Coordinates : 0°32′S 166°56′E / 0.533°S 166.933°E /
-0.533; 166.933 (Nauru)
Republic of Nauru
Repubrikin Naoero (Nauruan )
Flag Coat of arms
MOTTO: "God's will first"
"Nauru, our homeland"
Yaren (de facto )
* Nauruan (native)
* English (widely spoken)
Non-partisan democracy , parliamentary republic
• SPEAKER OF THE PARLIAMENT
• FROM UN TRUSTEESHIP , (FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM , AUSTRALIA ,
AND NEW ZEALAND )
31 January 1968
21 km2 (8.1 sq mi) (239th )
• WATER (%)
• OCTOBER 2011 CENSUS
10,084 (234th )
480/km2 (1,243.2/sq mi) (25th )
GDP (PPP )
$160 million (192nd )
• PER CAPITA
12,052 (94th )
• PER CAPITA
Australian dollar (AUD )
DRIVES ON THE
ISO 3166 CODE
Nauru does not have an official capital, but Yaren is the
largest settlement and the seat of parliament.
NAURU (Nauruan : Naoero, /nɑːˈuːruː/ nah-OO-roo or /ˈnaʊruː/
NOWR-oo ), officially the REPUBLIC OF NAURU (Nauruan : Repubrikin
Naoero) and formerly known as PLEASANT ISLAND, is an island country in
Micronesia in the Central Pacific . Its nearest neighbour is Banaba
Kiribati , 300 kilometres (186 mi) to the east. It further
lies northwest of
Tuvalu , north of the
Solomon Islands ,
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea , southeast of the Federated States
Micronesia and south of the
Marshall Islands . With 10,084
residents in a 21-square-kilometre (8.1 sq mi) area,
Nauru is the
smallest state in the South Pacific and third smallest state by area
in the world , behind only
Vatican City and
Settled by people from
Polynesia c 1000 BCE,
annexed and claimed as a colony by the
German Empire in the late 19th
World War I
World War I ,
Nauru became a
League of Nations
League of Nations mandate
administered by Australia,
New Zealand and the United Kingdom. During
World War II
World War II ,
Nauru was occupied by Japanese troops, who were
bypassed by the Allied advance across the Pacific. After the war
ended, the country entered into UN trusteeship.
Nauru gained its
independence in 1968.
Nauru is a phosphate rock island with rich deposits near the surface,
which allowed easy strip mining operations. It has some remaining
phosphate resources which, as of 2011 , are not economically viable
Nauru boasted the highest per-capita income enjoyed
by any sovereign state in the world during the late 1960s and early
1970s. When the phosphate reserves were exhausted, and the island's
environment had been seriously harmed by mining, the trust that had
been established to manage the island's wealth diminished in value. To
Nauru briefly became a tax haven and illegal money
laundering centre. From 2001 to 2008, and again from 2012, it accepted
aid from the
Australian Government in exchange for hosting the Nauru
detention centre . As a result of heavy dependence on Australia, many
sources have identified
Nauru as a client state of Australia.
* 1 History
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Climate
* 2.2 Ecology
* 3 Politics
* 3.1 Foreign relations
* 3.2 Administrative divisions
* 4 Economy
* 5 Population
* 5.1 Demographics
* 5.2 Ethnic groups
* 5.3 Languages
* 5.4 Religion
* 6 Culture
* 6.1 Media
* 6.2 Sport
* 6.3 Holidays
* 7 Public services
* 7.1 Education
* 7.2 Health
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 Further reading
* 11 External links
History of Nauru A Nauruan warrior, 1880
Nauru was first inhabited by Micronesians and
Polynesians at least
3,000 years ago. There were traditionally 12 clans or tribes on
Nauru, which are represented in the 12-pointed star on the country's
flag . Traditionally, Nauruans traced their descent matrilineally .
Inhabitants practised aquaculture : they caught juvenile ibija fish ,
acclimatised them to fresh water, and raised them in the Buada Lagoon
, providing a reliable source of food. The other locally grown
components of their diet included coconuts and pandanus fruit . The
name "Nauru" may derive from the Nauruan word Anáoero, which means "I
go to the beach."
The British sea captain John Fearn , a whale hunter , became the
first Westerner to visit
Nauru in 1798, calling it "Pleasant Island".
From around 1830, Nauruans had contact with Europeans from whaling
ships and traders who replenished their supplies (particularly fresh
water) at Nauru.
