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Nafplio
Nafplio
(Greek: Ναύπλιο) is a seaport town in the Peloponnese in Greece
Greece
that has expanded up the hillsides near the north end of the Argolic Gulf. The town was an important seaport held under a succession of royal houses in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
as part of the lordship of Argos
Argos
and Nauplia, held initially by the de la Roche following the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
before coming under the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
and, lastly, the Ottoman Empire. The town was the capital of the First Hellenic Republic and of the Kingdom of Greece, from the start of the Greek Revolution in 1821 until 1834. Nafplio
Nafplio
is now the capital of the regional unit of Argolis.

Contents

1 Name 2 Geography 3 Municipality 4 Population 5 History

5.1 Classical antiquity 5.2 Byzantine and Frankish rule 5.3 Venetian and Ottoman rule 5.4 19th century 5.5 20th and 21st centuries

6 Transportation

6.1 Bus 6.2 Train

7 Architecture and urban sculpture 8 Education 9 Notable people 10 International relations

10.1 Twin towns – sister cities

11 Sports 12 Gallery 13 See also 14 References 15 Sources 16 External links

Name[edit] The name of the town changed several times over the centuries. The modern Greek name of the town is Nafplio
Nafplio
(Ναύπλιο).[2] In modern English, the most frequently used forms are Nauplia and Navplion.[3] During the Classical Antiquity, it was known as Nauplia (Ναυπλία) in Attic Greek[4][5][6][7] and Naupliē (Ναυπλίη) in Ionian Greek.[4] In Latin, it was called Nauplia.[8] During the Middle Ages, several variants were used in Byzantine Greek, including Náfplion (Ναύπλιον), Anáplion (Ἀνάπλιον), and Anáplia (Ἀνάπλια).[7] During the Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and early modern period, under Venetian domination, the town was known in Italian as Napoli di Romania, after the medieval usage of "Romania" to refer to the lands of the Byzantine Empire, and to distinguish it from Napoli (Naples) in Italy. Also during the early modern period, but this time under Ottoman rule, the Turkish name of the town was Mora Yenişehir, after Morea, a medieval name for the Peloponnese, and "yeni şehir," the Turkish term for "new city" (apparently a translation from the Greek Νεάπολη, Italian Napoli). The Ottomans also called it Anabolı. In the 19th century and early 20th century, the town was called indiscriminately Náfplion (Ναύπλιον) and Nafplio (Ναύπλιο) in modern Greek. Both forms were used in official documents and travel guides. This explains why the old form Náfplion (sometimes transliterated to Navplion) still occasionally survives up to this day. Geography[edit]

Panorama of modern Nafplion.

Nafplio
Nafplio
is situated on the Argolic Gulf
Argolic Gulf
in the northeast Peloponnese. Most of the old town is on a peninsula jutting into the gulf; this peninsula forms a naturally protected bay that is enhanced by the addition of man-made moles. Originally almost isolated by marshes, deliberate landfill projects, primarily since the 1970s, have nearly doubled the land area of the city. Municipality[edit]

Nafplio
Nafplio
municipality

The municipality Nafplio
Nafplio
was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 4 former municipalities, that became municipal units:[9]

Asini Midea Nafplio Nea Tiryntha

The municipality has an area of 390.241 km2, the municipal unit 33.619 km2.[10] Population[edit]

Year Community Municipal unit Municipality

1981 10,611 - -

1991 11,897 14,740 -

2001 13,822 16,885 -

2011 14,203 18,910 33,356

History[edit] Classical antiquity[edit] The area surrounding Nafplio
Nafplio
has been inhabited since ancient times, but few signs of this, aside from the walls of the Acronauplia, remain visible. The town has been a stronghold on several occasions during Classical Antiquity. It seems to be mentioned on an Egyptian funerary inscription of Amenophis III
Amenophis III
as Nuplija.[11] Byzantine and Frankish rule[edit] Further information: Byzantine Greece, Frankokratia, and Lordship of Argos
Argos
and Nauplia

The castle of Palamidi

View of Bourtzi.

Map of the city of Nafplion (Napoli di Romania), 1597.

