Nanga Parbat (Urdu: نانگا پربت [naːŋɡaː pərbət̪]),
locally known as Diamer (دیامر), is the ninth highest mountain
in the world at 8,126 metres (26,660 ft) above sea level. Located
Diamer District of Pakistan’s
Gilgit Baltistan region, Nanga
Parbat is the western anchor of the Himalayas. The name Nanga
Parbat is derived from the
Sanskrit words nagna and parvata which
together mean "Naked Mountain". The mountain is locally known
by its Tibetan name Diamer or Deo Mir, meaning "huge mountain".
Nanga Parbat is one of the eight-thousanders. An immense, dramatic
peak rising far above its surrounding terrain,
Nanga Parbat is also a
notoriously difficult climb. Numerous mountaineering deaths in the mid
and early-20th century lent it the nickname "Killer Mountain.”
2 Notable features
3 Layout of the mountain
4 Climbing history
4.1 Early attempts
4.2 First ascent
4.3 Subsequent attempts and ascents
4.4 Winter climbing
4.5 Taliban attack
5 Appearances in literature and film
6 Nearby peaks
7 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
Nanga Parbat forms the western anchor of the
Himalayan Range and is
the westernmost eight-thousander. It lies just south of the Indus
River in the
Diamer District of
Gilgit–Baltistan in Pakistan. Not
far to the north is the western end of the
Rakhiot glacier is located on part of the mountain
Nanga Parbat has tremendous vertical relief over local terrain in all
To the south,
Nanga Parbat has what is often referred to as the
highest mountain face in the world: the Rupal Face rises 4,600 m
(15,090 ft) above its base. To the north, the complex,
somewhat more gently sloped Rakhiot Flank rises 7,000 m
(22,966 ft) from the
Indus River valley to the summit in just
25 km (16 mi), one of the 10 greatest elevation gains in so
short a distance on earth.
Nanga Parbat is one of only two peaks on earth that rank in the top
twenty of both the highest mountains in the world, and the most
prominent peaks in the world, ranking ninth and fourteenth
respectively. The other is Mount Everest, which is first on both
lists. It is also the second most prominent peak of the Himalayas,
after Mount Everest. The key col for
Nanga Parbat is
Zoji La in
Kashmir, which connects it to higher peaks in the remaining
Nanga Parbat along with
Namcha Barwa on the
Tibetan Plateau mark the
west and east ends of the Himalayas.
Layout of the mountain
Nanga Parbat Rakhiot Face from Fairy Meadows
The core of
Nanga Parbat is a long ridge trending
southwest–northeast. The ridge is an enormous bulk of ice and rock.
It has three faces, Diamir face, Rakhiot, and Rupal. The southwestern
portion of this main ridge is known as the Mazeno Wall, and has a
number of subsidiary peaks. In the other direction, the main ridge
arcs northeast at
Rakhiot Peak (7,070 m / 23,196 ft). The
south/southeast side of the mountain is dominated by the Rupal Face.
The north/northwest side of the mountain, leading to the Indus, is
more complex. It is split into the Diamir (west) face and the Rakhiot
(north) face by a long ridge. There are a number of subsidiary
summits, including North Peak (7,816 m / 25,643 ft) some
3 km north of the main summit. Near the base of the Rupal Face is
a glacial lake called Latbo, above a seasonal shepherds' village of
the same name.
Because of its accessibility, attempts to summit
Nanga Parbat began
very soon after it was discovered by Europeans. In 1895 Albert F.
Mummery led an expedition to the peak, and reached almost 6,100 m
(20,000 ft) on the Diamir (West) Face, but Mummery and two
Gurkha companions later died reconnoitering the Rakhiot Face.
In the 1930s,
Nanga Parbat became the focus of German interest in the
Himalayas. The German mountaineers were unable to attempt Mount
Everest, as only the British had access to Tibet. Initially German
efforts focused on Kanchenjunga, to which Paul Bauer led two
expeditions in 1930 and 1931, but with its long ridges and steep faces
Kanchenjunga was more difficult than Everest and neither expedition
made much progress. K2 was known to be harder still, and its
remoteness meant that even reaching its base would be a major
Nanga Parbat was therefore the highest mountain
accessible to Germans and also deemed reasonably possible by climbers
at the time.
