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A national monument in the United States
United States
is a protected area that is similar to a national park, but can be created from any land owned or controlled by the federal government[a] by proclamation of the President of the United States. National monuments can be managed by one of several federal agencies: the National Park Service, United States
United States
Forest Service, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(in the case of marine national monuments). Historically, some national monuments were managed by the War Department.[1] National monuments can be so designated through the power of the Antiquities Act
Antiquities Act
of 1906. President Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
used the act to declare Devils Tower
Devils Tower
in Wyoming
Wyoming
as the first U.S. national monument.

Contents

1 History 2 List of national monuments 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

History[edit]

Supt. Frank "Boss" Pinkley - the southwestern national monuments, 1934

The Antiquities Act
Antiquities Act
of 1906 resulted from concerns about protecting mostly prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts (collectively termed "antiquities") on federal lands in the American West.[citation needed] The Act authorized permits for legitimate archaeological investigations and penalties for taking or destroying antiquities without permission. Additionally, it authorized the president to proclaim "historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest" on federal lands as national monuments, "the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected."[2] The reference in the act to "objects of...scientific interest" enabled President Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
to make a natural geological feature, Devils Tower
Devils Tower
in Wyoming, the first national monument three months later.[3] Among the next three monuments he proclaimed in 1906 was Petrified Forest in Arizona, another natural feature. In 1908, Roosevelt used the act to proclaim more than 800,000 acres (3,200 km2) of the Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
as a national monument. In 1918, President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
proclaimed Katmai National Monument in Alaska, comprising more than 1,000,000 acres (4,000 km2). Katmai was later enlarged to nearly 2,800,000 acres (11,000 km2) by subsequent Antiquities Act
Antiquities Act
proclamations and for many years was the largest national park system unit. Petrified Forest, Grand Canyon, and Great Sand Dunes were also originally proclaimed as national monuments and later designated as national parks by Congress.[4][5][6] In response to Roosevelt's declaration of the Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
monument, a putative mining claimant sued in federal court, claiming that Roosevelt had overstepped the Antiquities Act
Antiquities Act
authority by protecting an entire canyon. In 1920, the United States
United States
Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
was indeed "an object of historic or scientific interest" and could be protected by proclamation, setting a precedent for the use of the Antiquities Act
Antiquities Act
to preserve large areas.[7] Federal courts have since rejected every challenge to the president's use of Antiquities Act
Antiquities Act
preservation authority, ruling that the law gives the president exclusive discretion over the determination of the size and nature of the objects protected. Substantial opposition did not materialize until 1943, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed Jackson Hole National Monument in Wyoming. He did this to accept a donation of lands acquired by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., for addition to Grand Teton National Park
Grand Teton National Park
after Congress had declined to authorize this park expansion. Roosevelt's proclamation unleashed a storm of criticism about use of the Antiquities Act
Antiquities Act
to circumvent Congress. A bill abolishing Jackson Hole National Monument passed Congress but was vetoed by Roosevelt, and Congressional and court challenges to the proclamation authority were mounted. In 1950, Congress finally incorporated most of the monument into Grand Teton National Park, but the act doing so barred further use of the proclamation authority in Wyoming
Wyoming
except for areas of 5,000 acres or less. The most substantial use of the proclamation authority came in 1978, when President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
proclaimed 15 new national monuments in Alaska
Alaska
after Congress had adjourned without passing a major Alaska lands bill strongly opposed in that state. Congress passed a revised version of the bill in 1980 incorporating most of these national monuments into national parks and preserves, but the act also curtailed further use of the proclamation authority in Alaska. The proclamation authority was not used again anywhere until 1996, when President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
proclaimed the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Utah. This action was widely unpopular in Utah,[8] and bills were introduced to further restrict the president's authority.[9], none of which have been enacted. Most of the 16 national monuments created by President Clinton are managed not by the National Park Service, but by the Bureau of Land Management
Bureau of Land Management
as part of the National Landscape Conservation System.[citation needed] Presidents have used the Antiquities Act's proclamation authority not only to create new national monuments but to enlarge existing ones. For example, Franklin D. Roosevelt significantly enlarged Dinosaur National Monument in 1938. Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
added Ellis Island
Ellis Island
to Statue of Liberty National Monument
Statue of Liberty National Monument
in 1965, and Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
made major additions to Glacier Bay and Katmai National Monuments in 1978.[10] On June 24, 2016, President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
designated the Stonewall Inn and surrounding areas in Greenwich Village, New York as the Stonewall National Monument, the first national monument commemorating the struggle for LGBT rights in the United States.[11]

^ See the Antiquities Act
Antiquities Act
article for exceptions.

List of national monuments[edit] Main article: List of National Monuments of the United States See also[edit]

List of U.S. National Forests List of areas in the National Park System
National Park System
of the United States (includes list of NPS-managed national monuments) List of U.S. wilderness areas Protected areas of the United States List of proposed National Monuments of the United States

References[edit]

^ Glimpses of Our National Monuments. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1930. Archived from the original on November 22, 2012.  ^ "American Antiquities Act". National Park Service. Archived from the original on October 11, 2014. Retrieved October 11, 2014.  ^ " Devils Tower
Devils Tower
First 50 Years" (PDF). National Park Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 31, 2009. Retrieved October 11, 2014.  ^ "PUBLIC LAW 85-358-MAR. 28, 1958" (PDF). Government Printing Office. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 13, 2014. Retrieved October 11, 2014.  ^ "Records of the NPS". archives.gov. Archived from the original on October 16, 2014. Retrieved October 11, 2014.  ^ " Antiquities Act
Antiquities Act
1906-2006: Maps, facts and figures" (archive). nps.gov. National Park Service. Retrieved February 6, 2018. ^ Cameron v. United States
United States
Archived March 30, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., 252 U.S. 450 (1920) ^ Wieber, Audrey (October 12, 2014). "Locals Bitter Over Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument Creation". MagicValley.com. Twin Falls Times-News. Archived from the original on August 26, 2015. Retrieved July 11, 2015.  ^ Lewis, Neil A. (October 8, 1997). "House Tweaks Clinton Over Creation of National Monuments". New York Times. Archived from the original on July 20, 2015. Retrieved July 11, 2015.  ^ Canyons of the Ancients National Monument (N.M.), Resource Management Plan: Environmental Impact Statement. January 1, 2009. Archived from the original on December 6, 2017.  ^ "President Obama Designates Stonewall National Monument" Archived June 24, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. (Official announcement from White House Press Office; June 24, 2016)

External links[edit]

National monument proclamations under the Antiquities Act
Antiquities Act
(public domain text) Congressional Research Service (CRS) reports regarding national monuments

Wikimedia Commons has media related to National Monuments of the United States.

v t e

Federal Protected Areas in the United States

Park System

Parks Preserves Lakeshores and Seashores

Forests Grasslands Monuments Marine Sanctuaries Recreation Areas Landscape Conservation System Estuarine Research Reserves Trails Wild and Scenic Rivers Wilderness Preserves Wildlife Refuges

v t e

Protected areas of the United States
Protected areas of the United States
by political division

States

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Federal district

Washington, D.C.

Insular areas

American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Minor Outlying Islands U

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