Around this time, deserters from European ships began to live on the
island. The islanders traded food for alcoholic palm wine and
firearms. The firearms were used during the 10-year Nauruan Tribal
War that began in 1878.
After an agreement with Great Britain ,
Nauru was annexed by Germany
in 1888 and incorporated into Germany's
Marshall Islands Protectorate
for administrative purposes. The arrival of the Germans ended the
civil war, and kings were established as rulers of the island. The
most widely known of these was King
Auweyida . Christian missionaries
Gilbert Islands arrived in 1888. The German settlers called
the island Nawodo or Onawero. The Germans ruled
Nauru for almost
three decades. Robert Rasch, a German trader who married a Nauruan
woman, was the first administrator, appointed in 1890.
Phosphate was discovered on
Nauru in 1900 by the prospector Albert
Fuller Ellis . The Pacific
Phosphate Company began to exploit the
reserves in 1906 by agreement with Germany, exporting its first
shipment in 1907. In 1914, following the outbreak of
World War I
World War I ,
Nauru was captured by Australian troops. In 1919 it was agreed by the
Allied and Associated Powers that His Britannic Majesty should be the
administering authority under a
League of Nations mandate
League of Nations mandate . The Nauru
Island Agreement made in 1919 between the governments of the United
New Zealand provided for the administration of
the island and for working of the phosphate deposits by an
Phosphate Commission (BPC). The terms of
League of Nations Mandate
League of Nations Mandate were drawn up in 1920.
The island experienced an influenza epidemic in 1920, with a
mortality rate of 18% among native Nauruans.
In 1923, the
League of Nations
League of Nations gave
Australia a trustee mandate over
Nauru, with the
United Kingdom and
New Zealand as co-trustees. On 6
and 7 December 1940, the German auxiliary cruisers Komet and Orion
sank five supply ships in the vicinity of Nauru. Komet then shelled
Nauru's phosphate mining areas, oil storage depots, and the
US Army Air Force
US Army Air Force bombing the Japanese
airstrip on Nauru, 1943.
Japanese troops occupied
Nauru on 25 August 1942. The Japanese built
an airfield which was bombed for the first time on 25 March 1943,
preventing food supplies from being flown to Nauru. The Japanese
deported 1,200 Nauruans to work as labourers in the
Chuuk islands .
Nauru, which had been bypassed and left to "wither on the vine" by
American forces, was finally liberated on 13 September 1945, when
commander Hisayaki Soeda surrendered the island to the Australian Army
Royal Australian Navy .
This surrender was accepted by Brigadier J. R. Stevenson , who
represented Lieutenant General
Vernon Sturdee , the commander of the
First Australian Army, on board the warship HMAS Diamantina .
Arrangements were made to repatriate from Chuuk the 737 Nauruans who
survived Japanese captivity there. They were returned to
Nauru by the
BPC ship Trienza in January 1946.
In 1947, a trusteeship was established by the United Nations, with
Australia, New Zealand, and the
United Kingdom as trustees. Under
those arrangements, the UK,
New Zealand were a joint
administering authority. The
Nauru Island Agreement provided for the
first Administrator to be appointed by
Australia for 5 years, leaving
subsequent appointments to be decided by the three governments.
However, in practice, administrative power was exercised by Australia
Nauru became self-governing in January 1966, and following a two-year
constitutional convention it became independent in 1968 under founding
Hammer DeRoburt . In 1967, the people of
the assets of the British
Phosphate Commissioners, and in June 1970
control passed to the locally owned
Phosphate Corporation .
Income from the mines gave Nauruans one of the highest standards of
living in the Pacific. In 1989,
Nauru took legal action against
Australia in the
International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice over Australia's
administration of the island, in particular Australia's failure to
remedy the environmental damage caused by phosphate mining. Certain
Australia led to an out-of-court settlement
to rehabilitate the mined-out areas of Nauru.
Geography of Nauru Map of
Nauru is a 21 square kilometres (8 sq mi) oval-shaped island in the
southwestern Pacific Ocean, located 55.95 kilometres (35 mi) south of
Equator . The island is surrounded by a coral reef, which is
exposed at low tide and dotted with pinnacles. The presence of the
reef has prevented the establishment of a seaport , although channels
in the reef allow small boats access to the island. A fertile coastal
strip 150 to 300 metres (490 to 980 ft) wide lies inland from the
Coral cliffs surround Nauru's central plateau. The highest point of
the plateau, called the
Command Ridge , is 71 metres (233 ft) above
The only fertile areas on
Nauru are on the narrow coastal belt, where
coconut palms flourish. The land surrounding
Buada Lagoon supports
bananas, pineapples , vegetables, pandanus trees and indigenous
hardwoods such as the tomano tree .