The first German expedition to
Nanga Parbat was led by
Willy Merkl in
1932. It is sometimes referred to as a German-American expedition, as
the eight climbers included Rand Herron, an American, and Fritz
Wiessner, who would become an American citizen the following year.
While the team were all strong climbers, none had Himalayan
experience, and poor planning (particularly an inadequate number of
porters), coupled with bad weather, prevented the team progressing far
Rakhiot Peak northeast of the
Nanga Parbat summit, reached
by Peter Aschenbrenner and Herbert Kunigk, but they did establish the
feasibility of a route via
Rakhiot Peak and the main ridge.
Merkl led another expedition in 1934, which was better prepared and
financed with the full backing of the new
Nazi government. Early in
the expedition Alfred Drexel died, probably of high altitude pulmonary
edema. The Tyrolean climbers Peter Aschenbrenner and Erwin
Schneider reached an estimated height of 7,900 m (25,900 ft)
on July 6, but were forced to return because of worsening weather. On
July 7 they and 14 others were trapped by a storm at 7,480 m
(24,540 ft). During the desperate retreat that followed, three
famous German mountaineers, Uli Wieland, Willo Welzenbach and Merkl
himself, and six Sherpas died of exhaustion, exposure and altitude
sickness, and several more suffered severe frostbite. The last
survivor to reach safety, Ang Tsering, did so having spent seven days
battling through the storm. It has been said that the disaster,
"for sheer protracted agony, has no parallel in climbing annals."
Karl Wien led another expedition to the mountain, following
the same route as Merkl's expeditions had done. Progress was made, but
more slowly than before due to heavy snowfall. About 14 June seven
Germans and nine Sherpas, almost the entire team, were at Camp IV
Rakhiot Peak when it was overrun by an avalanche. All sixteen
The Germans returned in 1938 led by Paul Bauer, but the expedition was
plagued by bad weather, and Bauer, mindful of the previous disasters,
ordered the party down before the Silver Saddle, halfway between
Rakhiot Peak and
Nanga Parbat summit, was reached. The following
year a small four man expedition, including
Peter Aufschnaiter and
Heinrich Harrer, explored the Diamir Face with the aim of finding an
easier route. They concluded that the face was a viable route, but the
Second World War
Second World War intervened and the four men were interned by the
British in Dehradun, India. Harrer's escape and subsequent
wanderings across the
Tibetan Plateau became the subject of his book
Seven Years in Tibet.
Nanga Parbat Rupal Base camp, Gilgit Baltistan
Southwest aspect of the Rupal Face
At 4,100 m (13,450 ft), near the Rakhiot Base Camp
View from Latbo village. For a sense of scale, notice a 4-man yellow
tent, dwarfed by the peak, near the bottom right. Just above the tent
is a large white building.
Nanga Parbat was first climbed, via the Rakhiot Flank (East Ridge), on
July 3, 1953 by Austrian climber Hermann Buhl, a member of a
German-Austrian team. The expedition was organized by the half-brother
of Willy Merkl, Karl Herrligkoffer from Munich, while the expedition
leader was Peter Aschenbrenner from Kufstein, who had participated in
the 1932 and 1934 attempts. By the time of this expedition, 31 people
had already died on the mountain.
The final push for the summit was dramatic: Buhl continued alone for
the final 1300 meters, after his companions had turned back. Under the
influence of the drugs pervitin (based on the stimulant
methamphetamine used by soldiers during World War II), padutin, and
tea from coca leaves, he reached the summit dangerously late, at 7 pm,
the climbing harder and more time-consuming than he had anticipated.
His descent was slowed when he lost a crampon. Caught by darkness, he
was forced to bivouac standing upright on a narrow ledge, holding a
small handhold with one hand. Exhausted, he dozed occasionally, but
managed to maintain his balance. He was also very fortunate to have a
calm night, so he was not subjected to wind chill. He finally reached
his high camp at 7 pm the next day, 40 hours after setting out.
The ascent was made without oxygen, and Buhl is the only man to have
made the first ascent of an 8000 m peak alone.
Subsequent attempts and ascents
The second ascent of
Nanga Parbat was via the Diamir Face, in 1962, by
Germans Toni Kinshofer, Siegfried Löw, and A. Mannhardt. The route is
now the "standard route" on the mountain. The Kinshofer route does not
ascend the middle of the Diamir Face, which is threatened by
avalanches from massive hanging glaciers. Instead it climbs a buttress
on the left side of the face.