The Entry of King Otto into Nauplia by Peter von Hess

The Acronauplia
Acronauplia
has walls dating from pre-classical times. Subsequently, Byzantines, Franks, Venetians, and Turks added to the fortifications. Nafplio
Nafplio
was taken in 1212 by French crusaders of the Principality of Achaea. It became part of the lordship of Argos
Argos
and Nauplia, which in 1388 was sold to the Republic of Venice.[12] During the subsequent 150 years, the lower city was expanded and fortified, and new fortifications added to Acronauplia.[13] Venetian and Ottoman rule[edit] Further information: Stato da Màr
Stato da Màr
and Ottoman Greece The city surrendered to the Ottomans in 1540, who renamed it Mora Yenişehri and established it as the seat of a sanjak. At that period, Nafplio
Nafplio
looked very much like the 16th century image shown below to the right. The Venetians retook Nafplio
Nafplio
in 1685 and made it the capital of their "Kingdom of the Morea". The city was strengthened by building the castle of Palamidi, which was in fact the last major construction of the Venetian empire overseas. However, only 80 soldiers were assigned to defend the city and it was easily retaken by the Ottomans in 1715. Palamidi
Palamidi
is located on a hill north of the old town. During the Greek War of Independence, it played a major role. It was captured by Staikos Staikopoulos in November 1822. 19th century[edit] During the Greek War of Independence, Nafplio
Nafplio
was a major Ottoman stronghold and was besieged for more than a year. The town finally surrendered on account of forced starvation. After its capture, because of its strong fortifications, it became the seat of the provisional government of Greece. Count Ioannis Kapodistrias, first head of state of newly liberated Greece, set foot on the Greek mainland for the first time in Nafplio on 7 January 1828 and made it the official capital of Greece
Greece
in 1829. He was assassinated on 9 October 1831 by members of the Mavromichalis family, on the steps of the church of Saint Spyridon in Nafplio. After his assassination, a period of anarchy followed, until the arrival of King Otto and the establishment of the new Kingdom of Greece. Nafplio remained the capital of the kingdom until 1834, when King Otto decided to move the capital to Athens. 20th and 21st centuries[edit] Tourism emerged slowly in the 1960s, but not to the same degree as some other Greek areas. Nevertheless, it tends to attract a number of tourists from Germany
Germany
and the Scandinavian countries in particular. Nafplio
Nafplio
enjoys a very sunny and mild climate, even by Greek standards, and as a consequence has become a popular day or weekend road-trip destination for Athenians in wintertime. Nafplio
Nafplio
is a port, with fishing and transport ongoing, although the primary source of local employment currently is tourism, with two beaches on the other side of the peninsula from the main body of the town and a large amount of local accommodation. The building of the National Bank of Greece
Greece
is probably the only one in the world to have been built in the Mycenaean Revival
Mycenaean Revival
architectural style.[14]

Plateia Syntagmatos (Constitution Square).

Transportation[edit]

Nafplio
Nafplio
train station in 2008.

Bus[edit] Since 1952, the town has been served by public bus (KTEL Argolida), which provides daily services to all destinations in region as well as other major Greek centers such as Athens.[15][16] The journey to Athens
Athens
takes two to two hours and 20 minutes, going via Corinth/Isthmos and Argos.[17] Train[edit] Train service began in 1886 and using an earlier station that still stands.[18] The town is connected by a branch line of ten kilometers from Argos
Argos
to Nafplio. In 2011, the Corinth-Tripoli- Nafplio
Nafplio
train service was suspended during the Greek financial crisis. There was a plan to re-open the line as an extension of the suburban railway that connects Corinth
Corinth
with Athens, but that has not happened.[19] Architecture and urban sculpture[edit]

Traditional houses. View from Acronauplia.

Statue of Theodoros Kolokotronis

Fortifications of Acronauplia

Acronauplia
Acronauplia
is the oldest part of the city though a modern hotel has been built on it. Until the thirteenth century, it was a town on its own. The arrival of the Venetians and the Franks
Franks
transformed it into part of the town fortifications. Other fortifications of the city include the Palamidi
Palamidi
and Bourtzi, which is located in the middle of the harbour. Nafplio
Nafplio
maintains a traditional architectural style with many traditional-style colourful buildings and houses, partly influenced by the Venetians, because of the domination of 1338-1540. Also, modern-era neoclassical buildings are also preserved, while the building of the National Bank of Greece
Greece
is an example of Mycenaean Revival architecture. Around the city can be found several sculptures and statues. They are related mostly with the modern history of Nafplio, such as the statues of Ioannis Kapodistrias, Otto of Greece
Greece
and Theodoros Kolokotronis. Education[edit] Since 2003, the University of Peloponnese
Peloponnese
has incorporated a new faculty, the School of Fine Arts. In 2007, a single department exists, the Department of Theatre,[20] offering four majors:[21]