Nauru was one of three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific
Ocean, along with Banaba (Ocean Island) in
Polynesia . The phosphate reserves on
Nauru are now almost
Phosphate mining in the central plateau has left a
barren terrain of jagged limestone pinnacles up to 15 metres (49 ft)
high. Mining has stripped and devastated about 80% of Nauru's land
area, and has also affected the surrounding
Exclusive Economic Zone
Exclusive Economic Zone ;
40% of marine life is estimated to have been killed by silt and
There are limited natural fresh water resources on Nauru. Rooftop
storage tanks collect rainwater. The islanders are mostly dependent on
three desalination plants housed at Nauru's Utilities Agency.
Nauru's climate is hot and very humid year-round because of its
proximity to the equator and the ocean.
Nauru is hit by monsoon rains
between November and February, but does not typically experience
cyclones. Annual rainfall is highly variable and is influenced by the
El Niño–Southern Oscillation , with several significant recorded
droughts. The temperature on
Nauru ranges between 26 and 35 °C (79
and 95 °F) during the day and between 22 and 34 °C (72 and 93 °F)
CLIMATE DATA FOR YAREN DISTRICT, NAURU
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS
Aerial view of
Fauna is sparse on the island due to a combination of a lack of
vegetation and the consequences of phosphates mining. Many indigenous
birds have disappeared or become rare owing to destruction of their
habitat. There are about 60 recorded vascular plant species native to
the island, none of which are endemic .
Coconut farming, mining, and
introduced species have caused serious disturbance to the native
There are no native land mammals , but there are native insects ,
land crabs, and birds, including the endemic
Nauru reed warbler
Nauru reed warbler . The
Polynesian rat , cats, dogs, pigs, and chickens have been introduced
Nauru from ships. The diversity of the reef marine life makes
fishing a popular activity for tourists on the island, as well as
SCUBA diving and snorkelling .
Politics of Nauru
Baron Waqa , the incumbent
President of Nauru
President of Nauru .
Parliament of Nauru
The president of
Baron Waqa , who heads a 19-member
unicameral parliament. The country is a member of the United Nations,
Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations , the
Asian Development Bank and the
Pacific Islands Forum .
Nauru also participates in the Commonwealth
Olympic Games . Recently
Nauru became a member country of the
International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The Republic of Nauru
became the 189th member of the
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund in April
Nauru is a republic with a parliamentary system of government. The
president is both head of state and head of government . A 19-member
unicameral parliament is elected every three years. The parliament
elects the president from its members, and the president appoints a
cabinet of five to six members.
Nauru does not have any formal structure for political parties, and
candidates typically stand for office as independents; fifteen of the
19 members of the current Parliament are independents. Four parties
that have been active in Nauruan politics are the
Nauru Party, the
Democratic Party ,
Nauru First , and the Centre Party . However,
alliances within the government are often formed on the basis of
extended family ties rather than party affiliation.
From 1992 to 1999,
Nauru had a local government system known as the
Nauru Island Council (NIC). This nine-member council was designed to
provide municipal services. The NIC was dissolved in 1999 and all
assets and liabilities became vested in the national government. Land
Nauru is unusual: all Nauruans have certain rights to all
land on the island, which is owned by individuals and family groups.
Government and corporate entities do not own any land, and they must
enter into a lease arrangement with landowners to use land.
Non-Nauruans cannot own land on the island.
Nauru had 17 changes of administration between 1989 and 2003.
Bernard Dowiyogo died in office in March 2003 and
Ludwig Scotty was
elected as the president, later being re-elected to serve a full term
in October 2004. Following a vote of no confidence on 19 December
2007, Scotty was replaced by
Marcus Stephen . Stephen resigned in
November 2011, and
Freddie Pitcher became President. Sprent Dabwido
then filed a motion of no confidence in Pitcher, resulting in him
becoming president. Following parliamentary elections in 2013 ,
Baron Waqa was elected president.
Its Supreme Court , headed by the Chief Justice, is paramount on
constitutional issues . Other cases can be appealed to the two-judge
Appellate Court. Parliament cannot overturn court decisions, but
Appellate Court rulings can be appealed to the High Court of Australia
. In practice this rarely happens. Lower courts consist of the
District Court and the Family Court, both of which are headed by a
Resident Magistrate, who also is the Registrar of the Supreme Court.
There are two other quasi-courts: the Public Service Appeal Board and
the Police Appeal Board, both of which are presided over by the Chief
Foreign relations of Nauru
Following independence in 1968,
Nauru joined the Commonwealth of
Nations as a
Special Member; it became a full member in 2000. The
country was admitted to the
Asian Development Bank in 1991 and to the
United Nations in 1999.
Nauru is a member of the Pacific Islands
Forum , the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, the South
Pacific Commission, and the South Pacific Applied Geoscience
Commission. The American
Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program
operates a climate-monitoring facility on the island.
no armed forces , though there is a small police force under civilian
control. Here a number of Nauruan police cadets are undergoing
Nauru has no armed forces , though there is a small police force
under civilian control.
Australia is responsible for Nauru's defence
under an informal agreement between the two countries. The September
2005 Memorandum of Understanding between
the latter with financial aid and technical assistance, including a
Secretary of Finance to prepare the budget, and advisers on health and
education. This aid is in return for Nauru's housing of asylum seekers
while their applications for entry into
Australia are processed.
Nauru uses the
Australian dollar as its official currency.
Nauru has used its position as a member of the
United Nations to gain
financial support from both
Taiwan (ROC) and
China (PRC) by changing
its recognition from one to the other under the
One-China policy . On
21 July 2002,
Nauru signed an agreement to establish diplomatic
relations with the PRC, accepting $130 million from the PRC for this
action. In response, the ROC severed diplomatic relations with Nauru
two days later.
Nauru later re-established links with the ROC on 14
May 2005, and diplomatic ties with the PRC were officially severed on
31 May 2005. However, the PRC continues to maintain a representative
office on Nauru.
Kosovo as an independent country, and in
Nauru became the fourth country, after Russia, Nicaragua, and
Venezuela, to recognise
Abkhazia , a breakaway region of Georgia .
Russia was reported to be giving
Nauru $50 million in humanitarian aid
as a result of this recognition. On 15 July 2008, the Nauruan
government announced a port refurbishment programme, financed with
US$9 million of development aid received from Russia. The Nauru
government claims this aid is not related to its recognising Abkhazia
and South Ossetia.
A significant portion of Nauru's income has been in the form of aid
from Australia. In 2001, the
MV Tampa , a Norwegian ship that had
rescued 438 refugees from a stranded 20-metre-long boat, was seeking
to dock in Australia. In what became known as the
Tampa affair , the
ship was refused entry and boarded by Australian troops. The refugees
were eventually loaded onto
Royal Australian Navy vessel HMAS Manoora
and taken to
Nauru to be held in detention facilities which later
became part of the Howard government's
Pacific Solution . Nauru
operated two detention centres known as State House and Topside for
these refugees in exchange for Australian aid. By November 2005, only
Mohammed Sagar and
Muhammad Faisal , remained on Nauru
from those first sent there in 2001, with Sagar finally resettling in
early 2007. The Australian government sent further groups of
Nauru in late 2006 and early 2007. The refugee
centre was closed in 2008, but, following the Australian government's
re-adoption of the
Pacific Solution in August 2012, it has re-opened
it. Amnesty International has described the conditions of the
refugees of war living in Nauru, as "horror".
List of settlements in Nauru Map of
Nauru showing its
Nauru is divided into fourteen administrative districts which are
grouped into eight electoral constituencies and are further divided
into various villages. The most populous district is Denigomodu with
a total of 1,804 residents, out of which 1,497 reside in NPC
settlement called Location. The following table shows population size
by district as per 2011 census.
(ha ) Population
(2011) No. of
persons / ha
Economy of Nauru A satellite image of Nauru,
The Nauruan economy peaked in the early 1980s, as it was dependent
almost entirely on the phosphate deposits that originate from the
droppings of sea birds. There are few other resources, and most
necessities are imported. Small-scale mining is still conducted by
RONPhos , formerly known as the
Phosphate Corporation . The
government places a percentage of RONPhos's earnings into the Nauru
Phosphate Royalties Trust . The Trust manages long-term investments,
which were intended to support the citizens once the phosphate
reserves were exhausted.
Because of mismanagement, the Trust's fixed and current assets were
reduced considerably and may never fully recover. The failed
investments included financing
Leonardo the Musical in 1993. The
Mercure Hotel in Sydney and
Nauru House in Melbourne were sold in
2004 to finance debts and
Air Nauru 's only
Boeing 737 was repossessed
in December 2005. Normal air service resumed after the aircraft was
replaced with a Boeing 737–300 airliner in June 2006. In 2005, the
corporation sold its property asset in Melbourne, the vacant Savoy
Tavern site, for $7.5 million.
The value of the Trust is estimated to have shrunk from A$ 1.3
billion in 1991 to $138 million in 2002.
Nauru currently lacks money
to perform many of the basic functions of government; for example, the
National Bank of
Nauru is insolvent. The CIA World Factbook estimated
GDP per capita
GDP per capita of $5,000 in 2005. The
Asian Development Bank 2007
economic report on
GDP per capita
GDP per capita at $2,400 to $2,715.
United Nations (2013) estimates the
GDP per capita
GDP per capita to 15,211 and
ranks it 51 on its
GDP per capita
GDP per capita country list.
There are no personal taxes in Nauru. The unemployment rate is
estimated to be 90%, and of those who have jobs, the government
employs 95%. The
Asian Development Bank notes that, although the
administration has a strong public mandate to implement economic
reforms, in the absence of an alternative to phosphate mining, the
medium-term outlook is for continued dependence on external
assistance. Tourism is not a major contributor to the economy.
Limestone pinnacles remain after phosphate mining at the site of one
of Nauru's secondary mines.
In the 1990s,
Nauru became a tax haven and offered passports to
foreign nationals for a fee. The inter-governmental Financial Action
Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) identified
Nauru as one of 15
"non-cooperative " countries in its fight against money laundering .
During the 1990s, it was possible to establish a licensed bank in
Nauru for only $25,000 with no other requirements. Under pressure from
Nauru introduced anti-avoidance legislation in 2003, after which
foreign hot money left the country. In October 2005, after
satisfactory results from the legislation and its enforcement, FATF
lifted the non-cooperative designation.
From 2001 to 2007, the
Nauru detention centre provided a significant
source of income for the country. The Nauruan authorities reacted with
concern to its closure by Australia. In February 2008, the Foreign
Affairs minister, Dr
Kieren Keke , stated that the closure would
result in 100 Nauruans losing their jobs, and would affect 10 percent
of the island's population directly or indirectly: "We have got a huge
number of families that are suddenly going to be without any income.
We are looking at ways we can try and provide some welfare assistance
but our capacity to do that is very limited. Literally we have got a
major unemployment crisis in front of us." The detention centre was
re-opened in August 2012.
In July 2017 the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD) upgraded its rating of Nauru's standards of tax
Nauru had been listed alongside fourteen
other countries that had failed to show that they could comply with
international tax transparency standards and regulations. The OECD
Nauru through a fast-tracked compliance process and
the country was given a "largely compliant" rating.
Nauru 2017/18 budget, delivered by Minister for Finance David
Adeang, forecasted $128.7 million in revenues and $128.6 million in
expenditures and projected modest economic growth for the nation over
the next two years.
Demographics of Nauru
Nauru had 9,591 residents as of July 2016, making it the only
sovereign state other than
Vatican City with a population of less than
10,000. The population was previously larger, but in 2006 1,500
people left the island during a repatriation of immigrant workers from
Tuvalu . The repatriation was motivated by wide-scale
reductions-in-force in the phosphate mining industry. It is the
least-populated country in Oceania.
58% of people in
Nauru are ethnically Nauruan , 26% are other Pacific
Islander , 8% are European , and 8% are
Han Chinese . Nauruans
descended from Polynesian and Micronesian seafarers. Two of the 12
original tribal groups became extinct in the 20th century.
The official language of
Nauru is Nauruan , a distinct Pacific island
language, which is spoken by 96% of ethnic Nauruans at home.
English is widely spoken and is the language of government and
commerce, as Nauruan is not common outside of the country.
Religion in Nauru Church in Nauru.
The main religion practised on the island is Christianity (two-thirds
Protestant, one-third Roman Catholic). The Constitution provides for
freedom of religion . The government has restricted the religious
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and the
Jehovah\'s Witnesses , most of whom are foreign workers employed by
Phosphate Corporation. The Catholics are
pastorally served by the
Roman Catholic Diocese of Tarawa and Nauru ,
with see at
Culture of Nauru
Angam Day , held on 26 October, celebrates the recovery of the
Nauruan population after the two World Wars and the 1920 influenza
epidemic. The displacement of the indigenous culture by colonial and
contemporary Western influences is significant. Few of the old
customs have been preserved, but some forms of traditional music, arts
and crafts, and fishing are still practised.
There are no daily news publications on Nauru, although there is one
fortnightly publication, Mwinen Ko. There is a state-owned television
Nauru Television (NTV), which broadcasts programmes from New
Zealand and Australia, and a state-owned non-commercial radio station,
Radio Nauru , which carries programmes from Radio
Australia and the
Australian rules football
Australian rules football , played at
Linkbelt Oval .
Australian rules football
Australian rules football is the most popular sport in
Nauru – it
and weightlifting are considered the country's national sports. There
is an Australian Rules football league with eight teams. Other sports
Nauru include volleyball, netball, fishing and tennis.
Nauru participates in the
Commonwealth Games and the Summer Olympic
Rugby sevens popularity has increased over the last two years, so
much they have a national team (
Nauru national rugby union team
Nauru competed in the
2015 Oceania Sevens Championship in New
Independence Day is celebrated on 31 January.
Education in Nauru
Nauru is 96 percent. Education is compulsory for children
from six to sixteen years old, and two more non-compulsory years are
offered (years 11 and 12). There is a campus of the University of the
South Pacific on Nauru. Before this campus was built in 1987, students
would study either by distance or abroad. Since 2011, the University
of New England,
Australia has established a presence on the island
with around 30 Nauruan teachers studying for an associate degree in
education. These students will continue onto the degree to complete
their studies. This project is led by Associate Professor Pep Serow
and funded by the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
Nauruan residents walking around
Nauru International Airport .
Nauruans are amongst the most obese people in the world. Further
Obesity in Nauru
Life expectancy on
Nauru in 2009 was 60.6 years for males and 68.0
years for females.
By measure of mean body mass index (BMI) Nauruans are the most
overweight people in the world; 97% of men and 93% of women are
overweight or obese. In 2012 the obesity rate was 71.7%.
Nauru has the world's highest level of type 2 diabetes , with more
than 40% of the population affected. Other significant
dietary-related problems on
Nauru include kidney disease and heart
Index of Nauru-related articles
Outline of Nauru
Visa policy of Nauru
* ^ "National Report on Population ad Housing" (PDF).
of Statistics. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
* ^ A B C D Nauru.
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
* ^ "
Nauru Pronunciation in English". Cambridge English Dictionary
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press .
* ^ "
Nauru — Definition, pictures, pronunciation and usage
notes". Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Oxford University Press
* ^ Hogan, C Michael (2011). "Phosphate". Encyclopedia of Earth.
National Council for Science and the Environment. Retrieved 17 June
* ^ "Pacific correspondent Mike Field". Radio
New Zealand . 18 June
* ^ "Nauru\'s former chief justice predicts legal break down". SBS
Special Broadcasting Service
Special Broadcasting Service .
* ^ Ben Doherty. "This is Abyan\'s story, and it is Australia\'s
The Guardian .
* ^ Tony Wheeler; Maureen Wheeler (2008). "The Lonely Planet Story:
Once While Travelling". Crimson Publishing. ISBN 978-1-8545-8449-6 .
* ^ A B C D
Nauru Department of Economic Development and
Environment (2003). "First National Report to the United Nations
Convention to Combat Desertification" (PDF).
United Nations . Archived
from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
* ^ Whyte, Brendan (2007). "On Cartographic Vexillology".
Cartographica: The International Journal for Geographic Information
and Geovisualization. 42 (3): 251–262. doi :10.3138/carto.42.3.251 .
* ^ Pollock, Nancy J (1995). "5: Social Fattening Patterns in the
Pacific—the Positive Side of Obesity. A
Nauru Case Study". In De
Garine, I. Social Aspects of Obesity. Routledge. pp. 87–111.
* ^ A B Spennemann, Dirk HR (January 2002). "Traditional milkfish
aquaculture in Nauru".
Aquaculture International. 10 (6): 551–562.
doi :10.1023/A:1023900601000 .
* ^ West, Barbara A (2010). "Nauruans: nationality". Encyclopedia
of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. pp.
578–580. ISBN 978-1-4381-1913-7 .
* ^ Marshall, Mac; Marshall, Leslie B (January 1976). "Holy and
Unholy Spirits: The Effects of Missionization on Alcohol Use in
Eastern Micronesia". Journal of Pacific History. 11 (3): 135–166.
doi :10.1080/00223347608572299 .
* ^ Reyes, Ramon E, Jr (1996). "
Nauru v. Australia". New York Law
School Journal of International and Comparative Law. 16 (1–2). CS1
maint: Multiple names: authors list (link )
* ^ A B C D E "Commonwealth and Colonial Law" by Kenneth
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