In 1970 the brothers Günther and
Reinhold Messner made the third
ascent of the mountain and the first ascent of the Rupal Face. They
were unable to descend by their original route, and instead descended
by the Diamir Face, making the first traverse of the mountain.
Günther was killed in an avalanche on the Diamir Face. (Reinhold
Messner's account of this incident has been disputed. In 2005
Günther's remains were found on the Diamir Face.)
In 1971 Ivan Fiala and Michael Orolin summited
Nanga Parbat via Buhl's
1953 route while other expedition members climbed the southeast peak
(7,600 m / 24,925 ft) above the Silbersattel and the foresummit
(7,850 m / 25,760 ft) above the Bazhin Gap.
In 1976 a team of four made the sixth summit via a new route on the
Rupal Face (second ascent on this face), then named the Schell route
after the Austrian team leader. The line had been plotted by Karl
Herrligkoffer on a previous unsuccessful attempt.
Reinhold Messner returned to the Diamir Face and achieved the
first completely solo ascent (i.e., always solo above base camp) of an
8,000 m peak.
In 1984 the French climber
Lilliane Barrard became the first woman to
climb Nanga Parbat, along with her husband Maurice Barrard.
In 1985, Jerzy Kukuczka, Zygmunt Heinrich, Slawomir Lobodzinski (all
Carlos Carsolio (Mexico) climbed up the Southeast Pillar
(or Polish Spur) on the right-hand side of the Rupal Face, reaching
the summit July 13. It was Kukuczka's 9th 8000m summit.
Also in 1985, a Polish women's team climbed the peak via the 1962
German Diamir Face route. Wanda Rutkiewicz, Krystyna Palmowska, and
Anna Czerwinska reached the summit on July 15.
"Modern" superalpinism was brought to
Nanga Parbat in 1988 with an
unsuccessful attempt or two on the Rupal Face by Barry Blanchard, Mark
Twight, Ward Robinson, and Kevin Doyle.
2005 saw a resurgence of lightweight, alpine-style attempts on the
In August 2005, Pakistani military helicopters rescued Slovenian
mountaineer Tomaž Humar, who was stuck under a narrow ice ledge at
5,900 m (19,400 ft) for six days. It is believed to be one of the
few successful rescues carried out at such high altitude.
In September 2005,
Vince Anderson and
Steve House did an extremely
lightweight, fast ascent of a new, direct route on the face, earning
high praise from the climbing community.
On July 17 or 18, 2006,
José Antonio Delgado
José Antonio Delgado from
Venezuela died a
few days after reaching the summit, where he was caught by bad weather
for six days and was unable to make his way down. He is the only
Venezuelan climber, and one of few Latin Americans, to have reached
the summit of five eight-thousanders. Part of the expedition and
the rescue efforts at base camp were captured on video, as Delgado was
the subject of a pilot for a mountaineering television series.
Explorart Films, the production company, later developed the project
into a feature documentary film called Beyond the Summit, which was
scheduled to be released in South America in January 2008.
On July 15, 2008, Italian alpinist
Karl Unterkircher fell into a
crevasse during an attempt to open a new route to the top with Walter
Nones and Simon Kehrer. Unterkircher died, but Kehrer and Nones were
rescued by the Pakistani Army.
On July 12, 2009, after reaching the summit, South Korean climber Go
Mi-Young fell off a cliff on the descent in bad weather in her race to
be the first woman to climb all 14 eight-thousanders.
On July 15, 2012 Scottish mountaineers Sandy Allan and Rick Allen made
the first ascent of
Nanga Parbat via the 10 km-long Mazeno
Ridge, and in April 2013 were awarded the
Piolet d'Or for their
Nanga Parbat was first successfully climbed in winter on February 26,
2016, by a team consisting of Ali Sadpara, Alex Txikon, and Simone
The second winter ascent was made by Pole
Tomasz Mackiewicz and
Frenchwoman Elisabeth Revol on January 25, 2018.
1988/89 – Polish 12-member expedition KW
Zakopane under the
leadership of Maciej Berbeka. They first attempted the Rupal Face and
then the Diamir Face. On the Messner route, Maciej Berbeka, Piotr
Konopka, and Andrzej Osika reached an elevation of about 6500-6800 m.
