NAINITAL pronunciation (help ·info ) is a popular hill station in
the Indian state of
Uttarakhand and headquarters of
in the Kumaon foothills of the outer
Himalayas . Situated at an
altitude of 2,084 metres (6,837 ft) above sea level,
Nainital is set
in a valley containing a pear-shaped lake, approximately two miles in
circumference, and surrounded by mountains, of which the highest are
Naina (2,615 m (8,579 ft)) on the north, Deopatha (2,438 m (7,999 ft))
on the west, and Ayarpatha (2,278 m (7,474 ft)) on the south. From the
tops of the higher peaks, "magnificent views can be obtained of the
vast plain to the south, or of the mass of tangled ridges lying north,
bounded by the great snowy range which forms the central axis of the
* 1 Geography and climate
* 2 Demographics
* 3 Mythology
* 4 History
* 4.1 Early construction
* 4.2 The landslip of 1880
* 5 Libraries
* 6 Famous people
* 7 Gallery
* 8 See also
* 9 Notes and references
* 10 External links
GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
Scenic view of the
Nainital from Tallital, the lower end of the
Nainital is located at 29°23′N 79°27′E / 29.38°N
79.45°E / 29.38; 79.45 . The slopes of the nearby mountains are
most populated, with an elevation ranging from 1,940–2,100 m
(6,360–6,890 ft). The highest point nearby is Naina Peak or China
Peak, with an elevation of 2,619 m (8,593 ft).
Nainital experiences subtropical highland climate (Cwb) according to
Köppen–Geiger climate classification system as the city's climate
is influenced by the elevation. The city is a bit dry during winter
and very wet during summer due to South Asian monsoon system . The
lowest precipitation total occurs in November with total 7.9
millimetres (0.31 in), while the highest precipitation total occurs in
July with total 725 millimetres (28.5 in). Like most places in
temperate region ,
Nainital has relative cool summer. The hottest
month is July with temperature ranging from 16.4 °C (61.5 °F) to
23.5 °C (74.3 °F), while the coldest month is January with
temperature ranging from 1.7 °C (35.1 °F) to 10.7 °C (51.3 °F).
CLIMATE DATA FOR NAINITAL (1953-1979)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
India Meteorological Department
Naini Lake view at night
As of the 2011 Indian census,
Nainital had a population of 41,377.
Males constitute 52.3% of the population and females 47.7%. In 2011,
Nainital had an average literacy rate of 92.93%, higher than the
Uttarakhand state average of 78.82%. In Nainital, 9.54% of the
population is under 6 years of age.
Kumaoni people form the major part
of the town's population along with people from all over India.
It is believed that the Naini Lake is one of the 64
Shakti Peeths, or
religious sites where parts of the charred body of Sati (Parvati) fell
on earth while being carried by Lord
Shiva . The spot where Sati's
eyes (or Nain) fell, came to be called Nain-tal or lake of the eye.
Shakti is worshiped at the Naina Devi Temple, known by
locals as Naini Mata Temple on the north shore of the present day
St. John in the Wilderness, NainiTal, 1860
The Kumaon Hills came under British rule after the Anglo-Nepalese War
(1814–16). The hill station town of Naini Tal was founded only in
1841, with the construction of the first European house (Pilgrim
Lodge) by P. Barron, a sugar trader from
Shahjahanpur . In his memoir,
he wrote: "It is by far the best site I have witnessed in the course
of a 1,500 miles (2,400 km) trek in the Himalayas." In 1846, when a
Captain Madden of the
Artillery visited Naini Tal, he recorded
that "houses were rapidly springing up in most parts of the
settlement: some towards the crest of the limitary ranges were nearly
7,500 ft (2,300 m) above sea level: the rugged and woody Anyarpatta
Aashish (Anyar-patt – in Kumaoni means – complete blackout. The
reason for this nomenclature by the locals was because there were
minimal sun rays due to its location and dense forests) was being
gradually planted and that the favourite sites were on the undulating
tract of forest land which stretched back from the head of the lake to
the base of
China and Deopatta (Camel's Hump). The church, St. John in
the Wilderness, was one of the earliest buildings in Nainital,
followed by Belvedere, Alma lodge, Ashdale Cottage(1860)..." Soon,
the town became a health resort favoured by British soldiers and by
colonial officials and their families trying to escape the heat of the
plains. Later, the town became the summer residence of the governor of
the United Provinces .