Acting
Acting
& Directing Dance Set design
Set design
& Costume design Theatrical Studies[22]

Notable people[edit]

Nicolas "the Greek": One of the 18 survivors of the expedition that completed the first circumnavigation of the world in 1519-1522 (see Victoria (ship)). Tellos Agras
Tellos Agras
(1880–1907), fighter in the Greek Struggle for Macedonia. Leonidas Drosis, sculptor. Nina Bawden
Nina Bawden
(1925-2012), writer (resident). Timoleon Filimon, politician Austen Kark (1926–2002) managing director of the BBC World Service (resident). Nikos Karouzos (1926–1990), poet. Vangelis Kazan (1936–2008), actor. Sotirios Sotiropoulos (1831–1898), lawyer, politician and former Prime Minister of Greece. Angelos Terzakis (1907–1979), writer. Charilaos Trikoupis
Charilaos Trikoupis
(Greek: Χαρίλαος Τρικούπης) (July 11, 1832 – April 1896), Prime Minister of Greece
Greece
seven times from 1875 until 1895. Panagiotis Tachtsidis
Panagiotis Tachtsidis
(Greek: Παναγιώτης Ταχτσίδης) (February 15, 1991), football player currently playing in Italian Serie A
Serie A
for Cagliari Calcio. Emmanouil Zymvrakakis (army general)

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Greece Twin towns – sister cities[edit] Nafplio
Nafplio
is twinned with:

Amiens, France[citation needed] Burgas, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(1984)[23] Cetinje, Montenegro
Montenegro
since 1995[24] Kronstadt, Russia Martignas-sur-Jalle, France
France
since 1987 Menton, France
France
since 1996[25]

Niles, Illinois, United States
United States
since 1995[26] Ottobrunn, Germany
Germany
since 1978 Poti, Georgia (1990)[23] Royan, France
France
since 2005[27] Ypsilanti, Michigan, United States
United States
since 1997

Sports[edit]

Pannafpliakos F.C.

Gallery[edit]

Byzantine church (12th)

Monument for the Morea
Morea
Expedition, Philellinon Square

View of Acronauplia

Clock tower, Acronauplia

View from Palamidi

The building of National Bank of Greece
Greece
(example of Mycenaean Revival architecture)

"Trion Navarchon" (Three admirals) Square with the monument to Demetrius Ypsilantis

The church of Saint Nicholas

St. George Church

Street of Nafplio

See also[edit]

History of Greece Politics of Greece List of traditional Greek place names

References[edit]