1990/91 – Polish-English expedition under the leadership of Maciej
Berbeka reached the height of 6600m on the Messner route, and then
Andrzej Osika and John Tinker by the Schell route up the Rupal Face
reached a height of 6600 m.
1991/92 – Polish expedition KW
Zakopane under the leadership of
Maciej Berbeka from the Rupal valley. This attack in alpine style on
the Schell route reached the height of 7000 m.
1992/93 – French expedition Eric Monier and Monique Loscos –
Schell route on the Rupal Face. They came to BC on December 20. Eric
reached 6500 m on January 9 and on January 13 the expedition was
1996/97 – two expeditions:
Polish expedition led by
Andrzej Zawada from the Diamir valley,
Kinshofer route. During the summit attempt by the team of Zbigniew
Trzmiel and Krzysztof Pankiewicz, Trzmiel reached a height of 7800 m.
The assault was interrupted because of frostbite. After descending to
the base camp, both climbers were evacuated by helicopter to a
British expedition led by Victor Saunders, taking the Kinshofer route
on the Diamir Face. Victor Saunders, Dane Rafael Jensen, and Pakistani
Ghulam Hassan reached the height of 6000 m.
1997/98 – Polish expedition led by
Andrzej Zawada from the Diamir
valley, Kinshofer route. Expedition reached the height of 6800 m,
encountered an unusually heavy snowfall. A falling stone broke Ryszard
2004/05 – Austrian expedition by brothers Wolfgang and Gerfried
Göschl via the Kinshofer route on the Diamir Face reached the height
of 6500 m.
2006/07 – Polish HiMountain expedition on the Schell route on the
Rupal Face. Expedition led by Krzysztof Wielicki, with Jan Szulc,
Artur Hajzer, Dariusz Załuski, Jacek Jawień, Jacek Berbeka,
Przemysław Łoziński, and Robert Szymczak reached a height of 7000
2007/08 – Italian Simone La Terra started climbing solo at the
beginning of December, reaching a height of 6000 m.
2008/09 – Polish expedition on the Diamir side. Jacek Teler (leader)
and Jarosław Żurawski. Deep snow prevented them from hauling their
equipment to the base of the face, forcing the base camp to be placed
five kilometres earlier. Camp I set at an altitude of 5400 m.
2010/11 – two expeditions:
Sergei Nikolayevich Cygankow in a solo expedition on the Kinshofer
route on the Diamir Face reached 6000 m. He contracted pulmonary edema
and ended the expedition.
Tomasz Mackiewicz and Marek Klonowski – Polish expedition "Justice
for All – Nanga Dream" by Kinshofer route on the Diamir side reached
2011/12 – three expeditions:
Tomasz Mackiewicz, Marek Klonowski and "Krzaq" – Polish expedition
"Justice for All – Nanga Dream" by Kinshofer route on the Diamir
side reached 5500 m.
Denis Urubko and
Simone Moro first Diamir side on the Kinshofer route,
and then by Messner route in year 2000 reached a height of 6800 m.
2012/13 – four expeditions:
Frenchman Joël Wischnewski solo on the Rupal Face in an alpine style.
He was lost in February and his body was found in September at an
altitude of about 6100 m. He went missing after February 6 and was
probably hit by an avalanche.
Italy's Daniele Nardi and French Elisabeth Revol – Mummery Rib on
the Diamir reached the height of 6450 m.
Hungarian-American expedition: David Klein, Zoltan Acs and Ian
Overton. Zoltan has suffered frostbite while reaching the base and did
not participate in the further ascent. David and Ian reached the
height of about 5400 m on the Diamir Face.
Tomasz Mackiewicz and Marek Klonowski – Polish expedition "Justice
for All – Nanga Dream" by Schell route on the Rupal Face. Marek
Klonowski reached a height of 6600 m. On February 7, 2013 Tomasz
Mackiewicz in a lone attack reached a height of 7400 m.
2013/14 – four expeditions:
Italian Simone Moro, German David Göttler, and Italian Emilio
Previtali – Schell route on the Rupal Face. Expedition cooperated
with Polish expedition. David Göttler, on February 28, set Camp IV at
about 7000 m. On March 1, together with
Tomasz Mackiewicz reached an
altitude of about 7200 m. On the same day David and Simone decided to
end the expedition.