THE LANDSLIP OF 1880
1875 1880 A general view of the north end of Naini Tal
before and after the landslip of 1880.
In September 1880 a landslide ('the landslip of 1880') occurred at
the north end of the town, burying 151 people. The first known
landslide had occurred in 1866, and in 1879 there was a larger one at
the same spot, Alma Hill, but "the great slip occurred in the
following year, on Saturday 18 September 1880."
"Two days preceding the slip there was heavy rain, ... 20 inches (510
mm) to 35 in (890 mm) fell during the 40 hours ending on Saturday
morning, and the downpour still lasted and continued for hours after
the slip. This heavy fall naturally brought down streams of water from
the hill side, some endangering the Victoria Hotel, ... (which) was
not the only building threatened ... Bell's shop, the Volunteer
Orderly Room and the
Hindu (Naina Devi) temple were scenes of labour
with a view to diverting streams. At a quarter to two the landslip
occurred burying those in and around the buildings mentioned above."
The number of dead and missing were 108 Indian and 43 British
nationals. (See poem by Hannah Battersby on the page Literary
Nainital .) The Assembly Rooms and the Naina Devi Temple
were destroyed in the disaster. A recreation area known as 'The Flats'
was later built on the site and a new temple was erected. To prevent
further disasters, storm water drains were constructed and building
bylaws were made stricter.
\\ St. Joseph\'s College,
Nainital from Tiffin Top (Dorothy's
In the latter half of the 19th century a number of "European" schools
for boys and girls were founded in Nainital. During the Victorian and
Edwardian eras, students in these schools consisted largely of
children of the British colonial officials or soldiers. The Diocesan
Girls' High School, now known as All Saints' College, was established
in 1869, near where the High Court of
Uttarakhand stands today. By
1906, there were over half a dozen such schools, including the
Diocesan Boys' School (later renamed
Sherwood College ) and the
Philander Smith's college (later renamed Halett War School, currently
Birla Vidya Mandir ).
St. Joseph\'s College,
Nainital (popularly known as SEM), a
day-boarding and residential school built by Irish brothers in 1888,
celebrated its 125th anniversary in 2013. Another important school for
girls, St. Mary\'s Convent High School,
Nainital (popularly known as
Ramnee), was established in 1878, and celebrated its 125th anniversary
in year 2003.
There are a number of libraries in the
Nainital area. Among them are
the Durga Lal Shah Municipal Public Library on the Mall, founded in
Uttarakhand Academy of Administration, Library and
Documentation Center, Mallital, the ARIES Observatory Library, and
Kumaon University Library, Nainital.
Elsie Inglis , physician and social reformer
Jim Corbett , hunter of man-eating tigers, author, conservationist
and namesake of
Jim Corbett National Park . Educated at St. Joseph's
Govind Ballabh Pant , statesman and leader of India's independence
movement, first Indian Premier of British India, the first Chief
Uttar Pradesh and the third Home Minister of India
Sam Manekshaw , Indian Army Chief of Staff during Indo-Pakistani
War of 1971. Educated at Sherwood College.
Som Nath Sharma , India's first
Param Vir Chakra
Param Vir Chakra award winner.
Educated at Sherwood College.
* Naini lake night view from mall road Krishna Chandra Pant ,
former Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission of
India . Educated
at St. Joseph's College.
Rajendra K. Pachauri , chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on
Sudhir Kakar , renowned psychoanalyst
Anup Jalota , singer
Lalet Bist , Film Director
Sukirti Kandpal , TV actress
Amitabh Bachchan ,
Bollywood actor. Educated at Sherwood College.
Naseeruddin Shah ,
Bollywood actor. Educated at St. Joseph's
Kabir Bedi ,
Bollywood Actor. Educated at Sherwood College.
* A view of the
Nainital town, 1885
Danny Denzongpa ,
Bollywood actor studied in Birla Vidya Mandir
Nirmal Pandey ,
Bollywood actor and singer
Dilip Tahil ,
Bollywood actor. Educated at Sherwood College.
Manish Pandey , cricketer who plays for
Eric Maturin , British actor
Lalit Modi ,
Indian Premier League (IPL) chairman. Educated at St.
Narayan Dutt Tiwari , Indian leader and politician, former
Andhra Pradesh , former Chief Minister of
Uttar Pradesh , and former Finance Minister of India.
Hastings Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay , first secretary general of
Percy Hobart , British major general and military engineer
Orde Charles Wingate , British general and commander of the
World War II
World War II
* Nilesh Misra, famous lyricist. Educated at St. Joseph's College.
Panoramic view of
Nainital from Naini Lake
The Mall Road, 2006.
Ramlila Bhawan, Mallital, Nainital.
A view from Hotel Naini Retreat's Balcony.
Naini Lake after snowfall (2007)
Nainital lake in the morning
Nainital in May 2011
Yachts in Naini Lake in March 2011
Nainital Lake in 2009.
Govind Ballabh Pant , at Mall Road, Nainital.
Golu Devta temple, at
Ghorakhal near Nainital.
Boats on the Lake.
Gurney House-the home of
A Bear in the Pt. G B Pant High Altitude Zoo,
Naina Devi Temple, after which the place gets its name.
* St. Joseph\'s College,
Literary references to Nainital
Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences
* The Hive Cottage
Nainital childhood residence of Jim Corbett
NOTES AND REFERENCES
Nainital District, The Imperial Gazetteer of
India , volume 18,
pp. 322–323. 1908
* ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Nainital. Fallingrain.com.
* ^ "Monthly mean maximum & minimum temperature and total rainfall
based upon 1901-2000 data".
India Meteorological Department .
Retrieved 4 February 2017.
* ^ A B
Nainital Population Census 2011.
* ^ http://www.kmvn.gov.in/details/index/63
* ^ File:View of Mallital, without the present Naina Devi Temple,
British Library .
* ^ File:View of Nainital, from the southeast (Tallital side),
British Library .
* ^ (Pilgrim 1844 )
* ^ A B C D (Murphy 1906 )
* ^ Singh, Sarina (2005). Lonely Planet:
India (Nainital). ISBN
1-74059-694-3 . Page 425.
* ^ The World Bank India: Depository Libraries, 2006.
* ^ Astronomical Networking Libraries Archived 17 July 2006 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Kumaon University
* Bateman, Josiah (1860), The Life of The Right Rev. Daniel Wilson,
D.D., Late Lord Bishop of Calcutta and Metropolitan of India, Volume
II, John Murray, Albemarle Street, London.
* Corbett, SAYUJ (2002) , Inter H.G.S – Indian Culture in Daily
* Corbett, Jim (2002) , The Man Eating Leopard of Rudraprayag,
* Corbett, Jim (2002) , The Temple Tigers and More Man-Eaters of
* Fayrer, Joseph (1900), Recollections of my life, William Blackwood
and Sons, Edinburgh and London
* Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 18, pp. 322–323., Oxford
University Press, Oxford and London, 1908
* Kennedy, Dane (1996), The Magic Mountains: Hill Stations and the
British Raj, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles,
and Oxford. 264 pages.
* Kipling, Rudyard (1889), The Story of the Gadsbys, Macmillan and
* Kipling, Rudyard (1895), Under the Deodars, Macmillan and Company,
* McLaren, Eva Shaw (1920), Elsie Inglis: The Woman with the Torch,
Macmillan and Company, New York
* M'Crindle, J.W. (1901), Ancient India: As Described in Classical
Literature, Archibald ConstaHble & Company, Westminster
* Murphy, C.W. (1906), A Guide to Naini Tal and Kumaun, Allahbad,
* Notes on Wanderings in the Himmala, containing descriptions of
some of the grandest scenery of the snowy range, among others of Naini
Tal, Agra Akhbaar Press, Agra
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