Modern Greek : Ναύπλιο) is a seaport town in the
Greece that has expanded up the hillsides near the
north end of the
Argolic Gulf . The town was an important seaport held
under a succession of royal houses in the
Middle Ages as part of the
Argos and Nauplia , held initially by the de la Roche
Fourth Crusade before coming under the Republic of
Venice and, lastly, the
Ottoman Empire . The town was the capital of
First Hellenic Republic
First Hellenic Republic and of the Kingdom of
Greece , from the
start of the Greek Revolution in 1821 until 1834.
Nafplio is now the
capital of the regional unit of
* 1 Name
* 2 Geography
* 3 Municipality
* 4 Population
* 5 History
* 5.1 Classical antiquity
* 5.2 Byzantine and Frankish rule
* 5.3 Venetian and Ottoman rule
* 5.4 19th century
* 5.5 20th and 21st centuries
* 6 Transportation
* 6.1 Bus
* 6.2 Train
* 7 Architecture and urban sculpture
* 8 Education
* 9 Notable people
* 10 International relations
* 10.1 Twin towns – sister cities
* 11 Sports
* 12 Gallery
* 13 See also
* 14 References
* 15 Sources
* 16 External links
The name of the town changed several times over the centuries. The
modern Greek name of the town is
Nafplio (Ναύπλιο). In modern
English , the most frequently used forms are
Nauplia and Navplion.
During the Classical Antiquity , it was known as Nauplia
Attic Greek and Naupliē (Ναυπλίη) in
Ionian Greek . In Latin , it was called Nauplia.
Middle Ages , several variants were used in Byzantine
Greek , including Náfplion (Ναύπλιον), Anáplion
(Ἀνάπλιον), and Anáplia (Ἀνάπλια).
During the Late
Middle Ages and early modern period , under Venetian
domination, the town was known in Italian as Napoli di Romania, after
the medieval usage of "Romania" to refer to the lands of the Byzantine
Empire , and to distinguish it from Napoli (Naples ) in
Also during the early modern period, but this time under Ottoman
rule, the Turkish name of the town was Mora Yenişehir, after
a medieval name for the
Peloponnese , and "yeni şehir," the Turkish
term for "new city" (apparently a translation from the Greek
Νεάπολη, Italian Napoli). The Ottomans also called it Anabolı.
In the 19th century and early 20th century, the town was called
indiscriminately Náfplion (Ναύπλιον) and Nafplio
(Ναύπλιο) in modern Greek . Both forms were used in official
documents and travel guides. This explains why the old form Náfplion
(sometimes transliterated to Navplion) still occasionally survives up
to this day.
Panorama of modern Nafplion.
Nafplio is situated on the
Argolic Gulf in the northeast Peloponnese
. Most of the old town is on a peninsula jutting into the gulf; this
peninsula forms a naturally protected bay that is enhanced by the
addition of man-made moles . Originally almost isolated by marshes,
deliberate landfill projects, primarily since the 1970s, have nearly
doubled the land area of the city.
Nafplio was formed at the 2011 local government
reform by the merger of the following 4 former municipalities, that
became municipal units:
The municipality has an area of 390.241 km2, the municipal unit
The area surrounding
Nafplio has been inhabited since ancient times,
but few signs of this, aside from the walls of the
remain visible. The town has been a stronghold on several occasions
during Classical Antiquity . It seems to be mentioned on an Egyptian
funerary inscription of
Amenophis III as Nuplija.
BYZANTINE AND FRANKISH RULE
Further information: Byzantine
Frankokratia , and Lordship
Argos and Nauplia The castle of
Palamidi View of
Bourtzi . Map of the city of Nafplion (Napoli di Romania),
Acronauplia has walls dating from pre-classical times.
Subsequently, Byzantines ,
Franks , Venetians , and Turks added to the
Nafplio was taken in 1212 by French crusaders of the
Principality of Achaea
Principality of Achaea . It became part of the lordship of
Nauplia , which in 1388 was sold to the Republic of Venice. During
the subsequent 150 years, the lower city was expanded and fortified,
and new fortifications added to Acronauplia.
VENETIAN AND OTTOMAN RULE
Stato da Màr
Stato da Màr and Ottoman
The city surrendered to the Ottomans in 1540, who renamed it Mora
Yenişehri and established it as the seat of a sanjak . At that
Nafplio looked very much like the 16th century image shown
below to the right.
The Venetians retook
Nafplio in 1685 and made it the capital of their
"Kingdom of the
Morea ". The city was strengthened by building the
Palamidi , which was in fact the last major construction of
the Venetian empire overseas. However, only 80 soldiers were assigned
to defend the city and it was easily retaken by the Ottomans in 1715.
