Nainital pronunciation (help·info) is a popular hill
station in the Indian state of
Uttarakhand and headquarters of
Nainital district in the Kumaon foothills of the outer Himalayas.
Situated at an altitude of 2,084 metres (6,837 ft) above sea
Nainital is set in a valley containing a mango-shaped lake,
approximately two miles in circumference, and surrounded by mountains,
of which the highest are Naina (2,615 m (8,579 ft)) on the
north, Deopatha (2,438 m (7,999 ft)) on the west, and
Ayarpatha (2,278 m (7,474 ft)) on the south. From the tops
of the higher peaks, "magnificent views can be obtained of the vast
plain to the south, or of the mass of tangled ridges lying north,
bound by the great snowy range which forms the central axis of the
1 Geography and climate
4.1 Early construction
4.2 The landslip of 1880
5 Famous Landmarks
7 Famous people
9 See also
10 Notes and references
11 External links
Geography and climate
Scenic view of the
Nainital from Tallital, the lower end of the lake.
Nainital is located at 29°23′N 79°27′E / 29.38°N
79.45°E / 29.38; 79.45. The slopes of the nearby mountains are
most populated, with an elevation ranging from 1,940–2,100 m
(6,360–6,890 ft). The highest point nearby is Naina Peak or
China Peak, with an elevation of 2,619 m (8,593 ft).
Nainital experiences subtropical highland climate (Cwb) according to
Köppen–Geiger climate classification system
Köppen–Geiger climate classification system as the city's climate
is influenced by the elevation. The city is a bit dry during winter
and very wet during summer due to South Asian monsoon system. The
lowest precipitation total occurs in November with total 7.9
millimetres (0.31 in), while the highest precipitation total
occurs in July with total 725 millimetres (28.5 in). Like most
places in temperate region,
Nainital has relative cool summer. The
hottest month is July with temperature ranging from 16.4 °C
(61.5 °F) to 23.5 °C (74.3 °F), while the coldest
month is January with temperature ranging from 1.7 °C
(35.1 °F) to 10.7 °C (51.3 °F).
Nainital is said to be one the best shining diamonds of Himalayan
Belt. This city has 3 major lakes that contribute to make it cool and
calm throughout the year.
Climate data for
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
India Meteorological Department
Naini Lake view at night
As of the 2011 Indian census,
Nainital had a population of 41,377.
Males constitute 52.3% of the population and females 47.7%. In 2011,
Nainital had an average literacy rate of 92.93%, higher than the
Uttarakhand state average of 78.82%. In Nainital, 9.54% of the
population is under 6 years of age.
Kumaoni people form the major part
of the town's population along with people from all over India.
It is believed that the Naini Lake is one of the 64
Shakti Peeths, or
religious sites where parts of the charred body of Sati (Parvati) fell
on earth while being carried by Lord Shiva. The spot where Sati's
eyes (or Nain) fell, came to be called Nain-tal or lake of the eye.
Shakti is worshiped at the Naina Devi Temple, known by
locals as Naini Mata Temple on the north shore of the present day
St. John in the Wilderness, NainiTal, 1860
The Kumaon Hills came under British rule after the Anglo-Nepalese War
(1814–16). The hill station town of Naini Tal was founded only in
1841, with the construction of the first European house (Pilgrim
Lodge) by P. Barron, a sugar trader from Shahjahanpur. In his memoir,
he wrote: "It is by far the best site I have witnessed in the course
of a 1,500 miles (2,400 km) trek in the Himalayas." In 1846,
when a Captain Madden of the
Artillery visited Naini Tal, he
recorded that "houses were rapidly springing up in most parts of the
settlement: some towards the crest of the military ranges were nearly
7,500 ft (2,300 m) above sea level: the rugged and woody
Anyarpatta Aashish (Anyar-patt – in Kumaoni means –
complete blackout. The reason for this nomenclature by the locals was
because there were minimal sun rays due to its location and dense
forests) was being gradually planted and that the favourite sites were
on the undulating tract of forest land which stretched back from the
head of the lake to the base of
China and Deopatta (Camel's Hump). The
church, St. John in the Wilderness, was one of the earliest buildings
in Nainital, followed by Belvedere, Alma lodge, Ashdale
Cottage(1860)..." Soon, the town became a health resort favoured by
British soldiers and by colonial officials and their families trying
to escape the heat of the plains. Later, the town became the summer
residence of the governor of the United Provinces.
The landslip of 1880
A general view of the north end of Naini Tal before and after the
landslip of 1880.
In September 1880 a landslide ('the landslip of 1880') occurred at the
north end of the town, burying 151 people. The first known landslide
had occurred in 1866, and in 1879 there was a larger one at the same
spot, Alma Hill, but "the great slip occurred in the following year,
on Saturday 18 September 1880."
"Two days preceding the slip there was heavy rain, ... 20 inches
(510 mm) to 35 in (890 mm) fell during the 40 hours
ending on Saturday morning, and the downpour still lasted and
continued for hours after the slip. This heavy fall naturally brought
down streams of water from the hill side, some endangering the
Victoria Hotel, ... (which) was not the only building threatened ...
Bell's shop, the Volunteer Orderly Room and the
Hindu (Naina Devi)
temple were scenes of labour with a view to diverting streams. At a
quarter to two the landslip occurred burying those in and around the
buildings mentioned above."
The number of dead and missing were 108 Indian and 43 British
nationals. (See poem by Hannah Battersby on the page Literary
references to Nainital.) The Assembly Rooms and the Naina Devi Temple
were destroyed in the disaster. A recreation area known as 'The Flats'
was later built on the site and a new temple was erected. To prevent
further disasters, storm water drains were constructed and building
bylaws were made stricter.
St. Joseph's College, Nainital
St. Joseph's College, Nainital from Tiffin Top (Dorothy's Seat)
In the latter half of the 19th century a number of "European" schools
for boys and girls were founded in Nainital. During the Victorian and
Edwardian eras, students in these schools consisted largely of
children of the British colonial officials or soldiers. The Diocesan
Girls' High School, now known as All Saints' College, was established
in 1869, near where the High Court of
Uttarakhand stands today. By
1906, there were over half a dozen such schools, including the
Diocesan Boys' School (later renamed Sherwood College) and the
Philander Smith's college (later renamed Halett War School, currently
Birla Vidya Mandir).
St. Joseph's College, Nainital
St. Joseph's College, Nainital (popularly known as SEM), a
day-boarding and residential school built by Irish brothers[citation
needed] in 1888, celebrated its 125th anniversary in 2013. Another
important school for girls, St. Mary's Convent High School,
Nainital(popularly known as Ramnee), was established in 1878, and
celebrated its 125th anniversary in year 2003.
A popular hill station,
Nainital has numerous tourist spots:
Naina Devi Temple
Pt. G.B. Pant High Altitude Zoo, Nainital
There are a number of libraries in the
Nainital area. Among them are
the Durga Lal Shah Municipal Public Library on the Mall, founded in
Uttarakhand Academy of Administration, Library and
Documentation Center, Mallital, the ARIES Observatory Library,
Kumaon University Library, Nainital.
Elsie Inglis, physician and social reformer
Jim Corbett, hunter of man-eating tigers, author, conservationist and
Jim Corbett National Park. Educated at St. Joseph's
Govind Ballabh Pant, statesman and leader of India's independence
movement, first Indian Premier of British India, the first Chief
Uttar Pradesh and the third Home Minister of India
Sam Manekshaw, Indian Army Chief of Staff during Indo-Pakistani War of
1971. Educated at Sherwood College.
Som Nath Sharma, India's first
Param Vir Chakra
Param Vir Chakra award winner. Educated
at Sherwood College.
Naini lake night view from mall road
Krishna Chandra Pant, former Deputy Chairman of the Planning
Commission of India. Educated at St. Joseph's College.
Rajendra K. Pachauri, chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on
Sudhir Kakar, renowned psychoanalyst
Anup Jalota, singer
Lalet Bist, Film Director
Sukirti Kandpal, TV actress
Bollywood actor. Educated at Sherwood College.
Bollywood actor. Educated at St. Joseph's College.
Bollywood Actor. Educated at Sherwood College.
A view of the
Nainital town, 1885
Bollywood actor studied in Birla Vidya Mandir
Bollywood actor and singer
Bollywood actor. Educated at Sherwood College.
Manish Pandey, cricketer who plays for
Karnataka and Bangalore
Eric Maturin, British actor
Indian Premier League
Indian Premier League (IPL) chairman. Educated at St.
Narayan Dutt Tiwari, Indian leader and politician, former Governor of
Andhra Pradesh, former Chief Minister of
Uttarakhand and Uttar
Pradesh, and former Finance Minister of India.
Hastings Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay, first secretary general of NATO
Percy Hobart, British major general and military engineer
Orde Charles Wingate, British general and commander of the Chindits in
Burma during World War II
Panoramic view of
Nainital from Naini Lake
The Mall Road, 2006.
Ramlila Bhawan, Mallital, Nainital.
A view from Hotel Naini Retreat's Balcony.
Naini Lake after snowfall (2007)
Nainital lake in the morning
Nainital in May 2011
Yachts in Naini Lake in March 2011
Nainital Lake in 2009.
Statue of Govind Ballabh Pant, at Mall Road, Nainital.
Golu Devta temple, at
Ghorakhal near Nainital.
Boats on the Lake.
Gurney House-the home of Jim Corbett
A Bear in the Pt. G B Pant High Altitude Zoo, Nainital.
Naina Devi Temple, after which the place gets its name.
St. Joseph's College, Nainital
Literary references to Nainital
Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences
The Hive Cottage
Nainital childhood residence of Jim Corbett
Nainital Cottage near Sherwood College
Notes and references
Nainital District, The Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume 18, pp.
^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Nainital. Fallingrain.com.
^ "Monthly mean maximum & minimum temperature and total rainfall
based upon 1901-2000 data".
India Meteorological Department. Retrieved
4 February 2017.
^ a b
Nainital Population Census 2011.
^ "Hotels Reservation in Nainital, Ranikhet, Adi Kailash, Jageshwar,
Pindari Booking - Kumaon Mandal Vikas Nigam". www.kmvn.gov.in.
^ View of Mallital, without the presend Naina Devi Temple (1865)
^ (Pilgrim 1844)
^ a b c d (Murphy 1906)
^ "Places to See in Nainital". TripAdvisor.
^ Singh, Sarina (2005). Lonely Planet:
ISBN 1-74059-694-3. Page 425.
^ The World Bank India: Depository Libraries, 2006.
^ Astronomical Networking Libraries Archived 17 July 2006 at the
^ "Kumaon University".
Bateman, Josiah (1860), The Life of The Right Rev. Daniel Wilson,
D.D., Late Lord Bishop of Calcutta and Metropolitan of India, Volume
II, John Murray, Albemarle Street, London.
Corbett, SAYUJ (2002) , Inter H.G.S – Indian Culture in Daily
Corbett, Jim (2002) , The Man Eating Leopard of Rudraprayag,
Corbett, Jim (2002) , The Temple Tigers and More Man-Eaters of
Fayrer, Joseph (1900), Recollections of my life, William Blackwood and
Sons, Edinburgh and London
Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 18, pp. 322–323., Oxford
University Press, Oxford and London, 1908
Kennedy, Dane (1996), The Magic Mountains: Hill Stations and the
British Raj, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles,
and Oxford. 264 pages.
Kipling, Rudyard (1889), The Story of the Gadsbys, Macmillan and
Kipling, Rudyard (1895), Under the Deodars, Macmillan and Company,
McLaren, Eva Shaw (1920), Elsie Inglis: The Woman with the Torch,
Macmillan and Company, New York
M'Crindle, J.W. (1901), Ancient India: As Described in Classical
Literature, Archibald ConstaHble & Company, Westminster
Murphy, C.W. (1906), A Guide to Naini Tal and Kumaun, Allahbad, United
Notes on Wanderings in the Himmala, containing descriptions of some of
the grandest scenery of the snowy range, among others of Naini Tal,
Agra Akhbaar Press, Agra
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nainital.
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
Nainital travel guide from Wikivoyage
Cities and towns in
Cities and towns
in other districts
Udham Singh Nagar
Division headquarters: Nainital
Udham Singh Nagar
Municipalities of Uttarakhand
Mahua Dabra Haripura
Muni Ki Reti