Tomasz Mackiewicz, Marek Klonowski, Jacek Teler, Paweł Dunaj, Michał
Obrycki, Michał Dzikowski – Polish expedition "Justice for All –
Nanga Dream" by Schell route on the Rupal Face. Expedition cooperated
with Italian-German expedition. March 1,
Tomasz Mackiewicz and David
Göttler reached an altitude of about 7200 m. On March 8, at a height
of about 5000 m, Paweł Dunaj and Michał Obrycki were hit by an
avalanche. Both were roughed up and suffered fractures. The rescue
operation was successful.
German Ralf Dujmovits on the Diamir Face, by
Reinhold Messner route in
1978 (as a filmmaker this expedition Pole Dariusz Załuski – he had
no plan of summit attack). December 30 both came at 5500 m. On January
2, because of the serac threat, Dujmovits decided to abandon the
Italy's Daniele Nardi. Solo expedition from the Diamir side on Mummery
Rib. Italy set Camp I at 4900 m and reached an altitude of about 5450
m. On March 1 he decided to end the expedition.
2014/15 – five expeditions:
Tomasz Mackiewicz and Frenchwoman Elisabeth Revol – Nanga
Parbat Winter Expedition 2014/2015. The north-west Diamir Face,
unfinished route by Messner-Hanspeter 2000. They reached 7800 m.
Italian Daniele Nardi planning the trip solo summit Mummery Rib on the
Diamir Face, accompanied by Roberto Delle Monache (photographer) and
Federico Santinii (filmmaker)
A 4-member Russian expedition – Nikolay Totmjanin, Sergei
Kondraszkin, Valery Szamało, Victor Smith – Schell route on the
Rupal Face. They reached 7150 m.
A three-person expedition Iran – Reza Bahador, Iraj Maani, and
2015/16 – five expeditions:
Nanga Light 2015/16 with Tomasz, Elisabeth Revol, and Arsalan Ahmed
Ansari. On January 22, Mackiewicz and Revol reached 7500 m, but they
were forced to cancel their attempt for the summit due to excessive
Nanga Stegu Revolution 2015/16 with Adam Bielecki and Jacek Czech.
After an accident Bielecki's injuries after a fall, forced the team
"Nanga Dream – Justice for All" – under the lead of Marek
Klonowski with Paweł Dunaj, Paweł Witkowski, Tomasz Dziobkowski,
Michał Dzikowski, Paweł Kudła, Piotr Tomza and Karim Hayat and
Safdar Karim. As of January 19, 2016 still at around 7000 m, trying to
reach the summit.
International team consisting of Alex Txikon, Daniele Nardi, and Ali
Italian team consisting of
Simone Moro and Tamara Lunger.
The two above mentioned teams (with the exception of Daniele Nardi)
joined their efforts and on February 26, 2016 Italian Simone Moro,
Basque Alex Txikon, and Ali Sadpara reached the summit, marking the
first winter ascent of Nanga Parbat, while Tamara Lunger stopped short
of the summit due to nausea and extreme cold, giving an interview to
Noor abbas Qureshi, she told that she tried her best, but her health
didn't allow her to reach the summit.
2017/18 - One Expedition:
Team consisting of
Tomasz Mackiewicz from Poland & Elisabeth Revol
from France. They ascented the summit on January 25, 2018 from Diamer
side. Tomek got severe frostbite on his hands, feet and face, snow
blindness and AMS. Elisabeth got frostbite on her hands and feet but
to a lesser extent. A Polish team attempting K2 was called for rescue.
Denis Urubko and Adam Bielecki rescued Elisabeth Revol at 6026 m while
Tomek stayed at around 7300 m. Rescuers did not go back for Tomek due
to bad weather and a possible snow storm. On January 28, Elisabeth
was carried to Islamabad for treatment and on the evening of
January 30 she was in a hospital in Sallanches.
Main article: 2013
Nanga Parbat tourist shooting
On June 23, 2013, about 15 extremist militants wearing Gilgit Scouts
uniforms shot to death ten foreign climbers (one Lithuanian, three
Ukrainians, two Slovakians, two Chinese, one Chinese-American, and one
Nepali) and one Pakistani guide at Base Camp. Another foreign
victim was injured. The attack occurred at around 1 am and was claimed
by a local branch of the Taliban. (Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan).