Palamidi is located on a hill north of the old town. During the Greek
War of Independence , it played a major role. It was captured by
Staikos Staikopoulos in November 1822.
Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence ,
Nafplio was a major Ottoman
stronghold and was besieged for more than a year. The town finally
surrendered on account of forced starvation. After its capture,
because of its strong fortifications, it became the seat of the
provisional government of
Ioannis Kapodistrias , first head of state of newly liberated
Greece, set foot on the Greek mainland for the first time in Nafplio
on 7 January 1828 and made it the official capital of
Greece in 1829.
He was assassinated on 9 October 1831 by members of the Mavromichalis
family, on the steps of the church of Saint Spyridon in Nafplio. After
his assassination, a period of anarchy followed, until the arrival of
King Otto and the establishment of the new Kingdom of
Greece . Nafplio
remained the capital of the kingdom until 1834, when King Otto decided
to move the capital to
20TH AND 21ST CENTURIES
Tourism emerged slowly in the 1960s, but not to the same degree as
some other Greek areas. Nevertheless, it tends to attract a number of
Germany and the Scandinavian countries in particular.
Nafplio enjoys a very sunny and mild climate, even by Greek standards,
and as a consequence has become a popular day or weekend road-trip
destination for Athenians in wintertime.
Nafplio is a port, with fishing and transport ongoing, although the
primary source of local employment currently is tourism, with two
beaches on the other side of the peninsula from the main body of the
town and a large amount of local accommodation.
The building of the National Bank of
Greece is probably the only one
in the world to have been built in the
Mycenaean Revival architectural
style. Plateia Syntagmatos (Constitution Square).
Nafplio train station in 2008.
Since 1952, the town has been served by public bus (KTEL Argolida),
which provides daily services to all destinations in region as well as
other major Greek centers such as Athens. The journey to Athens
takes two to two hours and 20 minutes, going via Corinth/Isthmos and
Train service began in 1886 and using an earlier station that still
The town is connected by a branch line of ten kilometers from Argos
to Nafplio. In 2011, the Corinth-Tripoli -
Nafplio train service was
suspended during the Greek financial crisis. There was a plan to
re-open the line as an extension of the suburban railway that connects
Corinth with Athens, but that has not happened.
ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN SCULPTURE
Traditional houses. View from
Acronauplia . Statue of
Theodoros Kolokotronis Fortifications of
Acronauplia is the oldest part of the city though a modern hotel has
been built on it. Until the thirteenth century, it was a town on its
own. The arrival of the Venetians and the
Franks transformed it into
part of the town fortifications. Other fortifications of the city
Palamidi and Bourtzi , which is located in the middle of
Nafplio maintains a traditional architectural style with many
traditional-style colourful buildings and houses, partly influenced by
the Venetians, because of the domination of 1338-1540. Also,
modern-era neoclassical buildings are also preserved, while the
building of the National Bank of
Greece is an example of Mycenaean
Revival architecture .
Around the city can be found several sculptures and statues. They are
related mostly with the modern history of Nafplio, such as the statues
Ioannis Kapodistrias , Otto of
Theodoros Kolokotronis .
Since 2003, the University of
Peloponnese has incorporated a new
faculty, the School of Fine Arts. In 2007, a single department exists,
the Department of Theatre, offering four majors:
* Theatrical Studies
Acting & Directing
Set design padding-right:0.1em; color:#595959; border:1px solid
Montenegro since 1995
France since 1987
France since 1996
* Niles ,
United States since 1995
Germany since 1978
Poti , Georgia (1990)
France since 2005
* Ypsilanti ,
United States since 1997
The Entry of King Otto into
Peter von Hess
Peter von Hess
Monument for the
Morea Expedition , Philellinon Square
The building of National Bank of
Greece (example of Mycenaean Revival
"Trion Navarchon" Square with the monument to
The church of
St. George Church
* History of
* Politics of
List of traditional Greek place names
* ^ A B "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών
2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic
* ^ « ΑΡΓΟΛΙΚΗ ΑΡΧΕΙΑΚΗ ΒΙΒΛΙΟΘΗΚΗ
ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΠΟΛΙΤΙΣΜΟΥ. "Ναύπλιον –
Ετυμολογία του Ονόματος". Argolikivivliothiki.gr.
* ^ See Merriam-Webster's (1993), p. 1495.
* ^ A B See Liddell and Scott revised by Jones (1940),
Ναυπλία. Retrieved 2012-01-26.
