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Coordinates: 52°31′N 13°24′E / 52.517°N 13.400°E / 52.517; 13.400 "Drittes Reich" redirects here. For the 1923 book, see Das Dritte Reich.

German Reich

Deutsches Reich[A]

1933–1945

Flag

Emblem

Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen "Song of the Germans"

Horst-Wessel-Lied "Horst Wessel Song"

Germany
Germany
at the height of World War II success (late 1942)

   Germany
Germany
proper[a]

  Civil occupied territories

  Military-administered occupied territories

Administrative divisions of Germany, January 1944

Capital Berlin

Languages German

Government

Nazi one-party totalitarian dictatorship

President / Führer

 •  1933–1934 Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg
(President)

 •  1934–1945 Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(Führer)

 •  1945 Karl Dönitz
Karl Dönitz
(President)

Chancellor

 •  1933–1945 Adolf Hitler

 •  1945 Joseph Goebbels

 •  1945 (as leading minister) Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk

Legislature Reichstag[B]

 •  State council Reichsrat (abolished 1934)

Historical era Interwar/World War II

 •  "Seizure of Power" 30 January 1933

 •  Enabling Act 24 March 1933

 •  Anschluss (Union with Austria) 12 March 1938

 •  World War II 1 September 1939

 •  Death of Adolf Hitler 30 April 1945

 •  Surrender of Germany 8 May 1945

 •  Final dissolution 23 May 1945

Area

 •  1939 [b] 633,786 km2 (244,706 sq mi)

Population

 •  1939 est.[c] 79,375,281 

Currency Reichsmark
Reichsmark
(ℛℳ)

Preceded by Succeeded by

Weimar Republic

Saar Basin

Austria

Czechoslovakia

Lithuania

Poland

Danzig

Yugoslavia

France

Luxembourg

Occupied Germany

Occupied Austria

Poland

Czechoslovakia

Yugoslavia

France

Luxembourg

Soviet Union

a. ^ Officially "Großdeutsches Reich" ("Greater German Reich"), 1943–1945.

b. ^ Officially "Großdeutscher Reichstag" ("Diet of the Greater German Reich"), 1938–1945.

Nazi Germany
Germany
is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany
Germany
was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
through the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(NSDAP). Under Hitler's rule, Germany
Germany
was transformed into a totalitarian state in which the Nazi Party controlled nearly all aspects of life. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich ("German Reich") from 1933 to 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich ("Great-German Reich") from 1943 to 1945. The period is also known under the names the Third Reich (Drittes Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", with the Holy Roman Empire and the German Empire
German Empire
being the first two) and the National Socialist Period (Zeit des Nationalsozialismus, abbreviated as NS-Zeit, literally "Time of National Socialism"). The Nazi regime ended after the Allied Powers defeated Germany
Germany
in May 1945, ending World War II
World War II
in Europe. Hitler
Hitler
was appointed Chancellor of Germany
Germany
by the President of the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg
on 30 January 1933. The Nazi Party then began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934 and Hitler
Hitler
became dictator of Germany
Germany
by merging the offices and powers of the Chancellery and Presidency. A national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer
Führer
(leader) of Germany. All power was centralised in Hitler's person and his word became above all laws. The government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitler's favour. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy. Extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen (motorways). The return to economic stability boosted the regime's popularity. Racism, especially antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime. The Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
(the Nordic race) were considered by the Nazis to be the purest branch of the Aryan race
Aryan race
and were therefore viewed as the master race. Millions of Jews
Jews
and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were murdered in the Holocaust. Opposition to Hitler's rule was ruthlessly suppressed. Members of the liberal, socialist, and communist opposition were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. Christian churches were oppressed, with many leaders imprisoned. Education focused on racial biology, population policy, and fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed. Recreation and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, and the 1936 Summer Olympics
1936 Summer Olympics
showcased the Third Reich on the international stage. Propaganda
Propaganda
minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, and Hitler's hypnotic oratory to influence public opinion. The government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. Beginning in the late 1930s, Nazi Germany
Germany
made increasingly aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if they were not met. It seized Austria and Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in 1938 and 1939. Hitler
Hitler
made a non-aggression pact with Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
and invaded Poland in September 1939, launching World War II
World War II
in Europe. In alliance with Italy and smaller Axis powers, Germany
Germany
conquered most of Europe by 1940 and threatened the UK. Reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas and a German administration was established in what was left of Poland. Jews
Jews
and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps
Nazi concentration camps
and extermination camps, or shot. Following the German invasion of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1941, the tide gradually turned against the Nazis, who suffered major military defeats in 1943. Large-scale aerial bombing of Germany
Germany
escalated in 1944 and the Axis powers
Axis powers
were pushed back in Eastern and Southern Europe. Following the Allied invasion of France, Germany
Germany
was conquered by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from the east and the other Allied powers from the west and capitulated within a year. Hitler's refusal to admit defeat led to massive destruction of German infrastructure and additional war-related deaths in the closing months of the war. The victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.

Contents

1 Name 2 Background 3 History

3.1 Nazi seizure of power 3.2 Militaristic foreign policy 3.3 Austria and Czechoslovakia 3.4 Poland 3.5 World War II

3.5.1 Foreign policy 3.5.2 Outbreak of war 3.5.3 Conquest of Europe 3.5.4 Turning point and collapse 3.5.5 German casualties

4 Geography

4.1 Territorial changes 4.2 Occupied territories 4.3 Post-war changes

5 Politics

5.1 Ideology 5.2 Government 5.3 Law 5.4 Military and paramilitary

5.4.1 Wehrmacht 5.4.2 The SA and SS

6 Economy

6.1 Reich economics 6.2 Wartime economy and forced labour

7 Racial policy

7.1 Persecution of Jews 7.2 Persecution of Roma 7.3 People with disabilities 7.4 The Holocaust 7.5 Oppression of ethnic Poles 7.6 Mistreatment of Soviet POWs

8 Society

8.1 Education 8.2 Oppression of churches 8.3 Health 8.4 Role of women and family 8.5 Environmentalism

9 Culture 10 Legacy 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Name Further information: Reich The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945, while common English terms are "Nazi Germany" and "Third Reich". The latter, adopted by Nazi propaganda as Drittes Reich, was first used in a 1923 book by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck. The book counted the Holy Roman Empire (962–1806) as the first Reich and the German Empire
German Empire
(1871–1918) as the second.[1] The Nazis used it to legitimize their regime as a successor state. After they seized power, Nazi propaganda retroactively referred to the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
as the Zwischenreich ("Interim Reich"). Background Further information: Adolf Hitler's rise to power The German economy suffered severe setbacks after the end of World War I, partly because of reparations payments required under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles. The government printed money to make the payments and to repay the country's war debt, but the resulting hyperinflation led to inflated prices for consumer goods, economic chaos, and food riots.[2] When the government defaulted on their reparations payments in January 1923, French troops occupied German industrial areas along the Ruhr
Ruhr
and widespread civil unrest followed.[3] The National Socialist German Workers' Party
National Socialist German Workers' Party
(NSDAP;[d] Nazi Party) was the renamed successor of the German Workers' Party
German Workers' Party
founded in 1919, one of several far-right political parties then active in Germany.[4] The party platform included removal of the Weimar Republic, rejection of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, radical antisemitism, and anti-Bolshevism.[5] They promised a strong central government, increased Lebensraum
Lebensraum
("living space") for Germanic peoples, formation of a national community based on race, and racial cleansing via the active suppression of Jews, who would be stripped of their citizenship and civil rights.[6] The Nazis proposed national and cultural renewal based upon the Völkisch movement.[7] When the stock market in the United States crashed on 24 October 1929, the effect in Germany
Germany
was dire.[8] Millions were thrown out of work and several major banks collapsed. Hitler
Hitler
and the NSDAP prepared to take advantage of the emergency to gain support for their party. They promised to strengthen the economy and provide jobs.[9] Many voters decided the NSDAP was capable of restoring order, quelling civil unrest, and improving Germany's international reputation. After the federal election of 1932, the NSDAP was the largest party in the Reichstag, holding 230 seats with 37.4 percent of the popular vote.[10] History

If the experience of the Third Reich teaches us anything, it is that a love of great music, great art and great literature does not provide people with any kind of moral or political immunization against violence, atrocity, or subservience to dictatorship.

Richard J. Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich (2003)

Further information: History of Germany Nazi seizure of power See also: Adolf Hitler's rise to power
Adolf Hitler's rise to power
§ Seizure of control (1931–1933) Although the Nazis won the greatest share of the popular vote in the two Reichstag general elections of 1932, they did not have a majority and therefore Hitler
Hitler
led a short-lived coalition government formed with the German National People's Party.[11] Under pressure from politicians, industrialists, and the business community, President Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg
appointed Hitler
Hitler
as Chancellor of Germany
Germany
on 30 January 1933. This event is known as the Machtergreifung
Machtergreifung
("seizure of power").[12] In the following months, the NSDAP used a process termed Gleichschaltung
Gleichschaltung
("co-ordination") to bring all aspects of life under control of the party.[13] All civilian organisations, including agricultural groups, volunteer organisations, and sports clubs, had their leadership replaced with Nazi sympathisers or party members; these civic organizations either merged with the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
or faced dissolution.[14] By June 1933, the only organisations not in the control of the NSDAP were the army and the churches.[15]

Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
became Germany's head of state, with the title of Führer und Reichskanzler, in 1934

On the night of 27 February 1933, the Reichstag building was set afire. Marinus van der Lubbe, a Dutch communist, was found guilty of starting the blaze. Hitler
Hitler
proclaimed that the arson marked the start of a communist uprising. Violent suppression of communists by the Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
(SA) was undertaken nationwide and four thousand members of the Communist Party of Germany
Germany
were arrested. The Reichstag Fire Decree, imposed on 28 February 1933, rescinded most German civil liberties, including rights of assembly and freedom of the press. The decree also allowed the police to detain people indefinitely without charges or a court order. The legislation was accompanied by a propaganda blitz that led to public support for the measure.[16] In March 1933, the Enabling Act, an amendment to the Weimar Constitution, passed in the Reichstag by a vote of 444 to 94.[17] This amendment allowed Hitler
Hitler
and his cabinet to pass laws—even laws that violated the constitution—without the consent of the president or the Reichstag.[18] As the bill required a two-thirds majority to pass, the Nazis used the provisions of the Reichstag Fire Decree
Reichstag Fire Decree
to keep several Social Democratic deputies from attending, and the Communists had already been banned.[19][20] On 10 May, the government seized the assets of the Social Democrats, and they were banned in June.[21] The remaining political parties were dissolved, and on 14 July 1933 Germany
Germany
became a de facto one-party state when the founding of new parties was made illegal.[22] Further elections in November 1933, 1936 and 1938 were Nazi-controlled, with only the NSDAP and a small number of independents elected.[23] The regional state parliaments and the Reichsrat (federal upper house) were abolished in January 1934.[24] The Nazi regime abolished the symbols of the Weimar Republic—including the black, red, and gold tricolour flag—and adopted reworked imperial symbolism. The previous imperial black, white, and red tricolour was restored as one of Germany's two official flags; the second was the swastika flag of the NSDAP, which became the sole national flag in 1935. The NSDAP anthem "Horst-Wessel-Lied" ("Horst Wessel Song") became a second national anthem.[25] Hitler
Hitler
knew that reviving the economy was vital. Germany
Germany
was still in a dire economic situation, as millions were unemployed and the balance of trade deficit was daunting.[26] In 1934, using deficit spending, public works projects were undertaken, creating 1.7 million new jobs in 1934 alone.[26] Average wages both per hour and per week began to rise.[27] The demands of the SA for more political and military power caused anxiety among military, industrial, and political leaders. In response, Hitler
Hitler
purged the entire SA leadership in the Night of the Long Knives, which took place from 30 June to 2 July 1934.[28] Hitler targeted Ernst Röhm
Ernst Röhm
and other SA leaders who—along with a number of Hitler's political adversaries (such as Gregor Strasser
Gregor Strasser
and former chancellor Kurt von Schleicher)—were rounded up, arrested, and shot.[29] On 2 August 1934, President von Hindenburg died. The previous day, the cabinet had enacted the "Law Concerning the Highest State Office of the Reich", which stated that upon Hindenburg's death the office of president would be abolished and its powers merged with those of the chancellor.[30] Hitler
Hitler
thus became head of state as well as head of government and was formally named as Führer
Führer
und Reichskanzler (leader and chancellor). Germany
Germany
was now a totalitarian state with Hitler
Hitler
at its head.[31] As head of state, Hitler
Hitler
became Supreme Commander of the armed forces. The new law altered the traditional loyalty oath of servicemen so that they affirmed loyalty to Hitler
Hitler
personally rather than the office of supreme commander or the state.[32] On 19 August, the merger of the presidency with the chancellorship was approved by 90 percent of the electorate in a plebiscite.[33]

Joseph Goebbels, Reich Minister of Propaganda

Most Germans
Germans
were relieved that the conflicts and street fighting of the Weimar era had ended. They were deluged with propaganda orchestrated by Joseph Goebbels, who promised peace and plenty for all in a united, Marxist-free country without the constraints of the Versailles Treaty.[34] The first major Nazi concentration camp, initially for political prisoners, was opened at Dachau in 1933.[35] Hundreds of camps of varying size and function were created by the end of the war.[36] Beginning in April 1933, scores of measures defining the status of Jews
Jews
and their rights were instituted at the regional and national level.[37] Initiatives and legal mandates against the Jews
Jews
culminated in the establishment of the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
of 1935, stripping them of their basic rights.[38] The Nazis would take from the Jews
Jews
their wealth, their right to intermarry with non-Jews, and their right to occupy many fields of labour (such as practising law, medicine or working as educators). They eventually declared them undesirable to remain among German citizens and society, which over time dehumanised the Jews. Arguably, these actions desensitised Germans
Germans
to the extent that it resulted in the Holocaust. Ethnic Germans
Germans
who refused to ostracise Jews
Jews
or who showed any signs of resistance to Nazi propaganda were placed under surveillance by the Gestapo, had their rights removed, or were sent to concentration camps.[39] The NSDAP obtained and legitimised power through its initial revolutionary activities, then through manipulation of legal mechanisms, the use of police powers, and by the expansion of authority for all state and federal institutions.[40] Militaristic foreign policy Main article: International relations (1919–1939) See also: Remilitarization of the Rhineland
Remilitarization of the Rhineland
and German involvement in the Spanish Civil War As early as February 1933, Hitler
Hitler
announced that rearmament must begin, albeit clandestinely at first, as to do so was in violation of the Versailles Treaty. A year later he told his military leaders that 1942 was the target date for going to war in the east.[41] He pulled Germany
Germany
out of the League of Nations
League of Nations
in 1933, claiming its disarmament clauses were unfair as they applied only to Germany.[42] The Saarland, which had been placed under League of Nations
League of Nations
supervision for 15 years at the end of World War I, voted in January 1935 to become part of Germany.[43] In March 1935, Hitler
Hitler
announced the Reichswehr
Reichswehr
would be increased to 550,000 men and the creation of an air force.[44] Britain agreed that the Germans
Germans
would be allowed to build a naval fleet with the signing of the Anglo-German Naval Agreement
Anglo-German Naval Agreement
on 18 June 1935.[45] When the Italian invasion of Ethiopia led to only mild protests by the British and French governments, on 7 March 1936 Hitler
Hitler
used the Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance as a pretext to order the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
Heer to march 3,000 troops into the demilitarised zone in the Rhineland
Rhineland
in violation of the Versailles Treaty.[46] As the territory was part of Germany, the British and French governments did not feel that attempting to enforce the treaty was worth the risk of war.[47] In the one-party election held on 29 March, the NSDAP received 98.9 percent support.[47] In 1936, Hitler
Hitler
signed an Anti-Comintern Pact
Anti-Comintern Pact
with Japan and a non-aggression agreement with the Fascist Italy of Benito Mussolini, who was soon referring to a "Rome- Berlin
Berlin
Axis".[48] Hitler
Hitler
sent air and armoured units to assist the Nationalist forces of General Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
in the Spanish Civil War, which began in July 1936. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
sent a smaller force to assist the Republican government. Franco's Nationalists were victorious in 1939 and became an informal ally of Nazi Germany.[49]