^ a b "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority.  ^ « ΑΡΓΟΛΙΚΗ ΑΡΧΕΙΑΚΗ ΒΙΒΛΙΟΘΗΚΗ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΠΟΛΙΤΙΣΜΟΥ. "Ναύπλιον – Ετυμολογία του Ονόματος". Argolikivivliothiki.gr. Retrieved 2012-01-26.  ^ See Merriam-Webster's (1993), p. 1495. ^ a b See Liddell and Scott revised by Jones (1940), Ναυπλία. Retrieved 2012-01-26. ^ See Liddell and Scott (1889), Ναυπλία. Retrieved 2012-01-26. ^ See Bailly (1901), p. 585, Ναυπλία. Retrieved 2013-07-03. ^ a b See Smith (1854), NAU´PLIA. Retrieved 2012-01-26. ^ Entick's English-Latin dictionary. Books.google.com. 2007-11-20. Retrieved 2012-01-26.  ^ Kallikratis law Greece
Greece
Ministry of Interior (in Greek) ^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece.  ^ See Latacz (2004), p. 131. ^ Diplomatarium No. 127. ^ Wright, Ch. 1. ^ " Greece
Greece
At Its Most Greek," by Phyllis rose, September 10, 2000, New York Times. ^ "Company". K.T.E.L Argolidas. Retrieved 6 April 2016.  ^ "Transportation Means". Municipality of Nafplion. Municipality of Nafplion. Retrieved 6 April 2016.  ^ "Map/Transport". Visit Nafplio. Archived from the original on 1 April 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2016.  ^ "The historical railway station of Nafplio". TrainOSE. Retrieved 6 April 2016.  ^ Zikakou, Ioanna (October 13, 2014). "Hellenic Railway to Reach Nafplio". Greek Reporter. Retrieved 6 April 2016.  ^ Faculties and Departments. University of Peloponnese
Peloponnese
website. www.uop.gr. ^ (in Greek) Study Plan. University of Peloponnese, Department of Theater Studies website. ^ http://pelopas.uop.gr/UK/departments.shtml ^ a b "Twinnings" (PDF). Central Union of Municipalities & Communities of Greece. Retrieved 2013-08-25.  ^ "Royal city of Cetinje". Retrieved 2013-09-21.  ^ "Office du tourisme de Menton". Archived from the original on 2013-09-23. Retrieved 2013-09-21.  ^ "Niles Sister Cities". Official website. The Village of Niles. 2010. Archived from the original on 2009-03-22. Retrieved 2010-01-04.  ^ "City council minutes" (PDF). Royan
Royan
city hall. 2005-06-02. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 

Sources[edit]

Bailly, Anatole (1901), Abrégé du dictionnaire grec-français, Paris, France: Hachette .

Entick, John. A Compendious Dictionary of the English and Latin Tongues. New edition carefully revised and augmented throughout by Rev. M.G. Sarjant. London, 1825. ([1]) Ellingham, Mark; Dubin, Marc; Jansz, Natania; and Fisher, John (1995). Greece, the Rough Guide. Rough Guides. ISBN 1-85828-131-8. Gerola, Giuseppe (1930–31). “Le fortificazioni di Napoli di Romania,” Annuario dell regia scuola archeologicca di Atene e delle missioni italiane in oriente 22-24. pp. 346–410. Gregory, Timothy E. (1983). Nauplion. Athens. Karouzos, Semnes (1979). To Nauplio. Athens. Kolokotrones, Theodoros (1969). Memoirs from the Greek War of Independence, 1821-1833. E. M. Edmunds, trans. Originally printed as Kolokotrones: The Klepht and the Warrior. Sixty Years of Peril and Daring. An Autobiography. London, 1892; reprint, Chicago. Lamprynides, Michael G. (1898). Ê Nauplia. Athens, reprint 1950. Latacz, Joachim (2004), Troy and Homer: Towards the Solution of an Old Mystery, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press .

Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1889), An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press .

Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1940), A Greek-English Lexicon, revised and augmented by Sir Henry Stuart Jones, Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press .

Luttrell, Anthony (1966), "The Latins of Argos
Argos
and Nauplia: 1311-1394", Papers of the British School at Rome, Vol. 34, pp. 34–55 .

McCulloch, J. R. (1866). "A Dictionary, Geographical, Statistical, and Historical of the Various Countries, Places, and Principal Natural Objects in the World". New edition carefully revised. Longmans, Green, and Co., London, UK. p. 457. ([2]) Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (10th ed.), Springfield, Mass., USA: Merriam-Webster, 1993 .

Schaefer, Wulf (1961). "Neue Untersuchungen über die Baugeschichte Nauplias im Mittelalter," Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts. Vol. 76, pp. 156–214. Smith, William, ed. (1854), Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), London, UK: Walton and Maberly .

Thomas, George Martin (1966). Diplomatarium Veneto-Levantinum. B. Franklin, New York, USA. ([3]) Wright, Diana Gilliland (1999). Bartolomeo Minio: Venetian administration in 15th-Century Nauplion. Doctoral dissertation. The Catholic University of America, Washington DC, USA.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nafplion.

Municipality of Nafplio
Nafplio
Official Website GTP - Nafplio
Nafplio
municipality Historical images, poetry

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Nafplion.

Places adjacent to Nafplio

Nea Tiryntha Asklipieio

Argolic Gulf

Nafplio

Argolic Gulf Asini Asini

v t e

Administrative division of the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
Region

Area 15,490 km2 (5,980 sq mi) Population 577,903 (as of 2011) Municipalities 26 (since 2011) Capital Tripoli

Regional unit of Arcadia

Gortynia Megalopoli North Kynouria South Kynouria Tripoli

Regional unit of Argolis

Argos-Mykines Epidaurus Ermionida Nafplio

Regional unit of Corinthia

Corinth Loutraki-Perachora-Agioi Theodoroi Nemea Sikyona Velo-Vocha Xylokastro-Evrostina

Regional unit of Laconia

East Mani Elafonisos Evrotas Monemvasia Sparta

Regional unit of Messenia

Kalamata Messini Oichalia Pylos-Nestor Trifylia West Mani

Regional governor Petros Tatoulis
Petros Tatoulis
(reelected 2014) Decentralized Administration Peloponnese, Western Greece
Greece
and the Ionian

v t e

Subdivisions of the municipality of Nafplio

Municipal unit of Asini

Asini Drepano Iria Karnezaiika Tolo

Municipal unit of Midea

Agia Triada Anyfi Arachnaio Argoliko Iraio Manesis Midea Panaritis Poullakida

Municipal unit of Nafplio

Aria Lefkakia Nafplio Pyrgiotika

Municipal unit of Nea Tiryntha

Agios Adrianos Nea Tiryntha Neo Roeino

v t e

Stato da Màr
Stato da Màr
of the Republic of Venice

Adriatic Sea

Istria
Istria
(10th century – 1797) Dalmatia (11th century – 1797) Durazzo (Durrës) (1392–1501) Venetian Albania
Venetian Albania
(1420–1797)

Ionian Islands and dependencies

Cerigo (Cythera) and Cerigotto (Anticythera) (1363–1797) Corfu
Corfu
and Paxi
Paxi
(1386–1797) Parga
Parga
(1401–1797) Zante (Zakynthos) (1479–1797) Cephalonia
Cephalonia
(1500–1797) Ithaca
Ithaca
(1500–1797) Santa Maura (Leucas) (1684–1797) Vonitsa
Vonitsa
(1684–1797) Preveza
Preveza
(1717–1797)

Mainland Greece

Modon and Coron (1207–1500) Negroponte (Euboea) (1209/1390–1470) Pteleos
Pteleos
(1322–1470) Napoli di Romania (Nafplio) (1388–1540) Argos
Argos
(1394–1463) Lepanto (Naupactus) (1407–1540) Patras
Patras
(1408–1413) Athens
Athens
(1395–1402) Thessalonica (1423–30) Navarino (1417–1500) Monemvasia
Monemvasia
(1463–1540) Kingdom of the Morea
Morea
(1687–1715)

Aegean Islands

Hydra (1204-1566) Spezia (1220-1460) Crete (1205–1669), then only Souda, Gramvousa
Gramvousa
and Spinalonga
Spinalonga
(until 1715) Mykonos
Mykonos
(1390–1537) Duchy of the Archipelago
Duchy of the Archipelago
(1383–1537/79), then only Sifnos (1383–1617) and Tinos
Tinos
(1390–1715) Skiathos, Skopelos
Skopelos
and Alonissos
Alonissos
(1453–1538) Aegina
Aegina
(1451–1537/1687–1715) Poros
Poros
(1484–1715)

Other

Constantinople
Constantinople
(1204–61) Gallipoli
Gallipoli
(1204-35) Rodosto (1204-35) Soldaia (Sudak) (13th century – 1365) Cyprus (1489–1571)

Related articles

Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
& Frankokratia Ottoman–Venetian Wars Venetian–Genoese Wars

v t e

  Prefectural capitals of Greece

Agios Nikolaos Alexandroupoli Amfissa Argostoli Arta Athens Chalcis Chania Chios Corfu Corinth Drama Edessa Ermoupoli Florina Grevena Heraklion Igoumenitsa Ioannina Kalamata Karditsa Karpenisi Kastoria Katerini Kavala Kilkis Komotini Kozani Lamia Larissa Lefkada Livadeia Missolonghi Mytilene Nafplion Pallini Patras Piraeus Polygyros Preveza Pyrgos Rethymno Rhodes Serres Sparta Thessaloniki Trikala Tripoli Vathy Veria Volos Xanthi Zakynthos

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 136063790 GND: 4041446-2 BNF:

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