* ^ See Liddell and Scott (1889), Ναυπλία. Retrieved
* ^ See Bailly (1901), p. 585, Ναυπλία. Retrieved
* ^ A B See Smith (1854), NAU´PLIA. Retrieved 2012-01-26.
* ^ Entick\'s English-Latin dictionary. Books.google.com.
2007-11-20. Retrieved 2012-01-26.
* ^ Kallikratis law
Greece Ministry of Interior (in Greek)
* ^ "Population ">(PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of
* ^ See Latacz (2004), p. 131.
* ^ Diplomatarium No. 127.
* ^ Wright, Ch. 1.
* ^ "
Greece At Its Most Greek," by Phyllis rose, Sept. 10, 2000,
New York Times.
* ^ "Company". K.T.E.L Argolidas. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
* ^ "Transportation Means". Municipality of Nafplion. Municipality
of Nafplion. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
* ^ "Map/Transport". Visit Nafplio. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
* ^ "The historical railway station of Nafplio". TrainOSE.
Retrieved 6 April 2016.
* ^ Zikakou, Ioanna (October 13, 2014). "Hellenic Railway to Reach
Nafplio". Greek Reporter. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
* ^ Faculties and Departments. University of
* ^ (Greek) Study Plan. University of Peloponnese, Department of
Theater Studies website.
* ^ A B "Twinnings" (PDF). Central Union of Municipalities &
Communities of Greece. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
* ^ "Royal city of Cetinje". Retrieved 2013-09-21.
* ^ "Office du tourisme de Menton". Retrieved 2013-09-21.
* ^ "Niles Sister Cities". Official website. The Village of Niles.
2010. Retrieved 2010-01-04.
* ^ "City council minutes" (PDF).
Royan city hall. 2005-06-02.
* Bailly, Anatole (1901), Abrégé du dictionnaire grec-français,
Paris, France: Hachette .
* Entick, John. A Compendious Dictionary of the English and Latin
Tongues. New edition carefully revised and augmented throughout by
Rev. M.G. Sarjant. London, 1825. ()
* Ellingham, Mark; Dubin, Marc; Jansz, Natania; and Fisher, John
(1995). Greece, the Rough Guide. Rough Guides. ISBN 1-85828-131-8 .
* Gerola, Giuseppe (1930–31). “Le fortificazioni di Napoli di
Romania,” Annuario dell regia scuola archeologicca di Atene e delle
missioni italiane in oriente 22-24. pp. 346–410.
* Gregory, Timothy E. (1983). Nauplion. Athens.
* Karouzos, Semnes (1979). To Nauplio. Athens.
* Kolokotrones, Theodoros (1969). Memoirs from the Greek War of
Independence, 1821-1833. E. M. Edmunds, trans. Originally printed as
Kolokotrones: The Klepht and the Warrior. Sixty Years of Peril and
Daring. An Autobiography. London, 1892; reprint, Chicago.
* Lamprynides, Michael G. (1898). Ê Nauplia. Athens, reprint 1950.
* Latacz, Joachim (2004), Troy and Homer: Towards the Solution of an
Old Mystery, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press .
* Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1889), An Intermediate
Greek-English Lexicon, Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press .
* Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1940), A Greek-English
Lexicon, revised and augmented by Sir Henry Stuart Jones, Oxford, UK:
Clarendon Press .
* Luttrell, Anthony (1966), "The Latins of
Argos and Nauplia:
1311-1394", Papers of the British School at Rome, Vol. 34, pp. 34–55
* McCulloch, J. R. (1866). "A Dictionary, Geographical, Statistical,
and Historical of the Various Countries, Places, and Principal Natural
Objects in the World". New edition carefully revised. Longmans, Green,
and Co., London, UK. p. 457. ()
* Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (10th ed.), Springfield,
Mass., USA: Merriam-Webster, 1993 .
* Schaefer, Wulf (1961). "Neue Untersuchungen über die
Baugeschichte Nauplias im Mittelalter," Jahrbuch des Deutschen
Archäologischen Instituts. Vol. 76, pp. 156–214.
* Smith, William, ed. (1854), Dictionary of Greek and Roman
Geography (1854), London, UK: Walton and Maberly .
* Thomas, George Martin (1966). Diplomatarium Veneto-Levantinum. B.
Franklin, New York, USA. ()
* Wright, Diana Gilliland (1999). Bartolomeo Minio: Venetian
administration in 15th-Century Nauplion. Doctoral dissertation. The
Catholic University of America, Washington DC, USA.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to NAFPLION .
* Municipality of
Nafplio Official Website
* GTP -
* Historical images, poetry
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for NAFPLION .
ADJACENT PLACES OF