Ethnic Germans
Germans
in 1938 use the Nazi salute
Nazi salute
to greet German soldiers as they enter Saaz, Czechoslovakia

Austria and Czechoslovakia Main articles: Anschluss
Anschluss
and German occupation of Czechoslovakia Further information: Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia In February 1938, Hitler
Hitler
emphasised to Austrian Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg the need for Germany
Germany
to secure its frontiers. Schuschnigg scheduled a plebiscite regarding Austrian independence for 13 March, but Hitler
Hitler
demanded that it be cancelled. On 11 March, Hitler
Hitler
sent an ultimatum to Schuschnigg demanding that he hand over all power to the Austrian NSDAP or face an invasion. The Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
entered Austria the next day, to be greeted with enthusiasm by the populace.[50] The Republic of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was home to a substantial minority of Germans, who lived mostly in the Sudetenland. Under pressure from separatist groups within the Sudeten German Party, the Czechoslovak government offered economic concessions to the region.[51] Hitler decided to incorporate not just the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
but all of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
into the Reich.[52] The Nazis undertook a propaganda campaign to try to generate support for an invasion.[53] Top leaders of the armed forces opposed the plan, as Germany
Germany
was not yet ready for war.[54]

Hitler
Hitler
proclaims the Anschluss
Anschluss
on the Heldenplatz, Vienna, 15 March 1938

The crisis led to war preparations by the British, the Czechoslovaks, and France (Czechoslovakia's ally). Attempting to avoid war, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
Neville Chamberlain
arranged a series of meetings, the result of which was the Munich
Munich
Agreement, signed on 29 September 1938. The Czechoslovak government was forced to accept the Sudetenland's annexation into Germany. Chamberlain was greeted with cheers when he landed in London, saying it brought "peace for our time".[55] The agreement lasted six months before Hitler
Hitler
seized the rest of Czech territory in March 1939.[56] A puppet state was created in Slovakia.[57] Austrian and Czech foreign exchange reserves were seized by the Nazis, as were stockpiles of raw materials such as metals and completed goods such as weaponry and aircraft, which were shipped to Germany. The Reichswerke Hermann Göring
Reichswerke Hermann Göring
industrial conglomerate took control of steel and coal production facilities in both countries.[58] Poland

A Nazi propaganda
Nazi propaganda
poster proclaiming that Danzig
Danzig
is German.

In January 1934, Germany
Germany
signed a non-aggression pact with Poland, which disrupted the French network of anti-German alliances in Eastern Europe.[59] In March 1939, Hitler
Hitler
demanded the return of the Free City of Danzig
Danzig
and the Polish Corridor, a strip of land that separated East Prussia from the rest of Germany. The British announced they would come to the aid of Poland if it was attacked. Hitler, believing the British would not actually take action, ordered an invasion plan should be readied for a target date of September 1939.[60] On 23 May, Hitler
Hitler
described to his generals his overall plan of not only seizing the Polish Corridor
Polish Corridor
but greatly expanding German territory eastward at the expense of Poland and he expected this time they would be met by force.[61] The Germans
Germans
reaffirmed their alliance with Italy and signed non-aggression pacts with Denmark, Estonia, and Latvia whilst trade links were formalised with Romania, Norway, and Sweden.[62] Hitler's foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop
Joachim von Ribbentrop
arranged in negotiations with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
a non-aggression pact, the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, signed in August 1939.[63] The treaty also contained secret protocols dividing Poland and the Baltic states into German and Soviet spheres of influence.[64][65] World War II

Animated map showing German and Axis allies' conquests in Europe throughout World War II
World War II
(click through to the full-size image to view the animated version)

Germany
Germany
and her allies at the height of Axis success

Foreign policy Further information: Diplomatic history of World War II § Germany Germany's wartime foreign policy involved the creation of allied governments under direct or indirect control from Berlin. A main goal was obtaining soldiers from the senior allies such as Italy and Hungary and workers and food supplies from subservient allies such as Vichy France.[66] By late 1942, there were 24 divisions from Romania on the Eastern Front, 10 from Italy and 10 from Hungary.[67] Germany assumed full control in France in 1942, Italy in 1943, and Hungary in 1944. Although Japan was a powerful ally, the relationship was distant, with little co-ordination or co-operation. For example, Germany
Germany
refused to share their formula for synthetic oil from coal until late in the war.[68] Outbreak of war Germany
Germany
invaded Poland on 1 September 1939. Britain and France declared war on Germany
Germany
two days later. World War II
World War II
was under way.[69] Poland fell quickly, as the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
attacked from the east on 17 September.[70] Reinhard Heydrich, then head of the Gestapo, ordered on 21 September that Jews
Jews
should be rounded up and concentrated into cities with good rail links. Initially the intention was to deport them further east, or possibly to Madagascar.[71] Using lists prepared ahead of time, some 65,000 Polish intelligentsia, noblemen, clergy, and teachers were killed by the end of 1939 in an attempt to destroy Poland's identity as a nation.[72][73] The Soviet forces continued to attack, advancing into Finland in the Winter War, and German forces saw action at sea. But little other activity occurred until May, so the period became known as the "Phoney War".[74] From the start of the war, a British blockade on shipments to Germany affected the Reich economy. The Germans
Germans
were particularly dependent on foreign supplies of oil, coal, and grain.[75] To safeguard Swedish iron ore shipments to Germany, Hitler
Hitler
ordered an attack on Norway, which took place on 9 April 1940. Much of the country was occupied by German troops by the end of April. Also on 9 April, the Germans invaded and occupied Denmark.[76][77] Conquest of Europe Against the judgement of many of his senior military officers, Hitler ordered an attack on France and the Low Countries, which began in May 1940.[78] They quickly conquered Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Belgium and France surrendered on 22 June.[79] The unexpectedly swift defeat of France resulted in an upswing in Hitler's popularity and an upsurge in war fever.[80] In spite of the provisions of the Hague Convention, industrial firms in the Netherlands, France and Belgium were put to work producing war materiel for the occupying German military. Officials viewed this option as being preferable to their citizens being deported to the Reich as forced labour.[81] The Nazis seized from the French thousands of locomotives and rolling stock, stockpiles of weapons, and raw materials such as copper, tin, oil, and nickel.[82] Payments for occupation costs were demanded and received from France, Belgium, and Norway.[83] Barriers to trade led to hoarding, black markets, and uncertainty about the future.[84] Food supplies were precarious; production dropped in most of Europe, but not as much as during World War I.[85] Greece experienced famine in the first year of occupation and the Netherlands in the last year of the war.[85] Hitler
Hitler
made peace overtures to the new British leader Winston Churchill, which were rejected in July 1940. Grand Admiral Erich Raeder had advised Hitler
Hitler
in June that air superiority was a pre-condition for a successful invasion of Britain, so Hitler
Hitler
ordered a series of aerial attacks on Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) airbases and radar stations, as well as nightly air raids on British cities, including London, Plymouth, and Coventry. The German Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
failed to defeat the RAF in what became known as the Battle of Britain, and by the end of October, Hitler
Hitler
realised that air superiority could not be achieved. He permanently postponed the invasion, a plan which the commanders of the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
had never taken entirely seriously.[86][87][e] Several historians, including Andrew Gordon, believe the primary reason for the failure of the invasion plan was due to the superiority of the Royal Navy, not the actions of the RAF.[88] In February 1941, the German Afrika Korps
Afrika Korps
arrived in Libya to aid the Italians in the North African Campaign
North African Campaign
and attempt to contain Commonwealth forces stationed in Egypt.[89] On 6 April, Germany launched the invasion of Yugoslavia and the battle of Greece.[90] German efforts to secure oil included negotiating a supply from their new ally, Romania, who signed the Tripartite Pact
Tripartite Pact
in November 1940.[91][92]

German soldiers march near the Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
in Paris, 14 June 1940

On 22 June 1941, contravening the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, 5.5 million Axis troops attacked the Soviet Union. In addition to Hitler's stated purpose of acquiring Lebensraum, this large-scale offensive (codenamed Operation Barbarossa) was intended to destroy the Soviet Union and seize its natural resources for subsequent aggression against the Western powers.[93] The reaction among Germans
Germans
was one of surprise and trepidation as many were concerned about how much longer the war would continue or suspected that Germany
Germany
could not win a war fought on two fronts.[94]

German Panzer IV
Panzer IV
in Thessaloniki. The banner on the building in the background reads " Bolshevism
Bolshevism
is the greatest enemy of our civilization".

The invasion conquered a huge area, including the Baltic republics, Belarus, and West Ukraine. After the successful Battle of Smolensk, Hitler
Hitler
ordered Army Group Centre to halt its advance to Moscow and temporarily divert its Panzer groups to aid in the encirclement of Leningrad
Leningrad
and Kiev.[95] This pause provided the Red Army
Red Army
with an opportunity to mobilise fresh reserves. The Moscow offensive, which resumed in October 1941, ended disastrously in December.[95] On 7 December 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Four days later, Germany
Germany
declared war on the United States.[96] Food was in short supply in the conquered areas of the Soviet Union and Poland, with rations inadequate to meet nutritional needs. The retreating armies had burned the crops and much of the remainder was sent back to the Reich.[97] In Germany, rations were cut in 1942. In his role as Plenipotentiary of the Four Year Plan, Hermann Göring demanded increased shipments of grain from France and fish from Norway. The 1942 harvest was good, and food supplies remained adequate in Western Europe.[98] Reichsleiter Rosenberg Taskforce
Reichsleiter Rosenberg Taskforce
was an organisation set up to loot artwork and cultural material from Jewish collections, libraries, and museums throughout Europe. Some 26,000 railroad cars of art treasures, furniture, and other looted items were sent to Germany
Germany
from France alone.[99] In addition, soldiers looted or purchased goods such as produce and clothing—items which were becoming harder to obtain in Germany—for shipment home.[100] Turning point and collapse

Death and destruction during the Battle of Stalingrad, October 1942

Germany
Germany
and Europe as a whole was almost totally dependent on foreign oil imports.[101] In an attempt to resolve the persistent shortage, in June 1942 Germany
Germany
launched Fall Blau (Case Blue), an offensive against the Caucasian oilfields.[102] The Red Army
Red Army
launched a counter-offensive on 19 November and encircled the Axis forces, who were trapped in Stalingrad on 23 November.[103] Göring assured Hitler that the 6th Army could be supplied by air, but this turned out to be infeasible.[104] Hitler's refusal to allow a retreat led to the deaths of 200,000 German and Romanian soldiers; of the 91,000 men who surrendered in the city on 31 January 1943, only 6,000 survivors returned to Germany
Germany
after the war.[105] Soviet forces continued to push the invaders westward after the failed German offensive at the Battle of Kursk
Battle of Kursk
and by the end of 1943 the Germans
Germans
had lost most of their Eastern territorial gains.[106] In Egypt, Field Marshal Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps
Afrika Korps
were defeated by British forces under Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery
Bernard Montgomery
in October 1942.[107] The Allies landed in Sicily in July 1943 and in Italy in September.[108] Meanwhile, American and British bomber fleets based in Britain began operations against Germany
Germany
and many sorties were intentionally given civilian targets in an effort to destroy German morale.[109] Soon German aircraft production could not keep pace with losses, and without air cover the Allied bombing campaign became even more devastating. By targeting oil refineries and factories, they crippled the German war effort by late 1944.[110] On 6 June 1944, American, British, and Canadian forces established a front in France with the D-Day landings in Normandy.[111] On 20 July 1944, Hitler
Hitler
narrowly survived a bomb attack.[112] He ordered brutal reprisals, resulting in 7,000 arrests and the execution of more than 4,900 people.[113] The failed Ardennes Offensive
Ardennes Offensive
(16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was the last major German campaign of the war as Soviet forces entered Germany
Germany
on 27 January.[114] Hitler's refusal to admit defeat and his repeated insistence that the war be fought to the last man led to unnecessary death and destruction in the war's closing months.[115] Through his Justice Minister Otto Georg Thierack, Hitler
Hitler
ordered that anyone who was not prepared to fight should be summarily court-martialed, and thousands of people were put to death.[116] In many areas, people surrendered to the approaching Allies in spite of exhortations of local leaders to continue to fight. Hitler
Hitler
also ordered the destruction of transport, bridges, industries, and other infrastructure—a scorched earth decree—but Armaments Minister Albert Speer
Albert Speer
was able to keep this order from being fully carried out.[115]

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U.S. Army Air Force film of the destruction in central Berlin
Berlin
in July 1945