Appearances in literature and film
In the first chapter of Mistress of Mistresses, by E.R. Eddison, the
narrator compares his now deceased compatriot, Lessingham, to Nanga
Parbat in a descriptive passage:
"I remember, years later, his describing to me the effect of the
sudden view you get of
Nanga Parbat from one of those Kashmir valleys;
you have been riding for hours among quiet richly wooded scenery,
winding up along the side of some kind of gorge, with nothing very big
to look at, just lush, leafy, pussy-cat country of steep hillsides and
waterfalls; then suddenly you come round a corner where the view opens
up the valley, and you are almost struck senseless by the blinding
splendour of that vast face of ice-hung precipices and soaring ridges,
sixteen thousand feet from top to toe, filling a whole quarter of the
heavens at a distance of, I suppose, only a dozen miles. And now,
whenever I call to mind my first sight of Lessingham in that little
daleside church so many years ago, I think of Nanga Parbat." (Mistress
of Mistresses, 1935, p.2-3)
Jonathan Neale wrote a book about the 1934 climbing season on Nanga
Parbat called Tigers of the Snow. He interviewed many old Sherpas,
including Ang Tsering, the last man off
Nanga Parbat alive in 1934.
The book attempts to narrate what went wrong on the expedition, set
against mountaineering history of the early twentieth century, the
background of German politics in the 1930s, and the hardship and
passion of life in the Sherpa valleys.
Nanda Parbat, a fictional city in the DC Universe, is named after the
Nanga Parbat is a movie by
Joseph Vilsmaier about the 1970 expedition
Günther Messner and Reinhold Messner. Donald Shebib's
1986 film The Climb covers the story of
Hermann Buhl making the first
Laila Peak (Rupal Valley)
List of highest mountains
List of highest mountains on Earth
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^ Bernstein, Jeremy (1978). Mountain passages. University of Nebraska
Press. ISBN 9780803209831.
^ Höbusch, Harald (2016). "Mountain of Destiny":
Nanga Parbat and Its
Path Into the German Imagination. Boydell & Brewer.
^ Hoiberg, Dale; Ramchandani, Indu (2000). Students' Britannica India:
M to S (Miraj to Shastri). Encyclopaedia Britannica (India).
^ The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2003,
p. 501, ISBN 978-0-85229-961-6
^ The Pamirs and the Source of the Oxus. (1896) George Nathaniel
Curzon. Royal Geographical Society, London, p. 16.
Nanga Parbat mountain, Jammu and Kashmir". Retrieved
^ a b Scheffel, Richard L.; Wernet, Susan J., eds. (1980). Natural
Wonders of the World. US: Reader's Digest Association, Inc.
p. 261. ISBN 0-89577-087-3.
^ "Zoji La". Retrieved 28 March 2016.
^ "Nanga Parbat: 9th Highest Mountain in the World".
climbing.about.com. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
^ Neale, pp. 63–64
^ Mason, pp. 226–228
^ Neale, pp. 123-130
^ Mason pp. 230-233
^ Simpson, pp. 196–197
^ Neale, pp. 212-213
^ Mason pp. 236-237
^ Mason pp. 238-239
^ nangaroutesnew.pdf, Eberhard Jurgalski (rosemon), last updated 17
June 2010, retrieved from
^ This includes two British climbers who disappeared low on the
mountain in December 1950. They were studying conditions on the
Rakhiot glacier, not attempting the summit. See Mason p. 306.
^ Sale & Cleare, pp. 72–73
^ a b "Basecamp", Climbing Magazine (93): 22, December 1995,
^ Twight, Mark (2001). Kiss or kill: confessions of a serial climber.
Seattle: The Mountaineers Books. ISBN 0-89886-887-4.
^ "Climber rescued from major peak". BBC News. 10 August 2005.
^ Alpinist 15 on the Anderson/House ascent
^ a b "NANGA PARBAT 2006". www.nangaparbat2006.explorart.com.
Retrieved 23 October 2017.
^ "Beyond the Summit". masalladelacumbre.com. 24 November 2012.
Retrieved 23 October 2017.
^ "Italian climbers rescued from Pakistan's Killer Mountain, Nanga
Parbat". The Guardian. 25 July 2008. Retrieved 2012-07-21.
^ "Korean Alpinist Go Mi-sun Dies After Fall on Nanga Parbat".
himalman.wordpress.com. 13 July 2009. Retrieved 2012-07-21.
