ListMoto - Nazi Party

--- Advertisement ---

(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Hitler Youth

* Deutsches Jungvolk * League of German Girls

PARAMILITARY WINGS Sturmabteilung Schutzstaffel

SPORTS BODY National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise

WOMEN\'S WING National Socialist Women\'s League

MEMBERSHIP Fewer than 60 (1920) 8.5 million (1945)

IDEOLOGY Nazism Lebensraum Pan-Germanism


COLOURS Black, white, red (official, German imperial colours) Brown (customary)

SLOGAN "Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer " (English: "One People, One Nation, One Leader") (unofficial)

ANTHEM " Horst-Wessel-Lied " "Horst Wessel Song"


* Politics of Germany * Political parties * Elections

The NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS\' PARTY (German : Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (help ·info ), abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the NAZI PARTY (/ˈnɑːtsi/ ), was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and practised the ideology of Nazism . Its precursor, the German Workers\' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; DAP), existed from 1919 to 1920.

Part of a series on



* National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) * Sturmabteilung (SA) * Schutzstaffel (SS) * Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo) * Hitler Youth (HJ) * Deutsches Jungvolk (DJ) * League of German Girls (BDM) * National Socialist German Students\' League (NSDStB) * National Socialist League
National Socialist League
of the Reich for Physical Exercise (NSRL) * National Socialist Flyers Corps
National Socialist Flyers Corps
(NSFK) * National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK) * National Socialist Women\'s League (NSF) * Combat League of Revolutionary National Socialists (KGRNS)


* Early timeline * Hitler\'s rise to power * Machtergreifung * German re-armament * Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Religion in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Night of the Long Knives * Nuremberg Rally
Nuremberg Rally
* Anti-Comintern Pact * Kristallnacht * World War II
World War II
* Tripartite Pact
Tripartite Pact
* The Holocaust
The Holocaust
* Nuremberg trials * Neo- Nazism


* Fascism
* Totalitarianism * Führerprinzip
* Anti-democratic thought * Houston Stewart Chamberlain * Gleichschaltung * Arthur de Gobineau
Arthur de Gobineau
* Hitler\'s political views * Mein Kampf * The Myth of the Twentieth Century * Militarism * National Socialist Program * New Order * Preussentum und Sozialismus * Propaganda
* Religious aspects * Strasserism
* Symbolism * Women in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany

Racial ideology

* Aryan race * Blood and Soil
Blood and Soil
* An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races * Eugenics
* The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century * Greater Germanic Reich
Greater Germanic Reich
* Heim ins Reich
Heim ins Reich
* Lebensraum * Master race * The Passing of the Great Race * Racial policy of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Völkisch equality

Final Solution

* Concentration camps * Deportations * Doctors\' trial * Extermination camps * Genocide * Ghettos * Human experimentation * Labour camps * Pogroms * Racial segregation


* Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
* Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels
* Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
* Hermann Göring
Hermann Göring
* Gregor Strasser * Otto Strasser

Nazism outside of Germany

* American Nazi Party * Aria Party (Persia) * Arrow Cross Party
Arrow Cross Party
(Hungary) * Azure Party (Persia) * Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party * German American Bund * German National Movement in Liechtenstein * Greek National Socialist Party * South African Gentile National Socialist Movement * Hungarian National Socialist Party * Nasjonal Samling (Norway) * National Movement of Switzerland * National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands * National Socialist Bloc (Sweden) * National Socialist League
National Socialist League
(UK) * National Socialist Movement of Chile

* National Socialist Movement (United States) * National Socialist Workers\' Party of Denmark * National Unity Party (Canada) * Nazism in Brazil * Nationalist Liberation Alliance (Argentina) * SUMKA * Ossewabrandwag (South Africa) * World Union of National Socialists


* Books by or about Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
* Nazi ideologues * Nazi Party
Nazi Party
leaders and officials * Nazi Party
Nazi Party
members * Speeches given by Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
* SS personnel

Related topics

* Antisemitism
* Denazification * Enabling Act of 1933 * Fascism
* Glossary of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* The Holocaust
The Holocaust
* Neo- Nazism * Völkisch movement * Zweites Buch

* Category
* Nazism portal

* v * t * e

The Nazi Party
Nazi Party
emerged from the German nationalist , racist and populist Freikorps paramilitary culture, which fought against the communist uprisings in post- World War I
World War I
Germany. The party was created as a means to draw workers away from communism and into völkisch nationalism. Initially, Nazi political strategy focused on anti-big business , anti-bourgeois and anti-capitalist rhetoric, although such aspects were later downplayed in order to gain the support of industrial entities and in the 1930s the party's focus shifted to anti-Semitic and anti-Marxist themes.

Pseudo-scientific racism theories were central to Nazism. The Nazis propagated the idea of a "people's community" ( Volksgemeinschaft ). Their aim was to unite "racially desirable" Germans as national comrades, while excluding those deemed either to be political dissidents, physically or intellectually inferior, or of a foreign race (Fremdvölkische). The Nazis sought to improve the stock of the Germanic people through racial purity and eugenics , broad social welfare programs and a collective subordination of individual rights, which could be sacrificed for the good of the state and the "Aryan master race ". To maintain the supposed purity and strength of the Aryan race, the Nazis sought to exterminate Jews
, Romani and Poles along with the vast majority of other Slavs and the physically and mentally handicapped . They imposed exclusionary segregation on homosexuals , Africans , Jehovah\'s Witnesses and political opponents. The persecution reached its climax when the party-controlled German state organized the systematic genocidal killing of an estimated 5.5 to 6 million Jews
and millions of other targeted victims , in what has become known as the Holocaust .

The party's leader since 1921, Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
, was appointed Chancellor of Germany
Chancellor of Germany
by President Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg
on 30 January 1933. Hitler
rapidly established a totalitarian regime known as the Third Reich . Following the defeat of the Third Reich at the conclusion of World War II
World War II
in Europe, the party was "declared to be illegal" by the Allied powers , who carried out denazification in the years after the war.


* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Origins and early existence: 1918–1923

* 2.2 Rise to power: 1925–1933

* 2.2.1 Ascension and consolidation

* 2.3 After taking power: intertwining of party and state * 2.4 Defeat and abolition

* 3 Political program

* 4 Party composition

* 4.1 Command structure

* 4.1.1 Top leadership * 4.1.2 Reichsleiter * 4.1.3 Political leadership corps * 4.1.4 Ordinary members

* 4.2 Nazi Party
Nazi Party
offices * 4.3 Paramilitary groups * 4.4 Affiliated organizations

* 5 Regional administration

* 5.1 Nazi Party
Nazi Party
Gaue * 5.2 Gaue dissolved before 1945

* 5.3 Associated organizations abroad

* 5.3.1 Gaue in Switzerland

* 6 Membership

* 6.1 General membership * 6.2 Military membership * 6.3 Student membership * 6.4 Women membership

* 6.5 Membership outside Germany

* 6.5.1 Deutsche Gemeinschaft

* 7 Party symbols * 8 Ranks and rank insignia * 9 Slogans and songs * 10 See also * 11 Notes

* 12 References

* 12.1 Online

* 13 External links


The term "Nazi" derives from the name given in German to a party member Nationalsozialist (German pronunciation: ) and was coined in response to the German term Sozi (pronounced ), an abbreviation of Sozialdemokrat (member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany
Social Democratic Party of Germany
). Members of the party referred to themselves as Nationalsozialisten (National Socialists), rarely as Nazis. The term Parteigenosse (party member) was commonly used among Nazis, with the feminine form Parteigenossin used when it was appropriate.

The term was in use before the rise of the party as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backward peasant , characterising an awkward and clumsy person. It derived from Ignaz, being a shortened version of Ignatius , a common name in Bavaria
, the area from which the Nazis emerged. Opponents seized on this and shortened the party's name in intentional association to the long-time existing Sozi to the dismissive "Nazi".

In 1933, when Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
assumed power of the German government, usage of the designation "Nazi" diminished in Germany, although Austrian anti-Nazis continued to use the term derogatorily. The use of " Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
" and "Nazi regime" was popularised by anti-Nazis and German exiles abroad. Thereafter, the term spread into other languages and eventually was brought back to Germany after World War II.



The party grew out of smaller political groups with a nationalist orientation that formed in the last years of World War I
World War I
. In 1918, a league called the Freien Arbeiterausschuss für einen guten Frieden (Free Workers' Committee for a good Peace) was created in Bremen
, Germany. On 7 March 1918, Anton Drexler , an avid German nationalist, formed a branch of this league in Munich
. Drexler was a local locksmith who had been a member of the militarist Fatherland Party during World War I
World War I
and was bitterly opposed to the armistice of November 1918 and the revolutionary upheavals that followed. Drexler followed the views of militant nationalists of the day, such as opposing the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
, having antisemitic , anti-monarchist and anti-Marxist views, as well as believing in the superiority of Germans whom they claimed to be part of the Aryan "master race " (Herrenvolk). However, he also accused international capitalism of being a Jewish-dominated movement and denounced capitalists for war profiteering in World War I. Drexler saw the political violence and instability in Germany the result of the Weimar Republic being out-of-touch with the masses, especially the lower classes. Drexler emphasized the need for a synthesis of völkisch nationalism with a form of economic socialism , in order to create a popular nationalist-oriented workers' movement that could challenge the rise of Communism
and internationalist politics . These were all well-known themes popular with various Weimar paramilitary groups such as the Freikorps . Nazi Party
Nazi Party
badge emblem

Drexler's movement received attention and support from some influential figures. Supporter Dietrich Eckart , a well-to-do journalist, brought military figure Felix Graf von Bothmer , a prominent supporter of the concept of "national socialism", to address the movement. Later in 1918, Karl Harrer (a journalist and member of the Thule Society ) convinced Drexler and several others to form the Politischer Arbeiterzirkel (Political Workers' Circle). The members met periodically for discussions with themes of nationalism and racism directed against the Jews. In December 1918, Drexler decided that a new political party should be formed, based on the political principles that he endorsed, by combining his branch of the Workers' Committee for a good Peace with the Political Workers' Circle.

On 5 January 1919, Drexler created a new political party and proposed it be named the "German Socialist Workers' Party", but Harrer objected to the term "socialist"; so the term was removed and the party was named the German Workers\' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP). To ease concerns among potential middle-class supporters, Drexler made clear that unlike Marxists the party supported the middle-class and that its socialist policy was meant to give social welfare to German citizens deemed part of the Aryan race. They became one of many völkisch movements that existed in Germany. Like other völkisch groups, the DAP advocated the belief that through profit-sharing instead of socialisation Germany should become a unified "people's community" (Volksgemeinschaft) rather than a society divided along class and party lines. This ideology was explicitly antisemitic. As early as 1920, the party was raising money by selling a tobacco called Anti-Semit. NSDAP membership book

From the outset, the DAP was opposed to non-nationalist political movements, especially on the left, including the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the Communist
Party of Germany (KPD). Members of the DAP saw themselves as fighting against "Bolshevism " and anyone considered a part of or aiding so-called "international Jewry ". The DAP was also deeply opposed to the Versailles Treaty . The DAP did not attempt to make itself public and meetings were kept in relative secrecy, with public speakers discussing what they thought of Germany's present state of affairs , or writing to like-minded societies in Northern Germany.

The DAP was a comparatively small group with fewer than 60 members. Nevertheless, it attracted the attention of the German authorities, who were suspicious of any organisation that appeared to have subversive tendencies. In July 1919, while stationed in Munich
army Gefreiter Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
was appointed a Verbindungsmann (intelligence agent) of an Aufklärungskommando (reconnaissance unit) of the Reichswehr (army) by Captain Mayr the head of the Education and Propaganda
Department (Dept Ib/P) in Bavaria
. Hitler
was assigned to influence other soldiers and to infiltrate the DAP. While attending a party meeting on 12 September 1919, Hitler
became involved in a heated argument with a visitor, Professor Baumann, who questioned the soundness of Gottfried Feder 's arguments against capitalism; Baumann proposed that Bavaria
should break away from Prussia
and found a new South German nation with Austria
. In vehemently attacking the man's arguments, Hitler
made an impression on the other party members with his oratorical skills; according to Hitler, the "professor" left the hall acknowledging unequivocal defeat. Drexler encouraged him to join the DAP. On the orders of his army superiors, Hitler
applied to join the party and within a week was accepted as party member 555 (the party began counting membership at 500 to give the impression they were a much larger party). Among the party's earlier members were Ernst Röhm of the Army's District Command VII; Dietrich Eckart, who has been called the spiritual father of National Socialism; then-University of Munich
student Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
; Freikorps soldier Hans Frank ; and Alfred Rosenberg , often credited as the philosopher of the movement. All were later prominent in the Nazi regime. Hitler's membership card in the DAP (later NSDAP)

later claimed to be the seventh party member (he was in fact the seventh executive member of the party's central committee and he would later wear the Golden Party Badge
Golden Party Badge
number one). Anton Drexler drafted a letter to Hitler
in 1940—which was never sent—that contradicts Hitler's later claim:

No one knows better than you yourself, my Führer, that you were never the seventh member of the party, but at best the seventh member of the committee... And a few years ago I had to complain to a party office that your first proper membership card of the DAP, bearing the signatures of Schüssler and myself, was falsified, with the number 555 being erased and number 7 entered.

Hitler's first DAP speech was held in the Hofbräukeller on 16 October 1919. He was the second speaker of the evening, and spoke to 111 people. Hitler
later declared that this was when he realised he could really "make a good speech". At first, Hitler
spoke only to relatively small groups, but his considerable oratory and propaganda skills were appreciated by the party leadership. With the support of Anton Drexler, Hitler
became chief of propaganda for the party in early 1920. Hitler
began to make the party more public, and organised its biggest meeting yet of 2,000 people on 24 February 1920 in the Staatliches Hofbräuhaus in München . Such was the significance of this particular move in publicity that Karl Harrer resigned from the party in disagreement. It was in this speech that Hitler
enunciated the twenty-five points of the German Workers\' Party manifesto that had been drawn up by Drexler, Feder and himself. Through these points he gave the organisation a much bolder stratagem with a clear foreign policy (abrogation of the Treaty of Versailles, a Greater Germany , Eastern expansion and exclusion of Jews
from citizenship) and among his specific points were: confiscation of war profits , abolition of unearned incomes, the State to share profits of land and land for national needs to be taken away without compensation. In general, the manifesto was antisemitic , anti-capitalist , anti-democratic , anti-Marxist and anti-liberal . To increase its appeal to larger segments of the population, on the same day as Hitler's Hofbräuhaus speech on 24 February 1920, the DAP changed its name to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei ("National Socialist German Workers' Party", or Nazi Party). The word "Socialist" was added by the party's executive committee, over Hitler's objections, in order to help appeal to left-wing workers.

In 1920, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
officially announced that only persons of "pure Aryan descent " could become party members and if the person had a spouse, the spouse also had to be a "racially pure" Aryan. Party members could not be related either directly or indirectly to a so-called "non-Aryan". Even before it had become legally forbidden by the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
in 1935, the Nazis banned sexual relations and marriages between party members and Jews. Party members found guilty of Rassenschande ("racial defilement") were persecuted heavily, some members were even sentenced to death.

quickly became the party's most active orator, appearing in public as a speaker 31 times within the first year after his self-discovery. Crowds began to flock to hear his speeches. Hitler always spoke about the same subjects: the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
and the Jewish question . This deliberate technique and effective publicising of the party contributed significantly to his early success, about which a contemporary poster wrote: "Since Herr Hitler
is a brilliant speaker, we can hold out the prospect of an extremely exciting evening". Over the following months, the party continued to attract new members, while remaining too small to have any real significance in German politics. By the end of the year, party membership was recorded at 2,000, many of whom Hitler
and Röhm had brought into the party personally, or for whom Hitler's oratory had been their reason for joining.

Hitler's talent as an orator and his ability to draw new members, combined with his characteristic ruthlessness, soon made him the dominant figure. However, while Hitler
and Eckart were on a fundraising trip to Berlin in June 1921, a mutiny broke out within the party in Munich. Members of its executive committee wanted to merge with the rival German Socialist Party (DSP). Upon returning to Munich on 11 July, Hitler
angrily tendered his resignation. The committee members realised that his resignation would mean the end of the party. Hitler
announced he would rejoin on condition that he would replace Drexler as party chairman, and that the party headquarters would remain in Munich. The committee agreed, and he rejoined the party on 26 July as member 3,680. Hitler
continued to face some opposition within the NSDAP, as his opponents had Hermann Esser expelled from the party and they printed 3,000 copies of a pamphlet attacking Hitler
as a traitor to the party. In the following days, Hitler
spoke to several packed houses and defended himself and Esser to thunderous applause.

His strategy proved successful; at a special party congress on 29 July 1921, he replaced Drexler as party chairman by a vote of 533 to 1. The committee was dissolved, and Hitler
was granted nearly absolute powers as the party's sole leader. He would hold the post for the remainder of his life. Hitler
soon acquired the title Führer ("leader") and after a series of sharp internal conflicts it was accepted that the party would be governed by the Führerprinzip ("leader principle"). Under this principle, the party was a highly centralized entity that functioned strictly from the top down, with Hitler
at the apex as the party's absolute leader. Hitler
saw the party as a revolutionary organization, whose aim was the overthrow of the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
, which he saw as controlled by the socialists, Jews
and the "November criminals " who had betrayed the German soldiers in 1918. The SA ("storm troopers", also known as "Brownshirts") were founded as a party militia in 1921 and began violent attacks on other parties. Mein Kampf in its first edition cover

For Hitler, the twin goals of the party were always German nationalist expansionism and antisemitism . These two goals were fused in his mind by his belief that Germany's external enemies – Britain, France and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
– were controlled by the Jews
and that Germany's future wars of national expansion would necessarily entail a war against the Jews. For Hitler
and his principal lieutenants, national and racial issues were always dominant. This was symbolised by the adoption as the party emblem of the swastika or Hakenkreuz. In German nationalist circles, the swastika was considered a symbol of an " Aryan race " and it symbolized the replacement of the Christian Cross with allegiance to a National Socialist State.

The Nazi Party
Nazi Party
grew significantly during 1921 and 1922, partly through Hitler's oratorical skills, partly through the SA's appeal to unemployed young men, and partly because there was a backlash against socialist and liberal politics in Bavaria
as Germany's economic problems deepened and the weakness of the Weimar
regime became apparent. The party recruited former World War I
World War I
soldiers, to whom Hitler
as a decorated frontline veteran could particularly appeal, as well as small businessmen and disaffected former members of rival parties. Nazi rallies were often held in beer halls, where downtrodden men could get free beer. The Hitler Youth was formed for the children of party members. The party also formed groups in other parts of Germany. Julius Streicher in Nuremberg
was an early recruit and became editor of the racist magazine Der Stürmer . In December 1920, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
had acquired a newspaper, the Völkischer Beobachter , of which its leading ideologist Alfred Rosenberg became editor. Others to join the party around this time were Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
and World War I flying ace Hermann Göring
Hermann Göring

On 31 October 1922, a party with similar policies and objectives came into power in Italy, the National Fascist Party , under the leadership of the charismatic Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
. The Fascists, like the Nazis, promoted a national rebirth of their country, as they opposed communism and liberalism; appealed to the working-class; opposed the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
; and advocated the territorial expansion of their country. The Italian Fascists used a straight-armed Roman salute and wore black-shirted uniforms. Hitler
was inspired by Mussolini and the Fascists, borrowing their use of the straight-armed salute as a Nazi salute. When the Fascists came to power in 1922 in Italy through their coup attempt called the " March on Rome
March on Rome
", Hitler
began planning his own coup.

In January 1923, France occupied the Ruhr
industrial region as a result of Germany's failure to meet its reparations payments. This led to economic chaos, the resignation of Wilhelm Cuno 's government and an attempt by the German Communist
Party (KPD) to stage a revolution. The reaction to these events was an upsurge of nationalist sentiment. Nazi Party
Nazi Party
membership grew sharply to about 20,000. By November, Hitler
had decided that the time was right for an attempt to seize power in Munich, in the hope that the Reichswehr (the post-war German military) would mutiny against the Berlin government and join his revolt. In this, he was influenced by former General Erich Ludendorff , who had become a supporter—though not a member—of the Nazis.

On the night of 8 November, the Nazis used a patriotic rally in a Munich
beer hall to launch an attempted putsch ("coup d'état"). This so-called Beer Hall Putsch attempt failed almost at once when the local Reichswehr commanders refused to support it. On the morning of 9 November, the Nazis staged a march of about 2,000 supporters through Munich
in an attempt to rally support. Troops opened fire and 16 Nazis were killed. Hitler, Ludendorff and a number of others were arrested and were tried for treason in March 1924. Hitler
and his associates were given very lenient prison sentences. While Hitler
was in prison, he wrote his semi-autobiographical political manifesto Mein Kampf ("My Struggle").

The Nazi Party
Nazi Party
was banned on 9 November 1923; however, with the support of the nationalist Völkisch-Social Bloc (Völkisch-Sozialer Block), it continued to operate under the name "German Party" (Deutsche Partei or DP) from 1924 to 1925. The Nazis failed to remain unified in the DP, as in the north, the right-wing Volkish nationalist supporters of the Nazis moved to the new German Völkisch Freedom Party , leaving the north's left-wing Nazi members, such as Joseph Goebbels retaining support for the party.

RISE TO POWER: 1925–1933

This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

with Nazi Party
Nazi Party
members in 1930 Further information: Adolf Hitler\'s rise to power "Rise of Nazism" redirects here. For the culmination of the rise, see Nazi seizure of power .

Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
was released from prison on 20 December 1924. On 16 February 1925, Hitler
convinced the Bavarian authorities to lift the ban on the NSDAP and the party was formally refounded on 26 February 1925, with Hitler
as its undisputed leader. The new Nazi Party
Nazi Party
was no longer a paramilitary organization and disavowed any intention of taking power by force. In any case, the economic and political situation had stabilized and the extremist upsurge of 1923 had faded, so there was no prospect of further revolutionary adventures. The Nazi Party of 1925 was divided into the "Leadership Corps" (Korps der politischen Leiter) appointed by Hitler
and the general membership (Parteimitglieder). The party and the SA were kept separate and the legal aspect of the party's work was emphasized. In a sign of this, the party began to admit women. The SA and the SS members (the latter founded in 1925 as Hitler's bodyguard, and known originally as the Schutzkommando) had to all be regular party members.

In the 1920s, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
expanded beyond its Bavarian base. Catholic Bavaria
maintained its right-wing nostalgia for a Catholic monarch; and Westphalia , along with working-class "Red Berlin", were always the Nazis' weakest areas electorally, even during the Third Reich itself. The areas of strongest Nazi support were in rural Protestant areas such as Schleswig-Holstein , Mecklenburg
, Pomerania and East Prussia
. Depressed working-class areas such as Thuringia also produced a strong Nazi vote, while the workers of the Ruhr
and Hamburg
largely remained loyal to the Social Democrats , the Communist Party of Germany or the Catholic Centre Party . Nuremberg
remained a Nazi Party
Nazi Party
stronghold, and the first Nuremberg Rally
Nuremberg Rally
was held there in 1927. These rallies soon became massive displays of Nazi paramilitary power and attracted many recruits. The Nazis' strongest appeal was to the lower middle-classes – farmers, public servants, teachers and small businessmen – who had suffered most from the inflation of the 1920s, so who feared Bolshevism more than anything else. The small business class was receptive to Hitler's antisemitism, since it blamed Jewish big business for its economic problems. University students, disappointed at being too young to have served in the War of 1914–1918 and attracted by the Nazis' radical rhetoric, also became a strong Nazi constituency. By 1929, the party had 130,000 members.

The party's nominal Deputy Leader was Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
, but he had no real power in the party. By the early 1930s, the senior leaders of the party after Hitler
were Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
, Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels
and Hermann Göring . Beneath the Leadership Corps were the party's regional leaders, the Gauleiters , each of whom commanded the party in his Gau ("region"). Goebbels began his ascent through the party hierarchy as Gauleiter
of Berlin-Brandenburg in 1926. Streicher was Gauleiter
of Franconia
, where he published his antisemitic newspaper Der Stürmer . Beneath the Gauleiter
were lower-level officials, the Kreisleiter ("county leaders"), Zellenleiter ("cell leaders") and Blockleiter ("block leaders"). This was a strictly hierarchical structure in which orders flowed from the top and unquestioning loyalty was given to superiors. Only the SA retained some autonomy. Being composed largely of unemployed workers, many SA men took the Nazis' socialist rhetoric seriously. At this time, the Hitler salute (borrowed from the Italian fascists ) and the greeting "Heil Hitler!" were adopted throughout the party. Nazi Party
Nazi Party
election poster used in Vienna
in 1930 (translation: "We demand freedom and bread")

The Nazis contested elections to the national parliament (the Reichstag ) and to the state legislature (the Landtage ) from 1924, although at first with little success. The "National-Socialist Freedom Movement" polled 3% of the vote in the December 1924 Reichstag elections and this fell to 2.6% in 1928 . State elections produced similar results. Despite these poor results and despite Germany's relative political stability and prosperity during the later 1920s, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
continued to grow. This was partly because Hitler, who had no administrative ability, left the party organization to the head of the secretariat, Philipp Bouhler , the party treasurer Franz Xaver Schwarz and business manager Max Amann
Max Amann
. The party had a capable propaganda head in Gregor Strasser , who was promoted to national organizational leader in January 1928. These men gave the party efficient recruitment and organizational structures. The party also owed its growth to the gradual fading away of competitor nationalist groups, such as the German National People\'s Party (DNVP). As Hitler became the recognized head of the German nationalists, other groups declined or were absorbed.

Despite these strengths, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
might never have come to power had it not been for the Great Depression
Great Depression
and its effects on Germany. By 1930, the German economy was beset with mass unemployment and widespread business failures. The Social Democrats and Communists were bitterly divided and unable to formulate an effective solution: this gave the Nazis their opportunity and Hitler's message, blaming the crisis on the Jewish financiers and the Bolsheviks , resonated with wide sections of the electorate. At the September 1930 Reichstag elections , the Nazis won 18.3% of the votes and became the second-largest party in the Reichstag after the Social Democrats. Hitler
proved to be a highly effective campaigner, pioneering the use of radio and aircraft for this purpose. His dismissal of Strasser and his appointment of Goebbels as the party's propaganda chief were major factors. While Strasser had used his position to promote his own leftish version of national socialism, Goebbels was totally loyal to Hitler
and worked only to improve Hitler's image.

The 1930 elections changed the German political landscape by weakening the traditional nationalist parties, the DNVP and the DVP, leaving the Nazis as the chief alternative to the discredited Social Democrats and the Zentrum, whose leader, Heinrich Brüning , headed a weak minority government. The inability of the democratic parties to form a united front, the self-imposed isolation of the Communists and the continued decline of the economy, all played into Hitler's hands. He now came to be seen as de facto leader of the opposition and donations poured into the Nazi Party's coffers. Some major business figures, such as Fritz Thyssen , were Nazi supporters and gave generously and some Wall Street figures were allegedly involved, but many other businessmen were suspicious of the extreme nationalist tendencies of the Nazis and preferred to support the traditional conservative parties instead. German NSDAP Donation Token 1932, Free State of Prussia

During 1931 and into 1932, Germany's political crisis deepened. Hitler
ran for President against the incumbent Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg
in March 1932, polling 30.1% in the first round and 36.8% in the second against Hindenburg's 49% and 53%. By now the SA had 400,000 members and its running street battles with the SPD and Communist paramilitaries (who also fought each other) reduced some German cities to combat zones. Paradoxically, although the Nazis were among the main instigators of this disorder, part of Hitler's appeal to a frightened and demoralised middle class was his promise to restore law and order. Overt antisemitism was played down in official Nazi rhetoric, but was never far from the surface. Germans voted for Hitler
primarily because of his promises to revive the economy (by unspecified means), to restore German greatness and overturn the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
and to save Germany from communism. On 24 April 1932, the Free State of Prussia
elections to the Landtag
resulted in 36.3% of the votes and 162 seats for the NSDAP.

On 20 July 1932, the Prussian government was ousted by a coup, the Preussenschlag ; a few days later at the July 1932 Reichstag election the Nazis made another leap forward, polling 37.4% and becoming the largest party in parliament by a wide margin. Furthermore, the Nazis and the Communists between them won 52% of the vote and a majority of seats. Since both parties opposed the established political system and neither would join or support any ministry, this made the formation of a majority government impossible. The result was weak ministries governing by decree. Under Comintern directives, the Communists maintained their policy of treating the Social Democrats as the main enemy, calling them "social fascists ", thereby splintering opposition to the Nazis. Later, both the Social Democrats and the Communists accused each other of having facilitated Hitler\'s rise to power by their unwillingness to compromise.

Chancellor Franz von Papen
Franz von Papen
called another Reichstag election in November, hoping to find a way out of this impasse. The electoral result was the same, with the Nazis and the Communists winning 50% of the vote between them and more than half the seats, rendering this Reichstag no more workable than its predecessor. However, support for the Nazis had fallen to 33.1%, suggesting that the Nazi surge had passed its peak—possibly because the worst of the Depression had passed, possibly because some middle-class voters had supported Hitler in July as a protest, but had now drawn back from the prospect of actually putting him into power. The Nazis interpreted the result as a warning that they must seize power before their moment passed. Had the other parties united, this could have been prevented, but their shortsightedness made a united front impossible. Papen, his successor Kurt von Schleicher and the nationalist press magnate Alfred Hugenberg spent December and January in political intrigues that eventually persuaded President Hindenburg that it was safe to appoint Hitler
as Reich Chancellor, at the head of a cabinet including only a minority of Nazi ministers—which he did on 30 January 1933.

Ascension And Consolidation

Reichsparteitag ( Nuremberg
Rally): Nazi Party
Nazi Party
leader Adolf Hitler
and SA-leader Ernst Röhm , August 1933

In Mein Kampf , Hitler
directly attacked both left-wing and right-wing politics in Germany. However, a majority of scholars identify Nazism in practice as being a far-right form of politics. When asked in an interview in 1934 whether the Nazis were "bourgeois right-wing" as alleged by their opponents, Hitler
responded that Nazism was not exclusively for any class and indicated that it favoured neither the left nor the right, but preserved "pure" elements from both "camps" by stating: "From the camp of bourgeois tradition, it takes national resolve, and from the materialism of the Marxist dogma, living, creative Socialism".

The votes that the Nazis received in the 1932 elections established the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
as the largest parliamentary faction of the Weimar Republic government. Hitler
was appointed as Chancellor of Germany
Chancellor of Germany
on 30 January 1933.

The Reichstag fire on 27 February 1933 gave Hitler
a pretext for suppressing his political opponents. The following day he persuaded the Reich's President Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg
to issue the Reichstag Fire Decree , which suspended most civil liberties . The NSDAP won the parliamentary election on 5 March 1933 with 43.9 percent of votes, but failed to win an absolute majority. After the election, hundreds of thousands of new members joined the party for opportunistic reasons, most of them civil servants and white-collar workers. They were nicknamed the "casualties of March" (German: Märzgefallenen) or "March violets" (German: Märzveilchen). To protect the party from too many non-ideological turncoats who were viewed by the so-called "old fighters" (alte Kämpfer) with some mistrust, the party issued a freeze on admissions that remained in force from May 1933 to 1937.

On 23 March, the parliament passed the Enabling Act of 1933 , which gave the cabinet the right to enact laws without the consent of parliament. In effect, this gave Hitler
dictatorial powers. Now possessing virtually absolute power, the Nazis established totalitarian control as they abolished labour unions and other political parties and imprisoned their political opponents, first at wilde Lager, improvised camps, then in concentration camps . Nazi Germany had been established, yet the Reichswehr remained impartial. Nazi power over Germany remained virtual, not absolute.

NSDAP federal election results (1924–1933) ELECTION VOTES SEATS NOTES

NO. % +/– NO. +/–

May 1924 (as National Socialist Freedom Movement ) 1,918,300 6.5 (No. 6)

32 / 472

in prison

December 1924 (as National Socialist Freedom Movement ) 907,300 3.0 (No. 8) 3.5 14 / 493 18 Hitler
released from prison

MAY 1928 810,100 2.6 (No. 9) 0.4 12 / 491 2

SEPTEMBER 1930 6,409,600 18.3 (No. 2) 15.7 107 / 577 95 After the financial crisis

JULY 1932 13,745,000 37.3 (NO. 1) 19.0 230 / 608 123 After Hitler
was candidate for presidency

NOVEMBER 1932 11,737,000 33.1 (NO. 1) 4.2 196 / 584 34

MARCH 1933 17,277,180 43.9 (NO. 1) 10.8 288 / 647 92 During Hitler's term as Chancellor of Germany


During June and July 1933, all competing parties were either outlawed or dissolved themselves and subsequently the Law against the founding of new parties of 14 July 1933 legally established the Nazi Party's monopoly. On 1 December 1933, the Law to secure the unity of party and state entered into force, which was the base for a progressive intertwining of party structures and state apparatus. By this law, the SA—actually a party division—was given quasi-governmental authority and their leader was co-opted as an ex officio cabinet member. By virtue of a 30 January 1934 Law concerning the reorganisation of the Reich, the Länder (states) lost their statehood and were demoted to administrative divisions of the Reich's government ( Gleichschaltung ). Effectively, they lost most of their power to the Gaue that were originally just regional divisions of the party, but took over most competencies of the state administration in their respective sectors.

During the Röhm Purge of 30 June to 2 July 1934 (also known as the "Night of the Long Knives"), Hitler
disempowered the SA's leadership—most of whom belonged to the Strasserist (national revolutionary) faction within the NSDAP—and ordered them killed. He accused them of having conspired to stage a coup d'état, but it is believed that this was only a pretence to justify the suppression of any intraparty opposition. The purge was executed by the SS, assisted by the Gestapo
and Reichswehr units. Aside from Strasserist Nazis, they also murdered anti-Nazi conservative figures like former chancellor Kurt von Schleicher. After this, the SA continued to exist but lost much of its importance, while the role of the SS grew significantly. Formerly only a sub-organisation of the SA, it was created a separate organisation of the NSDAP in July 1934.

After the death of President Hindenburg on 2 August 1934, Hitler merged the offices of party leader, head of state and chief of government in one, taking the title of Führer und Reichskanzler. The Chancellery of the Führer , officially an organisation of the Nazi Party, took over the functions of the Office of the President (a government agency), blurring the distinction between structures of party and state even further. The SS increasingly exerted police functions, a development which was formally documented by the merger of the offices of Reichsführer-SS and Chief of the German Police on 17 June 1936, as the position was held by Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
who derived his authority directly from Hitler. The Sicherheitsdienst (SD, formally the "Security Service of the Reichsführer-SS") that had been created in 1931 as an intraparty intelligence became the de facto intelligence agency of Nazi Germany. It was put under the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA) in 1939, which then coordinated SD, Gestapo
and criminal police , therefore functioning as a hybrid organisation of state and party structures.

NSDAP election and referendum results in the Reichstag under Nazi Germany (1933–1938) ELECTION VOTES % SEATS

NOVEMBER 1933 39,655,224 92.11 661 / 661

1936 44,462,458 98.80 741 / 741

1938 44,451,092 99.01 813 / 813


Officially, the Third Reich lasted only 12 years. The first Instrument of Surrender was signed by representatives of Nazi Germany at Reims
, France on 7 May 1945. The war in Europe had come to an end. The defeat of Germany in World War II
World War II
marked the end of the Nazi Germany era. The party was formally abolished on 10 October 1945 by the Allied Control Council and denazification began, along with trials of major war criminals before the International Military Tribunal (IMT) in Nuremberg.

Between 1939 and 1945, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
led regime, assisted by collaborationist governments and recruits from occupied countries, was responsible for the deaths of at least eleven million people, including 5.5 to 6 million Jews
(representing two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe), and between 200,000 and 1,500,000 Romani people . The estimated total number includes the killing of nearly two million non-Jewish Poles
, over three million Soviet prisoners of war , communists and other political opponents, homosexuals, the physically and mentally disabled.


Main article: National Socialist Program

The National Socialist Program was a formulation of the policies of the party. It contained 25 points and is therefore also known as the "25-point plan" or "25-point programme". It was the official party programme, with minor changes, from its proclamation as such by Hitler in 1920, when the party was still the German Workers' Party, until its dissolution.



Top Leadership

At the top of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
was the party chairman ("Der Führer"), who held absolute power and full command over the party. All other party offices were subordinate to his position and had to depend on his instructions. In 1934, Hitler
founded a separate body for the chairman, Chancellery of the Führer , with its own sub-units.

Below the Führer's chancellery was first the "Staff of the Deputy Führer", headed by Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
from 21 April 1933 to 10 May 1941; and then the "Party Chancellery" ( Parteikanzlei ), headed by Martin Bormann .


Directly subjected to the Führer were the Reichsleiter ("Reich Leader(s)"—the singular and plural forms are identical in German), whose number was gradually increased to eighteen. They held power and influence comparable to the Reich Ministers' in Hitler\'s Cabinet . The eighteen Reichsleiter formed the " Reich Leadership of the Nazi Party" (Reichsleitung der NSDAP), which was established at the so-called Brown House in Munich. Unlike a Gauleiter
, a Reichsleiter did not have individual geographic areas under their command, but were responsible for specific spheres of interest.

Political Leadership Corps

The political leadership corps of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
were those persons who were most often associated as being "Nazis" in the stereotypical sense of the word, as it was these individuals who wore brown paramilitary Nazi uniforms, enforced Nazi doctrine and ran local government affairs in accordance with instructions from the Nazi Party.

The political leadership corps encompassed a vast array of paramilitary titles at the top of which were Gauleiter, who were party leaders of large geographical areas. From the Gauleiters extended downwards through Nazi positions encompassing county, city and town leaders, all of whom were unquestioned rulers in their particular areas and regions.

To the very end of its existence, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
claimed to respect the traditional government of Germany; to that end, local and state governments were allowed to exist side-by-side with regional Nazi leaders. In reality, by 1936 the local governments had lost nearly all power to their Nazi counterparts, or were now controlled by persons who held both government and Nazi titles alike. This led to the continued existence of German titles such as Bürgermeister , as well as the existence of German state legislatures (Landesrat ), but without any real power.

Ordinary Members

The general Nazi Party
Nazi Party
membership were known by the title of Parteimitglieder. This generic term applied to any member of the Party who did not otherwise hold a political leadership position. Translated simply as "Party Member", the Parteimitglieder could (and did) hold positions in other Nazi groups, such as the SS or Sturmabteilung . The only insignia for the Parteimitglieder was a Nazi Party
Nazi Party
lapel-pin; Nazi Party
Nazi Party
members who held no leadership posts had no specific designated uniform. Such persons often wore uniforms of other Nazi groups, uniforms of German government agencies and could also serve in the German armed forces. A special designation of Parteigenosse ("Party Comrade") was reserved for Nazi Party
Nazi Party
members who had been members of the party since the 1920s and early 30s, most of whom were also personal associates of Hitler.


The Nazi Party
Nazi Party
had a number of party offices dealing with various political and other matters. These included:

* Rassenpolitisches Amt der NSDAP (RPA): "NSDAP Office of Racial Policy" * Außenpolitische Amt der NSDAP (APA): "NSDAP Office of Foreign Affairs" * Kolonialpolitisches Amt der NSDAP (KPA): "NSDAP Office of Colonial Policy" * Wehrpolitisches Amt der NSDAP (WPA): "NSDAP Office of Military Policy" * Amt Rosenberg (ARo): "Rosenberg Office"


In addition to the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
proper, several paramilitary groups existed which "supported" Nazi aims. All members of these paramilitary organizations were required to become regular Nazi Party
Nazi Party
members first and could then enlist in the group of their choice. An exception was the Waffen-SS , considered the military arm of the SS and Nazi Party, which during the Second World War allowed members to enlist without joining the Nazi Party. Foreign volunteers of the Waffen-SS were also not required to be members of the Nazi Party, although many joined local nationalist groups from their own countries with the same aims. Police officers, including members of the Gestapo
, frequently held SS rank for administrative reasons (known as "rank parity") and were likewise not required to be members of the Nazi Party.

A vast system of Nazi Party paramilitary ranks developed for each of the various paramilitary groups.

The major Nazi Party
Nazi Party
paramilitary groups were as follows:

* Schutzstaffel (SS): "Protection Squadron" (both Allgemeine SS and Waffen-SS ) * Sturmabteilung (SA): "Storm Division" * Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps (NSFK): "National Socialist Flyers Corps" * Nationalsozialistisches Kraftfahrerkorps (NSKK): "National Socialist Motor Corps"

The Hitler Youth was a paramilitary group divided into an adult leadership corps and a general membership open to boys aged fourteen to eighteen. The League of German Girls was the equivalent group for girls.


Certain nominally independent organizations had their own legal representation and own property, but were supported by the Nazi Party. Many of these associated organizations were labour unions of various professions. Some were older organizations that were nazified according to the Gleichschaltung policy after the 1933 takeover.

* Reich League of German Officials (union of civil servants, predecessor to German Civil Service Federation ) * German Labour Front (DAF) * National Socialist German Physicians' League (NSDÄB) * National Socialist League
National Socialist League
for the Maintenance of the Law (NSRB, 1936–1945, earlier National Socialist German Lawyers' League) * National Socialist War Victim\'s Care (NSKOV) * National Socialist Teachers League (NSLB) * National Socialist People\'s Welfare (NSV) * Reich Labour Service (RAD) * German Faith Movement * German Colonial League (RKB) * German Red Cross * Kyffhäuser League * Technical Emergency Relief (TENO) * Reich\'s Union of Large Families * Reichsluftschutzbund (RLB) * Reichskolonialbund (RKB) * Bund Deutscher Osten (BDO) * German American Bund


Party Gaue in 1926, 1928, 1933, 1937, 1939 and 1943 Administrative units of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
in 1944 See also: Administrative divisions of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and List of Gauleiters

For the purpose of centralization in the Gleichschaltung process a rigidly hierarchal structure was established in the Nazi Party, which it later carried through in the whole of Germany in order to consolidate total power under the person of Hitler
(Führerstaat). It was regionally sub-divided into a number of Gaue (singular: Gau) headed by a Gauleiter
, who received their orders directly from Hitler. The name (originally a term for sub-regions of the Holy Roman Empire headed by a Gaugraf) for these new provincial structures was deliberately chosen because of its mediaeval connotations. The term is approximately equivalent to the English shire .

After the Anschluss a new type of administrative unit was introduced called a Reichsgau . In these territories the Gauleiters also held the position of Reichsstatthalter
, thereby formally combining the spheres of both party and state offices. The establishment of this type of district was subsequently carried out for any further territorial annexations of Germany both before and during World War II
World War II

The Gaue and Reichsgaue (state or province) were further sub-divided into Kreise (counties) headed by a Kreisleiter, which were in turn sub-divided into Zellen (cells) and Blocken (blocks), headed by a Zellenleiter and Blockleiter respectively.

A reorganization of the Gaue was enacted on 1 October 1928. The given numbers were the official ordering numbers. The statistics are from 1941, for which the Gau organization of that moment in time forms the basis. Their size and populations are not exact; for instance, according to the official party statistics the Gau Kurmark/Mark Brandenburg was the largest in the German Reich. By 1941, there were 42 territorial Gaue for Germany, 7 of them for Austria, the Sudetenland (in Czechoslovakia
), Danzig
and the Territory of the Saar Basin , along with the unincorporated regions under German control known as the Protectorate of Bohemia-Moravia and the General Government , established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1939 at the onset of World War II. Getting the leadership of the individual Gaue to cooperate with one another proved difficult at times since there was constant administrative and financial jockeying for control going on between them.

The table below uses the organizational structure that existed before its dissolution in 1945. More information on the older Gaue is in the second table.



01 BADEN -ELSAß Karlsruhe
, after 1940 Strasbourg
23,350 2,502,023 Robert Heinrich Wagner from 1925 (later also Reichsstatthalter

02 BAYREUTH , renaming of GAU BAYERISCHE OSTMARK (Bavarian Eastern March ) Bayreuth
29,600 2,370,658 Fritz Wächtler (2 June 1942 – 19 April 1945) Ludwig Ruckdeschel from 19 April 1945.

03 GROß-BERLIN Berlin 884 4,338,756 Ernst Schlange (1925–1926) Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels
(1 November 1926 – 30 April 1945)

26,057 2,287,394 Hans Albert Hohnfeldt (1926–1928) Walter Maass (1928–1930) Albert Forster from 15 October 1930

05 DüSSELDORF Düsseldorf
2,672 2,261,909 Friedrich Karl Florian from 1 January 1930

06 ESSEN Essen
2,825 1,921,326 Josef Terboven ( Oberpräsident ) from 1928

07 FRANKEN Nuremberg
7,618 1,077,216 Julius Streicher (1929 to 1940) Hans Zimmermann (16 February 1940 – 1942) Karl Holz from 19 March 1942

08 HALLE-MERSEBURG Halle an der Saale 10,202 1,578,292 Walter Ernst (1 August 1926 – 1927) Paul Hinkler (1927–1930) Rudolf Jordan (1930 – 20 April 1937) Joachim Albrecht Eggeling from 20 April 1937

09 HAMBURG Hamburg
747 1,711,877 Joseph Klant (1925–1926) Albert Krebs (1927–1928) Hinrich Lohse (1928 – 15 April 1929) Karl Kaufmann from 15 April 1929

10 HESSEN-NASSAU Frankfurt
15,030 3,117,266 Jakob Sprenger from 1933

11 KäRNTEN Klagenfurt 11,554 449,713 Hans vom Kothen (February 1933 to July 1934) Peter Feistritzer (October 1936 – 20 February 1938) Hubert Klausner (1938–1939) Franz Kutschera (1940–1941) Friedrich Rainer (1942–1944)

12 KöLN-AACHEN Köln 8,162 2,432,095 Joseph Grohé from 1931

9,200 971,887 Walter Schultz (1926–1927) Karl Weinrich (1928–1943) Karl Gerland from 1943

13,910 1,820,416 Wilhelm Friedrich Loeper from 1927 to 23 October 1935 with a short replacement by Paul Hofmann in 1933 Joachim Albrecht Leo Eggeling (1935–1937) Rudolf Jordan from 1937

15 MAINFRANKEN , renaming of GAU UNTERFRANKEN Würzburg 8,432 840,663 Otto Hellmuth from 3 September 1928

16 MARK BRANDENBURG Berlin 38,278 3,007,933 Wilhelm Kube (6 March 1933 – 7 August 1936) Emil Stürtz

15,722 900,427 Friedrich Hildebrandt from 1925 onwards with a short replacement by Herbert Albrecht (July 1930 – 1931)

18 MOSELLAND , renaming of GAU KOBLENZ-TRIER in 1942 Koblenz
11,876 1,367,354 Gustav Simon from 1 June 1931

16,411 1,938,447 Adolf Wagner (1933–1944) Paul Giesler from April 1944

20 NIEDERDONAU Nominal capital: Krems , District Headquarters: Vienna
23,502 1,697,676 Roman Jäger (12 March 1938 – 24 May 1938) Hugo Jury (24 May 1938 – 8 May 1945)

26,985 3,286,539 Karl Hanke from 1940

14,216 1,034,871 Andreas Bolek (June 1927 – 1 August 1934) August Eigruber from March 1935

20,636 4,341,084 Fritz Bracht from 27 January 1941

24 OST-HANNOVER (also known as HANNOVER-OST) Harburg , then Buchholz , after 1 April 1937 Lüneburg 18,006 1,060,509 from 1 October 1928 Otto Telschow

25 OSTPREUßEN Königsberg
52,731 3,336,777 Bruno Gustav Scherwitz (1925–1927) Erich Koch
Erich Koch
from 1928

26 POMMERN Stettin 38,409 2,393,844 Theodor Vahlen (1925–1927) Walter von Corswant (1928–1931) Wilhelm Karpenstein (1931–1934) Franz Schwede-Coburg from 1935

27 SACHSEN Dresden
14,995 5,231,739 Albert Wierheim around 1925/1926 Martin Mutschmann from 1925

28 SALZBURG Salzburg
7,153 257,226 Leopold Malina from 1926 to ?? Karl Scharizer (1932–1934) Friedrich Rainer (1939–1941) Gustav Adolf Scheel from 1941

15,687 1,589,267 Hinrich Lohse from 1925

30 SCHWABEN Augsburg
10,231 946,212 Karl Wahl from 1928

17,384 1,116,407 Walther Oberhaidacher (25 November 1928 – 1934) Sepp Helfrich (1934–1938) Siegfried Uiberreither from 22 May 1938

32 SUDETENLAND , until 1939 known as GAU SUDETENGAU Reichenberg 22,608 2,943,187 Konrad Henlein from 1939

14,553 2,136,961 Bernhard Rust (1 October 1928 – November 1940) Hartmann Lauterbacher from November 1940

34 THüRINGEN Weimar
15,763 2,446,182 Artur Dinter (1925–1927) Fritz Sauckel from 1927

13,126 486,400 Franz Hofer from 1932

36 WARTHELAND , (until 29 January 1940 known as GAU WARTHEGAU) Posen 43,905 4,693,722 Arthur Karl Greiser from 21 October 1939

37 WESER-EMS Oldenburg 15,044 1,839,302 Carl Röver (1929–1942) Paul Wegener from 1942

14,559 2,822,603 Alfred Meyer from 1932

7,656 2,678,026 Josef Wagner (1932–1941) Paul Giesler (1941 – 1943/1944) Albert Hoffmann from 1943/1944

40 WESTMARK , renaming of GAU SAAR-PFALZ (also known as Saarpfalz) Neustadt an der Weinstraße , after 1940 Saarbrücken 14,713 1,892,240 Josef Bürckel (1935 – 28 September 1944) Willi Stöhr from 28 September 1944

41 WIEN Vienna
1,216 1,929,976 Alfred Eduard Frauenfeld (1932–1938) Odilo Globocnik (May 1938 – January 1939) Josef Bürckel (1939–1940) Baldur von Schirach from 1940

20,657 2,974,373 Eugen Mander (1925–1928) Wilhelm Murr from 1928


Hans Nieland (1930–1933) Ernst Wilhelm Bohle from 8 May 1933


* FLANDERS , existed from 15 December 1944 ( Gauleiter
in German exile: Jef van de Wiele ) * WALLONIA , existed from 8 December 1944 ( Gauleiter
in German exile: Léon Degrelle )


Simple re-namings of existing Gaue without territorial changes is marked with the initials RN in the column "later became". The numbering is not based on any official former ranking, but merely listed alphabetically.



Magdeburg-Anhalt (1927) Elbe-Havel Gustav Hermann Schmischke


Baden-Elsaß (22 March 1941) RN

see above

03 BAYERISCHE OSTMARK Oberfranken & Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (II) (19 January 1933) Bayreuth
(2 Juni 1942) RN

Hans Schemm from 19 January 1933 to 5 March 1935, then from 5 March 1935 Fritz Wächtler

04 BERLIN Berlin-Brandenburg (1. Oktober 1928) Groß-Berlin RN

Dr. Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels


Berlin & Brandenburg (1 October 1928)

Ernst Schlange from 1925 to 1926, then from 1 November 1926 Joseph Goebbels

06 BRANDENBURG Berlin-Brandenburg (1 October 1928) Kurmark (6 March 1933) Ostmark from 1 October 1928 to 1932 Emil Holtz and from 18 October 1932 to 16 March 1933 Dr. Ernst Schlange


Süd-Hannover-Braunschweig (1 Oktober 1928) Hannover-Süd from 1925 to 30 September 1928 Ludolf Haase (perhaps also only for Hannover-Süd)


Danzig-Westpreußen (1939) RN

see above


Magdeburg-Anhalt (1927) Anhalt from 25 November 1925 to 1926 Alois Bachschmidt

10 GROß-MüNCHEN ("Traditionsgau")

München-Oberbayern (1933) Oberbayern


Süd-Hannover-Braunschweig (1 October 1928) Braunschweig from 1925 to 30 September 1928 Ludolf Haase (perhaps also only Braunschweig)


Hessen-Nassau (1933) Hessen-Nassau-Süd from 1 March 1927 to 9 January 1931 Friedrich Ringshausen , then only in 1931 Peter Gemeinder , then from 1932 to 1933 Karl Lenz


Kurhessen (1934)


Hessen-Nassau (1933) Hessen-Darmstadt from 1925 to 1926 Anton Haselmayer , then from 1926 to 1927 Dr. Walter Schultz , then from 1927 to 1933 Jakob Sprenger

15 KOBLENZ-TRIER Rheinland-Süd (1931) Moselland (1942) merger

16 KURMARK Ostmark & Brandenburg () Mark Brandenburg (1938) RN

see above


Ost- Hannover
(1928) RN

from 22 March 1925 to 30 September 1928 Bernhard Rust


Franken (1929) Nuremberg-Forth-Erlangen Julius Streicher ("Frankenführer")

19 NIEDERBAYERN Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (I) (1 Oktober 1928) Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (II) (1 April 1932) Oberpfalz from 1 October 1928 to 1929 Gregor Strasser , then from 1929 to 1 April 1932 Otto Erbersdobler


Oberpfalz & Niederbayern (1 Oktober 1928)

from 1925 to 30 September 1928 Gregor Strasser

21 NIEDERBAYERN-OBERPFALZ (II) Oberpfalz & Niederbayern (1 April 1932) Bayerische Ostmark (19 January 1933) Oberfranken from 1 April 1932 to 19 January 1933 Franz Mayerhofer


Niederdonau () RN

from 1927 to 1937 Josef Leopold


Franken (1929) Mittelfranken from 3 September 1928 Wilhelm Grimm


München-Oberbayern (1933) Groß-München


Bayerische Ostmark (19 January 1933) Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (II) from 1928 Hans Schemm


Oberdonau () RN

27 OBERPFALZ Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (I) (1 October 1928) Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (II) (1 April 1932) Niederbayern from 1 October 1928 to 1 April 1932 Franz Mayerhofer


Kurmark (6 March 1933) Brandenburg from 2 January 1928 to 1933 Wilhelm Kube


Saar-Pfalz (1935) Saar(land) from 1926 Josef Bürckel (from 1 March 1933 also administrator of Saarland)


(1926) Westfalen from 1925 to 1926 Karl Kaufmann


Köln-Aachen & Koblenz-Trier (1931)

1925 Heinrich Haake (also known as "Heinz Haake"), then from 1925 to 1931 Robert Ley

32 RUHR Rheinland-Nord & Westfalen (1926) Westfalen-Nord creation of Düsseldorf
nicht gesichert from 1926 to 1929 Karl Kaufmann, then from 1929 to 1931 Josef Wagner

33 SAARLAND, also merely Saar

Saar-Pfalz (1935) Rheinland from August 1929 to 28 February 1933 Karl Brück , from 1 March 1933 Josef Bürckel (also administrator of Rheinland)

34 SAAR-PFALZ, also SAARPFALZ Rheinland & Saar(land) (1935) Westmark (1937) RN

see above


Niederschlesien "> Membership of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
from 1939 Main article: List of Nazi Party members

The general membership of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
mainly consisted of the urban and rural lower middle classes . 7% belonged to the upper class, another 7% were peasants , 35% were industrial workers and 51% were what can be described as middle class. In early 1933, just before Hitler's appointment to the chancellorship, the party showed an under-representation of "workers", who made up 29.7% of the membership but 46.3% of German society. Conversely, white-collar employees (18.6% of members and 12% of Germans), the self-employed (19.8% of members and 9.6% of Germans) and civil servants (15.2% of members and 4.8% of the German population) had joined in proportions greater than their share of the general population. These members were affiliated with local branches of the party, of which there were 1,378 throughout the country in 1928. In 1932, the number had risen to 11,845, reflecting the party's growth in this period.

When it came to power in 1933, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
had over 2 million members. In 1939, the membership total rose to 5.3 million with 81% being male and 19% being female. It continued to attract many more and by 1945 the party reached its peak of 8 million with 63% being male and 37% being female (about 10% of the German population of 80 million).


Nazi members with military ambitions were encouraged to join the Waffen-SS, but a great number enlisted in the Wehrmacht and even more were drafted for service after World War II
World War II
began. Early regulations required that all Wehrmacht members be non-political and any Nazi member joining in the 1930s was required to resign from the Nazi Party.

However, this regulation was soon waived and there is ample evidence that full Nazi Party
Nazi Party
members served in the Wehrmacht in particular after the outbreak of World War II. The Wehrmacht Reserves also saw a high number of senior Nazis enlisting, with Reinhard Heydrich and Fritz Todt joining the Luftwaffe , as well as Karl Hanke who served in the army.


In 1926, the party formed a special division to engage the student population, known as the National Socialist German Students\' League (NSDStB). A group for university lecturers, the National Socialist German University Lecturers\' League (NSDDB), also existed until July 1944.


The National Socialist Women\'s League was the women\'s organization of the party and by 1938 it had approximately 2 million members.


Party members who lived outside Germany were pooled into the Auslands-Organisation ( NSDAP/AO , "Foreign Organization"). The organization was limited only to so-called " Imperial Germans "; and "Ethnic Germans" ( Volksdeutsche ), who did not hold German citizenship were not permitted to join.

Under Beneš decree No. 16/1945 Coll. , in case of citizens of Czechoslovakia
membership of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
was punishable by between five and twenty years of imprisonment.

Deutsche Gemeinschaft

Deutsche Gemeinschaft was a branch of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
founded in 1919, created for Germans with Volksdeutsche status. It is not to be confused with the post-war right-wing Deutsche Gemeinschaft (de), which was founded in 1949.

Notable members included:

* Oswald Menghin ( Vienna
) * Herbert Czaja ( Province of Silesia inside Prussia
) * Hermann Neubacher who was responsible for invading Yugoslavia. * Rudolf Much ( Vienna
) * Arthur Seyß-Inquart ( Vienna


* Nazi flags : The Nazi Party
Nazi Party
used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colours were said to represent Blut und Boden ("blood and soil"). Another definition of the flag describes the colours as representing the ideology of National Socialism, the swastika representing the Aryan race and the Aryan nationalist agenda of the movement; white representing Aryan racial purity; and red representing the socialist agenda of the movement. Black, white and red were in fact the colours of the old North German Confederation flag (invented by Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
, based on the Prussian colours black and white and the red used by northern German states). In 1871, with the foundation of the German Reich the flag of the North German Confederation became the German Reichsflagge (" Reich flag"). Black, white and red became the colours of the nationalists through the following history (for example World War I
World War I
and the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic

The Parteiflagge design, with the centred swastika disc, served as the party flag from 1920. Between 1933 (when the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
came to power) and 1935, it was used as the National flag (Nationalflagge) and Merchant flag (Handelsflagge), but interchangeably with the black-white-red horizontal tricolour . In 1935, the black-white-red horizontal tricolour was scrapped (again) and the flag with the off-centre swastika and disc was instituted as the national flag, and remained as such until 1945. The flag with the centred disk continued to be used after 1935, but exclusively as the Parteiflagge, the flag of the party.

* German eagle : The Nazi Party
Nazi Party
used the traditional German eagle , standing atop of a swastika inside a wreath of oak leaves. It is also known as the "Iron Eagle". When the eagle is looking to its left shoulder, it symbolises the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
and was called the Parteiadler. In contrast, when the eagle is looking to its right shoulder, it symbolises the country ( Reich ) and was therefore called the Reichsadler . After the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
came to national power in Germany, they replaced the traditional version of the German eagle with the modified party symbol throughout the country and all its institutions.


Parteiflagge ("party flag"), used 1920–1945 and also used as the national flag between 1933 and 1935, interchangeably with the black-white-red horizontal tricolour *

Flag with the off-centre swastika and disc, which was used as the national flag of Germany after 1935, though never used to represent the party *

Parteiadler design, used as party emblem *

Reichsadler design, representing Germany in general as the national insignia (Hoheitszeichen) *

5-Reichsmark coins before (1936) and after adding the Nazi swastika (1938)


Main article: Ranks and insignia of the Nazi Party
Ranks and insignia of the Nazi Party
1: Anwärter (not party member), 2: Anwärter, 3: Helfer, 4: Oberhelfer, 5: Arbeitsleiter, 6: Oberarbeitsleiter, 7: Hauptarbeitsleiter, 8: Bereitschaftsleiter, 9: Oberbereitschaftsleiter, 10: Hauptbereitschaftsleiter 11: Einsatzleiter, 12: Obereinsatzleiter, 13: Haupteinsatzleiter, 14: Gemeinschaftsleiter, 15: Obergemeinschaftsleiter, 16: Hauptgemeinschaftsleiter, 17: Abschnittsleiter, 18: Oberabschnittsleiter, 19: Hauptabschnittsleiter 20: Bereichsleiter, 21: Oberbereichsleiter, 22: Hauptbereichsleiter, 23: Dienstleiter, 24: Oberdienstleiter, 25: Hauptdienstleiter, 26: Befehlsleiter, 27: Oberbefehlsleiter, 28: Hauptbefehlsleiter, 29: Gauleiter, 30: Reichsleiter


* Nazi slogans: " Sieg Heil !"; "Heil Hitler
" * Nazi anthem: Horst-Wessel-Lied


* Glossary of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* List of books about Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* List of Nazi Party leaders and officials * Mass suicides in 1945 Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany

* Neo- Nazism * Sino-German cooperation until 1941 * Socialist Reich Party * Volkssturm

PORTALS Access related topics



* ^ Rick Steves. Rick Steves' Snapshot Munich, Bavaria
New York City, USA: Avalon Travel, 2010. p. 28. "Though the Nazis eventually gained power in Berlin, they remembered their roots, dubbing Munich "Capital of the Movement". The Nazi headquarters stood near today's obelisk on Brienner Strasse…" * ^ A B McNab 2011 , pp. 22, 23. * ^ Davidson, Eugene. The Making of Adolf Hitler: The Birth and Rise of Nazism. University of Missouri Press. p. 241. * ^ Orlow, Dietrich. The Nazi Party
Nazi Party
1919–1945: A Complete History. Enigma Books. p. 29. * ^ German Imperial colours * ^ Thomas D. Grant. Stormtroopers and Crisis in the Nazi Movement: Activism, Ideology and Dissolution. London, England; New York City, US: Routledge, 2004. pp. 30–34, 44. * ^ Otis C. Mitchell. Hitler's Stormtroopers and the Attack on the German Republic, 1919–1933. Jefferson, North Carolina, USA: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2008. p. 47. * ^ Frank McDonough. Hitler
and the Rise of the Nazi Party. Pearson/Longman, 2003. p. 64. * ^ Michael Wildt (15 July 2012). Hitler's Volksgemeinschaft and the Dynamics of Racial Exclusion: Violence Against Jews
in Provincial Germany, 1919–1939. Berghahn Books. pp. 96–97. ISBN 978-0-85745-322-8 . * ^ Simone Gigliotti, Berel Lang. The Holocaust: a reader. Malden, Massachusetts, USA; Oxford, England, UK; Carlton, Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing, 2005. p. 14. * ^ A B Evans 2008 , p. 318. * ^ Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. London; New York; San Diego: Harvest Book. p. 306. * ^ Curtis, Michael. Totalitarianism. New Brunswick (US); London: Transactions Publishers, 1979. p. 36. * ^ Burch, Betty Brand. Dictatorship
and Totalitarianism: Selected Readings. 1964. p. 58. * ^ Bruhn, Jodi; Hans Maier. Totalitarianism and Political Religions: Concepts for the Comparison of Dictatorships. Routledge: Oxon (UK); New York, 2004. p. 32. * ^ Elzer, Herbert, ed. (2003). Dokumente Zur Deutschlandpolitik. First half band – Appendix B, Section XI, §39. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftverlag. p. 602. ISBN 3-486-56667-9 . * ^ or Sozialdemokrat (pronounced /zo'tsjaːldemoˌkraːt/) (social democrat ). * ^ A B Franz H. Mautner (1944). "Nazi und Sozi". Modern Language Notes. 59 (2): 93–100. doi :10.2307/2910599 . JSTOR
2910599 . Dass Nazi eine Abkürzung von Nationalsozialist ist … nd zwar eine Verkürzung des Wortes auf seine ersten zwei Silben, aber nicht eine Zusammenziehung aus Nationalsozialist' … * ^ Hitler, Adolf (1936). Die Reden des Führers am Parteitag der Ehre, 1936 (in German). Munich: Zentralverlag der NSDAP. p. 10. "Parteigenossen! Parteigenossinnen! Nationalsozialisten! * ^ Gottlieb, Henrik; Morgensen, Jens Erik, eds. (2007). Dictionary Visions, Research and Practice: Selected Papers from the 12th International Symposium on Lexicography, Copenhagen, 2004 (illustrated ed.). Amsterdam: J. Benjamins Pub. Co. p. 247. ISBN 9789027223340 . Retrieved 22 October 2014. * ^ A B Harper, Douglas. "Nazi". etymonline.com. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 22 October 2014. * ^ A B Rabinbach, Anson; Gilman, Sander, eds. (2013). The Third Reich Sourcebook. Berkeley, Calif.: California University Press. p. 4. ISBN 9780520955141 . * ^ A B C D E Kershaw 2008 , p. 82. * ^ Shirer 1991 , p. 34. * ^ A B C Spector, Robert, World Without Civilization: Mass Murder and the Holocaust, History, and Analysis (University of America Press, 2004), p. 137. * ^ Griffen, Roger (ed). 1995. Fascism. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 105. * ^ Theodore Fred Abel. The Nazi Movement. Aldine Transaction, 2012 (original edition in 1938). p. 55. * ^ Carlsten, F. L. The Rise of Fascism. University of California Press. p. 91. * ^ Carlsten, p. 91. * ^ A B C D Fest, Joachim, The Face of the Third Reich (Penguin books, 1979), pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-0201407143 . * ^ Dan van der Vat : The Good Nazi: The Life and Lies of Albert Speer, p. 30. George Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1997 ISBN 0-297-81721-3 * ^ Shirer 1991 , p. 33. * ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 71–82. * ^ A B Kershaw 2008 , p. 75. * ^ Evans 2003 , p. 170. * ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 75, 76. * ^ Mitcham 1996 , p. 67. * ^ Blamires, Cyprian P. (2006). World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 185–. ISBN 978-1-57607-940-9 . Retrieved 13 March 2013. * ^ Shirer 1991 , p. 43. * ^ T. L. Jaman, The Rise and Fall of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
(New York University Press, 1956), p. 88. * ^ A B Rees, Laurence, The Nazis – A Warning from History (BBC Books, 2 March 2006), p. 23. * ^ Ian Kershaw, Hitler: 1889–1936 Hubris, p. 127. * ^ Ian Kershaw Hitler:1889–1936 Hubris. Penguin, 1998. p. 140. * ^ A B T. L. Jaman, The Rise and Fall of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
(New York University Press, 1956), p. 89. * ^ Shirer 1991 , p. 36. * ^ Shirer 1991 , p. 37. * ^ Johnson, Paul, A History of the Modern World: From 1917 to the 1980s (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 13 September 1984), p. 133. * ^ A B C Fest, Joachim, The Face of the Third Reich (Penguin books, 1979), p. 42. ISBN 978-0201407143 . * ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 87. * ^ Zentner & Bedürftig 1997 , p. 629. * ^ Mitcham 1996 , p. 68. * ^ Eric Ehrenreich (2007). The Nazi Ancestral Proof: Genealogy, Racial Science, and the Final Solution. Indiana University Press. p. 58. ISBN 0-253-11687-2 . * ^ Richard Weikart (21 July 2009). Hitler's Ethic. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-230-62398-9 . * ^ Sarah Ann Gordon (1984). Hitler, Germans, and the "Jewish Question". Princeton University Press. p. 265. ISBN 0-691-10162-0 . * ^ Fest, Joachim, The Face of the Third Reich (Penguin books, 1979), p. 39. ISBN 978-0201407143 . * ^ A B Kershaw 2008 , p. 89. * ^ Franz-Willing, Die Hilterbewegung * ^ Shirer 1991 , p. 38. * ^ Fest, Joachim, The Face of the Third Reich (Penguin books, 1979), p. 40. ISBN 978-0201407143 . * ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 100, 101. * ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 102. * ^ A B Kershaw 2008 , p. 103. * ^ A B C Kershaw 2008 , pp. 83, 103. * ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. ISBN 0-19-509514-6 . * ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 110. * ^ Jablonsky, David. 1989. The Nazi Party
Nazi Party
in Dissolution: Hitler and the Verbotzeit, 1923–1925. Routledge. p. 57. * ^ Jablonsky, p. 57 * ^ Weale 2010 , pp. 26–29. * ^ Koehl 2004 , p. 34. * ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 194. * ^ Evans 2005 , p. 372. * ^ Sutton, Antony C.: Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler
(1976, 1999) * ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 224. * ^ " Social democracy
Social democracy
is objectively the moderate wing of fascism. … These organisations (ie Fascism
and social democracy) are not antipodes, they are twins." (J.V. Stalin : Concerning the International Situation (September 1924), in Works, Volume 6, 1953; p. 294.) This later led Otto Wille Kuusinen to conclude that "The aims of the fascists and the social-fascists are the same." (Report To the 10th Plenum of ECCI, in International Press Correspondence, Volume 9, no.40, (20 August 1929), p. 848.) * ^ Hitler
stated: "Today our left-wing politicians in particular are constantly insisting that their craven-hearted and obsequious foreign policy necessarily results from the disarmament of Germany, whereas the truth is that this is the policy of traitors But the politicians of the Right deserve exactly the same reproach. It was through their miserable cowardice that those ruffians of Jews
who came into power in 1918 were able to rob the nation of its arms." Adolf Hitler. Mein Kampf. Bottom of the Hill Publishing, 2010. p. 287. * ^ Fritzsche, Peter. 1998. Germans into Nazis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press; Eatwell, Roger, Fascism, A History, Viking/Penguin, 1996, pp. xvii–xxiv, 21, 26–31, 114–140, 352. Griffin, Roger . 2000. "Revolution from the Right: Fascism," chapter in David Parker (ed.) Revolutions and the Revolutionary Tradition in the West 1560–1991, Routledge, London. * ^ Adolf Hitler, Max Domarus. The Essential Hitler: Speeches and Commentary. pp. 171, 172–173. * ^ Beck, H (2013). The Fateful Alliance: German Conservatives and Nazis in 1933: The Machtergreifung in a New Light. Berghahn Books. p. 259. ISBN 9780857454102 . * ^ Hermann Beck (2008). The Fateful Alliance: German Conservatives and Nazis in 1933—The Machtergreifung in a New Light. Beghahn Books. p. 259. * ^ Christian Ingrao (2010). Hitlers Elite: Die Wegbereiter des nationalsozialistischen Massenmords. Propyläen. * ^ Kolb, Eberhard (2005) . The Weimar
Republic. London; New York: Routledge. pp. 224–225. ISBN 978-0-415-34441-8 . * ^ Dieter Kuntz (2011). Hitler
and the functioning of the Third Reich. The Routledge History of the Holocaust. Routledge. p. 73. * ^ Thomas Schaarschmidt (2014). Mobilizing German Society for War: The National Socialist Gaue. Visions of Community in Nazi Germany. Oxford University Press. pp. 104–105. * ^ Richard J. Evans (2015). The Third Reich in History and Memory. Oxford University Press. p. 98. * ^ Chris McNab (2013). Hitler's Elite: The SS 1939–45. Osprey. p. 20. * ^ Dieter Kuntz (2011). Hitler
and the functioning of the Third Reich. The Routledge History of the Holocaust. Routledge. p. 74. * ^ Jacques Delarue (2008). The Gestapo: A History of Horror. Frontline Books. pp. x–xi. * ^ McNab 2009 , p. 25. * ^ McNab 2009 , pp. 25, 26. * ^ Rummel 1994 , p. 112. * ^ Snyder 2010 , p. 416. * ^ A B Holocaust Memorial Museum . * ^ Hancock 2004 , pp. 383–396. * ^ US Holocaust Memorial Museum . * ^ Snyder 2010 , p. 184. * ^ Niewyk & Nicosia 2000 , p. 45. * ^ Goldhagen 1996 , p. 290. * ^ Zentner & Bedürftig 1997 , p. 631. * ^ Deutsche Uniformen , National Socialist German Workers Part (1938) * ^ Speer, Albert (1970). Inside the Third Reich. New York and Toronto: Macmillan * ^ Buchquelle zur Gaugröße Kurmarks/Mark-Brandenburgs. Google Books. 1995. ISBN 978-3-05-002508-7 . Retrieved 12 November 2010. * ^ The 43rd Gau known as the Auslandsorganisation is non-territorial. * ^ German Historical Institute (2008). "Administrative Structure under National Socialism
(1941)" Washington DC. Online map (accessed 9 January 2014). * ^ Martin Broszat, The Hitler
State: The Foundation and Development of the Internal Structure of the Third Reich (London and New York: Longman, 1985), pp. 44–47. * ^ Walter Wolf (1969). Faschismus in der Schweiz. Flamberg, pp. 121, 253, 283. (in German) * ^ Alan Morris Schom. "Examples of NSDAP and National Front meetings and agendas in northern Switzerland, 1935, 1937". A Survey of Nazi and Pro-Nazi Groups in Switzerland: 1930–1945. Simon Wiesenthal Center . Retrieved 17 October 2010. * ^ Historischer Verein des Kantons Bern (1973). Archiv des Historischen Vereins des Kantons Bern, vol 57–60. Stämpfliche Verlagshandlung. p. 150. * ^ Beat Glaus (1969). Die Nationale front. Zürich. p. 147. * ^ A B Panayi, P. Life and Death in a German Town: Osnabrück from the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
to World War II
World War II
and Beyond. New York: Tauris Academic Studies, 2007. p. 40. * ^ "German population in 1945". Retrieved 28 August 2015. * ^ Fakty wypaczone przez Erikę Steinbach Bogdan Musiał 24 June 2009 Rzeczpospolita
* ^ Wolfgang Rosar: Deutsche Gemeinschaft. Seyss-Inquart und der Anschluß. Europa-Verlag, Wien 1971. ISBN 3-203-50384-0 .


* Evans, Richard J. (2003). The Coming of the Third Reich . New York; Toronto: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303469-8 . * Evans, Richard J. (2005). The Third Reich in Power. New York: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303790-3 . * Evans, Richard J. (2008). The Third Reich at War. New York: Penguin Group. ISBN 978-0-14-311671-4 . * Goldhagen, Daniel (1996). Hitler\'s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust . New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-0-679-44695-8 . * Hancock, Ian (2004). "Romanies and the Holocaust: A Reevaluation and an Overview". In Stone, Dan. The Historiography of the Holocaust. New York; Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-99745-1 . * Höhne, Heinz (2000) . The Order of the Death's Head: The Story of Hitler's SS (Der Orden unter dem Totenkopf: Die Geschichte der SS). London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-139012-3 . * Kershaw, Ian (2008). Hitler: A Biography. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-06757-2 . * Koehl, Robert (2004). The SS: A History 1919–45. Stroud: Tempus. ISBN 978-0-75242-559-7 . * McNab, Chris (2009). The Third Reich. Amber Books. ISBN 978-1-906626-51-8 . * McNab, Chris (2011). Hitler's Masterplan: The Essential Facts and Figures for Hitler's Third Reich. Amber Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1907446962 . * Mitcham, Samuel W. (1996). Why Hitler?: The Genesis of the Nazi Reich. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-95485-7 . * Niewyk, Donald L.; Nicosia, Francis R. (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-11200-0 . * Rummel, Rudolph (1994). Death by Government. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. ISBN 978-1-56000-145-4 . * Shirer, William L. (1991) . The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich . London: Arrow Books. ISBN 978-009942176-4 . * Snyder, Timothy (2010). Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler
and Stalin . New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00239-9 . * Weale, Adrian (2010). The SS: A New History. London: Little, Brown. ISBN 978-1-4087-0304-5 . * Zentner, Christian; Bedürftig, Friedemann (1997) . The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich . New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-3068079-3-0 .


* "Introduction to the Holocaust". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum . Retrieved 23 October 2017.


Wikimedia Commons has media related to NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS\\' PARTY .

* Text of Mein Kampf * Program of the Nazi Party, its "Manifesto" * (in German) Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) 1920–1933 at Lebendiges Museum Online. * (in German) Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei