NANGA PARBAT (
Urdu : نانگا پربت ) is the ninth highest
mountain in the world at 8,126 metres (26,660 ft) above sea level. It
is the western anchor of the
Himalayas around which the
skirts into the plains of
Pakistan . It is in the Gilgit-Baltistan
Pakistan and is locally known as
Diamir or Deo Mir (deo
meaning "huge" and mir meaning "mountain").
Nanga Parbat is one of the eight-thousanders , with a summit
elevation of 8,126 metres (26,660 ft). An immense, dramatic peak
rising far above its surrounding terrain,
Nanga Parbat is also a
notoriously difficult climb. Numerous mountaineering deaths in the mid
and early-20th century lent it the nickname "killer mountain".
* 1 Location
* 2 Notable features
* 3 Layout of the mountain
* 4 Climbing history
* 4.1 Early attempts
* 4.3 Subsequent attempts and ascents
* 4.4 Winter climbing
* 4.5 Taliban attack
* 5 Appearances in literature and film
* 6 Nearby peaks
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 9 Sources
* 10 Further reading
* 11 External links
Nanga Parbat forms the western anchor of the
Himalayan Range and is
the westernmost eight-thousander . It lies just south of the Indus
River in the
Diamer District of
Gilgit–Baltistan in Pakistan. Not
far to the north is the western end of the
Nanga Parbat has tremendous vertical relief over local terrain in all
To the south,
Nanga Parbat boasts what is often referred to as the
highest mountain face in the world: the Rupal Face rises 4,600 m
(15,090 ft) above its base. To the north, the complex, somewhat more
gently sloped Rakhiot Flank rises 7,000 m (22,966 ft) from the Indus
River valley to the summit in just 25 km (16 mi), one of the 10
greatest elevation gains in so short a distance on earth.
Nanga Parbat is one of only two peaks on earth that rank in the top
twenty of both the highest mountains in the world, and the most
prominent peaks in the world, ranking ninth and fourteenth
respectively. The other is
Mount Everest , which is first on both
lists. It is also the second most prominent peak of the Himalayas,
after Mount Everest. The key col for
Nanga Parbat is
Zoji La in
Kashmir, which connects it to higher peaks in the remaining
Nanga Parbat along with
Namcha Barwa on the
Tibetan Plateau mark the
west and east ends of the Himalayas.
LAYOUT OF THE MOUNTAIN
Nanga Parbat Rakhiot Face from
The core of
Nanga Parbat is a long ridge trending
southwest–northeast. The ridge is an enormous bulk of ice and rock.
It has three faces,
Diamir face, Rakhiot, and Rupal. The southwestern
portion of this main ridge is known as the Mazeno Wall, and has a
number of subsidiary peaks. In the other direction, the main ridge
arcs northeast at
Rakhiot Peak (7,070 m / 23,196 ft). The
south/southeast side of the mountain is dominated by the Rupal Face.
The north/northwest side of the mountain, leading to the Indus, is
more complex. It is split into the
Diamir (west) face and the Rakhiot
(north) face by a long ridge. There are a number of subsidiary
summits, including North Peak (7,816 m / 25,643 ft) some 3 km north of
the main summit. Near the base of the Rupal Face is a glacial lake
called Latbo, above a seasonal shepherds' village of the same name.
Nanga Parbat from
Because of its accessibility, attempts to summit
Nanga Parbat began
very soon after it was discovered by Europeans. In 1895 Albert F.
Mummery led an expedition to the peak, and reached almost 6,100 m
(20,000 ft) on the
Diamir (West) Face, but Mummery and two Gurkha
companions later died reconnoitering the Rakhiot Face.
In the 1930s,
Nanga Parbat became the focus of German interest in the
Himalayas. The German mountaineers were unable to attempt Mount
Everest , as only the British had access to
Tibet . Initially German
efforts focused on
Kanchenjunga , to which Paul Bauer led two
expeditions in 1930 and 1931, but with its long ridges and steep faces
Kanchenjunga was more difficult than Everest and neither expedition
made much progress. K2 was known to be harder still, and its
remoteness meant that even reaching its base would be a major
Nanga Parbat was therefore the highest mountain
accessible to Germans and also deemed reasonably possible by climbers
at the time. Approaching
Nanga Parbat Base Camp
The first German expedition to
Nanga Parbat was led by
Willy Merkl in
1932. It is sometimes referred to as a German-American expedition, as
the eight climbers included Rand Herron, an American, and Fritz
Wiessner , who would become an American citizen the following year.
While the team were all strong climbers, none had Himalayan
experience, and poor planning (particularly an inadequate number of
porters ), coupled with bad weather, prevented the team progressing
far beyond the
Rakhiot Peak northeast of the
Nanga Parbat summit,
reached by Peter Aschenbrenner and Herbert Kunigk, but they did
establish the feasibility of a route via
Rakhiot Peak and the main
Merkl led another expedition in 1934, which was better prepared and
financed with the full backing of the new
Nazi government. Early in
the expedition Alfred Drexel died, probably of high altitude pulmonary
edema . The Tyrolean climbers Peter Aschenbrenner and Erwin Schneider
reached an estimated height of (7,895 m / 25,900 ft) on July 6, but
were forced to return because of worsening weather. On July 7 they and
14 others were trapped by a storm at 7,480 m (24,540 ft). During the
desperate retreat that followed, three famous German mountaineers, Uli
Wieland , Willo Welzenbach and Merkl himself, and six Sherpas died of
exhaustion, exposure and altitude sickness, and several more suffered
severe frostbite . The last survivor to reach safety, Ang Tsering ,
did so having spent seven days battling through the storm. It has
been said that the disaster, "for sheer protracted agony, has no
parallel in climbing annals."
Karl Wien led another expedition to the mountain, following
the same route as Merkl's expeditions had done. Progress was made, but
more slowly than before due to heavy snowfall. About 14 June seven
Germans and nine Sherpas, almost the entire team, were at Camp IV
Rakhiot Peak when it was overrun by an avalanche . All sixteen
The Germans returned in 1938 led by Paul Bauer, but the expedition
was plagued by bad weather, and Bauer, mindful of the previous
disasters, ordered the party down before the Silver Saddle, halfway
Rakhiot Peak and
Nanga Parbat summit, was reached. The
following year a small four man expedition, including Peter
Heinrich Harrer , explored the
Diamir Face with the
aim of finding an easier route. They concluded that the face was a
viable route, but the
Second World War
Second World War intervened and the four men
were interned by the British in Dehradun, India . Harrer's escape and
subsequent wanderings across the
Tibetan Plateau became the subject of
his book Seven Years in
Nanga Parbat Rupal Base camp, Gilgit Baltistan Southwest
aspect of the Rupal Face At 4,100 m (13,450 ft), near the
Rakhiot Base Camp View from Latobo village. For a sense of
scale, notice a 4-man yellow tent, dwarfed by the peak, near the
bottom right. Just above the tent is a large white building.
Nanga Parbat was first climbed, via the Rakhiot Flank (East Ridge),
on July 3, 1953 by Austrian climber
Hermann Buhl , a member of a
German -Austrian team. The expedition was organized by the
half-brother of Willy Merkl, Karl Herrligkoffer from
Munich , while
the expedition leader was Peter Aschenbrenner from
Kufstein , who had
participated in the 1932 and 1934 attempts. By the time of this
expedition, 31 people had already died on the mountain.
The final push for the summit was dramatic: Buhl continued alone for
the final 1300 meters, after his companions had turned back. Under the
influence of the drugs pervitin (based on the stimulant
methamphetamine used by soldiers during
World War II
World War II ), padutin, and
tea from coca leaves, he reached the summit dangerously late, at 7 pm,
the climbing harder and more time-consuming than he had anticipated.