^ "Coming down
Nanga Parbat as hard as going up". dawn.com. 19 July
2012. Retrieved 2012-07-21.
^ "Aberdeen and Newtonmore climbers win Piolet d'Or". BBC News. 22
April 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
^ Szczepanski, Dominik. "
Nanga Parbat zdobyta w zimie po raz
^ "Alpinismo, impresa su Nanga Parbat".
^ "Home". Steepboard – Nanga Parbat. Retrieved 23 October
Nanga Parbat – Body of Joel Wischnewski Has Been
Recovered". altitudepakistan.blogspot.com. Retrieved 23 October
^ "Everest K2 News ExplorersWeb – Winter 2014: Climbers at 7000m on
Nanga Parbat". www.explorersweb.com. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
^ Revol, Elisabeth. "
Nanga Parbat in winter... – Himalaya Light".
over-blog.com. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
^ "Winter 2015 – Russians Wrap Up their Expedition, Progress on
Diamir Side". altitudepakistan.blogspot.fr. Retrieved 23 October
^ "Winter 2016 – It's Over for Nanga Light Team; Tomek and Elisabeth
Back in BC". altitudepakistan.blogspot.fr. Retrieved 23 October
^ "THE KILLER MOUNTAIN MAY KILL AGAIN". dreamwanderlust.com. 31
^ "Defining Courage & Resilience,
Nanga Parbat - The Tourist". The
Tourist. 2018-01-28. Retrieved 2018-01-28.
^ Khan, Zarar; Abbot, Sebastian. "Militants kill 9 foreign tourists, 1
Pakistani". Yahoo News. AP. Retrieved 24 June 2013. The foreigners who
were killed included five Ukrainians, three Chinese and one Russian,
said Pakistani Interior Minister Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan.
Pakistan Gunmen Kill 11 Foreign Mountain Climbers Preparing Nanga
Parbat Ascent". The Huffington Post. 23 June 2013. Retrieved
^ "Massacre at
Nanga Parbat Diamir BC – Terrorists Kill 10".
Altitude Pakistan. 23 June 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-23.
^ "Tigers of the Snow". Macmillan Publishers. Retrieved 14 April
^ Official film website
^ "The Climb (1986)". IMDB. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
The German obsession with
Nanga Parbat – War Life Nathan Morley
Mason, Kenneth (1987) [1955 published by Rupert Hart-Davis]. Abode of
Snow: A History of Himalayan Exploration and Mountaineering From
Earliest Times to the Ascent of Everest. Diadem Books.
Neale, Jonathan (2002). Tigers of the Snow. St Martin's Press.
Sale, Richard; Cleare, John (2000). Climbing the World's 14 Highest
Mountains: The History of the 8,000-Meter Peaks. Seattle: Mountaineers
Books. ISBN 978-0-89886-727-5.
Simpson, Joe (1997). Dark Shadows Falling. London: Jonathan Cape.
Herrligkoffer, Karl M., Nanga Parbat. Elek Books, 1954.
Irving, R. L. G., Ten Great Mountains (London, J. M. Dent & Sons,
Ahmed Hasan Dani, Chilas: The City of Nanga Parvat (Dyamar). 1983.
Alpenvereinskarte "Nanga Parbat", 1:50,000, Deutsche Himalaya
Andy Fanshawe and Stephen Venables, Himalaya Alpine-Style, Hodder and
Audrey Salkeld (editor), World Mountaineering, Bulfinch, 1998.
American Alpine Journal
DEM files for the Himalaya (Corrected versions of SRTM data)
Guardian International story on Gunther Messner
Climbing magazine, April 2006.
Buhl, Herman (1956).
Nanga Parbat Pilgrimage. London: Hodder and
Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-26498-5.
Messner, Reinhold, Solo Nanga Parbat, London, Kale and Ward, 1980,
ISBN 0-7182-1250-9 (Britain), ISBN 0-19-520196-5 (USA)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nanga Parbat.
Nanga Parbat on Peakware
Nanga Parbat on summitpost.org
Nanga Parbat on Himalaya-Info.org (German)
A mountain list ranked by local relief and steepness showing Nanga
Parbat as the World #1
A Quick approach through lovely meadows leads to the base camp of
NANGA PARBAT’s enormous RUPAL face
Pictures of the Rupal Facce taken by Joël Wischnewski in 2013
Annapurna I East
Annapurna I Middle Peak
List of ski descents
List of climbers
List of deaths
BNF: cb11945135t (d