward peasant , characterising an awkward and
clumsy person. It derived from Ignaz, being a shortened version of
Ignatius , a common name in
Bavaria , the area from which the Nazis
emerged. Opponents seized on this and shortened the party's name in
intentional association to the long-time existing Sozi to the
In 1933, when
Adolf Hitler assumed power of the German government,
usage of the designation "Nazi" diminished in Germany, although
Austrian anti-Nazis continued to use the term derogatorily. The use
Nazi Germany " and "Nazi regime" was popularised by anti-Nazis and
German exiles abroad. Thereafter, the term spread into other languages
and eventually was brought back to Germany after World War II.
ORIGINS AND EARLY EXISTENCE: 1918–1923
The party grew out of smaller political groups with a nationalist
orientation that formed in the last years of
World War I
World War I . In 1918, a
league called the Freien Arbeiterausschuss für einen guten Frieden
(Free Workers' Committee for a good Peace) was created in
Germany. On 7 March 1918,
Anton Drexler , an avid German nationalist,
formed a branch of this league in
Munich . Drexler was a local
locksmith who had been a member of the militarist Fatherland Party
World War I
World War I and was bitterly opposed to the armistice of
November 1918 and the revolutionary upheavals that followed. Drexler
followed the views of militant nationalists of the day, such as
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles , having antisemitic ,
anti-monarchist and anti-Marxist views, as well as believing in the
superiority of Germans whom they claimed to be part of the Aryan
"master race " (Herrenvolk). However, he also accused international
capitalism of being a Jewish-dominated movement and denounced
capitalists for war profiteering in World War I. Drexler saw the
political violence and instability in Germany the result of the Weimar
Republic being out-of-touch with the masses, especially the lower
classes. Drexler emphasized the need for a synthesis of völkisch
nationalism with a form of economic socialism , in order to create a
popular nationalist-oriented workers' movement that could challenge
the rise of
Communism and internationalist politics . These were all
well-known themes popular with various
Weimar paramilitary groups such
Nazi Party badge emblem
Drexler's movement received attention and support from some
influential figures. Supporter
Dietrich Eckart , a well-to-do
journalist, brought military figure
Felix Graf von Bothmer , a
prominent supporter of the concept of "national socialism", to address
the movement. Later in 1918,
Karl Harrer (a journalist and member of
Thule Society ) convinced Drexler and several others to form the
Politischer Arbeiterzirkel (Political Workers' Circle). The members
met periodically for discussions with themes of nationalism and racism
directed against the Jews. In December 1918, Drexler decided that a
new political party should be formed, based on the political
principles that he endorsed, by combining his branch of the Workers'
Committee for a good Peace with the Political Workers' Circle.
On 5 January 1919, Drexler created a new political party and proposed
it be named the "German Socialist Workers' Party", but Harrer objected
to the term "socialist"; so the term was removed and the party was
named the German Workers\' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP). To
ease concerns among potential middle-class supporters, Drexler made
clear that unlike Marxists the party supported the middle-class and
that its socialist policy was meant to give social welfare to German
citizens deemed part of the Aryan race. They became one of many
völkisch movements that existed in Germany. Like other völkisch
groups, the DAP advocated the belief that through profit-sharing
instead of socialisation Germany should become a unified "people's
community" (Volksgemeinschaft) rather than a society divided along
class and party lines. This ideology was explicitly antisemitic. As
early as 1920, the party was raising money by selling a tobacco called
Anti-Semit. NSDAP membership book
From the outset, the DAP was opposed to non-nationalist political
movements, especially on the left, including the Social Democratic
Party of Germany (SPD) and the
Communist Party of Germany (KPD).
Members of the DAP saw themselves as fighting against "Bolshevism "
and anyone considered a part of or aiding so-called "international
Jewry ". The DAP was also deeply opposed to the
Versailles Treaty .
The DAP did not attempt to make itself public and meetings were kept
in relative secrecy, with public speakers discussing what they thought
of Germany's present state of affairs , or writing to like-minded
societies in Northern Germany.
The DAP was a comparatively small group with fewer than 60 members.
Nevertheless, it attracted the attention of the German authorities,
who were suspicious of any organisation that appeared to have
subversive tendencies. In July 1919, while stationed in
Adolf Hitler was appointed a Verbindungsmann (intelligence
agent) of an Aufklärungskommando (reconnaissance unit) of the
Reichswehr (army) by Captain Mayr the head of the Education and
Propaganda Department (Dept Ib/P) in
Hitler was assigned to
influence other soldiers and to infiltrate the DAP. While attending a
party meeting on 12 September 1919,
Hitler became involved in a heated
argument with a visitor, Professor Baumann, who questioned the
Gottfried Feder 's arguments against capitalism; Baumann
Bavaria should break away from
Prussia and found a new
South German nation with
Austria . In vehemently attacking the man's
Hitler made an impression on the other party members with
his oratorical skills; according to Hitler, the "professor" left the
hall acknowledging unequivocal defeat. Drexler encouraged him to join
the DAP. On the orders of his army superiors,
Hitler applied to join
the party and within a week was accepted as party member 555 (the
party began counting membership at 500 to give the impression they
were a much larger party). Among the party's earlier members were
Ernst Röhm of the Army's District Command VII; Dietrich Eckart, who
has been called the spiritual father of National Socialism;
Rudolf Hess ;
Hans Frank ; and
Alfred Rosenberg , often credited as the philosopher
of the movement. All were later prominent in the Nazi regime.
Hitler's membership card in the DAP (later NSDAP)
Hitler later claimed to be the seventh party member (he was in fact
the seventh executive member of the party's central committee and he
would later wear the
Golden Party Badge
Golden Party Badge number one). Anton Drexler
drafted a letter to
Hitler in 1940—which was never sent—that
contradicts Hitler's later claim:
No one knows better than you yourself, my Führer, that you were
never the seventh member of the party, but at best the seventh member
of the committee... And a few years ago I had to complain to a party
office that your first proper membership card of the DAP, bearing the
signatures of Schüssler and myself, was falsified, with the number
555 being erased and number 7 entered.
Hitler's first DAP speech was held in the
Hofbräukeller on 16
October 1919. He was the second speaker of the evening, and spoke to
Hitler later declared that this was when he realised he
could really "make a good speech". At first,
Hitler spoke only to
relatively small groups, but his considerable oratory and propaganda
skills were appreciated by the party leadership. With the support of
Hitler became chief of propaganda for the party in
Hitler began to make the party more public, and organised
its biggest meeting yet of 2,000 people on 24 February 1920 in the
Staatliches Hofbräuhaus in München . Such was the significance of
this particular move in publicity that
Karl Harrer resigned from the
party in disagreement. It was in this speech that
the twenty-five points of the German Workers\' Party manifesto that
had been drawn up by Drexler, Feder and himself. Through these points
he gave the organisation a much bolder stratagem with a clear foreign
policy (abrogation of the Treaty of Versailles, a Greater Germany ,
Eastern expansion and exclusion of
Jews from citizenship) and among
his specific points were: confiscation of war profits , abolition of
unearned incomes, the State to share profits of land and land for
national needs to be taken away without compensation. In general, the
manifesto was antisemitic , anti-capitalist , anti-democratic ,
anti-Marxist and anti-liberal . To increase its appeal to larger
segments of the population, on the same day as Hitler's Hofbräuhaus
speech on 24 February 1920, the DAP changed its name to the
Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei ("National Socialist
German Workers' Party", or Nazi Party). The word "Socialist" was
added by the party's executive committee, over Hitler's objections, in
order to help appeal to left-wing workers.
In 1920, the
Nazi Party officially announced that only persons of
"pure Aryan descent " could become party members and if the person had
a spouse, the spouse also had to be a "racially pure" Aryan. Party
members could not be related either directly or indirectly to a
so-called "non-Aryan". Even before it had become legally forbidden by
Nuremberg Laws in 1935, the Nazis banned sexual relations and
marriages between party members and Jews. Party members found guilty
Rassenschande ("racial defilement") were persecuted heavily, some
members were even sentenced to death.