His descent was slowed when he lost a crampon . Caught by darkness, he
was forced to bivouac standing upright on a narrow ledge, holding a
small handhold with one hand. Exhausted, he dozed occasionally, but
managed to maintain his balance. He was also very fortunate to have a
calm night, so he was not subjected to wind chill . He finally reached
his high camp at 7 pm the next day, 40 hours after setting out. The
ascent was made without oxygen, and Buhl is the only man to have made
the first ascent of an 8000 m peak alone.
SUBSEQUENT ATTEMPTS AND ASCENTS
The second ascent of
Nanga Parbat was via the
Diamir Face, in 1962,
Toni Kinshofer , Siegfried "Siegi" Löw, and A. Mannhardt .
The route is now the "standard route" on the mountain. The Kinshofer
route does not ascend the middle of the
Diamir Face, which is
threatened by avalanches from massive hanging glaciers. Instead it
climbs a buttress on the left side of the face.
In 1970 the brothers Günther and
Reinhold Messner made the third
ascent of the mountain and the first ascent of the Rupal Face. They
were unable to descend by their original route, and instead descended
Diamir Face, making the first traverse of the mountain.
Günther was killed in an avalanche on the
Diamir Face. (Messner's
account of this incident has been disputed. In 2005 Günther's remains
were found on the
In 1971 Ivan Fiala and Michael Orolin summited
Nanga Parbat via
Buhl's 1953 route while other expedition members climbed the southeast
peak (7,600 m / 24,925 ft) above the Silbersattel and the foresummit
(7,850 m / 25,760 ft) above the Bazhin Gap.
In 1976 a team of four made the sixth summit via a new route on the
Rupal Face (second ascent on this face), then named the Schell route
after the Austrian team leader. The line had been plotted by Karl
Herrligkoffer on a previous unsuccessful attempt.
Reinhold Messner returned to the
Diamir Face and achieved the
first completely solo ascent (i.e., always solo above base camp) of an
8,000 m peak.
In 1984 the French climber
Lilliane Barrard became the first woman to
climb Nanga Parbat, along with her husband
Maurice Barrard .
Jerzy Kukuczka , Zygmunt Heinrich, Slawomir Lobodzinski (all
Carlos Carsolio (Mexico) climbed up the Southeast Pillar
(or Polish Spur) on the right-hand side of the Rupal Face, reaching
the summit July 13. It was Kukuczka's 9th 8000m summit.
Also in 1985, a Polish women's team climbed the peak via the 1962
Diamir Face route.
Wanda Rutkiewicz , Krystyna Palmowska, and
Anna Czerwinska reached the summit on July 15.
"Modern" superalpinism was brought to
Nanga Parbat in 1988 with an
unsuccessful attempt or two on the Rupal Face by
Barry Blanchard ,
Mark Twight , Ward Robinson, and Kevin Doyle.
2005 saw a resurgence of lightweight, alpine-style attempts on the
* In August 2005, Pakistani military helicopters rescued Slovenian
Tomaž Humar , who was stuck under a narrow ice ledge at
5,900 m (19,400 ft) for six days. It is believed to be one of the few
successful rescues carried out at such high altitude.
* In September 2005,
Vince Anderson and
Steve House did an extremely
lightweight, fast ascent of a new, direct route on the face, earning
high praise from the climbing community.
* On July 17 or 18, 2006,
José Antonio Delgado from
a few days after reaching the summit, where he was caught by bad
weather for six days and was unable to make his way down. He is the
only Venezuelan climber, and one of few Latin Americans, to have
reached the summit of five eight-thousanders . Part of the expedition
and the rescue efforts at base camp were captured on video, as Delgado
was the subject of a pilot for a mountaineering television series.
Explorart Films, the production company, later developed the project
into a feature documentary film called Beyond the Summit, which was
scheduled to be released in South America in January 2008.
* On July 15, 2008, Italian alpinist
Karl Unterkircher fell into a
crevasse during an attempt to open a new route to the top with Walter
Nones and Simon Kehrer. Unterkircher died, but Kehrer and Nones were
rescued by the Pakistani Army.
* On July 12, 2009, after reaching the summit, South Korean climber
Go Mi-Young fell off a cliff on the descent in bad weather in her race
to be the first woman to climb all 14 eight-thousanders .
* On July 15, 2012 Scottish mountaineers Sandy Allan and Rick Allen
made the first ascent of
Nanga Parbat via the 10 km-long Mazeno Ridge,
and in April 2013 were awarded the Piolet d\'Or for their
Nanga Parbat was first successfully climbed in winter on February 26,
2016, by a team consisting of Ali Sadpara, Alex Txikon, and Simone
* 1988/89 - Polish 12-member expedition KW
Zakopane under the
Maciej Berbeka . They first attempted the Rupal Face and
Diamir Face. On the Messner route, Maciej Berbeka, Piotr
Konopka, and Andrzej Osika reached an elevation of about 6500-6800 m.
* 1990/91 - Polish-English expedition under the leadership of Maciej
Berbeka reached the height of 6600m on the Messner route, and then
Andrzej Osika and John Tinker by the Schell route up the Rupal Face
reached a height of 6600 m.
* 1991/92 - Polish expedition KW
Zakopane under the leadership of
Maciej Berbeka from the Rupal valley. This attack in alpine style on
the Schell route reached the height of 7000 m.
* 1992/93 - French expedition Eric Monier and Monique Loscos -
Schell route on the Rupal Face. They came to BC on December 20. Eric
reached 6500 m on January 9 and on January 13 the expedition was
* 1996/97 - two expeditions:
* Polish expedition led by
Andrzej Zawada from the
Kinshofer route. During the summit attempt by the team of Zbigniew
Trzmiel and Krzysztof Pankiewicz, Trzmiel reached a height of 7800 m.
The assault was interrupted because of frostbite. After descending to
the base camp, both climbers were evacuated by helicopter to a
* British expedition led by Victor Saunders, taking the Kinshofer
route on the
Diamir Face. Victor Saunders, Dane Rafael Jensen, and
Pakistani Ghulam Hassan reached the height of 6000 m.
* 1997/98 - Polish expedition led by
Andrzej Zawada from the Diamir
valley, Kinshofer route. Expedition reached the height of 6800 m,
encountered an unusually heavy snowfall. A falling stone broke Ryszard
Pawłowski 's leg.
* 2004/05 - Austrian expedition by brothers Wolfgang and Gerfried
Göschl via the Kinshofer route on the
Diamir Face reached the height
of 6500 m.
* 2006/07 - Polish HiMountain expedition on the Schell route on the
Rupal Face. Expedition led by
Krzysztof Wielicki , with Jan Szulc,
Artur Hajzer , Dariusz Załuski, Jacek Jawień, Jacek Berbeka,
Przemysław Łoziński, and Robert Szymczak reached a height of 7000
* 2007/08 - Italian Simone La Terra started climbing solo at the
beginning of December, reaching a height of 6000 m.
* 2008/09 - Polish expedition on the
Diamir side. Jacek Teler
(leader) and Jarosław Żurawski. Deep snow prevented them from
hauling their equipment to the base of the face, forcing the base camp
to be placed five kilometres earlier. Camp I set at an altitude of
* 2010/11 - two expeditions:
* Sergei Nikolayevich Cygankow in a solo expedition on the Kinshofer
route on the
Diamir Face reached 6000 m. He contracted pulmonary edema
and ended the expedition.
* Tomasz Mackiewicz and Marek Klonowski - Polish expedition "Justice
for All - Nanga Dream" by Kinshofer route on the
Diamir side reached
* 2011/12 - three expeditions:
* Tomasz Mackiewicz, Marek Klonowski and "Krzaq" - Polish expedition
"Justice for All - Nanga Dream" by Kinshofer route on the
reached 5500 m.
* Denis Urubko and
Simone Moro first
Diamir side on the Kinshofer
route, and then by Messner route in year 2000 reached a height of 6800
* 2012/13 - four expeditions:
* Frenchman Joël Wischnewski solo on the Rupal Face in an alpine
style. He was lost in February and his body was found in September at
an altitude of about 6100 m. He went missing after February 6 and was
probably hit by an avalanche.
* Italy's Daniele Nardi and French Elisabeth Revol - Mummery Rib on
Diamir reached the height of 6450 m.
* Hungarian-American expedition: David Klein, Zoltan Acs and Ian
Overton. Zoltan has suffered frostbite while reaching the base and did
not participate in the further ascent. David and Ian reached the
height of about 5400 m on the
* Tomasz Mackiewicz and Marek Klonowski - Polish expedition "Justice
for All - Nanga Dream" by Schell route on the Rupal Face. Marek
Klonowski reached a height of 6600 m. On February 7, 2013 Tomasz
Mackiewicz in a lone attack reached a height of 7400 m.
* 2013/14 - four expeditions:
* Italian Simone Moro, German David Göttler, and Italian Emilio
Previtali - Schell route on the Rupal Face. Expedition cooperated with
Polish expedition. David Göttler, on February 28, set Camp IV at
about 7000 m. On March 1, together with Tomasz Mackiewicz reached an
altitude of about 7200 m. On the same day David and Simone decided to
end the expedition.
* Tomasz Mackiewicz, Marek Klonowski, Jacek Teler, Paweł Dunaj,
Michał Obrycki, Michał Dzikowski - Polish expedition "Justice for
All - Nanga Dream" by Schell route on the Rupal Face. Expedition
cooperated with Italian-German expedition. March 1, Tomasz Mackiewicz
and David Göttler reached an altitude of about 7200 m. On March 8, at
a height of about 5000 m, Paweł Dunaj and Michał Obrycki were hit by
an avalanche. Both were roughed up and suffered fractures. The rescue
operation was successful.
* German Ralf Dujmovits on the
Diamir Face, by Reinhold Messner
route in 1978 (as a filmmaker this expedition Pole Dariusz Załuski -
he had no plan of summit attack). December 30 both came at 5500 m. On
January 2, because of the serac threat, Dujmovits decided to abandon
* Italy's Daniele Nardi. Solo expedition from the
Diamir side on
Mummery Rib. Italy set Camp I at 4900 m and reached an altitude of
about 5450 m. On March 1 he decided to end the expedition.
* 2014/15 - five expeditions:
* Pole Tomasz Mackiewicz and Frenchwoman Elisabeth Revol - Nanga
Parbat Winter Expedition 2014/2015. The north-west
unfinished route by Messner-Hanspeter 2000. They reached 7800 m.
* Italian Daniele Nardi planning the trip solo summit Mummery Rib on
Diamir Face, accompanied by Roberto Delle Monache (photographer)
and Federico Santinii (filmmaker)
* A 4-member Russian expedition - Nikolay Totmjanin, Sergei
Kondraszkin, Valery Szamało, Victor Smith - Schell route on the Rupal
Face. They reached 7150 m.
* A three-person expedition Iran - Reza Bahador, Iraj Maani, and
* 2015/16 - five expeditions:
* Nanga Light 2015/16 with Tomasz, Elisabeth Revol, and Arsalan
Ahmed Ansari. On January 22, Mackiewicz and Revol reached 7500 m, but
they were forced to cancel their attempt for the summit due to
* Nanga Stegu Revolution 2015/16 with Adam Bielecki and Jacek Czech.
After an accident Bielecki's injuries after a fall, forced the team
* "Nanga Dream - Justice for All" - under the lead of Marek
Klonowski with Paweł Dunaj, Paweł Witkowski, Tomasz Dziobkowski,
Michał Dzikowski, Paweł Kudła, Piotr Tomza and Karim Hayat and
Safdar Karim. As of January 19, 2016 still at around 7000 m, trying to
reach the summit.
* International team consisting of Alex Txikon, Daniele Nardi, and
* Italian team consisting of
Simone Moro and Tamara Lunger.
* The two above mentioned teams (with the exception of Daniele
Nardi) joined their efforts and on February 26, 2016 Italian Simone
Moro, Basque Alex Txikon, and Ali Sadpara reached the summit, marking
the first winter ascent of Nanga Parbat, while Tamara Lunger stopped
short of the summit due to nausea and extreme cold, giving an
interview to Noor abbas Qureshi, she told that she tried her best, but
her health didn't allow her to reach the summit.
2013 Nanga Parbat tourist shooting
On June 23, 2013, about 15 extremist militants wearing Gilgit Scouts
uniforms shot to death ten foreign climbers (one Lithuanian, three
Ukrainians, two Slovakians, two Chinese, one Chinese-American, and one
Nepali) and one Pakistani guide at Base Camp. Another foreign victim
was injured. The attack occurred at around 1 am and was claimed by a
local branch of the Taliban. (Tehrik-i-Taliban
APPEARANCES IN LITERATURE AND FILM
In the first chapter of
Mistress of Mistresses , by
E.R. Eddison ,
the narrator compares his now deceased compatriot, Lessingham, to
Nanga Parbat in a descriptive passage: "I remember, years later, his
describing to me the effect of the sudden view you get of Nanga Parbat
from one of those Kashmir valleys; you have been riding for hours
among quiet richly wooded scenery, winding up along the side of some
kind of gorge, with nothing very big to look at, just lush, leafy,
pussy-cat country of steep hillsides and waterfalls; then suddenly you
come round a corner where the view opens up the valley, and you are
almost struck senseless by the blinding splendour of that vast face of
ice-hung precipices and soaring ridges, sixteen thousand feet from top
to toe, filling a whole quarter of the heavens at a distance of, I
suppose, only a dozen miles. And now, whenever I call to mind my first
sight of Lessingham in that little daleside church so many years ago,
I think of Nanga Parbat." (
Mistress of Mistresses , 1935, p.2-3)
Jonathan Neale wrote a book about the 1934 climbing season on Nanga
Parbat called Tigers of the Snow. He interviewed many old Sherpas,
including Ang Tsering, the last man off
Nanga Parbat alive in 1934.
The book attempts to narrate what went wrong on the expedition, set
against mountaineering history of the early twentieth century, the
background of German politics in the 1930s, and the hardship and
passion of life in the Sherpa valleys.
Nanga Parbat also was used as a training camp for Oliver Queen in
"The Arrow" on the CW network
Nanga Parbat is a movie by
Joseph Vilsmaier about the 1970 expedition
Günther Messner and
Reinhold Messner .
Donald Shebib 's
1986 film The Climb covers the story of
Hermann Buhl making the first
* Mazeno Peak
Laila Peak (Rupal Valley)
List of highest mountains
List of highest mountains on Earth
* ^ "Nanga Parbat". Britannica. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
* ^ The Pamirs and the Source of the Oxus. (1896) George Nathaniel
Curzon . Royal Geographical Society, London, p. 16.
* ^ "
Nanga Parbat mountain, Jammu and Kashmir". Retrieved
* ^ A B Scheffel, Richard L.; Wernet, Susan J., eds. (1980).
Natural Wonders of the World. US: Reader's Digest Association, Inc. p.
261. ISBN 0-89577-087-3 .
* ^ "Zoji La". Retrieved 28 March 2016.
* ^ "Nanga Parbat: 9th Highest Mountain in the World".
climbing.about.com. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
* ^ Neale, pp. 63–64
* ^ Mason, pp. 226–228
* ^ Neale, pp. 123-130
* ^ Mason pp. 230-233
* ^ Simpson, pp. 196–197
* ^ Neale, pp. 212-213
* ^ Mason pp. 236-237
* ^ Mason pp. 238-239
* ^ nangaroutesnew.pdf, Eberhard Jurgalski (rosemon), last updated
17 June 2010, retrieved from
* ^ This includes two British climbers who disappeared low on the
mountain in December 1950. They were studying conditions on the
Rakhiot glacier, not attempting the summit. See Mason p. 306.
* ^ Sale & Cleare, pp. 72–73
* ^ A B "Basecamp", Climbing Magazine (93): 22, December 1995, ISSN
* ^ Twight, Mark (2001). Kiss or kill: confessions of a serial
climber. Seattle: The Mountaineers Books. ISBN 0-89886-887-4 .
* ^ "Climber rescued from major peak". BBC News. 10 August 2005.
* ^ Alpinist 15 on the Anderson/House ascent
* ^ A B NANGA PARBAT 2006
* ^ Mas Alla de la Cumbre - Beyond the Summit
* ^ "Italian climbers rescued from Pakistan\'s Killer Mountain,
Nanga Parbat". The Guardian. 25 July 2008. Retrieved 2012-07-21.
* ^ "Korean Alpinist Go Mi-sun Dies After Fall on Nanga Parbat".
himalman.wordpress.com. 13 July 2009. Retrieved 2012-07-21.
* ^ "Coming down
Nanga Parbat as hard as going up". dawn.com. 19
July 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-21.
* ^ "Aberdeen and Newtonmore climbers win Piolet d\'Or". BBC News.
22 April 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
* ^ Szczepanski, Dominik. "
Nanga Parbat zdobyta w zimie po raz
* ^ "Alpinismo, impresa su Nanga Parbat".
* ^ http://www.steepboard.fr/
* ^ Khan, Zarar; Abbot, Sebastian. "Militants kill 9 foreign
tourists, 1 Pakistani". Yahoo News. AP. Retrieved 24 June 2013. The
foreigners who were killed included five Ukrainians, three Chinese and
one Russian, said Pakistani Interior Minister Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan.
* ^ "
Pakistan Gunmen Kill 11 Foreign Mountain Climbers Preparing
Nanga Parbat Ascent". The Huffington Post. 23 June 2013. Retrieved
* ^ "Massacre at
Diamir BC - Terrorists Kill 10".
Altitude Pakistan. 23 June 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-23.
* ^ "Tigers of the Snow". Macmillan Publishers. Retrieved 14 April
* ^ Official film website
* ^ "The Climb (1986)". IMDB. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
* The German obsession with
Nanga Parbat - War Life Nathan Morley
* Mason, Kenneth (1987) . Abode of Snow: A History of Himalayan
Exploration and Mountaineering From Earliest Times to the Ascent of
Everest. Diadem Books. ISBN 978-0-906371-91-6 .
* Neale, Jonathan (2002). Tigers of the Snow. St Martin's Press.
ISBN 0-312-26623-5 .
* Sale, Richard; Cleare, John (2000). Climbing the World's 14
Highest Mountains: The History of the 8,000-Meter Peaks. Seattle:
Mountaineers Books. ISBN 978-0-89886-727-5 .
* Simpson, Joe (1997). Dark Shadows Falling. London: Jonathan Cape.
ISBN 0-224-04368-4 .
* Herrligkoffer, Karl M., Nanga Parbat. Elek Books, 1954.
* Irving, R. L. G. , Ten Great Mountains (London, J. M. Dent & Sons,
Ahmed Hasan Dani
Ahmed Hasan Dani ,
Chilas : The City of Nanga Parvat (Dyamar).
1983. ASIN B0000CQDB2
* Alpenvereinskarte "Nanga Parbat", 1:50,000, Deutsche Himalaya
* Andy Fanshawe and Stephen Venables, Himalaya Alpine-Style, Hodder
and Stoughton, 1995.
* Audrey Salkeld (editor), World Mountaineering, Bulfinch, 1998.
* American Alpine Journal
* Himalayan Index
* DEM files for the Himalaya (Corrected versions of SRTM data)
* Guardian International story on Gunther Messner
* Climbing magazine, April 2006.
* Buhl, Herman (1956).
Nanga Parbat Pilgrimage. London: Hodder and
Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-26498-5 .
* Messner, Reinhold , Solo Nanga Parbat, London, Kale and Ward,
1980, ISBN 0-7182-1250-9 (Britain), ISBN 0-19-520196-5 (USA)
Nanga Parbat on Peakware