During the Battle of Berlin
Berlin
(16 April 1945 – 2 May 1945), Hitler
Hitler
and his staff lived in the underground Führerbunker
Führerbunker
while the Red Army
Red Army
approached.[117] On 30 April, when Soviet troops were within two blocks of the Reich Chancellery, Hitler
Hitler
and Eva Braun
Eva Braun
committed suicide in the Führerbunker.[118] On 2 May, General Helmuth Weidling unconditionally surrendered Berlin
Berlin
to Soviet General Vasily Chuikov.[119] Hitler
Hitler
was succeeded by Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz
Karl Dönitz
as Reich President and Goebbels as Reich Chancellor.[120] Goebbels and his wife Magda committed suicide the next day after murdering their six children.[121] On 4–8 May 1945, most of the remaining German armed forces surrendered unconditionally. The German Instrument of Surrender was signed 8 May, marking the end of the Nazi regime and the end of World War II
World War II
in Europe.[122] Main article: Mass suicides in 1945 Nazi Germany Suicide rates in Germany
Germany
increased as the war drew to a close, particularly in areas where the Red Army
Red Army
was advancing. More than a thousand people (out of a population of around 16,000) committed suicide in Demmin on and around 1 May 1945 as the 65th Army of 2nd Belorussian Front first broke into a distillery and then rampaged through the town, committing mass rapes, arbitrarily executing civilians, and setting fire to buildings.[123] High numbers of suicides took place in many other locations, including Neubrandenburg (600 dead),[123] Stolp in Pommern (1,000 dead),[123] and Berlin, where at least 7,057 people committed suicide in 1945.[124] German casualties Further information: World War II
World War II
casualties and German casualties in World War II

German refugees in Bedburg, near Kleve, 19 February 1945

Estimates of the total German war dead range from 5.5 to 6.9 million persons.[125] A study by German historian Rüdiger Overmans puts the number of German military dead and missing at 5.3 million, including 900,000 men conscripted from outside of Germany's 1937 borders.[126] Overy estimated in 2014 that about 353,000 civilians were killed by British and American bombing of German cities.[127] An additional 20,000 died in the land campaign.[128][129] Some 22,000 citizens died during the Battle of Berlin.[130] Other civilian deaths include 300,000 Germans
Germans
(including Jews) who were victims of Nazi political, racial, and religious persecution[131] and 200,000 who were murdered in the Nazi euthanasia program.[132] Political courts called Sondergerichte sentenced some 12,000 members of the German resistance to death and civil courts sentenced an additional 40,000 Germans.[133] Mass rapes of German women also took place.[134] At the end of the war, Europe had more than 40 million refugees,[135] its economy had collapsed, and 70 percent of its industrial infrastructure was destroyed.[136] Between twelve and fourteen million ethnic Germans
Germans
fled or were expelled from east-central Europe to Germany.[137] During the Cold War, the West German
West German
government estimated a death toll of 2.2 million civilians due to the flight and expulsion of Germans
Germans
and through forced labour in the Soviet Union.[138] This figure remained unchallenged until the 1990s, when some historians put the death toll at 500,000–600,000 confirmed deaths.[139][140][141] In 2006, the German government reaffirmed its position that 2.0–2.5 million deaths occurred.[f] Geography Territorial changes Main article: Territorial evolution of Germany

Territorial expansion of Germany
Germany
from 1933 to 1943 (red: 1933)

As a result of their defeat in World War I and the resulting Treaty of Versailles, Germany
Germany
lost Alsace-Lorraine, Northern Schleswig, and Memel. The Saarland temporarily became a protectorate of France under the condition that its residents would later decide by referendum which country to join, and Poland became a separate nation and was given access to the sea by the creation of the Polish Corridor, which separated Prussia from the rest of Germany, while Danzig
Danzig
was made a free city.[142] Germany
Germany
regained control of the Saarland through a referendum held in 1935 and annexed Austria in the Anschluss
Anschluss
of 1938.[143] The Munich Agreement of 1938 gave Germany
Germany
control of the Sudetenland, and they seized the remainder of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
six months later.[55] Under threat of invasion by sea, Lithuania
Lithuania
surrendered the Memel district in March 1939.[144] Between 1939 and 1941, German forces invaded Poland, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union.[79] Mussolini ceded Trieste, South Tyrol, and Istria
Istria
to Germany
Germany
in 1943.[145] Two puppet districts were created in the area: the Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral
Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral
and the Operational Zone of the Alpine Foothills.[146] Occupied territories

Under the cover of anti-partisan operations, the Germans
Germans
murdered civilians in 5,295 localities in occupied Soviet Belarus.[147]

Some of the conquered territories were incorporated into Germany
Germany
as part of Hitler's long-term goal of creating a Greater Germanic Reich. Several areas, such as Alsace-Lorraine, were placed under the authority of an adjacent Gau (regional district). Beyond the incorporated territories were the Reichskommissariate (Reich Commissariats), quasi-colonial regimes established in some occupied countries. Areas placed under German administration included the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, Reichskommissariat
Reichskommissariat
Ostland (encompassing the Baltic states and Belarus), and Reichskommissariat Ukraine. Conquered areas of Belgium and France were placed under control of the Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France.[148] Belgian Eupen-Malmedy, which had been part of German until 1919, was annexed. Part of Poland was incorporated into the Reich, and the General Government
General Government
was established in occupied central Poland.[149] The governments of Denmark, Norway (Reichskommissariat Norwegen), and the Netherlands ( Reichskommissariat
Reichskommissariat
Niederlande) were placed under civilian administrations staffed largely by natives.[148][g] Hitler
Hitler
intended to eventually incorporate many of these areas into the Reich.[150] Post-war changes With the issuance of the Berlin
Berlin
Declaration on 5 June 1945 and later creation of the Allied Control Council, the four Allied powers temporarily assumed governance of Germany.[151] At the Potsdam Conference in August 1945, the Allies arranged for the Allied occupation and denazification of the country. Germany
Germany
was split into four zones, each occupied by one of the Allied powers, who drew reparations from their zone. Since most of the industrial areas were in the western zones, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was transferred additional reparations.[152] The Allied Control Council
Allied Control Council
disestablished Prussia on 20 May 1947.[153] Aid to Germany
Germany
began arriving from the United States under the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
in 1948.[154] The occupation lasted until 1949, when the countries of East Germany
Germany
and West Germany
Germany
were created. In 1970, Germany
Germany
finalised her border with Poland by signing the Treaty of Warsaw.[155] Germany
Germany
remained divided until 1990, when the Allies renounced all claims to German territory with the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, under which Germany
Germany
also renounced claims to territories lost during World War II.[156] Politics

Heinrich Himmler, Hitler
Hitler
and Viktor Lutze
Viktor Lutze
perform the Nazi salute
Nazi salute
at the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Rally, September 1934

Ideology Further information: Nazism The NSDAP was a far-right political party which came into its own during the social and financial upheavals that occurred with the onset of the Great Depression
Great Depression
in 1929.[157] While in prison after the failed Beer Hall Putsch
Beer Hall Putsch
of 1923, Hitler
Hitler
wrote Mein Kampf, which laid out his plan for transforming German society into one based on race.[158] The ideology of Nazism
Nazism
brought together elements of antisemitism, racial hygiene, and eugenics, and combined them with pan-Germanism and territorial expansionism with the goal of obtaining more Lebensraum for the Germanic people.[159] The regime attempted to obtain this new territory by attacking Poland and the Soviet Union, intending to deport or kill the Jews
Jews
and Slavs
Slavs
living there, who were viewed as being inferior to the Aryan master race and part of a Jewish Bolshevik conspiracy.[160][161] The Nazi regime believed that only Germany
Germany
could defeat the forces of Bolshevism
Bolshevism
and save humanity from world domination by International Jewry.[162] Others deemed life unworthy of life by the Nazis included the mentally and physically disabled, Romani people, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, and social misfits.[163][164] Influenced by the Völkisch movement, the regime was against cultural modernism and supported the development of an extensive military at the expense of intellectualism.[7][165] Creativity and art were stifled, except where they could serve as propaganda media.[166] The party used symbols such as the Blood Flag and rituals such as the Nazi Party rallies to foster unity and bolster the regime's popularity.[167] Government See also: Government of Nazi Germany

Hitler, Göring, Goebbels and Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
during a military parade in 1933

Successive Reichsstatthalter
Reichsstatthalter
decrees between 1933 and 1935 abolished the existing Länder (constituent states) of Germany
Germany
and replaced them with new administrative divisions, the Gaue, headed by NSDAP leaders (Gauleiters), who governed their respective regions.[168] The change was never fully implemented, as the Länder were still used as administrative divisions for some government departments such as education. This led to a bureaucratic tangle of overlapping jurisdictions and responsibilities typical of the administrative style of the Nazi regime.[169] Jewish civil servants lost their jobs in 1933, except for those who had seen military service in World War I. Members of the NSDAP or party supporters were appointed in their place.[170] As part of the process of Gleichschaltung, the Reich Local Government Law of 1935 abolished local elections, and from henceforth mayors were appointed by the Interior Ministry.[171] Hitler
Hitler
ruled Germany
Germany
autocratically by asserting the Führerprinzip ("leader principle"), which called for absolute obedience of all subordinates. He viewed the government structure as a pyramid, with himself—the infallible leader—at the apex. Party rank was not determined by elections, and positions were filled through appointment by those of higher rank.[172] The party used propaganda to develop a cult of personality around Hitler.[173] Historians such as Kershaw emphasise the psychological impact of Hitler's skill as an orator.[174] Neil Kressel writes: "Overwhelmingly ... Germans speak with mystification of Hitler's 'hypnotic' appeal".[175] Roger Gill states: "His moving speeches captured the minds and hearts of a vast number of the German people: he virtually hypnotized his audiences".[176] Top officials reported to Hitler
Hitler
and followed his policies, but they had considerable autonomy.[177] Officials were expected to "work towards the Führer" – to take the initiative in promoting policies and actions in line with his wishes and the goals of the NSDAP, without Hitler
Hitler
having to be involved in day-to-day decision-making.[178] The government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but rather a disorganised collection of factions led by the party elite, who struggled to amass power and gain the Führer's favour.[179] Hitler's leadership style was to give contradictory orders to his subordinates and to place them in positions where their duties and responsibilities overlapped.[180] In this way he fostered distrust, competition, and infighting among his subordinates to consolidate and maximise his own power.[181] Law Further information: Law of Germany

Chart showing the pseudo-scientific racial divisions used in the racial policies of Nazi Germany

In August 1934, civil servants and members of the military were required to swear an oath of unconditional obedience to Hitler. These laws became the basis of the Führerprinzip, the concept that Hitler's word overrode all existing laws.[182] Any acts that were sanctioned by Hitler—even murder—thus became legal.[183] All legislation proposed by cabinet ministers had to be approved by the office of Deputy Führer
Führer
Rudolf Hess, who could also veto top civil service appointments.[184] Most of the judicial system and legal codes of the Weimar Republic remained in use during and after the Nazi era to deal with non-political crimes.[185] The courts issued and carried out far more death sentences than before the Nazis took power.[185] People who were convicted of three or more offences—even petty ones—could be deemed habitual offenders and jailed indefinitely.[186] People such as prostitutes and pickpockets were judged to be inherently criminal and a threat to the racial community. Thousands were arrested and confined indefinitely without trial.[187]

A meeting of the four jurists who imposed Nazi ideology on the legal system of Germany
Germany
(from left to right: Roland Freisler, Franz Schlegelberger, Otto Georg Thierack
Otto Georg Thierack
and Curt Rothenberger)

A new type of court, the Volksgerichtshof
Volksgerichtshof
(People's Court), was established in 1934 to deal with politically important matters.[188] This court handed out over 5,000 death sentences until its dissolution in 1945.[189] The death penalty could be issued for offences such as being a communist, printing seditious leaflets, or even making jokes about Hitler
Hitler
or other officials.[190] Nazi Germany
Germany
employed three types of capital punishment: hanging, decapitation, and death by shooting.[191] The Gestapo
Gestapo
was in charge of investigative policing to enforce National Socialist ideology as they located and confined political offenders, Jews, and others deemed undesirable.[192] Political offenders who were released from prison were often immediately re-arrested by the Gestapo
Gestapo
and confined in a concentration camp.[193] In September 1935, the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
were enacted. These laws initially prohibited sexual relations and marriages between Aryans and Jews
Jews
and were later extended to include "Gypsies, Negroes or their bastard offspring".[194] The law also forbade the employment of German women under the age of 45 as domestic servants in Jewish households.[195] The Reich Citizenship Law stated that only those of "German or related blood" were eligible for citizenship.[196] At the same time, the Nazis used propaganda to promulgate the concept of Rassenschande
Rassenschande
("race defilement") to justify the need for a restrictive law.[197] Thus Jews
Jews
and other non-Aryans were stripped of their German citizenship. The wording of the law also permitted the Nazis to deny citizenship to anyone who was not supportive enough of the regime.[196] A supplementary decree issued in November defined as Jewish anyone with three Jewish grandparents, or two grandparents if the Jewish faith was followed.[198] Military and paramilitary Further information: German Army (Wehrmacht) Wehrmacht

A column of tanks and other armoured vehicles of the Panzerwaffe
Panzerwaffe
near Stalingrad, 1942

The unified armed forces of Germany
Germany
from 1935 to 1945 were called the Wehrmacht. This included the Heer (army), Kriegsmarine
Kriegsmarine
(navy), and the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
(air force). From 2 August 1934, members of the armed forces were required to pledge an oath of unconditional obedience to Hitler personally. In contrast to the previous oath, which required allegiance to the constitution of the country and its lawful establishments, this new oath required members of the military to obey Hitler
Hitler
even if they were being ordered to do something illegal.[199] Hitler
Hitler
decreed that the army would have to tolerate and even offer logistical support to the Einsatzgruppen—the mobile death squads responsible for millions of deaths in Eastern Europe—when it was tactically possible to do so.[200] Members of the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
also participated directly in the Holocaust
Holocaust
by shooting civilians or undertaking genocide under the guise of anti-partisan operations.[201] The party line was that the Jews
Jews
were the instigators of the partisan struggle and therefore needed to be eliminated.[202] On 8 July 1941, Heydrich announced that all Jews
Jews
were to be regarded as partisans and gave the order for all male Jews
Jews
between the ages of 15 and 45 to be shot.[203] By August the entire Jewish population was being targeted in mass killings.[204] In spite of efforts to prepare the country militarily, the economy could not sustain a lengthy war of attrition such as had occurred in World War I. A strategy was developed based on the tactic of Blitzkrieg
Blitzkrieg
("lightning war"), which involved using quick coordinated assaults that avoided enemy strong points. Attacks began with artillery bombardment, followed by bombing and strafing runs. Next the tanks would attack and finally the infantry would move in to secure the captured area.[205] Victories continued through mid-1940, but the failure to defeat Britain was the first major turning point in the war. The decision to attack the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the decisive defeat at Stalingrad led to the retreat of the German armies and the eventual loss of the war.[206] The total number of soldiers who served in the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
from 1935 to 1945 was around 18.2 million, of whom 5.3 million died.[126] The SA and SS The Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
(SA; Storm Detachment; Brownshirts), founded in 1921, was the first paramilitary wing of the NSDAP; their initial assignment was to protect Nazi leaders at rallies and assemblies.[207] They also took part in street battles against the forces of rival political parties and violent actions against Jews
Jews
and others.[208] Under Ernst Röhm's leadership the SA had grown by 1934 to over half a million members—4.5 million including reserves—at a time when the regular army was still limited to 100,000 men by the Versailles Treaty.[209] Röhm hoped to assume command of the army and absorb it into the ranks of the SA.[210] Hindenburg and Defence Minister Werner von Blomberg threatened to impose martial law if the alarming activities of the SA were not curtailed.[211] Hitler
Hitler
also suspected that Röhm was plotting to depose him, so he ordered the deaths of Röhm and other political enemies. Up to 200 people were killed from 30 June to 2 July 1934 in an event that became known as the Night of the Long Knives.[212] After this purge, the SA was no longer a major force.[213]

Members of the SA enforce the boycott of Jewish stores, 1 April 1933

Initially a force of a dozen men under the auspices of the SA, the Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) grew to become one of the largest and most powerful groups in Nazi Germany.[214] Led by Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
Heinrich Himmler from 1929, the SS had over a quarter million members by 1938 and continued to grow.[215] Himmler envisioned the SS as being an elite group of guards, Hitler's last line of defence.[216] The Waffen-SS, the military branch of the SS, became a de facto fourth branch of the Wehrmacht.[217][218] In 1931, Himmler organised an SS intelligence service which became known as the Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst
(SD; Security Service) under his deputy, SS- Obergruppenführer
Obergruppenführer
Reinhard Heydrich.[219] This organisation was tasked with locating and arresting communists and other political opponents. Himmler hoped it would eventually replace the existing police system.[220][221] Himmler also established the beginnings of a parallel economy under the auspices of the SS Economy and Administration Head Office. This holding company owned housing corporations, factories, and publishing houses.[222][223] From 1935 forward, the SS was heavily involved in the persecution of Jews, who were rounded up into ghettos and concentration camps.[224] With the outbreak of World War II, SS units called Einsatzgruppen followed the army into Poland and the Soviet Union, where from 1941 to 1945 they killed more than two million people, including 1.3 million Jews.[225][226] The SS-Totenkopfverbände
SS-Totenkopfverbände
(death's head units) were in charge of the concentration camps and extermination camps, where millions more were killed.[227][228] Economy Main article: Economy of Nazi Germany Reich economics The most pressing economic matter the Nazis initially faced was the 30 percent national unemployment rate.[229] Economist Dr. Hjalmar Schacht, President of the Reichsbank
Reichsbank
and Minister of Economics, created in May 1933 a scheme for deficit financing. Capital projects were paid for with the issuance of promissory notes called Mefo bills. When the notes were presented for payment, the Reichsbank
Reichsbank
printed money. Hitler
Hitler
and his economic team expected that the upcoming territorial expansion would provide the means of repaying the soaring national debt.[230] Schacht's administration achieved a rapid decline in the unemployment rate, the largest of any country during the Great Depression.[229] On 17 October 1933, aviation pioneer Hugo Junkers, owner of the Junkers
Junkers
Aircraft Works, was arrested, and within a few days his company was expropriated. In concert with other aircraft manufacturers and under the direction of Aviation Minister Göring, production was ramped up industry-wide. From a workforce of 3,200 people producing 100 units per year in 1932, the industry grew to employ a quarter of a million workers manufacturing over 10,000 technically advanced aircraft annually less than ten years later.[231]

IG Farben
IG Farben
synthetic oil plant under construction at Buna Werke (1941). This plant was part of the complex at Auschwitz concentration camp.

An elaborate bureaucracy was created to regulate imports of raw materials and finished goods with the intention of eliminating foreign competition in the German marketplace and improving the nation's balance of payments. The Nazis encouraged the development of synthetic replacements for materials such as oil and textiles.[232] As the market was experiencing a glut and prices for petroleum were low, in 1933 the Nazi government made a profit-sharing agreement with IG Farben, guaranteeing them a 5 percent return on capital invested in their synthetic oil plant at Leuna. Any profits in excess of that amount would be turned over to the Reich. By 1936, Farben regretted making the deal, as the excess profits by then being generated had to be given to the government.[233] Major public works projects financed with deficit spending included the construction of a network of Autobahnen and providing funding for programmes initiated by the previous government for housing and agricultural improvements.[234] To stimulate the construction industry, credit was offered to private businesses and subsidies were made available for home purchases and repairs.[235] On the condition that the wife would leave the workforce, a loan of up to 1,000 Reichsmarks could be accessed by young couples of Aryan descent who intended to marry, and the amount that had to be repaid was reduced by 25 percent for each child born.[236] The caveat that the woman had to remain unemployed was dropped by 1937 due to a shortage of skilled labourers.[237]

Autobahn, late 1930s

Envisioning widespread car ownership as part of the new Germany, Hitler
Hitler
arranged for designer Ferdinand Porsche
Ferdinand Porsche
to draw up plans for the KdF-wagen ( Strength Through Joy
Strength Through Joy
car), intended to be an automobile that everyone could afford. A prototype was displayed at the International Motor Show
International Motor Show
in Berlin
Berlin
on 17 February 1939. With the outbreak of World War II, the factory was converted to produce military vehicles. None were sold until after the war, when the vehicle was renamed the Volkswagen (people's car).[238] Six million people were unemployed when the Nazis took power in 1933 and by 1937 there were fewer than a million.[239] This was in part due to the removal of women from the workforce.[240] Real wages dropped by 25 percent between 1933 and 1938.[229] Trade unions were abolished in May 1933 with the seizure of the funds and arrest of the leadership of the Social Democratic trade unions. A new organisation, the German Labour Front, was created and placed under NSDAP functionary Robert Ley.[241] The average German worked 43 hours a week in 1933; by 1939 this increased to 47 hours a week.[242] By early 1934, the focus shifted from funding work creation schemes and to rearmament. By 1935, military expenditures accounted for 73 percent of the government's purchases of goods and services.[243] On 18 October 1936, Hitler
Hitler
named Göring as Plenipotentiary of the Four Year Plan, intended to speed up the rearmament programme.[244] In addition to calling for the rapid construction of steel mills, synthetic rubber plants and other factories, Göring instituted wage and price controls and restricted the issuance of stock dividends.[229] Large expenditures were made on rearmament in spite of growing deficits.[245] With the introduction of compulsory military service in 1935, the Reichswehr, which had been limited to 100,000 by the terms of the Versailles Treaty, expanded to 750,000 on active service at the start of World War II, with a million more in the reserve.[246] By January 1939, unemployment was down to 301,800 and it dropped to only 77,500 by September.[247] Wartime economy and forced labour Further information: Forced labour under German rule during World War II

Woman with OST-Arbeiter
OST-Arbeiter
badge at the IG Farben
IG Farben
plant in Auschwitz concentration camp

The Nazi war economy was a mixed economy that combined a free market with central planning. Historian Richard Overy
Richard Overy
described it as being somewhere in between the command economy of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the capitalist system of the United States.[248] In 1942, after the death of Armaments Minister Fritz Todt, Hitler appointed Albert Speer
Albert Speer
as his replacement.[249] Speer improved production via streamlined organisation, the use of single-purpose machines operated by unskilled workers, rationalisation of production methods, and better co-ordination between the many different firms that made tens of thousands of components. Factories were relocated away from rail yards, which were bombing targets.[250][251] By 1944, the war was consuming 75 percent of Germany's gross domestic product, compared to 60 percent in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and 55 percent in Britain.[252] The wartime economy relied heavily upon the large-scale employment of forced labourers. Germany
Germany
imported and enslaved some 12 million people from 20 European countries to work in factories and on farms. Approximately 75 percent were Eastern European.[253] Many were casualties of Allied bombing, as they received poor air raid protection. Poor living conditions led to high rates of sickness, injury and death, as well as sabotage and criminal activity.[254] The wartime economy also relied upon large-scale robbery, initially through the state seizing the property of Jewish citizens and later by plundering the resources of occupied territories.[255] Foreign workers brought into Germany
Germany
were put into four different classifications: guest workers, military internees, civilian workers, and Eastern workers. Each group was subject to different regulations. In addition, the Nazis issued a ban on sexual relations between Germans
Germans
and foreign workers.[256][257] Women played an increasingly large role. By 1944 over a half million served as auxiliaries in the German armed forces, especially in anti-aircraft units of the Luftwaffe. A half million worked in civil aerial defence and 400,000 were volunteer nurses. They also replaced men in the wartime economy, especially on farms and in family-owned shops.[258] Very heavy strategic bombing by the Allies targeted refineries producing synthetic oil and gasoline as well as the German transportation system, especially rail yards and canals.[259] The armaments industry began to break down by September 1944. By November, fuel coal was no longer reaching its destinations and the production of new armaments was no longer possible.[260] Overy argues that the bombing strained the German war economy and forced it to divert up to one-fourth of its manpower and industry into anti-aircraft resources, which very likely shortened the war.[261] Racial policy Main articles: Nazism
Nazism
and race and Racial policy of Nazi Germany Racism and antisemitism were basic tenets of the NSDAP and the Nazi regime. Nazi Germany's racial policy was based on their belief in the existence of a superior master race. The Nazis postulated the existence of a racial conflict between the Aryan master race and inferior races, particularly Jews, who were viewed as a mixed race that had infiltrated society and were responsible for the exploitation and repression of the Aryan race.[262] Persecution of Jews Further information: Anti-Jewish legislation in prewar Nazi Germany Discrimination against Jews
Jews
began immediately after the seizure of power. Following a month-long series of attacks by members of the SA on Jewish businesses and synagogues, on 1 April 1933 Hitler
Hitler
declared a national boycott of Jewish businesses.[263] The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service passed on 7 April and forced all non-Aryan civil servants to retire from the legal profession and civil service.[264] Similar legislation soon deprived other Jewish professionals of their right to practise, and on 11 April a decree was promulgated that stated anyone who had even one Jewish parent or grandparent was considered non-Aryan.[265] As part of the drive to remove Jewish influence from cultural life, members of the National Socialist Student League removed from libraries any books considered un-German, and a nationwide book burning was held on 10 May.[266] The regime used violence and economic pressure to encourage Jews
Jews
to voluntarily leave the country.[267] Jewish businesses were denied access to markets, forbidden to advertise, and deprived of access to government contracts. Citizens were harassed and subjected to violent attacks.[268] Many towns posted signs forbidding entry to Jews.[269]

Damage caused during Kristallnacht, 9 November 1938

In November 1938, a young Jewish man requested an interview with the German ambassador in Paris and met with a legation secretary, whom he shot and killed to protest his family's treatment in Germany. This incident provided the pretext for a pogrom the NSDAP incited against the Jews
Jews
on 9 November 1938. Members of the SA damaged or destroyed synagogues and Jewish property throughout Germany. At least 91 German Jews
Jews
were killed during this pogrom, later called Kristallnacht, the Night of Broken Glass.[270][271] Further restrictions were imposed on Jews
Jews
in the coming months – they were forbidden to own businesses or work in retail shops, drive cars, go to the cinema, visit the library or own weapons, and Jewish pupils were removed from schools. The Jewish community was fined one billion marks to pay for the damage caused by Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
and told that any insurance settlements would be confiscated.[272] By 1939, around 250,000 of Germany's 437,000 Jews
Jews
emigrated to the United States, Argentina, Great Britain, Palestine, and other countries.[273][274] Many chose to stay in continental Europe. Emigrants to Palestine were allowed to transfer property there under the terms of the Haavara Agreement, but those moving to other countries had to leave virtually all their property behind, and it was seized by the government.[274] Persecution of Roma Further information: Porajmos
Porajmos
and Nazi eugenics Like the Jews, the Romani people
Romani people
were subjected to persecution from the early days of the regime. As a non-Aryan race, they were forbidden to marry people of German extraction. Romani were shipped to concentration camps starting in 1935 and were killed in large numbers.[163][164] People with disabilities Main article: Aktion T4 Action T4 was a programme of systematic murder of the physically and mentally handicapped and patients in psychiatric hospitals that mainly took place from 1939 to 1941 and continued until the end of the war. Initially the victims were shot by the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and others; in addition gas chambers and gas vans using carbon monoxide were used by early 1940.[275][276] Under the provisions of a law promulgated 14 July 1933, the Nazi regime carried out the compulsory sterilisation of over 400,000 individuals labelled as having hereditary defects.[277] More than half the people sterilised were those considered mentally deficient, which included not only people who scored poorly on intelligence tests, but those who deviated from expected standards of behaviour regarding thrift, sexual behaviour, and cleanliness. Mentally and physically ill people were also targeted. Most of the victims came from disadvantaged groups such as prostitutes, the poor, the homeless, and criminals.[278] Other groups persecuted and killed included Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, social misfits, and members of the political and religious opposition.[164][279] The Holocaust Main article: The Holocaust

Crematorium at Auschwitz I

Germany's war in the East was based on Hitler's long-standing view that Jews
Jews
were the great enemy of the German people and that Lebensraum
Lebensraum
was needed for Germany's expansion. Hitler
Hitler
focused his attention on Eastern Europe, aiming to defeat Poland and the Soviet Union and remove or kill the resident Jews
Jews
and Slavs.[160][161] After the occupation of Poland, all Jews
Jews
living in the General Government were confined to ghettos and those who were physically fit were required to perform compulsory labour.[280] In 1941, Hitler
Hitler
decided to destroy the Polish nation completely; within 10 to 20 years the section of Poland under German occupation was to be cleared of ethnic Poles and resettled by German colonists.[281] About 3.8 to 4 million Poles would remain as slaves,[282] part of a slave labour force of 14 million the Nazis intended to create using citizens of conquered nations.[161][283] The Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
("General Plan for the East") called for deporting the population of occupied Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to Siberia, for use as slave labour or to be murdered.[284] To determine who should be killed, Himmler created the Volksliste, a system of classification of people deemed to be of German blood.[285] He ordered that those of Germanic descent who refused to be classified as ethnic Germans
Germans
should be deported to concentration camps, have their children taken away, or be assigned to forced labour.[286][287] The plan also included the kidnapping of children deemed to have Aryan-Nordic traits, who were presumed to be of German descent.[288] The goal was to implement Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
after the conquest of the Soviet Union, but when the invasion failed Hitler
Hitler
had to consider other options.[284][289] One suggestion was a mass forced deportation of Jews
Jews
to Poland, Palestine, or Madagascar.[280]

A wagon piled high with corpses outside the crematorium in the Buchenwald concentration camp
Buchenwald concentration camp
newly liberated by U.S. Army, 1945

Around the time of the failed offensive against Moscow in December 1941, Hitler
Hitler
resolved that the Jews
Jews
of Europe were to be exterminated immediately.[290] Plans for the total eradication of the Jewish population of Europe—eleven million people—were formalised at the Wannsee Conference
Wannsee Conference
on 20 January 1942. Some would be worked to death and the rest would be killed in the implementation of Die Endlösung der Judenfrage (the Final Solution
Final Solution
of the Jewish question).[291] Initially the victims were killed with gas vans or by Einsatzgruppen firing squads, but these methods proved impracticable for an operation of this scale.[292] By 1941, killing centres at Auschwitz concentration camp, Sobibor, Treblinka, and other extermination camps replaced Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
as the primary method of mass killing.[293] The total number of Jews
Jews
murdered during the war is estimated at 5.5 to six million people,[228] including over a million children.[294] Twelve million people were put into forced labour.[253] German citizens had access to information about what was happening, as soldiers returning from the occupied territories would report on what they had seen and done.[295] Evans states that most German citizens disapproved of the genocide.[296][h] Some Polish citizens tried to rescue or hide the remaining Jews
Jews
and members of the Polish underground got word to their government in exile in London
London
as to what was happening.[297] In addition to eliminating Jews, the Nazis planned to reduce the population of the conquered territories by 30 million people through starvation in an action called the Hunger Plan. Food supplies would be diverted to the German army and German civilians. Cities would be razed and the land allowed to return to forest or resettled by German colonists.[298] Together, the Hunger Plan
Hunger Plan
and Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
would have led to the starvation of 80 million people in the Soviet Union.[299] These partially fulfilled plans resulted in the democidal deaths of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war.[300] Oppression of ethnic Poles Further information: Nazi crimes against the Polish nation

Execution of Polish citizens in Bochnia
Bochnia
during the German occupation of Poland, 18 December 1939

Poles were viewed by Nazis as subhuman non-Aryans, and during the German occupation of Poland 2.7 million ethnic Poles were killed by the Nazis.[301] Polish civilians were subject to forced labour in German industry, internment, wholesale expulsions to make way for German colonists, and mass executions. The German authorities engaged in a systematic effort to destroy Polish culture and national identity. During operation AB-Aktion, many university professors and members of the Polish intelligentsia were arrested, transported to concentration camps, or executed. During the war, Poland lost an estimated 39 to 45 percent of its physicians and dentists, 26 to 57 percent of its lawyers, 15 to 30 percent of its teachers, 30 to 40 percent of its scientists and university professors and 18 to 28 percent of its clergy.[302] Mistreatment of Soviet POWs Further information: German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war and Generalplan Ost

Naked Soviet prisoners of war in Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp

Between June 1941 and January 1942, the Nazis killed an estimated 2.8 million Soviet prisoners of war.[303] Many starved to death while being held in open-air pens at Auschwitz and elsewhere.[304] The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
lost 27 million people; less than nine million of these were combat deaths.[305] One in four of the population were killed or wounded.[306] Society Education Further information: University education in Nazi Germany

A Nazi book burning on 10 May 1933 in Berlin, as books by Jewish and leftist authors were burned[307]

Antisemitic legislation passed in 1933 led to the removal of all Jewish teachers, professors and officials from the education system. Most teachers were required to belong to the Nationalsozialistischer Lehrerbund (National Socialist Teachers League; NSLB) and university professors were required to join the National Socialist German Lecturers.[308][309] Teachers had to take an oath of loyalty and obedience to Hitler
Hitler
and those who failed to show sufficient conformity to party ideals were often reported by students or fellow teachers and dismissed.[310][311] Lack of funding for salaries led to many teachers leaving the profession and the average class size increased from 37 in 1927 to 43 in 1938 due to the resulting teacher shortage.[312] Frequent and often contradictory directives were issued by Reich Minister of the Interior Wilhelm Frick, Bernhard Rust
Bernhard Rust
of the Reichserziehungsministerium (Ministry of Education) and various other agencies regarding content of lessons and acceptable textbooks for use in primary and secondary schools.[313] Books deemed unacceptable to the regime were removed from school libraries.[314] Indoctrination in National Socialist thought was made compulsory in January 1934.[314] Students selected as future members of the party elite were indoctrinated from the age of 12 at Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Schools for primary education and National Political Institutes of Education
National Political Institutes of Education
for secondary education. Detailed National Socialist indoctrination of future holders of elite military rank was undertaken at Order Castles.[315]

The Nazi salute
Nazi salute
in school (1934): children were indoctrinated at an early age

Primary and secondary education focused on racial biology, population policy, culture, geography and especially physical fitness.[316] The curriculum in most subjects, including biology, geography and even arithmetic, was altered to change the focus to race.[317] Military education became the central component of physical education and education in physics was oriented toward subjects with military applications, such as ballistics and aerodynamics.[318][319] Students were required to watch all films prepared by the school division of the Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda.[314] At universities, appointments to top posts were the subject of power struggles between the education ministry, the university boards and the National Socialist German Students' League.[320] In spite of pressure from the League and various government ministries, most university professors did not make changes to their lectures or syllabus during the Nazi period.[321] This was especially true of universities located in predominately Catholic regions.[322] Enrolment at German universities declined from 104,000 students in 1931 to 41,000 in 1939, but enrolment in medical schools rose sharply as Jewish doctors had been forced to leave the profession, so medical graduates had good job prospects.[323] From 1934, university students were required to attend frequent and time-consuming military training sessions run by the SA.[324] First-year students also had to serve six months in a labour camp for the Reichsarbeitsdienst
Reichsarbeitsdienst
(National Labour Service); an additional ten weeks service were required of second-year students.[325] Oppression of churches Main article: Kirchenkampf See also: Religion in Nazi Germany When the Nazis seized power in 1933, 67 percent of the population of Germany
Germany
was Protestant, 33 percent was Roman Catholic, while Jews
Jews
made up less than 1 percent.[326][327] According to 1939 census, 54 percent considered themselves Protestant, 40 percent Roman Catholic, 3.5 percent Gottgläubig
Gottgläubig
(God-believing; a Nazi religious movement) and 1.5 percent nonreligious.[328] Under the Gleichschaltung
Gleichschaltung
process, Hitler
Hitler
attempted to create a unified Protestant
Protestant
Reich Church from Germany's 28 existing Protestant state churches,[329] with the ultimate goal of eradication of the churches in Germany.[330] Pro-Nazi Ludwig Müller
Ludwig Müller
was installed as Reich Bishop and the pro-Nazi pressure group German Christians
German Christians
gained control of the new church.[331] They objected to the Old Testament because of its Jewish origins and demanded that converted Jews
Jews
be barred from their church.[332] Pastor Martin Niemöller
Martin Niemöller
responded with the formation of the Confessing Church, from which some clergymen opposed the Nazi regime.[333] When in 1935 the Confessing Church
Confessing Church
synod protested the Nazi policy on religion, 700 of their pastors were arrested.[334] Müller resigned and Hitler
Hitler
appointed Hanns Kerrl
Hanns Kerrl
as Minister for Church Affairs to continue efforts to control Protestantism.[335] In 1936, a Confessing Church
Confessing Church
envoy protested to Hitler
Hitler
against the religious persecutions and human rights abuses.[334] Hundreds more pastors were arrested.[335] The church continued to resist and by early 1937 Hitler
Hitler
abandoned his hope of uniting the Protestant
Protestant
churches.[334] The Confessing Church
Confessing Church
was banned on 1 July 1937 and Niemöller was arrested and confined, first in Sachsenhausen concentration camp
Sachsenhausen concentration camp
and then at Dachau.[336] Theological universities were closed and more pastors and theologians were arrested.[334]

Prisoner barracks at Dachau Concentration Camp, where the Nazis established a dedicated clergy barracks for clerical opponents of the regime in 1940[337]

Persecution of the Catholic Church in Germany
Germany
followed the Nazi takeover.[338] Hitler
Hitler
moved quickly to eliminate political Catholicism, rounding up functionaries of the Catholic-aligned Bavarian People's Party
Bavarian People's Party
and Catholic Centre Party, which along with all other non-Nazi political parties ceased to exist by July.[339] The Reichskonkordat
Reichskonkordat
( Reich Concordat) treaty with the Vatican was signed in 1933, amid continuing harassment of the church in Germany.[277] The treaty required the regime to honour the independence of Catholic institutions and prohibited clergy from involvement in politics.[340] Hitler
Hitler
routinely disregarded the Concordat, closing all Catholic institutions whose functions were not strictly religious.[341] Clergy, nuns and lay leaders were targeted, with thousands of arrests over the ensuing years, often on trumped-up charges of currency smuggling or immorality.[342] Several high-profile Catholic lay leaders were targeted in the 1934 Night of the Long Knives assassinations.[343][344][345] Most Catholic youth groups refused to dissolve themselves and Hitler Youth
Hitler Youth
leader Baldur von Schirach encouraged members to attack Catholic boys in the streets.[346] Propaganda
Propaganda
campaigns claimed the church was corrupt, restrictions were placed on public meetings and Catholic publications faced censorship. Catholic schools were required to reduce religious instruction and crucifixes were removed from state buildings.[347] Pope Pius XI
Pope Pius XI
had the "Mit brennender Sorge" ("With Burning Concern") Encyclical smuggled into Germany
Germany
for Passion Sunday
Passion Sunday
1937 and read from every pulpit as it denounced the systematic hostility of the regime toward the church.[342][348] In response, Goebbels renewed the regime's crackdown and propaganda against Catholics. Enrolment in denominational schools dropped sharply and by 1939 all such schools were disbanded or converted to public facilities.[349] Later Catholic protests included the 22 March 1942 pastoral letter by the German bishops on "The Struggle against Christianity and the Church".[350] About 30 percent of Catholic priests were disciplined by police during the Nazi era.[351][352] A vast security network spied on the activities of clergy and priests were frequently denounced, arrested or sent to concentration camps – many to the dedicated clergy barracks at Dachau.[353] In the areas of Poland annexed in 1939, the Nazis instigated a brutal suppression and systematic dismantling of the Catholic Church.[354][355] Health

Statues representing the ideal body were erected in the streets of Berlin
Berlin
for the 1936 Summer Olympics

Nazi Germany
Germany
had a strong anti-tobacco movement as pioneering research by Franz H. Müller in 1939 demonstrated a causal link between tobacco smoking and lung cancer.[356] The Reich Health Office took measures to try to limit smoking, including producing lectures and pamphlets.[357] Smoking was banned in many workplaces, on trains and among on-duty members of the military.[358] Government agencies also worked to control other carcinogenic substances such as asbestos and pesticides.[359] As part of a general public health campaign, water supplies were cleaned up, lead and mercury were removed from consumer products and women were urged to undergo regular screenings for breast cancer.[360] Government-run health care insurance plans were available, but Jews were denied coverage starting in 1933. That same year, Jewish doctors were forbidden to treat government-insured patients. In 1937, Jewish doctors were forbidden to treat non-Jewish patients and in 1938 their right to practice medicine was removed entirely.[361] Medical experiments, many of them pseudoscientific, were performed on concentration camp inmates beginning in 1941.[362] The most notorious doctor to perform medical experiments was SS- Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
Dr. Josef Mengele, camp doctor at Auschwitz.[363] Many of his victims died or were intentionally killed.[364] Concentration camp inmates were made available for purchase by pharmaceutical companies for drug testing and other experiments.[365] Role of women and family Further information: Women in Nazi Germany Women were a cornerstone of Nazi social policy and the Nazis opposed the feminist movement, claiming that it was the creation of Jewish intellectuals, instead advocating a patriarchal society in which the German woman would recognise that her "world is her husband, her family, her children, and her home".[240] Soon after the seizure of power, feminist groups were shut down or incorporated into the National Socialist Women's League, which coordinated groups throughout the country to promote motherhood and household activities. Courses were offered on childrearing, sewing and cooking.[366] The League published the NS-Frauen-Warte, the only NSDAP-approved women's magazine in Nazi Germany.[367] Despite some propaganda aspects, it was predominantly an ordinary woman's magazine.[368] Women were encouraged to leave the workforce and the creation of large families by racially suitable women was promoted through a propaganda campaign. Women received a bronze award—known as the Ehrenkreuz der Deutschen Mutter (Cross of Honour of the German Mother)—for giving birth to four children, silver for six and gold for eight or more.[366] Large families received subsidies to help with their utilities, school fees and household expenses. Though the measures led to increases in the birth rate, the number of families having four or more children declined by five percent between 1935 and 1940.[369] Removing women from the workforce did not have the intended effect of freeing up jobs for men as women were for the most part employed as domestic servants, weavers or in the food and drink industries—jobs that were not of interest to men.[370] Nazi philosophy prevented large numbers of women from being hired to work in munitions factories in the build-up to the war, so foreign labourers were brought in. After the war started, slave labourers were extensively used.[371] In January 1943, Hitler
Hitler
signed a decree requiring all women under the age of fifty to report for work assignments to help the war effort.[372] Thereafter women were funnelled into agricultural and industrial jobs and by September 1944 14.9 million women were working in munitions production.[373]

Young women of the Bund Deutscher Mädel (League of German Girls) practising gymnastics in 1941

The Nazi regime discouraged women from seeking higher education since Nazi leaders held conservative views about women and endorsed the idea that rational and theoretical work was alien to a woman's nature since they were considered inherently emotional and instinctive – as such, engaging in academics and careerism would only "divert them from motherhood".[374] The number of women allowed to enroll in universities dropped drastically, as a law passed in April 1933 limited the number of females admitted to university to ten percent of the number of male attendees.[375] Female enrolment in secondary schools dropped from 437,000 in 1926 to 205,000 in 1937. The number of women enrolled in post-secondary schools dropped from 128,000 in 1933 to 51,000 in 1938. However, with the requirement that men be enlisted into the armed forces during the war, women comprised half of the enrolment in the post-secondary system by 1944.[376] Women were expected to be strong, healthy and vital.[377] The sturdy peasant woman who worked the land and bore strong children was considered ideal and athletic women were praised for being tanned from working outdoors.[378] Organisations were created for the indoctrination of Nazi values and from 25 March 1939 membership in the Hitler Youth
Hitler Youth
became compulsory for all children over the age of ten.[379] The Jungmädelbund
Jungmädelbund
(Young Girls League) section of the Hitler Youth
Hitler Youth
was for girls age 10 to 14 and the Bund Deutscher Mädel (BDM; League of German Girls) was for young women age 14 to 18. The BDM's activities focused on physical education, with activities such as running, long jumping, somersaulting, tightrope walking, marching and swimming.[380] The Nazi regime promoted a liberal code of conduct regarding sexual matters and was sympathetic to women who bore children out of wedlock.[381] Promiscuity increased as the war progressed, with unmarried soldiers often intimately involved with several women simultaneously. The same was the case for married women, who liaised with soldiers, civilians or slave labourers. For example, sex was sometimes used as a commodity to obtain better work from a foreign labourer.[381] Pamphlets enjoined German women to avoid sexual relations with foreign workers as a danger to their blood.[382] With Hitler's approval, Himmler intended that the new society of the Nazi regime should destigmatise illegitimate births, particularly of children fathered by members of the SS, who were vetted for racial purity.[383] His hope was that each SS family would have between four and six children.[383] The Lebensborn
Lebensborn
(Fountain of Life) association, founded by Himmler in 1935, created a series of maternity homes where single mothers could be accommodated during their pregnancies.[384] Both parents were examined for racial suitability before acceptance.[384] The resulting children were often adopted into SS families.[384] The homes were also made available to the wives of SS and NSDAP members, who quickly filled over half the available spots.[385] Existing laws banning abortion except for medical reasons were strictly enforced by the Nazi regime. The number of abortions declined from 35,000 per year at the start of the 1930s to fewer than 2,000 per year at the end of the decade, though in 1935 a law was passed allowing abortions for eugenics reasons.[386] Environmentalism Main article: Animal welfare in Nazi Germany Nazi society had elements supportive of animal rights and many people were fond of zoos and wildlife.[387] The government took several measures to ensure the protection of animals and the environment. In 1933, the Nazis enacted a stringent animal-protection law that affected what was allowed for medical research.[388] However, the law was only loosely enforced and in spite of a ban on vivisection the Ministry of the Interior readily handed out permits for experiments on animals.[389] The Reich Forestry Office under Göring enforced regulations that required foresters to plant a wide variety of trees to ensure suitable habitat for wildlife and a new Reich Animal Protection Act became law in 1933.[390] The regime enacted the Reich Nature Protection Act in 1935 to protect the natural landscape from excessive economic development and it allowed for the expropriation of privately owned land to create nature preserves and aided in long-range planning.[391] Perfunctory efforts were made to curb air pollution, but little enforcement of existing legislation was undertaken once the war began.[392] Culture The regime promoted the concept of Volksgemeinschaft, a national German ethnic community. The goal was to build a classless society based on racial purity and the perceived need to prepare for warfare, conquest and a struggle against Marxism.[393][394] The German Labour Front founded the Kraft durch Freude (KdF; Strength Through Joy) organisation in 1933. In addition to taking control of tens of thousands of previously privately run recreational clubs, it offered highly regimented holidays and entertainment such as cruises, vacation destinations and concerts.[395][396] The Reichskulturkammer
Reichskulturkammer
( Reich Chamber of Culture) was organised under the control of the Propaganda
Propaganda
Ministry in September 1933. Sub-chambers were set up to control aspects of cultural life such as film, radio, newspapers, fine arts, music, theatre and literature. Members of these professions were required to join their respective organisation. Jews and people considered politically unreliable were prevented from working in the arts and many emigrated. Books and scripts had to be approved by the Propaganda
Propaganda
Ministry prior to publication. Standards deteriorated as the regime sought to use cultural outlets exclusively as propaganda media.[397] Radio became popular in Germany
Germany
during the 1930s, with over 70 percent of households owning a receiver by 1939, more than any other country. Radio station staffs were purged of leftists and others deemed undesirable by July 1933.[398] Propaganda
Propaganda
and speeches were typical radio fare immediately after the seizure of power, but as time went on Goebbels insisted that more music be played so that listeners would not turn to foreign broadcasters for entertainment.[399] See also: List of authors banned in Nazi Germany

Plans for Berlin
Berlin
called for the Volkshalle
Volkshalle
(People's Hall) and a triumphal arch to be built at either end of a wide boulevard

As with other media, newspapers were controlled by the state, with the Reich Press Chamber shutting down or buying newspapers and publishing houses. By 1939, over two thirds of the newspapers and magazines were directly owned by the Propaganda
Propaganda
Ministry.[400] The NSDAP daily newspaper, the Völkischer Beobachter
Völkischer Beobachter
("Ethnic Observer"), was edited by Alfred Rosenberg, author of The Myth of the Twentieth Century, a book of racial theories espousing Nordic superiority.[401] Goebbels controlled the wire services and insisted that all newspapers in Germany
Germany
only publish content favourable to the regime. His propaganda ministry issued two dozen directives every week on exactly what news should be published and what angles to use; the typical newspaper followed the directives closely.[402] Newspaper readership plummeted, partly because of the decreased quality of the content and partly because of the surge in popularity of radio.[403] Authors of books left the country in droves and some wrote material critical of the regime while in exile. Goebbels recommended that the remaining authors concentrate on books themed on Germanic myths and the concept of blood and soil. By the end of 1933, over a thousand books—most of them by Jewish authors or featuring Jewish characters—had been banned by the Nazi regime.[404] Main article: Nazi architecture Hitler
Hitler
took a personal interest in architecture and worked closely with state architects Paul Troost
Paul Troost
and Albert Speer
Albert Speer
to create public buildings in a neoclassical style based on Roman architecture.[405][406] Speer constructed imposing structures such as the Nazi party rally grounds
Nazi party rally grounds
in Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and a new Reich Chancellery building in Berlin.[407] Hitler's plans for rebuilding Berlin
Berlin
included a gigantic dome based on the Pantheon in Rome and a triumphal arch more than double the height of the Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
in Paris. Neither structure was built.[408] Main article: Art of the Third Reich Hitler's belief that abstract, Dadaist, expressionist and modern art were decadent became the basis for policy.[409] Many art museum directors lost their posts in 1933 and were replaced by party members.[410] Some 6,500 modern works of art were removed from museums and replaced with works chosen by a Nazi jury.[411] Exhibitions of the rejected pieces, under titles such as "Decadence in Art", were launched in sixteen different cities by 1935. The Degenerate Art Exhibition, organised by Goebbels, ran in Munich
Munich
from July to November 1937. The exhibition proved wildly popular, attracting over two million visitors.[412] Composer Richard Strauss
Richard Strauss
was appointed president of the Reichsmusikkammer
Reichsmusikkammer
( Reich Music Chamber) on its founding in November 1933.[413] As was the case with other art forms, the Nazis ostracised musicians who were deemed racially unacceptable and for the most part disapproved of music that was too modern or atonal.[414] Jazz
Jazz
was considered especially inappropriate and foreign jazz musicians left the country or were expelled.[415] Hitler
Hitler
favoured the music of Richard Wagner, especially pieces based on Germanic myths and heroic stories and attended the Bayreuth Festival
Bayreuth Festival
each year from 1933.[414] Main article: Nazism
Nazism
and cinema

Leni Riefenstahl
Leni Riefenstahl
(behind cameraman) at the 1936 Summer Olympics

Movies were popular in Germany
Germany
in the 1930s and 1940s, with admissions of over a billion people in 1942, 1943 and 1944.[416][417] By 1934, German regulations restricting currency exports made it impossible for American film makers to take their profits back to America, so the major film studios closed their German branches. Exports of German films plummeted, as their antisemitic content made them impossible to show in other countries. The two largest film companies, Universum Film AG and Tobis, were purchased by the Propaganda
Propaganda
Ministry, which by 1939 was producing most German films. The productions were not always overtly propagandistic, but generally had a political subtext and followed party lines regarding themes and content. Scripts were pre-censored.[418] Leni Riefenstahl's Triumph of the Will
Triumph of the Will
(1935)—documenting the 1934 Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Rally—and Olympia (1938)—covering the 1936 Summer Olympics—pioneered techniques of camera movement and editing that influenced later films. New techniques such as telephoto lenses and cameras mounted on tracks were employed. Both films remain controversial, as their aesthetic merit is inseparable from their propagandising of National Socialist ideals.[419][420] Legacy Main article: Consequences of Nazism

Defendants in the dock at the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials

The Allied powers organised war crimes trials, beginning with the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials, held from November 1945 to October 1946, of 23 top Nazi officials. They were charged with four counts—conspiracy to commit crimes, crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity—in violation of international laws governing warfare.[421] All but three of the defendants were found guilty and twelve were sentenced to death.[422] The victorious Allies outlawed the NSDAP and its subsidiary organisations. The display or use of Nazi symbolism such as flags, swastikas or greetings is illegal in Germany
Germany
and Austria[423][424] and other restrictions, mainly on public display, apply in various countries. See Swastika
Swastika
§ Post–World War II stigmatization for details. Nazi ideology and the actions taken by the regime are almost universally regarded as gravely immoral.[425] Hitler, Nazism
Nazism
and the Holocaust
Holocaust
have become symbols of evil in the modern world.[426] Interest in Nazi Germany
Germany
continues in the media and the academic world. Historian Sir Richard J. Evans
Richard J. Evans
remarks that the era "exerts an almost universal appeal because its murderous racism stands as a warning to the whole of humanity".[427] The Nazi era continues to inform how Germans
Germans
view themselves and their country. Virtually every family suffered losses during the war or has a story to tell, though Germans
Germans
kept quiet about their experiences and felt a sense of communal guilt, even if they were not directly involved in war crimes. Once study of Nazi Germany
Germany
was introduced into the school curriculum starting in the 1970s, as people began researching the experiences of their family members. Study of the era and a willingness to critically examine its mistakes has led to the development of a strong democracy in today's Germany, but with lingering undercurrents of antisemitism and neo-Nazi thought.[428] See also

Nazi Germany
Germany
portal Germany
Germany
portal Fascism
Fascism
portal World War II
World War II
portal

Collaboration with the Axis Powers during World War II German Resistance to Nazism Glossary of Nazi Germany List of books about Nazi Germany List of books by or about Adolf Hitler List of Nazi Party
Nazi Party
leaders and officials Nazi songs Orders, decorations, and medals of Nazi Germany Third Rome Vergangenheitsbewältigung

References Explanatory notes

^ Including de facto annexed/incorporated territories. ^ In 1939, before Germany
Germany
acquired control of the last two regions which had been in its control before the Versailles Treaty—Alsace-Lorraine, Danzig
Danzig
and the Polish Corridor—its area was 633,786 square kilometres (244,706 sq mi). See Statistisches Jahrbuch 2006. ^ "Die Bevölkerung des Deutschen Reichs nach den Ergebnissen der Volkszählung 1939, Berlin
Berlin
1941" (2).  ^ The party's name in German was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei. ^ According to Raeder, "Our Air Force could not be counted on to guard our transports from the British Fleets, because their operations would depend on the weather, if for no other reason. It could not be expected that even for a brief period our Air Force could make up for our lack of naval supremacy." Raeder 2001, pp. 324–325. Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz
Karl Dönitz
believed air superiority was not enough and admitted, "We possessed neither control of the air or the sea; nor were we in any position to gain it." Dönitz 2012, p. 114. ^ On 29 November 2006, State Secretary in the Federal Ministry of the Interior Christoph Bergner
Christoph Bergner
said the reason the statistics do not match is because Haar only includes people who were directly killed. The figure of 2 to 2.5 million also includes people who died of disease, hunger, cold, air raids and other causes. Koldehoff 2006. The German Red Cross still maintains that the death toll from the expulsions is 2.2 million. Kammerer & Kammerer 2005, p. 12. ^ More such districts, such as the Reichskommissariat
Reichskommissariat
Moskowien (Moscow), Reichskommissariat
Reichskommissariat
Kaukasus (Caucasus) and Reichskommissariat
Reichskommissariat
Turkestan (Turkestan) were proposed in the event that these areas were brought under German rule. ^ "Nevertheless, the available evidence suggests that, on the whole, ordinary Germans
Germans
did not approve. Goebbel's propaganda campaigns carried out in the second half of 1941 and again in 1943 had failed to convert them". Evans 2008, p. 561.

Citations

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was won at sea. Discuss". The Telegraph. Retrieved 22 December 2017.  Heinemann, Isabel; Oberkrome, Willi; Schleiermacher, Sabine; Wagner, Patrick (2006). Nauka, planowanie, wypędzenia : Generalny Plan Wschodni narodowych socjalistów : katalog wystawy Niemieckiej Współnoty Badawczej (PDF) (in Polish). Bonn: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.  Hildebrand, Klaus (1984). The Third Reich. Boston: George Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-04-943032-7.  Hitchcock, William I. (2004). The Struggle for Europe: The Turbulent History of a Divided Continent, 1945 to the Present. New York: Anchor. ISBN 978-0-385-49799-2.  Hoffmann, Peter (1996) [1977]. The History of the German Resistance, 1933–1945. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-1531-3.  Hosking, Geoffrey A. (2006). Rulers and Victims: The Russians in the Soviet Union. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-02178-9.  Hubert, Michael (1998). Deutschland im Wandel. Geschichte der deutschen Bevolkerung seit 1815 (in German). Stuttgart: Steiner, Franz Verlag. ISBN 3-515-07392-2.  Kammerer, Willi; Kammerer, Anja (2005). Narben bleiben: die Arbeit der Suchdienste – 60 Jahre nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg. Berlin: Dienststelle.  Kershaw, Ian (2000). Hitler, 1936–1945: Nemesis. New York; London: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-32252-1.  Kershaw, Ian (2000). The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation (4th ed.). London: Arnold. ISBN 978-0-340-76028-4.  Kershaw, Ian (2001) [1987]. The " Hitler
Hitler
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Hitler
Youth: the Hitlerjugend in War and Peace 1933–1945. Osceola, WI: MBI. ISBN 0-7603-0946-9.  Libionka, Dariusz. "The Catholic Church in Poland and the Holocaust, 1939–1945" (PDF). The Reaction of the Churches in Nazi Occupied Europe. Yad Vashem. Retrieved 26 August 2013.  Longerich, Peter (2003). "Hitler's Role in the Persecution of the Jews by the Nazi Regime". Atlanta: Emory University. 17. Radicalisation of the Persecution of the Jews
Jews
by Hitler
Hitler
at the Turn of the Year 1941–1942. Archived from the original on 9 July 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2013. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) Longerich, Peter (2010). Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280436-5.  Longerich, Peter (2012). Heinrich Himmler: A Life. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-959232-6.  Lukas, Richard C. (2001) [1994]. Did the Children Cry?: Hitler's War Against Jewish and Polish Children, 1939–1945. New York: Hippocrene. ISBN 978-0-7818-0870-5.  Majer, Diemut (2003). "Non-Germans" under the Third Reich: The Nazi Judicial and Administrative System in Germany
Germany
and Occupied Eastern Europe, with Special
Special
Regard to Occupied Poland, 1939–1945. Baltimore; London: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6493-3.  Manvell, Roger; Fraenkel, Heinrich (2007) [1965]. Heinrich Himmler: The Sinister Life of the Head of the SS and Gestapo. London; New York: Greenhill; Skyhorse. ISBN 978-1-60239-178-9.  Manvell, Roger (2011) [1962]. Goering. London: Skyhorse. ISBN 978-1-61608-109-6.  Martin, Bernd (2005) [1995]. Japan and Germany
Germany
in the Modern World. New York; Oxford: Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1-84545-047-2.  Materski, Wojciech; Szarota, Tomasz (2009). Polska 1939–1945: straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami (in Polish). Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu. ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6.  Mazower, Mark (2008). Hitler's Empire: How the Nazis Ruled Europe. New York; Toronto: Penguin. ISBN 978-1-59420-188-2.  McElligott, Anthony; Kirk, Tim; Kershaw, Ian (2003). Working Towards the Führer: Essays in Honour of Sir Ian Kershaw. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-6732-4.  Melvin, Mungo (2010). Manstein: Hitler's Greatest General. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson. ISBN 978-0-297-84561-4.  McNab, Chris (2009). The Third Reich. Amber Books. ISBN 978-1-906626-51-8.  "The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, 1939". Modern History Sourcebook. Fordham University. Retrieved 18 April 2013.  Nakosteen, Mehdi Khan (1965). The History and Philosophy of Education. New York: Ronald Press. OCLC 175403.  "Martin Niemöller". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 August 2013.  "NS-Zwangsarbeit: "Verbotener Umgang"" (in German). Stadtarchiv Göttingen Cordula Tollmien Projekt NS-Zwangsarbeiter. 1942.  Nicholas, Lynn H. (2006). Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web. New York: Vintage. ISBN 978-0-679-77663-5.  Niewyk, Donald L.; Nicosia, Francis R. (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-11200-0.  "NS-Frauenwarte: Paper of the National Socialist Women's League". Heidelberg University Library. Retrieved 8 May 2013.  Overmans, Rüdiger (2000) [1999]. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Beiträge zur Militärgeschichte (in German). München: R. Oldenbourg. ISBN 978-3-486-56531-7.  Overmans, Rűdiger (1994). "Personelle Verluste der deutschen Bevölkerung durch Flucht und Vertreibung". Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik. 16: 51–63.  Overy, Richard (2006) [1995]. Why The Allies Won. London: Random House. ISBN 978-1-84595-065-1.  Overy, Richard (2005). The Dictators: Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-393-02030-4.  Overy, Richard (2014). The Bombers and the Bombed: Allied Air War Over Europe 1940–1945. New York: Viking. ISBN 978-0-698-15138-3.  Panayi, Panikos (2005). "Exploitation, Criminality, Resistance: The Everyday Life of Foreign Workers and Prisoners of War in the German Town of Osnabruck, 1939–49". Journal of Contemporary History. 40 (3): 483–502. doi:10.1177/0022009405054568. JSTOR 30036339.  Pauley, Bruce F. (2003) [1997]. Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini: Totalitarianism
Totalitarianism
in the Twentieth Century. European History Series. Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson. ISBN 978-0-88295-993-1.  Pilisuk, Marc; Rountree, Jennifer Achord (2008). Who Benefits from Global Violence and War: Uncovering a Destructive System. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International. ISBN 978-0-275-99435-8.  Pine, Lisa (2011) [2010]. Education in Nazi Germany. Oxford; New York: Berg. ISBN 978-1-84520-265-1.  Proctor, Robert N. (1999). The Nazi War on Cancer. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07051-2.  "Refugees: Save Us! Save Us!". Time. Time Warner. 9 July 1979. Archived from the original on 24 April 2011. Retrieved 28 April 2013.  Raeder, Erich (2001) [1956]. Grand Admiral: The Personal Memoir of the Commander in Chief of the German Navy From 1935 Until His Final Break With Hitler
Hitler
in 1943. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80962-1.  Rhodes, Richard (2002). Masters of Death: The SS- Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and the Invention of the Holocaust. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-375-70822-7.  Rummel, Rudolph (1994). Death by Government. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. ISBN 978-1-56000-145-4.  Rupp, Leila J. (1978). Mobilizing Women for War: German and American Propaganda, 1939–1945. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-04649-5. OCLC 3379930.  Scobie, Alexander (1990). Hitler's State Architecture: The Impact of Classical Antiquity. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-00691-9.  Sereny, Gitta (1996) [1995]. Albert Speer: His Battle With Truth. New York; Toronto: Random House. ISBN 978-0-679-76812-8.  Sereny, Gitta (November 1999). "Stolen Children". Talk. Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 1 July 2012.  Shigemitsu, Dandō (1997). Criminal Law of Japan: The General Part. Detroit: Wayne State University. ISBN 0-8377-0653-X.  Shirer, William L. (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-62420-0.  Smith, J. W. (1994). The World's Wasted Wealth 2: Save Our Wealth, Save Our Environment. Cambria, CA: Institute for Economic Democracy. ISBN 0-9624423-2-1.  Smith, Joseph; Davis, Simon (2005). The A to Z of the Cold War. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-5384-1.  Snyder, Timothy (2010). Bloodlands: Europe between Hitler
Hitler
and Stalin. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00239-9.  "Sonderbehandlung erfolgt durch Strang". Documents for National Socialism (in German). NS-Archiv. 1942.  Sontheimer, Michael (10 March 2005). "Germany's Nazi Past: Why Germans Can Never Escape Hitler's Shadow". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 11 May 2013.  Speer, Albert (1971) [1969]. Inside the Third Reich. New York: Avon. ISBN 978-0-380-00071-5.  "Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland" (PDF) (in German). Statistisches Bundesamt. 2006. p. 34. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2012.  Stein, George H. (1984). The Waffen SS: Hitler's Elite Guard at War, 1939–1945. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-9275-0.  Steiner, Zara (2011). The Triumph of the Dark: European International History 1933–1939. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-921200-2.  Stephenson, Jill (2001). Women in Nazi Germany. London: Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-41836-3.  Stolfi, Russel (March 1982). "Barbarossa Revisited: A Critical Reappraisal of the Opening Stages of the Russo-German Campaign (June–December 1941)". Journal of Modern History. 54 (1): 27–46. doi:10.1086/244076.  "Strafgesetzbuch, StGB". IUSCOMP Comparative Law Society. 13 November 1998.  Walk, Joseph (1996). Das Sonderrecht für die Juden im NS-Staat: Eine Sammlung der gesetzlichen Maßnahmen und Rechtlinien, Inhalt und Bedeutung (in German) (2nd ed.). Heidelberg: Müller Verlag.  Weinberg, Gerhard L. (2010) [1970]. Hitler's Foreign Policy 1933–1939: The Road to World War II. New York: Enigma Books. ISBN 978-1-929631-91-9.  Weinberg, Gerhard L. (2005) [1994]. A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II. Cambridge; Oxford: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-85316-3.  Wrobel, Peter (1999). "The Devil's Playground: Poland in World War II". The Canadian Foundation for Polish Studies of the Polish Institute of Arts & Sciences Price-Patterson Ltd. 

Historiography and memory

Art, David. The Politics of the Nazi Past in Germany
Germany
and Austria. New York & London: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Bartov, Omer. The Holocaust: Origins, Implementation, Aftermath. New York: Routledge, 2000. Egremont, Max. Forgotten Land: Journeys among the Ghosts of East Prussia. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2011. Eley, Geoff. From Unification to Nazism: Reinterpreting the German Past. London: Allen & Unwin, 1986. Evans, Richard J. The Third Reich in History and Memory (2015) excerpt and text search Evans, Richard J. "From Hitler
Hitler
to Bismarck: 'Third Reich' and Kaiserreich in Recent Historiography: Part II." The Historical Journal (1983) 26#4 pp: 999–1020. Evans, Richard J. Rereading German History: From Unification to Reunification 1800–1996. New York: Routledge, 1997. Fisher, Marc. After the Wall: Germany, the Germans, and the Burdens of History. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995. Frei, Norbert. Adenauer's Germany
Germany
and the Nazi Past: The Politics of Amnesty and Integration. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002. Gregor, Neil. Haunted City: Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and the Nazi Past. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008. Heilbronner, Oded. "The Role of Nazi Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in the Nazi Party's Activity and Propaganda: A Regional Historiographical Study." The Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook (1990) 35#1 pp: 397–439. Herf, Jeffrey. Divided Memory: The Nazi Past in the Two Germanys. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999. Hiden, John, and John E. Farquharson. Explaining Hitler's Germany: Historians and the Third Reich (Batsford Academic and Educational Ltd., 1989) Hofer, Walther. "Fifty years on: historians and the Third Reich." Journal of Contemporary History (1986): 225–251. in JSTOR Jarausch, Konrad H. "Removing the Nazi stain? The quarrel of the German historians." German Studies Review (1988): 285–301. in JSTOR Jarausch, Konrad H. After Hitler: Recivilizing Germans, 1945–1995. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. Johnson, Eric and Karl-Heinz Reuband. What We Knew: Terror, Mass Murder, and Everyday Life in Nazi Germany. New York: Basic Books, 2006. Kershaw, Ian. The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation. New York & London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2000. Klemperer, Victor. Language of the Third Reich: LTI. New York & London: Continuum, 2006. Kohut, Thomas. A German Generation. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2012. Lamberti, Marjorie. "The Search for the 'Other Germany': Refugee Historians from Nazi Germany
Germany
and the Contested Historical Legacy of the Resistance to Hitler." Central European History (2014) 47#2 pp: 402–429. Leitz, Christian, ed. The Third Reich: The Essential Readings (Wiley-Blackwell, 1999) Liddell-Hart, B.H. The German Generals Talk. New York: Quill, 1979 [1948]. Low, Alfred D. The Third Reich and the Holocaust
Holocaust
in German Historiography: Toward the Historikerstreit of the Mid-1980s (East European Monographs, 1994) MacDonogh, Giles. After the Reich: The Brutal History of the Allied Occupation. New York: Basic Books, 2009. Macfarlane, Daniel. "Projecting Hitler: representations of Adolf Hitler
Hitler
in English-language film, 1968–1990." (thesis), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (2004). online Maier, Charles S. The Unmasterable Past: History, Holocaust, and German National Identity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998. Marrus, Michael R. The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in History. New York: Meridian, 1987. Niven, Bill. Facing the Nazi Past: United Germany
Germany
and the Legacy of the Third Reich (Routledge, 2003) Petropoulos, Jonathan, and John K. Roth, eds. Gray Zones: Ambiguity and Compromise in the Holocaust
Holocaust
and its Aftermath. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2005. Potter, Pamela M. "Dismantling a dystopia: On the historiography of music in the Third Reich." Central European History (2007) 40#4 pp: 623. Schlie, Ulrich. "Today's view of the Third Reich and the Second World War in German historiographical discourse." The Historical Journal (2000) 43#2 pp: 543–564. Stackelberg, Roderick. Routledge Companion to Nazi Germany
Germany
(Routledge, 2007) Stern, Fritz. Five Germanys I Have Known. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007. Stone, Dan (2011). Histories of the Holocaust. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-956679-2.  Taylor, Frederick. Exorcising Hitler: The Occupation and Denazification
Denazification
of Germany. New York & Berlin: Bloomsbury Press, 2011. Tormey, Simon. Making Sense of Tyranny: Interpretations of Totalitarianism
Totalitarianism
(Manchester University Press, 1995)

Further reading

"Introduction to the Holocaust". United States Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Museum. Retrieved 12 May 2013.  Price, Alfred (2003). Targeting the Reich: Allied Photographic Reconnaissance over Europe, 1939–1945. London: Military Book
Book
Club. ISBN 0-7394-3496-9.  Tooze, Adam (2006). The Wages of Destruction: The Making and Breaking of the Nazi Economy. London; New York: Allen Lane.  Toynbee, Arnold, ed. (1954) Survey Of International Affairs: Hitler's Europe 1939-1946 Uekötter, Frank (2006). The Green and the Brown: A History of Conservation in Nazi Germany. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-84819-0.  Uekötter, Frank (2005). "Polycentrism in Full Swing: Air Pollution Control in Nazi Germany". In Brüggemeier, Franz-Josef; Cioc, Mark; Zeller, Thomas. How Green Were the Nazis?: Nature, Environment, and Nation in the Third Reich. Athens: Ohio University Press.  Umbreit, Hans (2003). "Hitler's Europe: The German Sphere of Power". In Kroener, Bernhard; Müller, Rolf-Dieter; Umbreit, Hans. Germany
Germany
and the Second World War, Vol. 5. Organization and Mobilization in the German Sphere of Power. Part 2: Wartime Administration, Economy, and Manpower Resources, 1942–1944/5. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-820873-0.  Weale, Adrian (2012) [2010]. Army of Evil: A History of the SS. New York; Toronto: NAL Caliber (Penguin Group). ISBN 978-0-451-23791-0.  Wedekind, Michael (2005). "The Sword of Science: German Scholars and National Socialist Annexation Policies in Slovenia and Northern Italy". In Haar, Ingo; Fahlbusch, Michael. German Scholars and Ethnic Cleansing (1920–1945). New York: Berghahn. ISBN 978-1-57181-435-7.  "Wirtschaft und Statistik". Wirtschaft und Statistik (in German). Wiesbaden: Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. October 1956.  Zeitlin, Jonathan (1955). "Flexibility and Mass Production at War: Aircraft Manufacture in Britain, the United States, and Germany, 1939–1945". Technology and Culture. 36 (1): 46–79. doi:10.2307/3106341. JSTOR 3106341. 

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Bundeswehr
(military) Cabinet Chancellor Constitution Court system Elections Foreign relations Human rights

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Law Law enforcement Political parties President

Economy

Agriculture Automobile industry Banking

Central bank

Chemical Triangle Economic history Energy Exports German model German states by GDP Manufacturing Mining Mittelstand
Mittelstand
companies Science and technology Stock exchange Taxation Telecommunications Tourism Trade unions Transport Welfare

Society

Crime Demographics Drug policy Education Germans

Ethnic groups

Healthcare Immigration Pensions Religion Social issues

Culture

Anthem Architecture Art Arts Cinema Coat of arms Cuisine Dance Fashion Festivals Flag Language Literature Internet Media Music Names Philosophy Prussian virtues Sport Television World Heritage

Outline Index

Book Category Portal

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Fascism

Theory

Core tenets

Nationalism Imperialism Authoritarianism One-party state Dictatorship Social Darwinism Social interventionism Proletarian nation Propaganda Eugenics Heroism Militarism Economic interventionism Anti-communism

Topics

Definitions Economics Fascism
Fascism
and ideology Fascism
Fascism
worldwide Symbolism

Ideas

Actual Idealism Class collaboration Corporatism Heroic capitalism National Socialism National syndicalism State capitalism Supercapitalism Third Position Totalitarianism Social order

Variants

Italian National Socialism Japanese fascism Islamofascism Falangism British Austrian Metaxism National Radicalism Rexism Clerical Legionarism Integralism

Movements

Africa

Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging Greyshirts Ossewabrandwag

Asia

Brit HaBirionim Ganap Party Sakurakai Tōhōkai Blue Shirts Society

Northern / Northwestern Europe

Ailtirí na hAiséirghe Black Front (Netherlands) Blueshirts Breton Social-National Workers' Movement British Fascists British People's Party (1939) British Union of Fascists La Cagoule Clerical People's Party Faisceau Flemish National Union French Popular Party General Dutch Fascist League Imperial Fascist League Lapua Movement Nasjonal Samling National Corporate Party
National Corporate Party
(Greenshirts) National Fascisti Nationalist Party (Iceland) National Socialist Bloc National Socialist Dutch Workers Party National Socialist League National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands National Socialist Movement of Norway National Socialist Workers' Party (Sweden) New Party (UK) Patriotic People's Movement (Finland) Pērkonkrusts Rexism

Central Europe

Arrow Cross Party Austrian National Socialism Fatherland Front (Austria) Hungarian National Socialist Party National Front (Switzerland) Nazism Nazi Party Sudeten German Party

Southern Europe

Albanian Fascist Party Democratic Fascist Party Falange Greek National Socialist Party Italian Fascism Italian Social Republic Metaxism National Fascist Party National Union (Portugal) Republican Fascist Party Sammarinese Fascist Party Ustaše ZBOR

Eastern and Southeastern Europe

Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party Crusade of Romanianism Iron Guard National Fascist Community National Fascist Movement National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement National Social Movement (Bulgaria) National Radical Camp Falanga National Romanian Fascio National Renaissance Front Ratniks
Ratniks
(Bulgaria) Romanian Front Russian Fascist Party Russian Women's Fascist Movement Slovak People's Party Union of Bulgarian National Legions Vlajka

North America

Fascism
Fascism
in Canada

Canadian Union of Fascists Parti national social chrétien

Gold shirts German American Bund Silver Legion of America

South America

Falangism
Falangism
in Latin America Brazilian Integralism Bolivian Socialist Falange National Socialist Movement of Chile Revolutionary Union

People

Abba Ahimeir Nimio de Anquín Sadao Araki Marc Augier Maurice Bardèche Jacques Benoist-Méchin Henri Béraud Zoltán Böszörmény Giuseppe Bottai Robert Brasillach Alphonse de Châteaubriant Corneliu Zelea Codreanu Gustavs Celmiņš Enrico Corradini Carlo Costamagna Richard Walther Darré Marcel Déat Léon Degrelle Pierre Drieu La Rochelle Gottfried Feder Giovanni Gentile Joseph Goebbels Hans F. K. Günther Heinrich Himmler Adolf Hitler Ikki Kita Fumimaro Konoe Vihtori Kosola Agostino Lanzillo Dimitrije Ljotić Leopoldo Lugones Curzio Malaparte Ioannis Metaxas Robert Michels Oswald Mosley Benito Mussolini Eoin O'Duffy Gearóid Ó Cuinneagáin Sergio Panunzio Giovanni Papini Ante Pavelić William Dudley Pelley Alfred Ploetz Robert Poulet Vidkun Quisling José Antonio Primo de Rivera Lucien Rebatet Dionisio Ridruejo Alfredo Rocco Konstantin Rodzaevsky Alfred Rosenberg Plínio Salgado Rafael Sánchez Mazas Margherita Sarfatti Carl Schmitt Ardengo Soffici Othmar Spann Ugo Spirito Ferenc Szálasi Hideki Tojo Gonzalo Torrente Ballester Georges Valois Anastasy Vonsyatsky

Works

Literature

The Doctrine of Fascism Fascist Manifesto Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals Mein Kampf My Life The Myth of the Twentieth Century Zweites Buch Zaveshchanie russkogo fashista

Periodicals

La Conquista del Estado Das Reich Der Angriff Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung Deutsche Zeitung in Norwegen Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden Figli d'Italia Fronten Gândirea Gioventù Fascista Je suis partout La France au travail Münchener Beobachter Novopress NS Månedshefte Norsk-Tysk Tidsskrift Das Schwarze Korps Der Stürmer Il Popolo d'Italia Sfarmă-Piatră Signal Vlajka Völkischer Beobachter Nash Put' Fashist l'Alba

Film

Der Sieg des Glaubens Tag der Freiheit: Unsere Wehrmacht Triumph of the Will

Sculpture

Allach

Related topics

Art of the Third Reich Fascist architecture Heroic realism Nazi architecture Nazism
Nazism
and cinema Nazi plunder Syndicalism Conservatism

Organizations

Institutional

Ahnenerbe Chamber of Fasci and Corporations Grand Council of Fascism Imperial Way Faction Italian Nationalist Association Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen Quadrumvirs

Activist

Fascist Union of Youth German American Bund National Youth Organisation (Greece) Russian Fascist Organization Union of Fascist Little Ones Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (boys) Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (girls)

Paramilitary

Albanian Militia Black Brigades Blackshirts Blueshirts Einsatzgruppen Gold shirts Greenshirts Greyshirts Hitler
Hitler
Youth Heimwehr Iron Wolf (organization) Lăncieri Makapili Silver Legion of America Schutzstaffel Sturmabteilung Waffen-SS Werwolf

International

Axis powers NSDAP/AO ODESSA

History

1910s

Arditi Fascio

1920s

Aventine Secession Acerbo Law Corfu incident March on Rome Beer Hall Putsch Italian economic battles

1930s

March of the Iron Will German federal election, November 1932 German federal election, March 1933 Enabling Act 6 February 1934 crisis 1934 Montreux Fascist conference Spanish Civil War 4th of August Regime Anti-Comintern Pact

1940s

World War II The Holocaust End in Italy Denazification Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Trials

Lists

Anti-fascists Books about Hitler British fascist parties Fascist movements by country (A-F G-M N-T U-Z) Nazi ideologues Nazi leaders Speeches by Hitler SS personnel

Related topics

Alt-right Anti-fascism Anti-Nazi League Christofascism Clerical fascism Cryptofascism Esoteric Nazism Fascist (epithet) Fascist mysticism Germanisation Glossary of Nazi Germany Hitler
Hitler
salute Italianization Italianization
Italianization
of South Tyrol Islamofascism Japanization Ku Klux Klan Neo-fascism Neo-Nazism Roman salute Social fascism Synarchism Unite Against Fascism Völkisch movement Women in Nazi Germany

Category Portal

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Empires

Ancient

Akkadian Egyptian Assyrian Babylonian Carthaginian Chinese

Qin Han Jin Northern Wei Tang

Hellenistic

Macedonian Seleucid

Hittite Indian

Nanda Maurya Satavahana Shunga Gupta Harsha

Iranian

Elamite Median Achaemenid Parthian Sasanian

Kushan Mongol

Xianbei Xiongnu

Roman

Western Eastern

Teotihuacan

Post-classical

Arab

Rashidun Umayyad Abbasid Fatimid Córdoba

Aragonese Angevin Aztec Benin Bornu Bruneian Bulgarian

First Second

Byzantine

Nicaea Trebizond

Carolingian Chinese

Sui Tang Song Yuan

Ethiopian

Zagwe Solomonic

Georgian Hunnic Inca Indian

Chola Gurjara-Pratihara Pala Eastern Ganga dynasty Delhi Vijayanagara

Iranian

Samanid

Kanem Khmer Latin Majapahit Malaccan Mali Mongol

Yuan Golden Horde Chagatai Khanate Ilkhanate

Moroccan

Idrisid Almoravid Almohad Marinid

North Sea Oyo Roman Serbian Somali

Ajuran Ifatite Adalite Mogadishan Warsangali

Songhai Srivijaya Tibetan Turko-Persian

Ghaznavid Great Seljuk Khwarezmian Timurid

Vietnamese

Ly Tran Le

Wagadou

Modern

Ashanti Austrian Austro-Hungarian Brazilian Central African Chinese

Ming Qing China Manchukuo

Ethiopian French

First Second

German

First/Old Reich Second Reich Third Reich

Haitian

First Second

Indian

Maratha Sikh Mughal British Raj

Iranian

Safavid Afsharid

Japanese Johor Korean Mexican

First Second

Moroccan

Saadi Alaouite

Russian USSR Somali

Gobroon Majeerteen Hobyo Dervish

Swedish Tongan Turkish

Ottoman Karaman Ramazan

Vietnamese

Tay Son Nguyen Vietnam

Colonial

American Belgian British

English

Danish Dutch French German Italian Japanese Omani Norwegian Portuguese Spanish Swedish

Lists

Empires

largest

ancient great powers medieval great powers modern great powers

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World War II

Asia and the Pacific

China South-East Asia North and Central Pacific South-West Pacific

Europe

Western Eastern

Mediterranean and Middle East

North Africa East Africa Italy

West Africa Atlantic North America South America

Casualties Military engagements Conferences Commanders

Participants

Allies (leaders)

Australia Belgium Brazil Canada China Cuba Czechoslovakia Denmark Ethiopia France Free France
Free France
(from June 1940) Greece India Italy (from September 1943) Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Philippines (Commonwealth) Poland South Africa Southern Rhodesia Soviet Union United Kingdom United States

Puerto Rico

Yugoslavia

Axis and Axis-aligned (leaders)

Albania Bulgaria Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China Independent State of Croatia Finland Germany Hungary Free India Iraq Italy (until September 1943) Italian Social Republic Japan Manchukuo Philippines (Second Republic) Romania Slovakia Thailand Vichy France

Armed neutrality

Resistance

Albania Austria Belgium Bulgaria Czech lands Denmark Estonia Ethiopia France Germany Greece Hong Kong Italy Japan Jewish Korea Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malaya Netherlands Northeast China Norway Philippines Poland

Anti-communist

Romania Thailand Soviet Union Slovakia Western Ukraine Vietnam Yugoslavia

Monarchists

Timeline

Prelude

Africa Asia Europe

1939

Poland Phoney War Winter War Atlantic Changsha China

1940

Weserübung Netherlands Belgium France

Armistice of 22 June 1940

Britain North Africa West Africa British Somaliland North China Baltic States Moldova Indochina Greece Compass

1941

East Africa Yugoslavia Shanggao Greece Crete Iraq Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Barbarossa) Finland Lithuania Syria and Lebanon Kiev Iran Leningrad Gorky Moscow Sevastopol Pearl Harbor

The outbreak of the Pacific War

Hong Kong Philippines Changsha Malaya Borneo (1941–42)

1942

Burma Changsha Java Sea Coral Sea Gazala Dutch Harbor Attu (occupation) Kiska Zhejiang-Jiangxi Midway Rzhev Blue Stalingrad Singapore Dieppe El Alamein Guadalcanal Torch

1943

Tunisia Kursk Smolensk Gorky Solomon Islands Attu Sicily Cottage Lower Dnieper Italy

Armistice of Cassibile

Gilbert and Marshall Islands Burma Northern Burma and Western Yunnan Changde

1944

Monte Cassino / Shingle Narva Korsun–Cherkassy Tempest Ichi-Go Overlord Neptune Normandy Mariana and Palau Bagration Western Ukraine Tannenberg Line Warsaw Eastern Romania Belgrade Paris Dragoon Gothic Line Market Garden Estonia Crossbow Pointblank Lapland Hungary Leyte Ardennes

Bodenplatte

Philippines (1944–1945) Burma (1944–45)

1945

Vistula–Oder Iwo Jima Western invasion of Germany Okinawa Italy (Spring 1945) Borneo Syrmian Front Berlin Czechoslovakia Budapest West Hunan Guangxi Surrender of Germany Project Hula Manchuria Manila Borneo Taipei Atomic bombings

Debate

Kuril Islands

Shumshu

Surrender of Japan

End of World War II
World War II
in Asia

Aspects

General

Famines

Bengal famine of 1943 Chinese famine of 1942–43 Greek Famine of 1941-1944 Dutch famine of 1944–45 Vietnamese Famine of 1945

Air warfare of World War II Blitzkrieg Comparative military ranks Cryptography Diplomacy Home front

United States Australian United Kingdom

Lend-Lease Manhattan Project Military awards Military equipment Military production Nazi plunder Opposition Technology

Allied cooperation

Total war Strategic bombing Puppet states Women Art and World War II

Aftermath

Expulsion of Germans Operation Paperclip Operation Osoaviakhim Operation Keelhaul Occupation of Germany Territorial changes of Germany Soviet occupations

Romania Poland Hungary Baltic States

Occupation of Japan First Indochina War Indonesian National Revolution Cold War Decolonization Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany Popular culture

War crimes

Allied war crimes

Soviet war crimes British war crimes United States war crimes

German (Forced labour) / Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
war crimes

Holocaust Aftermath Response Prosecution

Italian war crimes Japanese war crimes

Unit 731 Prosecution

Croatian war crimes

against the Serbs against the Jews

Romanian war crimes

Wartime sexual violence

German military brothels Camp brothels Rape during the occupation of Japan Sook Ching Comfort women Rape of Nanking Rape of Manila Rape during the occupation of Germany Rape during the liberation of France Rape during the liberation of Poland

Prisoners

Finnish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union German prisoners of war in the United States Italian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union Japanese prisoners of war in World War II German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war Polish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union Romanian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union Soviet prisoners of war in Finland

Bibliography Category Portal

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Adolf Hitler

Politics

Führer Political views Political directives Speeches Mein Kampf Zweites Buch Last will and testament Books Nazism

Events

Military career Rise to power Hitler
Hitler
Cabinet Nazi Germany World War II The Holocaust Assassination attempts Death

Places of residence

Führer
Führer
Headquarters

Berghof (Kehlsteinhaus) Reich Chancellery Wolf's Lair Werwolf Adlerhorst Special
Special
train (Führersonderzug) Führerbunker Wolfsschlucht I Wolfsschlucht II Anlage Süd Felsennest

Civilian residences

Braunau am Inn Linz Vienna
Vienna
(Meldemannstraße dormitory) Munich
Munich
(16 Prinzregentenplatz)

Personal life

Health Wealth and income Religious views Sexuality Vegetarianism Staff Bodyguard August Kubizek Stefanie Rabatsch Psychopathography Hitler's Table Talk Paintings 50th birthday

Personal belongings

Hitler's Globe Personal standard Private library

Perceptions

Books In popular culture The Victory of Faith Triumph of the Will Hitler: The Last Ten Days The Meaning of Hitler Hitler
Hitler
"Diaries" Moloch Hitler: The Rise of Evil Downfall

Family

Eva Braun
Eva Braun
(wife) Alois Hitler
Hitler
(father) Klara Hitler
Hitler
(mother) Johann Georg Hiedler (grandfather) Maria Schicklgruber (grandmother) Angela Hitler
Hitler
(half-sister) Paula Hitler
Hitler
(sister) Leo Rudolf Raubal Jr. (half-nephew) Geli Raubal
Geli Raubal
(half-niece) William Patrick Stuart-Houston (half-nephew) Heinz Hitler
Hitler
(half-nephew) Pets: Blondi
Blondi
(dog)

Other

Hitler's possible monorchism Conspiracy theories about Hitler's death Streets named after Hitler Mannerheim recordi

.