Hitler quickly became the party's most active orator, appearing in
public as a speaker 31 times within the first year after his
self-discovery. Crowds began to flock to hear his speeches. Hitler
always spoke about the same subjects: the
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles and the
Jewish question . This deliberate technique and effective publicising
of the party contributed significantly to his early success, about
which a contemporary poster wrote: "Since Herr
Hitler is a brilliant
speaker, we can hold out the prospect of an extremely exciting
evening". Over the following months, the party continued to attract
new members, while remaining too small to have any real significance
in German politics. By the end of the year, party membership was
recorded at 2,000, many of whom
Hitler and Röhm had brought into the
party personally, or for whom Hitler's oratory had been their reason
Hitler's talent as an orator and his ability to draw new members,
combined with his characteristic ruthlessness, soon made him the
dominant figure. However, while
Hitler and Eckart were on a
fundraising trip to Berlin in June 1921, a mutiny broke out within the
party in Munich. Members of its executive committee wanted to merge
with the rival
German Socialist Party (DSP). Upon returning to Munich
on 11 July,
Hitler angrily tendered his resignation. The committee
members realised that his resignation would mean the end of the party.
Hitler announced he would rejoin on condition that he would replace
Drexler as party chairman, and that the party headquarters would
remain in Munich. The committee agreed, and he rejoined the party on
26 July as member 3,680.
Hitler continued to face some opposition
within the NSDAP, as his opponents had
Hermann Esser expelled from the
party and they printed 3,000 copies of a pamphlet attacking
a traitor to the party. In the following days,
Hitler spoke to
several packed houses and defended himself and Esser to thunderous
His strategy proved successful; at a special party congress on 29
July 1921, he replaced Drexler as party chairman by a vote of 533 to
1. The committee was dissolved, and
Hitler was granted nearly
absolute powers as the party's sole leader. He would hold the post
for the remainder of his life.
Hitler soon acquired the title Führer
("leader") and after a series of sharp internal conflicts it was
accepted that the party would be governed by the Führerprinzip
("leader principle"). Under this principle, the party was a highly
centralized entity that functioned strictly from the top down, with
Hitler at the apex as the party's absolute leader.
Hitler saw the
party as a revolutionary organization, whose aim was the overthrow of
Weimar Republic , which he saw as controlled by the socialists,
Jews and the "November criminals " who had betrayed the German
soldiers in 1918. The SA ("storm troopers", also known as
"Brownshirts") were founded as a party militia in 1921 and began
violent attacks on other parties.
Mein Kampf in its first edition
For Hitler, the twin goals of the party were always German
nationalist expansionism and antisemitism . These two goals were fused
in his mind by his belief that Germany's external enemies – Britain,
France and the
Soviet Union – were controlled by the
Jews and that
Germany's future wars of national expansion would necessarily entail a
war against the Jews. For
Hitler and his principal lieutenants,
national and racial issues were always dominant. This was symbolised
by the adoption as the party emblem of the swastika or Hakenkreuz. In
German nationalist circles, the swastika was considered a symbol of an
Aryan race " and it symbolized the replacement of the Christian Cross
with allegiance to a National Socialist State.
Nazi Party grew significantly during 1921 and 1922, partly
through Hitler's oratorical skills, partly through the SA's appeal to
unemployed young men, and partly because there was a backlash against
socialist and liberal politics in
Bavaria as Germany's economic
problems deepened and the weakness of the
Weimar regime became
apparent. The party recruited former
World War I
World War I soldiers, to whom
Hitler as a decorated frontline veteran could particularly appeal, as
well as small businessmen and disaffected former members of rival
parties. Nazi rallies were often held in beer halls, where downtrodden
men could get free beer. The
Hitler Youth was formed for the children
of party members. The party also formed groups in other parts of
Julius Streicher in
Nuremberg was an early recruit and became
editor of the racist magazine
Der Stürmer . In December 1920, the
Nazi Party had acquired a newspaper, the
Völkischer Beobachter , of
which its leading ideologist
Alfred Rosenberg became editor. Others to
join the party around this time were
Heinrich Himmler and World War I
Hermann Göring .
On 31 October 1922, a party with similar policies and objectives came
into power in Italy, the
National Fascist Party , under the leadership
of the charismatic
Benito Mussolini . The Fascists, like the Nazis,
promoted a national rebirth of their country, as they opposed
communism and liberalism; appealed to the working-class; opposed the
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles ; and advocated the territorial expansion of
their country. The Italian Fascists used a straight-armed Roman salute
and wore black-shirted uniforms.
Hitler was inspired by Mussolini and
the Fascists, borrowing their use of the straight-armed salute as a
Nazi salute. When the Fascists came to power in 1922 in Italy through
their coup attempt called the "
March on Rome
March on Rome ",
Hitler began planning
his own coup.
In January 1923, France occupied the
Ruhr industrial region as a
result of Germany's failure to meet its reparations payments. This led
to economic chaos, the resignation of
Wilhelm Cuno 's government and
an attempt by the German
Communist Party (KPD) to stage a revolution.
The reaction to these events was an upsurge of nationalist sentiment.
Nazi Party membership grew sharply to about 20,000. By November,
Hitler had decided that the time was right for an attempt to seize
power in Munich, in the hope that the
Reichswehr (the post-war German
military) would mutiny against the Berlin government and join his
revolt. In this, he was influenced by former General Erich Ludendorff
, who had become a supporter—though not a member—of the Nazis.
On the night of 8 November, the Nazis used a patriotic rally in a
Munich beer hall to launch an attempted putsch ("coup d'état"). This
Beer Hall Putsch attempt failed almost at once when the
Reichswehr commanders refused to support it. On the morning of 9
November, the Nazis staged a march of about 2,000 supporters through
Munich in an attempt to rally support. Troops opened fire and 16 Nazis
were killed. Hitler, Ludendorff and a number of others were arrested
and were tried for treason in March 1924.
Hitler and his associates
were given very lenient prison sentences. While
Hitler was in prison,
he wrote his semi-autobiographical political manifesto
Mein Kampf ("My
Nazi Party was banned on 9 November 1923; however, with the
support of the nationalist
Völkisch-Social Bloc (Völkisch-Sozialer
Block), it continued to operate under the name "German Party"
(Deutsche Partei or DP) from 1924 to 1925. The Nazis failed to remain
unified in the DP, as in the north, the right-wing Volkish nationalist
supporters of the Nazis moved to the new German
Party , leaving the north's left-wing Nazi members, such as Joseph
Goebbels retaining support for the party.
RISE TO POWER: 1925–1933
This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please
help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources .
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2017)
(Learn how and when to remove this template message )
Nazi Party members in 1930 Further information:
Adolf Hitler\'s rise to power "Rise of Nazism" redirects here. For
the culmination of the rise, see
Nazi seizure of power .
Adolf Hitler was released from prison on 20 December 1924. On 16
Hitler convinced the Bavarian authorities to lift the
ban on the NSDAP and the party was formally refounded on 26 February
Hitler as its undisputed leader. The new
Nazi Party was no
longer a paramilitary organization and disavowed any intention of
taking power by force. In any case, the economic and political
situation had stabilized and the extremist upsurge of 1923 had faded,
so there was no prospect of further revolutionary adventures. The Nazi
Party of 1925 was divided into the "Leadership Corps" (Korps der
politischen Leiter) appointed by
Hitler and the general membership
(Parteimitglieder). The party and the SA were kept separate and the
legal aspect of the party's work was emphasized. In a sign of this,
the party began to admit women. The SA and the SS members (the latter
founded in 1925 as Hitler's bodyguard, and known originally as the
Schutzkommando) had to all be regular party members.
In the 1920s, the
Nazi Party expanded beyond its Bavarian base.
Bavaria maintained its right-wing nostalgia for a Catholic
Westphalia , along with working-class "Red Berlin", were
always the Nazis' weakest areas electorally, even during the Third
Reich itself. The areas of strongest Nazi support were in rural
Protestant areas such as
Mecklenburg , Pomerania
Prussia . Depressed working-class areas such as Thuringia
also produced a strong Nazi vote, while the workers of the
Hamburg largely remained loyal to the Social Democrats , the Communist
Party of Germany or the Catholic Centre Party .
Nuremberg remained a
Nazi Party stronghold, and the first
Nuremberg Rally was held there in
1927. These rallies soon became massive displays of Nazi paramilitary
power and attracted many recruits. The Nazis' strongest appeal was to
the lower middle-classes – farmers, public servants, teachers and
small businessmen – who had suffered most from the inflation of the
1920s, so who feared Bolshevism more than anything else. The small
business class was receptive to Hitler's antisemitism, since it blamed
Jewish big business for its economic problems. University students,
disappointed at being too young to have served in the War of
1914–1918 and attracted by the Nazis' radical rhetoric, also became
a strong Nazi constituency. By 1929, the party had 130,000 members.
The party's nominal Deputy Leader was
Rudolf Hess , but he had no
real power in the party. By the early 1930s, the senior leaders of the
Heinrich Himmler ,
Joseph Goebbels and Hermann
Göring . Beneath the Leadership Corps were the party's regional
leaders, the Gauleiters , each of whom commanded the party in his Gau
("region"). Goebbels began his ascent through the party hierarchy as
Gauleiter of Berlin-Brandenburg in 1926. Streicher was
Franconia , where he published his antisemitic newspaper Der Stürmer
. Beneath the
Gauleiter were lower-level officials, the Kreisleiter
Zellenleiter ("cell leaders") and Blockleiter
("block leaders"). This was a strictly hierarchical structure in which
orders flowed from the top and unquestioning loyalty was given to
superiors. Only the SA retained some autonomy. Being composed largely
of unemployed workers, many SA men took the Nazis' socialist rhetoric
seriously. At this time, the
Hitler salute (borrowed from the Italian
fascists ) and the greeting "Heil Hitler!" were adopted throughout the
Nazi Party election poster used in
Vienna in 1930
(translation: "We demand freedom and bread")
The Nazis contested elections to the national parliament (the
Reichstag ) and to the state legislature (the Landtage ) from 1924,
although at first with little success. The "National-Socialist Freedom
Movement" polled 3% of the vote in the December 1924 Reichstag
elections and this fell to 2.6% in 1928 . State elections produced
similar results. Despite these poor results and despite Germany's
relative political stability and prosperity during the later 1920s,
Nazi Party continued to grow. This was partly because Hitler, who
had no administrative ability, left the party organization to the head
of the secretariat,
Philipp Bouhler , the party treasurer Franz Xaver
Schwarz and business manager
Max Amann . The party had a capable
propaganda head in
Gregor Strasser , who was promoted to national
organizational leader in January 1928. These men gave the party
efficient recruitment and organizational structures. The party also
owed its growth to the gradual fading away of competitor nationalist
groups, such as the German National People\'s Party (DNVP). As Hitler
became the recognized head of the German nationalists, other groups
declined or were absorbed.
Despite these strengths, the
Nazi Party might never have come to
power had it not been for the
Great Depression and its effects on
Germany. By 1930, the German economy was beset with mass unemployment
and widespread business failures. The Social Democrats and Communists
were bitterly divided and unable to formulate an effective solution:
this gave the Nazis their opportunity and Hitler's message, blaming
the crisis on the Jewish financiers and the Bolsheviks , resonated
with wide sections of the electorate. At the September 1930 Reichstag
elections , the Nazis won 18.3% of the votes and became the
second-largest party in the Reichstag after the Social Democrats.
Hitler proved to be a highly effective campaigner, pioneering the use
of radio and aircraft for this purpose. His dismissal of Strasser and
his appointment of Goebbels as the party's propaganda chief were major
factors. While Strasser had used his position to promote his own
leftish version of national socialism, Goebbels was totally loyal to
Hitler and worked only to improve Hitler's image.
The 1930 elections changed the German political landscape by
weakening the traditional nationalist parties, the DNVP and the DVP,
leaving the Nazis as the chief alternative to the discredited Social
Democrats and the Zentrum, whose leader,
Heinrich Brüning , headed a
weak minority government. The inability of the democratic parties to
form a united front, the self-imposed isolation of the Communists and
the continued decline of the economy, all played into Hitler's hands.
He now came to be seen as de facto leader of the opposition and
donations poured into the Nazi Party's coffers. Some major business
figures, such as
Fritz Thyssen , were Nazi supporters and gave
generously and some Wall Street figures were allegedly involved, but
many other businessmen were suspicious of the extreme nationalist
tendencies of the Nazis and preferred to support the traditional
conservative parties instead. German NSDAP Donation Token 1932,
Free State of
During 1931 and into 1932, Germany's political crisis deepened.
Hitler ran for President against the incumbent
Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg in
March 1932, polling 30.1% in the first round and 36.8% in the second
against Hindenburg's 49% and 53%. By now the SA had 400,000 members
and its running street battles with the SPD and Communist
paramilitaries (who also fought each other) reduced some German cities
to combat zones. Paradoxically, although the Nazis were among the main
instigators of this disorder, part of Hitler's appeal to a frightened
and demoralised middle class was his promise to restore law and order.
Overt antisemitism was played down in official Nazi rhetoric, but was
never far from the surface. Germans voted for
Hitler primarily because
of his promises to revive the economy (by unspecified means), to
restore German greatness and overturn the
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles and to
save Germany from communism. On 24 April 1932, the Free State of
Prussia elections to the
Landtag resulted in 36.3% of the votes and
162 seats for the NSDAP.
On 20 July 1932, the Prussian government was ousted by a coup, the
Preussenschlag ; a few days later at the July 1932 Reichstag election
the Nazis made another leap forward, polling 37.4% and becoming the
largest party in parliament by a wide margin. Furthermore, the Nazis
and the Communists between them won 52% of the vote and a majority of
seats. Since both parties opposed the established political system and
neither would join or support any ministry, this made the formation of
a majority government impossible. The result was weak ministries
governing by decree. Under
Comintern directives, the Communists
maintained their policy of treating the Social Democrats as the main
enemy, calling them "social fascists ", thereby splintering opposition
to the Nazis. Later, both the Social Democrats and the Communists
accused each other of having facilitated Hitler\'s rise to power by
their unwillingness to compromise.
Franz von Papen
Franz von Papen called another Reichstag election in
November, hoping to find a way out of this impasse. The electoral
result was the same, with the Nazis and the Communists winning 50% of
the vote between them and more than half the seats, rendering this
Reichstag no more workable than its predecessor. However, support for
the Nazis had fallen to 33.1%, suggesting that the Nazi surge had
passed its peak—possibly because the worst of the Depression had
passed, possibly because some middle-class voters had supported Hitler
in July as a protest, but had now drawn back from the prospect of
actually putting him into power. The Nazis interpreted the result as a
warning that they must seize power before their moment passed. Had the
other parties united, this could have been prevented, but their
shortsightedness made a united front impossible. Papen, his successor
Kurt von Schleicher and the nationalist press magnate Alfred Hugenberg
spent December and January in political intrigues that eventually
persuaded President Hindenburg that it was safe to appoint
Reich Chancellor, at the head of a cabinet including only a minority
of Nazi ministers—which he did on 30 January 1933.
Ascension And Consolidation
Nazi Party leader Adolf
Hitler and SA-leader
Ernst Röhm , August 1933
Mein Kampf ,
Hitler directly attacked both left-wing and
right-wing politics in Germany. However, a majority of scholars
Nazism in practice as being a far-right form of politics.
When asked in an interview in 1934 whether the Nazis were "bourgeois
right-wing" as alleged by their opponents,
Hitler responded that
Nazism was not exclusively for any class and indicated that it
favoured neither the left nor the right, but preserved "pure" elements
from both "camps" by stating: "From the camp of bourgeois tradition,
it takes national resolve, and from the materialism of the Marxist
dogma, living, creative Socialism".
The votes that the Nazis received in the 1932 elections established
Nazi Party as the largest parliamentary faction of the Weimar
Hitler was appointed as
Chancellor of Germany
Chancellor of Germany on
30 January 1933.
Reichstag fire on 27 February 1933 gave
Hitler a pretext for
suppressing his political opponents. The following day he persuaded
the Reich's President
Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg to issue the Reichstag Fire
Decree , which suspended most civil liberties . The NSDAP won the
parliamentary election on 5 March 1933 with 43.9 percent of votes, but
failed to win an absolute majority. After the election, hundreds of
thousands of new members joined the party for opportunistic reasons,
most of them civil servants and white-collar workers. They were
nicknamed the "casualties of March" (German: Märzgefallenen) or
"March violets" (German: Märzveilchen). To protect the party from
too many non-ideological turncoats who were viewed by the so-called
"old fighters" (alte Kämpfer) with some mistrust, the party issued a
freeze on admissions that remained in force from May 1933 to 1937.
On 23 March, the parliament passed the
Enabling Act of 1933 , which
gave the cabinet the right to enact laws without the consent of
parliament. In effect, this gave
Hitler dictatorial powers. Now
possessing virtually absolute power, the Nazis established
totalitarian control as they abolished labour unions and other
political parties and imprisoned their political opponents, first at
wilde Lager, improvised camps, then in concentration camps . Nazi
Germany had been established, yet the
Reichswehr remained impartial.
Nazi power over Germany remained virtual, not absolute.
NSDAP federal election results (1924–1933)
National Socialist Freedom Movement ) 1,918,300
6.5 (No. 6)
32 / 472
Hitler in prison
National Socialist Freedom Movement ) 907,300
3.0 (No. 8)
14 / 493
Hitler released from prison
2.6 (No. 9)
12 / 491
18.3 (No. 2)
107 / 577
After the financial crisis
37.3 (NO. 1)
230 / 608
Hitler was candidate for presidency
33.1 (NO. 1)
196 / 584
43.9 (NO. 1)
288 / 647
During Hitler's term as Chancellor of Germany
AFTER TAKING POWER: INTERTWINING OF PARTY AND STATE
During June and July 1933, all competing parties were either outlawed
or dissolved themselves and subsequently the Law against the founding
of new parties of 14 July 1933 legally established the Nazi Party's
monopoly. On 1 December 1933, the Law to secure the unity of party and
state entered into force, which was the base for a progressive
intertwining of party structures and state apparatus. By this law,
the SA—actually a party division—was given quasi-governmental
authority and their leader was co-opted as an ex officio cabinet
member. By virtue of a 30 January 1934 Law concerning the
reorganisation of the Reich, the Länder (states) lost their statehood
and were demoted to administrative divisions of the Reich's government
Gleichschaltung ). Effectively, they lost most of their power to the
Gaue that were originally just regional divisions of the party, but
took over most competencies of the state administration in their
During the Röhm Purge of 30 June to 2 July 1934 (also known as the
"Night of the Long Knives"),
Hitler disempowered the SA's
leadership—most of whom belonged to the Strasserist (national
revolutionary) faction within the NSDAP—and ordered them killed. He
accused them of having conspired to stage a coup d'état, but it is
believed that this was only a pretence to justify the suppression of
any intraparty opposition. The purge was executed by the SS, assisted
Reichswehr units. Aside from Strasserist Nazis,
they also murdered anti-Nazi conservative figures like former
chancellor Kurt von Schleicher. After this, the SA continued to exist
but lost much of its importance, while the role of the SS grew
significantly. Formerly only a sub-organisation of the SA, it was
created a separate organisation of the NSDAP in July 1934.
After the death of President Hindenburg on 2 August 1934, Hitler
merged the offices of party leader, head of state and chief of
government in one, taking the title of
Führer und Reichskanzler. The
Chancellery of the
Führer , officially an organisation of the Nazi
Party, took over the functions of the Office of the President (a
government agency), blurring the distinction between structures of
party and state even further. The SS increasingly exerted police
functions, a development which was formally documented by the merger
of the offices of
Reichsführer-SS and Chief of the German Police on
17 June 1936, as the position was held by
Heinrich Himmler who derived
his authority directly from Hitler. The
formally the "Security Service of the Reichsführer-SS") that had been
created in 1931 as an intraparty intelligence became the de facto
intelligence agency of Nazi Germany. It was put under the
Security Office (RSHA) in 1939, which then coordinated SD,
criminal police , therefore functioning as a hybrid organisation of
state and party structures.
NSDAP election and referendum results in the Reichstag under Nazi
661 / 661
741 / 741
813 / 813
DEFEAT AND ABOLITION
Officially, the Third
Reich lasted only 12 years. The first
Instrument of Surrender was signed by representatives of Nazi Germany
Reims , France on 7 May 1945. The war in Europe had come to an end.
The defeat of Germany in
World War II
World War II marked the end of the Nazi
Germany era. The party was formally abolished on 10 October 1945 by
Allied Control Council and denazification began, along with trials
of major war criminals before the International Military Tribunal
(IMT) in Nuremberg.
Between 1939 and 1945, the
Nazi Party led regime, assisted by
collaborationist governments and recruits from occupied countries, was
responsible for the deaths of at least eleven million people,
including 5.5 to 6 million
Jews (representing two-thirds of the Jewish
population of Europe), and between 200,000 and 1,500,000 Romani
people . The estimated total number includes the killing of nearly
two million non-Jewish
Poles , over three million Soviet prisoners of
war , communists and other political opponents, homosexuals, the
physically and mentally disabled.
National Socialist Program
National Socialist Program was a formulation of the policies of
the party. It contained 25 points and is therefore also known as the
"25-point plan" or "25-point programme". It was the official party
programme, with minor changes, from its proclamation as such by Hitler
in 1920, when the party was still the German Workers' Party, until its
At the top of the
Nazi Party was the party chairman ("Der Führer"),
who held absolute power and full command over the party. All other
party offices were subordinate to his position and had to depend on
his instructions. In 1934,
Hitler founded a separate body for the
chairman, Chancellery of the
Führer , with its own sub-units.
Below the Führer's chancellery was first the "Staff of the Deputy
Führer", headed by
Rudolf Hess from 21 April 1933 to 10 May 1941; and
then the "Party Chancellery" (
Parteikanzlei ), headed by Martin
Directly subjected to the
Führer were the
Leader(s)"—the singular and plural forms are identical in German),
whose number was gradually increased to eighteen. They held power and
influence comparable to the
Reich Ministers' in Hitler\'s Cabinet .
Reichsleiter formed the "
Reich Leadership of the Nazi
Party" (Reichsleitung der NSDAP), which was established at the
so-called Brown House in Munich. Unlike a
Gauleiter , a Reichsleiter
did not have individual geographic areas under their command, but were
responsible for specific spheres of interest.
Political Leadership Corps
The political leadership corps of the
Nazi Party were those persons
who were most often associated as being "Nazis" in the stereotypical
sense of the word, as it was these individuals who wore brown
paramilitary Nazi uniforms, enforced Nazi doctrine and ran local
government affairs in accordance with instructions from the Nazi
The political leadership corps encompassed a vast array of
paramilitary titles at the top of which were Gauleiter, who were party
leaders of large geographical areas. From the Gauleiters extended
downwards through Nazi positions encompassing county, city and town
leaders, all of whom were unquestioned rulers in their particular
areas and regions.
To the very end of its existence, the
Nazi Party claimed to respect
the traditional government of Germany; to that end, local and state
governments were allowed to exist side-by-side with regional Nazi
leaders. In reality, by 1936 the local governments had lost nearly all
power to their Nazi counterparts, or were now controlled by persons
who held both government and Nazi titles alike. This led to the
continued existence of German titles such as Bürgermeister , as well
as the existence of German state legislatures (Landesrat ), but
without any real power.
Nazi Party membership were known by the title of
Parteimitglieder. This generic term applied to any member of the Party
who did not otherwise hold a political leadership position. Translated
simply as "Party Member", the Parteimitglieder could (and did) hold
positions in other Nazi groups, such as the SS or
Sturmabteilung . The
only insignia for the Parteimitglieder was a
Nazi Party lapel-pin;
Nazi Party members who held no leadership posts had no specific
designated uniform. Such persons often wore uniforms of other Nazi
groups, uniforms of German government agencies and could also serve in
the German armed forces. A special designation of Parteigenosse
("Party Comrade") was reserved for
Nazi Party members who had been
members of the party since the 1920s and early 30s, most of whom were
also personal associates of Hitler.
NAZI PARTY OFFICES
Nazi Party had a number of party offices dealing with various
political and other matters. These included:
* Rassenpolitisches Amt der NSDAP (RPA): "NSDAP Office of Racial
* Außenpolitische Amt der NSDAP (APA): "NSDAP Office of Foreign
* Kolonialpolitisches Amt der NSDAP (KPA): "NSDAP Office of Colonial
* Wehrpolitisches Amt der NSDAP (WPA): "NSDAP Office of Military
Amt Rosenberg (ARo): "Rosenberg Office"
In addition to the
Nazi Party proper, several paramilitary groups
existed which "supported" Nazi aims. All members of these paramilitary
organizations were required to become regular
Nazi Party members first
and could then enlist in the group of their choice. An exception was
Waffen-SS , considered the military arm of the SS and Nazi Party,
which during the Second World War allowed members to enlist without
joining the Nazi Party. Foreign volunteers of the
Waffen-SS were also
not required to be members of the Nazi Party, although many joined
local nationalist groups from their own countries with the same aims.
Police officers, including members of the
Gestapo , frequently held SS
rank for administrative reasons (known as "rank parity") and were
likewise not required to be members of the Nazi Party.
A vast system of
Nazi Party paramilitary ranks developed for each of
the various paramilitary groups.
Nazi Party paramilitary groups were as follows:
Schutzstaffel (SS): "Protection Squadron" (both
Allgemeine SS and
Sturmabteilung (SA): "Storm Division"
* Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps (NSFK): "National Socialist
* Nationalsozialistisches Kraftfahrerkorps (NSKK): "National
Socialist Motor Corps"
Hitler Youth was a paramilitary group divided into an adult
leadership corps and a general membership open to boys aged fourteen
to eighteen. The
League of German Girls was the equivalent group for
Certain nominally independent organizations had their own legal
representation and own property, but were supported by the Nazi Party.
Many of these associated organizations were labour unions of various
professions. Some were older organizations that were nazified
according to the
Gleichschaltung policy after the 1933 takeover.
Reich League of German Officials (union of civil servants,
German Civil Service Federation )
German Labour Front (DAF)
* National Socialist German Physicians' League (NSDÄB)
National Socialist League
National Socialist League for the Maintenance of the Law (NSRB,
1936–1945, earlier National Socialist German Lawyers' League)
* National Socialist War Victim\'s Care (NSKOV)
National Socialist Teachers League (NSLB)
* National Socialist People\'s Welfare (NSV)
Reich Labour Service (RAD)
German Faith Movement
German Colonial League (RKB)
German Red Cross
* Kyffhäuser League
* Technical Emergency Relief (TENO)
* Reich\'s Union of Large Families
Bund Deutscher Osten (BDO)
German American Bund
Party Gaue in 1926, 1928, 1933, 1937, 1939 and 1943
Administrative units of the
Nazi Party in 1944 See also:
Administrative divisions of
Nazi Germany and
List of Gauleiters
For the purpose of centralization in the
Gleichschaltung process a
rigidly hierarchal structure was established in the Nazi Party, which
it later carried through in the whole of Germany in order to
consolidate total power under the person of
Hitler (Führerstaat). It
was regionally sub-divided into a number of Gaue (singular: Gau)
headed by a
Gauleiter , who received their orders directly from
Hitler. The name (originally a term for sub-regions of the Holy Roman
Empire headed by a Gaugraf) for these new provincial structures was
deliberately chosen because of its mediaeval connotations. The term is
approximately equivalent to the English shire .
Anschluss a new type of administrative unit was introduced
Reichsgau . In these territories the Gauleiters also held the
Reichsstatthalter , thereby formally combining the spheres
of both party and state offices. The establishment of this type of
district was subsequently carried out for any further territorial
annexations of Germany both before and during
World War II
World War II .
The Gaue and Reichsgaue (state or province) were further sub-divided
into Kreise (counties) headed by a Kreisleiter, which were in turn
sub-divided into Zellen (cells) and Blocken (blocks), headed by a
A reorganization of the Gaue was enacted on 1 October 1928. The given
numbers were the official ordering numbers. The statistics are from
1941, for which the Gau organization of that moment in time forms the
basis. Their size and populations are not exact; for instance,
according to the official party statistics the Gau Kurmark/Mark
Brandenburg was the largest in the German Reich. By 1941, there were
42 territorial Gaue for Germany, 7 of them for Austria, the
Danzig and the Territory of the Saar
Basin , along with the unincorporated regions under German control
known as the Protectorate of Bohemia-Moravia and the General
Government , established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi
Germany and the
Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
Getting the leadership of the individual Gaue to cooperate with one
another proved difficult at times since there was constant
administrative and financial jockeying for control going on between
The table below uses the organizational structure that existed before
its dissolution in 1945. More information on the older Gaue is in the
NAZI PARTY GAUE
GAULEITER (exl. deputies)
Karlsruhe , after 1940
Robert Heinrich Wagner from 1925 (later also
BAYREUTH , renaming of GAU BAYERISCHE OSTMARK (Bavarian Eastern
Fritz Wächtler (2 June 1942 – 19 April 1945)
Ludwig Ruckdeschel from 19 April 1945.
Ernst Schlange (1925–1926)
Joseph Goebbels (1 November 1926 – 30 April 1945)
Hans Albert Hohnfeldt (1926–1928)
Walter Maass (1928–1930)
Albert Forster from 15 October 1930
Friedrich Karl Florian from 1 January 1930
Josef Terboven (
Oberpräsident ) from 1928
Julius Streicher (1929 to 1940)
Hans Zimmermann (16 February 1940 – 1942)
Karl Holz from 19 March 1942
Halle an der Saale
Walter Ernst (1 August 1926 – 1927)
Paul Hinkler (1927–1930)
Rudolf Jordan (1930 – 20 April 1937)
Joachim Albrecht Eggeling from 20 April 1937
Joseph Klant (1925–1926)
Albert Krebs (1927–1928)
Hinrich Lohse (1928 – 15 April 1929)
Karl Kaufmann from 15 April 1929
Jakob Sprenger from 1933
Hans vom Kothen (February 1933 to July 1934)
Peter Feistritzer (October 1936 – 20 February 1938)
Hubert Klausner (1938–1939)
Franz Kutschera (1940–1941)
Friedrich Rainer (1942–1944)
Joseph Grohé from 1931
Walter Schultz (1926–1927)
Karl Weinrich (1928–1943)
Karl Gerland from 1943
Wilhelm Friedrich Loeper from 1927 to 23 October 1935 with a short
Paul Hofmann in 1933
Joachim Albrecht Leo Eggeling (1935–1937)
Rudolf Jordan from 1937
MAINFRANKEN , renaming of GAU UNTERFRANKEN
Otto Hellmuth from 3 September 1928
Wilhelm Kube (6 March 1933 – 7 August 1936)
Friedrich Hildebrandt from 1925 onwards with a short replacement by
Herbert Albrecht (July 1930 – 1931)
MOSELLAND , renaming of GAU KOBLENZ-TRIER in 1942
Gustav Simon from 1 June 1931
Adolf Wagner (1933–1944)
Paul Giesler from April 1944
Nominal capital: Krems , District Headquarters:
Roman Jäger (12 March 1938 – 24 May 1938)
Hugo Jury (24 May 1938 – 8 May 1945)
Karl Hanke from 1940
Andreas Bolek (June 1927 – 1 August 1934)
August Eigruber from March 1935
Fritz Bracht from 27 January 1941
OST-HANNOVER (also known as HANNOVER-OST)
Harburg , then Buchholz , after 1 April 1937
from 1 October 1928
Bruno Gustav Scherwitz (1925–1927)
Erich Koch from 1928
Theodor Vahlen (1925–1927)
Walter von Corswant (1928–1931)
Wilhelm Karpenstein (1931–1934)
Franz Schwede-Coburg from 1935
Albert Wierheim around 1925/1926
Martin Mutschmann from 1925
Leopold Malina from 1926 to ??
Karl Scharizer (1932–1934)
Friedrich Rainer (1939–1941)
Gustav Adolf Scheel from 1941
Hinrich Lohse from 1925
Karl Wahl from 1928
Walther Oberhaidacher (25 November 1928 – 1934)
Sepp Helfrich (1934–1938)
Siegfried Uiberreither from 22 May 1938
SUDETENLAND , until 1939 known as GAU SUDETENGAU
Konrad Henlein from 1939
Bernhard Rust (1 October 1928 – November 1940)
Hartmann Lauterbacher from November 1940
Artur Dinter (1925–1927)
Fritz Sauckel from 1927
Franz Hofer from 1932
WARTHELAND , (until 29 January 1940 known as GAU WARTHEGAU)
Arthur Karl Greiser from 21 October 1939
Carl Röver (1929–1942)
Paul Wegener from 1942
Alfred Meyer from 1932
Josef Wagner (1932–1941)
Paul Giesler (1941 – 1943/1944)
Albert Hoffmann from 1943/1944
WESTMARK , renaming of GAU SAAR-PFALZ (also known as Saarpfalz)
Neustadt an der Weinstraße , after 1940
Josef Bürckel (1935 – 28 September 1944)
Willi Stöhr from 28 September 1944
Alfred Eduard Frauenfeld (1932–1938)
Odilo Globocnik (May 1938 – January 1939)
Josef Bürckel (1939–1940)
Baldur von Schirach from 1940
Eugen Mander (1925–1928)
Wilhelm Murr from 1928
AUSLANDSORGANISATION (also known as NSDAP/AO)
Hans Nieland (1930–1933)
Ernst Wilhelm Bohle from 8 May 1933
* FLANDERS , existed from 15 December 1944 (
Gauleiter in German
Jef van de Wiele )
* WALLONIA , existed from 8 December 1944 (
Gauleiter in German
Léon Degrelle )
GAUE DISSOLVED BEFORE 1945
Simple re-namings of existing Gaue without territorial changes is
marked with the initials RN in the column "later became". The
numbering is not based on any official former ranking, but merely
… TOGETHER WITH
Gustav Hermann Schmischke
Baden-Elsaß (22 March 1941) RN
Oberfranken & Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (II) (19 January 1933)
Bayreuth (2 Juni 1942) RN
Hans Schemm from 19 January 1933 to 5 March 1935, then from 5 March
Berlin-Brandenburg (1. Oktober 1928)
Berlin & Brandenburg (1 October 1928)
Ernst Schlange from 1925 to 1926, then from 1 November 1926 Joseph
Berlin-Brandenburg (1 October 1928)
Kurmark (6 March 1933)
from 1 October 1928 to 1932 Emil Holtz and from 18 October 1932 to
16 March 1933 Dr.
Süd-Hannover-Braunschweig (1 Oktober 1928)
from 1925 to 30 September 1928 Ludolf Haase (perhaps also only for
Danzig-Westpreußen (1939) RN
from 25 November 1925 to 1926 Alois Bachschmidt
Süd-Hannover-Braunschweig (1 October 1928)
from 1925 to 30 September 1928 Ludolf Haase (perhaps also only
from 1 March 1927 to 9 January 1931 Friedrich Ringshausen , then
only in 1931 Peter Gemeinder , then from 1932 to 1933 Karl Lenz
from 1925 to 1926 Anton Haselmayer , then from 1926 to 1927 Dr.
Walter Schultz , then from 1927 to 1933
Moselland (1942) merger
Ostmark & Brandenburg ()
Mark Brandenburg (1938) RN
Hannover (1928) RN
from 22 March 1925 to 30 September 1928
Julius Streicher ("Frankenführer")
Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (I) (1 Oktober 1928)
Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (II) (1 April 1932)
from 1 October 1928 to 1929
Gregor Strasser , then from 1929 to 1
April 1932 Otto Erbersdobler
Oberpfalz & Niederbayern (1 Oktober 1928)
from 1925 to 30 September 1928
Oberpfalz & Niederbayern (1 April 1932)
Bayerische Ostmark (19 January 1933)
from 1 April 1932 to 19 January 1933 Franz Mayerhofer
Niederdonau () RN
from 1927 to 1937
from 3 September 1928
Bayerische Ostmark (19 January 1933)
Oberdonau () RN
Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (I) (1 October 1928)
Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (II) (1 April 1932)
from 1 October 1928 to 1 April 1932 Franz Mayerhofer
Kurmark (6 March 1933)
from 2 January 1928 to 1933
Josef Bürckel (from 1 March 1933 also administrator of
from 1925 to 1926
Köln-Aachen & Koblenz-Trier (1931)
1925 Heinrich Haake (also known as "Heinz Haake"), then from 1925
Rheinland-Nord & Westfalen (1926)
Westfalen-Nord creation of
Düsseldorf nicht gesichert
from 1926 to 1929 Karl Kaufmann, then from 1929 to 1931 Josef
SAARLAND, also merely Saar
from August 1929 to 28 February 1933 Karl Brück , from 1 March
Josef Bürckel (also administrator of Rheinland)
SAAR-PFALZ, also SAARPFALZ
Rheinland & Saar(land) (1935)
Westmark (1937) RN
Niederschlesien "> Membership of the
Nazi Party from 1939 Main
List of Nazi Party members
The general membership of the
Nazi Party mainly consisted of the
urban and rural lower middle classes . 7% belonged to the upper class,
another 7% were peasants , 35% were industrial workers and 51% were
what can be described as middle class. In early 1933, just before
Hitler's appointment to the chancellorship, the party showed an
under-representation of "workers", who made up 29.7% of the membership
but 46.3% of German society. Conversely, white-collar employees (18.6%
of members and 12% of Germans), the self-employed (19.8% of members
and 9.6% of Germans) and civil servants (15.2% of members and 4.8% of
the German population) had joined in proportions greater than their
share of the general population. These members were affiliated with
local branches of the party, of which there were 1,378 throughout the
country in 1928. In 1932, the number had risen to 11,845, reflecting
the party's growth in this period.
When it came to power in 1933, the
Nazi Party had over 2 million
members. In 1939, the membership total rose to 5.3 million with 81%
being male and 19% being female. It continued to attract many more and
by 1945 the party reached its peak of 8 million with 63% being male
and 37% being female (about 10% of the German population of 80
Nazi members with military ambitions were encouraged to join the
Waffen-SS, but a great number enlisted in the Wehrmacht and even more
were drafted for service after
World War II
World War II began. Early regulations
required that all Wehrmacht members be non-political and any Nazi
member joining in the 1930s was required to resign from the Nazi
However, this regulation was soon waived and there is ample evidence
Nazi Party members served in the Wehrmacht in particular
after the outbreak of World War II. The Wehrmacht Reserves also saw a
high number of senior Nazis enlisting, with
Reinhard Heydrich and
Fritz Todt joining the
Luftwaffe , as well as
Karl Hanke who served in
In 1926, the party formed a special division to engage the student
population, known as the National Socialist German Students\' League
(NSDStB). A group for university lecturers, the National Socialist
German University Lecturers\' League (NSDDB), also existed until July
The National Socialist Women\'s League was the women\'s organization
of the party and by 1938 it had approximately 2 million members.
MEMBERSHIP OUTSIDE GERMANY
Party members who lived outside Germany were pooled into the
NSDAP/AO , "Foreign Organization"). The
organization was limited only to so-called "
Imperial Germans "; and
"Ethnic Germans" (
Volksdeutsche ), who did not hold German citizenship
were not permitted to join.
Under Beneš decree No. 16/1945 Coll. , in case of citizens of
Czechoslovakia membership of the
Nazi Party was punishable by between
five and twenty years of imprisonment.
Deutsche Gemeinschaft was a branch of the
Nazi Party founded in 1919,
created for Germans with
Volksdeutsche status. It is not to be
confused with the post-war right-wing
Deutsche Gemeinschaft (de),
which was founded in 1949.
Notable members included:
Oswald Menghin (
Herbert Czaja (
Province of Silesia inside
Hermann Neubacher who was responsible for invading Yugoslavia.
Rudolf Much (
Arthur Seyß-Inquart (
* Nazi flags : The
Nazi Party used a right-facing swastika as their
symbol and the red and black colours were said to represent Blut und
Boden ("blood and soil"). Another definition of the flag describes the
colours as representing the ideology of National Socialism, the
swastika representing the
Aryan race and the Aryan nationalist agenda
of the movement; white representing Aryan racial purity; and red
representing the socialist agenda of the movement. Black, white and
red were in fact the colours of the old North German Confederation
flag (invented by
Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck , based on the Prussian colours
black and white and the red used by northern German states). In 1871,
with the foundation of the German
Reich the flag of the North German
Confederation became the German Reichsflagge ("
Reich flag"). Black,
white and red became the colours of the nationalists through the
following history (for example
World War I
World War I and the
Weimar Republic ).
The Parteiflagge design, with the centred swastika disc, served as
the party flag from 1920. Between 1933 (when the
Nazi Party came to
power) and 1935, it was used as the National flag (Nationalflagge) and
Merchant flag (Handelsflagge), but interchangeably with the
black-white-red horizontal tricolour . In 1935, the black-white-red
horizontal tricolour was scrapped (again) and the flag with the
off-centre swastika and disc was instituted as the national flag, and
remained as such until 1945. The flag with the centred disk continued
to be used after 1935, but exclusively as the Parteiflagge, the flag
of the party.
* German eagle : The
Nazi Party used the traditional German eagle ,
standing atop of a swastika inside a wreath of oak leaves. It is also
known as the "Iron Eagle". When the eagle is looking to its left
shoulder, it symbolises the
Nazi Party and was called the Parteiadler.
In contrast, when the eagle is looking to its right shoulder, it
symbolises the country (
Reich ) and was therefore called the
Reichsadler . After the
Nazi Party came to national power in Germany,
they replaced the traditional version of the German eagle with the
modified party symbol throughout the country and all its institutions.
Parteiflagge ("party flag"), used 1920–1945 and also used as the
national flag between 1933 and 1935, interchangeably with the
black-white-red horizontal tricolour
Flag with the off-centre swastika and disc, which was used as the
national flag of Germany after 1935, though never used to represent
Parteiadler design, used as party emblem
Reichsadler design, representing Germany in general as the national
5-Reichsmark coins before (1936) and after adding the Nazi swastika
RANKS AND RANK INSIGNIA
Ranks and insignia of the Nazi Party
Ranks and insignia of the Nazi Party 1: Anwärter
(not party member), 2: Anwärter, 3: Helfer, 4: Oberhelfer, 5:
Arbeitsleiter, 6: Oberarbeitsleiter, 7: Hauptarbeitsleiter, 8:
Bereitschaftsleiter, 9: Oberbereitschaftsleiter, 10:
Hauptbereitschaftsleiter 11: Einsatzleiter, 12:
Obereinsatzleiter, 13: Haupteinsatzleiter, 14: Gemeinschaftsleiter,
15: Obergemeinschaftsleiter, 16: Hauptgemeinschaftsleiter, 17:
Abschnittsleiter, 18: Oberabschnittsleiter, 19: Hauptabschnittsleiter
20: Bereichsleiter, 21: Oberbereichsleiter, 22:
Hauptbereichsleiter, 23: Dienstleiter, 24: Oberdienstleiter, 25:
Hauptdienstleiter, 26: Befehlsleiter, 27: Oberbefehlsleiter, 28:
Hauptbefehlsleiter, 29: Gauleiter, 30:
SLOGANS AND SONGS
* Nazi slogans: "
Sieg Heil !"; "Heil
* Nazi anthem:
* Glossary of
* List of books about
List of Nazi Party leaders and officials
* Mass suicides in 1945
Sino-German cooperation until 1941
Access related topics
* NAZI GERMANY PORTAL
* FASCISM PORTAL
* WORLD WAR II PORTAL
* ^ Rick Steves. Rick Steves' Snapshot Munich,
Bavaria New York
City, USA: Avalon Travel, 2010. p. 28. "Though the Nazis eventually
gained power in Berlin, they remembered their roots, dubbing Munich
"Capital of the Movement". The Nazi headquarters stood near today's
obelisk on Brienner Strasse…"
* ^ A B McNab 2011 , pp. 22, 23.
* ^ Davidson, Eugene. The Making of Adolf Hitler: The Birth and
Rise of Nazism. University of Missouri Press. p. 241.
* ^ Orlow, Dietrich. The
Nazi Party 1919–1945: A Complete
History. Enigma Books. p. 29.
* ^ German Imperial colours
* ^ Thomas D. Grant. Stormtroopers and Crisis in the Nazi Movement:
Activism, Ideology and Dissolution. London, England; New York City,
US: Routledge, 2004. pp. 30–34, 44.
* ^ Otis C. Mitchell. Hitler's Stormtroopers and the Attack on the
German Republic, 1919–1933. Jefferson, North Carolina, USA:
McFarland & Company, Inc., 2008. p. 47.
* ^ Frank McDonough.
Hitler and the Rise of the Nazi Party.
Pearson/Longman, 2003. p. 64.
* ^ Michael Wildt (15 July 2012). Hitler's
the Dynamics of Racial Exclusion: Violence Against
Jews in Provincial
Germany, 1919–1939. Berghahn Books. pp. 96–97. ISBN
* ^ Simone Gigliotti, Berel Lang. The Holocaust: a reader. Malden,
Massachusetts, USA; Oxford, England, UK; Carlton, Victoria, Australia:
Blackwell Publishing, 2005. p. 14.
* ^ A B Evans 2008 , p. 318.
* ^ Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. London; New
York; San Diego: Harvest Book. p. 306.
* ^ Curtis, Michael. Totalitarianism. New Brunswick (US); London:
Transactions Publishers, 1979. p. 36.
* ^ Burch, Betty Brand.
Dictatorship and Totalitarianism: Selected
Readings. 1964. p. 58.
* ^ Bruhn, Jodi; Hans Maier.
Totalitarianism and Political
Religions: Concepts for the Comparison of Dictatorships. Routledge:
Oxon (UK); New York, 2004. p. 32.
* ^ Elzer, Herbert, ed. (2003). Dokumente Zur Deutschlandpolitik.
First half band – Appendix B, Section XI, §39. Oldenbourg
Wissenschaftverlag. p. 602. ISBN 3-486-56667-9 .
* ^ or Sozialdemokrat (pronounced /zo'tsjaːldemoˌkraːt/) (social
* ^ A B Franz H. Mautner (1944). "Nazi und Sozi". Modern Language
Notes. 59 (2): 93–100. doi :10.2307/2910599 .
JSTOR 2910599 . Dass
Nazi eine Abkürzung von Nationalsozialist ist … nd zwar eine
Verkürzung des Wortes auf seine ersten zwei Silben, aber nicht eine
Zusammenziehung aus Nationalsozialist' …
* ^ Hitler, Adolf (1936). Die Reden des Führers am Parteitag der
Ehre, 1936 (in German). Munich: Zentralverlag der NSDAP. p. 10.
"Parteigenossen! Parteigenossinnen! Nationalsozialisten!
* ^ Gottlieb, Henrik; Morgensen, Jens Erik, eds. (2007). Dictionary
Visions, Research and Practice: Selected Papers from the 12th
International Symposium on Lexicography, Copenhagen, 2004 (illustrated
ed.). Amsterdam: J. Benjamins Pub. Co. p. 247. ISBN 9789027223340 .
Retrieved 22 October 2014.
* ^ A B Harper, Douglas. "Nazi". etymonline.com. Online Etymology
Dictionary. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
* ^ A B Rabinbach, Anson; Gilman, Sander, eds. (2013). The Third
Reich Sourcebook. Berkeley, Calif.: California University Press. p. 4.
ISBN 9780520955141 .
* ^ A B C D E Kershaw 2008 , p. 82.
* ^ Shirer 1991 , p. 34.
* ^ A B C Spector, Robert, World Without Civilization: Mass Murder
and the Holocaust, History, and Analysis (University of America Press,
2004), p. 137.
* ^ Griffen, Roger (ed). 1995. Fascism. New York: Oxford University
Press. p. 105.
* ^ Theodore Fred Abel. The Nazi Movement. Aldine Transaction, 2012
(original edition in 1938). p. 55.
* ^ Carlsten, F. L. The Rise of Fascism. University of California
Press. p. 91.
* ^ Carlsten, p. 91.
* ^ A B C D Fest, Joachim, The Face of the Third
books, 1979), pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-0201407143 .
Dan van der Vat : The Good Nazi: The Life and Lies of Albert
Speer, p. 30. George Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1997 ISBN 0-297-81721-3
* ^ Shirer 1991 , p. 33.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 71–82.
* ^ A B Kershaw 2008 , p. 75.
* ^ Evans 2003 , p. 170.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 75, 76.
* ^ Mitcham 1996 , p. 67.
* ^ Blamires, Cyprian P. (2006). World Fascism: A Historical
Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 185–. ISBN 978-1-57607-940-9 . Retrieved
13 March 2013.
* ^ Shirer 1991 , p. 43.
* ^ T. L. Jaman, The Rise and Fall of
Nazi Germany (New York
University Press, 1956), p. 88.
* ^ A B Rees, Laurence, The Nazis – A Warning from History (BBC
Books, 2 March 2006), p. 23.
* ^ Ian Kershaw, Hitler: 1889–1936 Hubris, p. 127.
Ian Kershaw Hitler:1889–1936 Hubris. Penguin, 1998. p. 140.
* ^ A B T. L. Jaman, The Rise and Fall of
Nazi Germany (New York
University Press, 1956), p. 89.
* ^ Shirer 1991 , p. 36.
* ^ Shirer 1991 , p. 37.
* ^ Johnson, Paul, A History of the Modern World: From 1917 to the
1980s (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 13 September 1984), p. 133.
* ^ A B C Fest, Joachim, The Face of the Third
books, 1979), p. 42. ISBN 978-0201407143 .
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 87.
* ^ Zentner & Bedürftig 1997 , p. 629.
* ^ Mitcham 1996 , p. 68.
* ^ Eric Ehrenreich (2007). The Nazi Ancestral Proof: Genealogy,
Racial Science, and the Final Solution. Indiana University Press. p.
58. ISBN 0-253-11687-2 .
* ^ Richard Weikart (21 July 2009). Hitler's Ethic. Palgrave
Macmillan. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-230-62398-9 .
* ^ Sarah Ann Gordon (1984). Hitler, Germans, and the "Jewish
Question". Princeton University Press. p. 265. ISBN 0-691-10162-0 .
* ^ Fest, Joachim, The Face of the Third
Reich (Penguin books,
1979), p. 39. ISBN 978-0201407143 .
* ^ A B Kershaw 2008 , p. 89.
* ^ Franz-Willing, Die Hilterbewegung
* ^ Shirer 1991 , p. 38.
* ^ Fest, Joachim, The Face of the Third
Reich (Penguin books,
1979), p. 40. ISBN 978-0201407143 .
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 100, 101.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 102.
* ^ A B Kershaw 2008 , p. 103.
* ^ A B C Kershaw 2008 , pp. 83, 103.
* ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that
Jazz. New York:
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press . ISBN 0-19-509514-6 .
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 110.
* ^ Jablonsky, David. 1989. The
Nazi Party in Dissolution: Hitler
and the Verbotzeit, 1923–1925. Routledge. p. 57.
* ^ Jablonsky, p. 57
* ^ Weale 2010 , pp. 26–29.
* ^ Koehl 2004 , p. 34.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 194.
* ^ Evans 2005 , p. 372.
* ^ Sutton, Antony C.: Wall Street and the Rise of
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 224.
* ^ "
Social democracy is objectively the moderate wing of fascism.
… These organisations (ie
Fascism and social democracy) are not
antipodes, they are twins." (J.V. Stalin : Concerning the
International Situation (September 1924), in Works, Volume 6, 1953; p.
294.) This later led
Otto Wille Kuusinen to conclude that "The aims of
the fascists and the social-fascists are the same." (Report To the
10th Plenum of ECCI, in International Press Correspondence, Volume 9,
no.40, (20 August 1929), p. 848.)
Hitler stated: "Today our left-wing politicians in particular
are constantly insisting that their craven-hearted and obsequious
foreign policy necessarily results from the disarmament of Germany,
whereas the truth is that this is the policy of traitors But the
politicians of the Right deserve exactly the same reproach. It was
through their miserable cowardice that those ruffians of
Jews who came
into power in 1918 were able to rob the nation of its arms." Adolf
Hitler. Mein Kampf. Bottom of the Hill Publishing, 2010. p. 287.
* ^ Fritzsche, Peter. 1998. Germans into Nazis. Cambridge, Mass.:
Harvard University Press; Eatwell, Roger, Fascism, A History,
Viking/Penguin, 1996, pp. xvii–xxiv, 21, 26–31, 114–140, 352.
Griffin, Roger . 2000. "Revolution from the Right: Fascism," chapter
in David Parker (ed.) Revolutions and the Revolutionary Tradition in
the West 1560–1991, Routledge, London.
* ^ Adolf Hitler, Max Domarus. The Essential Hitler: Speeches and
Commentary. pp. 171, 172–173.
* ^ Beck, H (2013). The Fateful Alliance: German Conservatives and
Nazis in 1933: The
Machtergreifung in a New Light. Berghahn Books. p.
259. ISBN 9780857454102 .
* ^ Hermann Beck (2008). The Fateful Alliance: German Conservatives
and Nazis in 1933—The
Machtergreifung in a New Light. Beghahn Books.
* ^ Christian Ingrao (2010). Hitlers Elite: Die Wegbereiter des
nationalsozialistischen Massenmords. Propyläen.
* ^ Kolb, Eberhard (2005) . The
Weimar Republic. London; New York:
Routledge. pp. 224–225. ISBN 978-0-415-34441-8 .
* ^ Dieter Kuntz (2011).
Hitler and the functioning of the Third
Reich. The Routledge History of the Holocaust. Routledge. p. 73.
* ^ Thomas Schaarschmidt (2014). Mobilizing German Society for War:
The National Socialist Gaue. Visions of Community in Nazi Germany.
Oxford University Press. pp. 104–105.
Richard J. Evans (2015). The Third
Reich in History and Memory.
Oxford University Press. p. 98.
* ^ Chris McNab (2013). Hitler's Elite: The SS 1939–45. Osprey.
* ^ Dieter Kuntz (2011).
Hitler and the functioning of the Third
Reich. The Routledge History of the Holocaust. Routledge. p. 74.
* ^ Jacques Delarue (2008). The Gestapo: A History of Horror.
Frontline Books. pp. x–xi.
* ^ McNab 2009 , p. 25.
* ^ McNab 2009 , pp. 25, 26.
* ^ Rummel 1994 , p. 112.
* ^ Snyder 2010 , p. 416.
* ^ A B Holocaust Memorial Museum .
* ^ Hancock 2004 , pp. 383–396.
* ^ US Holocaust Memorial Museum .
* ^ Snyder 2010 , p. 184.
* ^ Niewyk & Nicosia 2000 , p. 45.
* ^ Goldhagen 1996 , p. 290.
* ^ Zentner & Bedürftig 1997 , p. 631.
Deutsche Uniformen , National Socialist German Workers Part
* ^ Speer, Albert (1970). Inside the Third Reich. New York and
* ^ Buchquelle zur Gaugröße Kurmarks/Mark-Brandenburgs. Google
Books. 1995. ISBN 978-3-05-002508-7 . Retrieved 12 November 2010.
* ^ The 43rd Gau known as the Auslandsorganisation is
* ^ German Historical Institute (2008). "Administrative Structure
Socialism (1941)" Washington DC. Online map (accessed 9
* ^ Martin Broszat, The
Hitler State: The Foundation and
Development of the Internal Structure of the Third
Reich (London and
New York: Longman, 1985), pp. 44–47.
* ^ Walter Wolf (1969). Faschismus in der Schweiz. Flamberg, pp.
121, 253, 283. (in German)
* ^ Alan Morris Schom. "Examples of NSDAP and National Front
meetings and agendas in northern Switzerland, 1935, 1937". A Survey of
Nazi and Pro-Nazi Groups in Switzerland: 1930–1945. Simon Wiesenthal
Center . Retrieved 17 October 2010.
* ^ Historischer Verein des Kantons Bern (1973). Archiv des
Historischen Vereins des Kantons Bern, vol 57–60. Stämpfliche
Verlagshandlung. p. 150.
* ^ Beat Glaus (1969). Die Nationale front. Zürich. p. 147.
* ^ A B Panayi, P. Life and Death in a German Town: Osnabrück from
Weimar Republic to
World War II
World War II and Beyond. New York: Tauris
Academic Studies, 2007. p. 40.
* ^ "German population in 1945". Retrieved 28 August 2015.
* ^ Fakty wypaczone przez Erikę Steinbach
Bogdan Musiał 24 June
* ^ Wolfgang Rosar: Deutsche Gemeinschaft. Seyss-Inquart und der
Anschluß. Europa-Verlag, Wien 1971. ISBN 3-203-50384-0 .
* Evans, Richard J. (2003). The Coming of the Third
Reich . New
York; Toronto: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303469-8 .
* Evans, Richard J. (2005). The Third
Reich in Power. New York:
Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303790-3 .
* Evans, Richard J. (2008). The Third
Reich at War. New York:
Penguin Group. ISBN 978-0-14-311671-4 .
* Goldhagen, Daniel (1996). Hitler\'s Willing Executioners: Ordinary
Germans and the Holocaust . New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-0-679-44695-8 .
* Hancock, Ian (2004). "Romanies and the Holocaust: A Reevaluation
and an Overview". In Stone, Dan. The Historiography of the Holocaust.
New York; Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-99745-1 .
* Höhne, Heinz (2000) . The Order of the Death's Head: The Story of
Hitler's SS (Der Orden unter dem Totenkopf: Die Geschichte der SS).
London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-139012-3 .
* Kershaw, Ian (2008). Hitler: A Biography. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company. ISBN 0-393-06757-2 .
* Koehl, Robert (2004). The SS: A History 1919–45. Stroud: Tempus.
ISBN 978-0-75242-559-7 .
* McNab, Chris (2009). The Third Reich. Amber Books. ISBN
* McNab, Chris (2011). Hitler's Masterplan: The Essential Facts and
Figures for Hitler's Third Reich. Amber Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1907446962
* Mitcham, Samuel W. (1996). Why Hitler?: The Genesis of the Nazi
Reich. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-95485-7 .
* Niewyk, Donald L.; Nicosia, Francis R. (2000). The Columbia Guide
to the Holocaust. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN
* Rummel, Rudolph (1994). Death by Government. New Brunswick, NJ:
Transaction. ISBN 978-1-56000-145-4 .
* Shirer, William L. (1991) . The Rise and Fall of the Third
London: Arrow Books. ISBN 978-009942176-4 .
* Snyder, Timothy (2010). Bloodlands: Europe Between
Stalin . New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00239-9 .
* Weale, Adrian (2010). The SS: A New History. London: Little,
Brown. ISBN 978-1-4087-0304-5 .
* Zentner, Christian; Bedürftig, Friedemann (1997) . The
Encyclopedia of the Third
Reich . New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN
* "Introduction to the Holocaust". United States Holocaust Memorial
Museum . Retrieved 23 October 2017.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN
WORKERS\\' PARTY .
* Text of Mein Kampf
* Program of the Nazi Party, its "Manifesto"
* (in German) Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP)
1920–1933 at Lebendiges Museum Online.
* (in German) Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei