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The INTERNATIONAL RADIOTELEPHONY SPELLING ALPHABET, commonly known as the ICAO
ICAO
PHONETIC ALPHABET, sometimes called the NATO
NATO
ALPHABET or SPELLING ALPHABET and the ITU RADIOTELEPHONIC or PHONETIC ALPHABET, is the most widely used radiotelephonic spelling alphabet . Although often called "phonetic alphabets", spelling alphabets are not associated with phonetic transcription systems such as the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
. Instead, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) alphabet assigned codewords acrophonically to the letters of the English alphabet , so that critical combinations of letters and numbers can be pronounced and understood by those who exchange voice messages by radio or telephone regardless of language barriers or the quality of the communication channel.

The 26 code words in the NATO
NATO
phonetic alphabet are assigned to the 26 letters of the English alphabet in alphabetical order as follows: Alfa, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliett, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whiskey, X-ray, Yankee, Zulu.

CONTENTS

* 1 International adoption

* 1.1 NATO
NATO
* 1.2 History

* 2 Code words

* 2.1 Letters * 2.2 Digits * 2.3 Pronunciation

* 3 Prior alphabets * 4 Usage

* 5 Variants

* 5.1 Aviation * 5.2 Telegrams * 5.3 Other

* 6 Additions in other languages

* 6.1 Spanish * 6.2 German and Swedish * 6.3 Danish and Norwegian * 6.4 Czech * 6.5 Finnish * 6.6 Estonian * 6.7 Malay

* 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links

INTERNATIONAL ADOPTION

After the phonetic alphabet was developed by the International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO
ICAO
) (see history below) it was adopted by many other international and national organizations, including the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the American Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA), the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS), and the International Amateur Radio Union (IARU).

It is a subset of the much older International Code of Signals (INTERCO), which originally included visual signals by flags or flashing light, sound signals by whistle, siren, foghorn, or bell, as well as one, two, or three letter codes for many phrases. The same alphabetic code words are used by all agencies, but each agency chooses one of two different sets of numeric code words. NATO
NATO
uses the regular English numeric words (Zero, One, with some alternative pronunciations), whereas the IMO provides for compound numeric words (Nadazero, Unaone, Bissotwo...). In practice these are used very rarely, as they frequently result in confusion between speakers of different languages.

NATO

An alternative name for the ICAO
ICAO
spelling alphabet, " NATO
NATO
phonetic alphabet", exists because it appears in Allied Tactical Publication ATP-1, Volume II: Allied Maritime Signal and Maneuvering Book used by all allied navies of NATO, which adopted a modified form of the International Code of Signals. Because the latter allows messages to be spelled via flags or Morse code
Morse code
, it naturally named the code words used to spell out messages by voice its "phonetic alphabet". The name NATO
NATO
phonetic alphabet became widespread because the signals used to facilitate the naval communications and tactics of NATO
NATO
have become global. However, ATP-1 is marked NATO
NATO
Confidential (or the lower NATO Restricted) so it is not available publicly. Nevertheless, a NATO unclassified version of the document is provided to foreign, even hostile, militaries, even though they are not allowed to make it available publicly. The spelling alphabet is now also defined in other unclassified international military documents. The NATO
NATO
alphabet appeared in some United States
United States
Air Force Europe publications during the Cold War. A particular example was the Ramstein Air Base, Telephone Directory published between 1969 and 1973 (currently out of print). The American and NATO
NATO
versions had differences and the translation was provided as a convenience. Differences included Alfa, Bravo and Able, Baker for the first two letters.

HISTORY

The ICAO
ICAO
developed this system in the 1950s in order to account for discrepancies that might arise in communications as a result of multiple alphabet naming systems coexisting in different places and organizations.

In the official version of the alphabet, the non-English spellings Alfa and Juliett are used. Alfa is spelled with an f as it is in most European languages because the English and French spelling alpha would not be pronounced properly by native speakers of some other languages – who may not know that ph should be pronounced as f. Juliett is spelled with a tt for French speakers, because they may otherwise treat a single final t as silent. In some English versions of the alphabet, one or both of these may have their standard English spelling.

CODE WORDS

THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA
IPA
PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA
IPA
symbols, see Help: IPA
IPA
.

The final choice of code words for the letters of the alphabet and for the digits was made after hundreds of thousands of comprehension tests involving 31 nationalities. The qualifying feature was the likelihood of a code word being understood in the context of others. For example, football has a higher chance of being understood than foxtrot in isolation, but foxtrot is superior in extended communication.

The pronunciation of the code words varies according to the language habits of the speaker. To eliminate wide variations in pronunciation, recordings and posters illustrating the pronunciation desired by the ICAO
ICAO
are available. However, there are still differences in pronunciation between the ICAO
ICAO
and other agencies, and the ICAO
ICAO
has conflicting Roman-alphabet and IPA
IPA
transcriptions. Also, although all codes for the letters of the alphabet are English words, they are not in general given English pronunciations. Assuming that the transcriptions are not intended to be precise, only 11 of the 26—Bravo, Echo, Hotel, Juliet(t), Kilo, Mike, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Whiskey, and Zulu—are given English pronunciations by all these agencies, though not always the same English pronunciations.

LETTERS

LETTER CODE WORD CONFLICTING ACCOUNTS OF THE PRONUNCIATION

U.S. Army standard ICAO
ICAO
and ITU Roman standard FAA standards ICAO IPA
IPA
standard SIO (France) ICAO
ICAO
recording (1955) CONSOLIDATED TRANSCRIPTION

A ALFA ATIS: ALPHA AL fah AL FAH ALFAH or AL-FAH ˈælfɑ al fah

/ˈælfɑː/ AL-fah

B BRAVO BRAH voh BRAH VOH (1955: BRAH VOH) BRAHVOH or BRAH-VO ˈbrɑːˈvo bra vo

/ˌbrɑːˈvoʊ/ BRAH-VOH

C CHARLIE CHAR lee CHAR LEE CHARLEE or CHAR-LEE ˈtʃɑːli or ˈʃɑːli tchah li, char li , /ˈtʃɑːrliː/ CHAR-lee or /ˈʃɑːrliː/ SHAR-lee

D DELTA DEL tah DELL TAH DELLTAH or DELL-TAH ˈdeltɑ del tah

/ˈdɛltɑː/ DEL-tah

E ECHO EKK oh ECK OH ECKOH or ECK-OH ˈeko èk o

/ˈɛkoʊ/

F FOXTROT FOKS trot FOKS TROT FOKSTROT or FOKS-TROT ˈfɔkstrɔt fox trott

/ˈfɒkstrɒt/ FOKS-trot

G GOLF Golf GOLF GOLF ɡʌlf golf

/ˈɡɒlf/ GOLF

H HOTEL HO tell HOH TELL HOHTELL or HOH-TELL hoːˈtel ho tèll

/hoʊˈtɛl/ hoh-TEL

I INDIA IN dee ah IN DEE AH INDEE AH or IN-DEE-AH ˈindiˑɑ in di ah

/ˈɪndiːɑː/ IN-dee-ah

J JULIETT ATIS: JULIET JEW lee ett JEW LEE ETT JEWLEE ETT or JEW-LEE-ETT ˈdʒuːliˑˈet djou li ètt

/ˈdʒuːliːɛt/ JEW-lee-et or /ˌdʒuːliːˈɛt/ JEW-lee-ET

K KILO KEY loh KEY LOH KEYLOH or KEY-LOH ˈkiːlo ki lo

/ˈkiːloʊ/ KEE-loh

L LIMA LEE mah LEE MAH LEEMAH or LEE-MAH ˈliːmɑ li mah

/ˈliːmɑː/ LEE-mah

M MIKE Mike MIKE MIKE mɑik maïk

/ˈmaɪk/ MYK

N NOVEMBER NOH vem ber NO VEM BER NOVEMBER or NO-VEM-BER noˈvembə no vèmm ber

/noʊˈvɛmbər/ noh-VEM-bər

O OSCAR OSS car OSS CAH OSS-SCAR or OSS-CAR ˈɔskɑ oss kar

/ˈɒskɑː/ OS-kah

P PAPA PAH pah PAH PAH PAHPAH or PAH-PAH pəˈpɑ pah pah

/pɑːˈpɑː/ pah-PAH

Q QUEBEC keh BECK KEH BECK KEHBECK or KWUH-BECK keˈbek ké bèk

/kɛˈbɛk/ ke-BEK

R ROMEO ROW me oh ROW ME OH ROWME OH or ROW-ME-OH ˈroːmiˑo ro mi o

/ˈroʊmiːoʊ/ ROH-mee-oh

S SIERRA see AIR ah SEE AIR RAH SEEAIRAH or SEE-AIR-AH siˈerɑ si èr rah

/siːˈɛrɑː/ see-ERR-ah

T TANGO TANG go TANG GO TANGGO or TANG-GO ˈtænɡo tang go

/ˈtæŋɡoʊ/ TANG-goh

U UNIFORM YOU nee form YOU NEE FORM or OO NEE FORM YOUNEE FORM or YOU-NEE-FORM or OO-NEE-FORM ˈjuːnifɔːm or ˈuːnifɔrm you ni form, ou ni form , /ˈjuːniːfɔːrm/ EW-nee-form or /ˈuːniːfɔːrm/ OO-nee-form

V VICTOR VIK ter VIK TAH VIKTAH or VIK-TAR ˈviktɑ vik tar

/ˈvɪktɑː/ VIK-tah

W WHISKEY WISS key WISS KEY WISSKEY or WISS-KEY ˈwiski ouiss ki

/ˈwɪskiː/ WIS-kee

X X-RAY or XRAY EKS ray ECKS RAY ECKSRAY or ECKS-RAY ˈeksˈrei èkss ré

/ˈɛksreɪ/ EKS-ray or /ˌɛksˈreɪ/ EKS-RAY

Y YANKEE YANG kee YANG KEY YANGKEY or YANG-KEY ˈjænki yang ki

/ˈjæŋkiː/ YANG-kee

Z ZULU ZOO luu ZOO LOO ZOOLOO or ZOO-LOO ˈzuːluː zou lou

/ˈzuːluː/ ZOO-loo

- (hyphen) DASH

/ˈdæʃ/ DASH

DIGITS

DIGIT CODE WORD PRONUNCIATION SIO TRANSCRIPTION

0 Zero (FAA, USMC) Nadazero (ITU, IMO) ZE-RO (ICAO), ZE RO or ZEE-RO (FAA) NAH-DAH-ZAY-ROH (ITU, IMO) zi ro /ˈziːroʊ/ ZEE-roh /ˌnɑːˌdɑːˌzeɪˈroʊ/ NAH-DAH-ZAY-ROH

1 One (FAA), Won (USMC) Unaone (ITU, IMO) WUN (ICAO, FAA) OO-NAH-WUN (ITU, IMO) ouann /ˈwʌn/ WUN /ˌuːˌnɑːˈwʌn/ OO-NAH-WUN

2 Two (FAA), Too (USMC) Bissotwo (ITU, IMO) TOO (ICAO, FAA) BEES-SOH-TOO (ITU, IMO) tou /ˈtuː/ TOO /ˌbiːˌsoʊˈtuː/ BEE-SOH-TOO

3 Three (FAA), Tree (USMC) Terrathree (ITU, IMO) TREE (ICAO, FAA) TAY-RAH-TREE (ITU, IMO) tri /ˈtriː/ TREE /ˌteɪˌrɑːˈtriː/ TAY-RAH-TREE

4 Four (FAA), Fo-wer (USMC) Kartefour (ITU, IMO) FOW-ER (ICAO), FOW ER (FAA) KAR-TAY-FOWER (ITU, IMO) fo eur /ˈfoʊ.ər/ FOH-ər /ˌkɑːrˌteɪˈfoʊ.ər/ KAR-TAY-FOH-ər

5 Five (FAA), Fife (USMC) Pantafive (ITU, IMO) FIFE (ICAO, FAA) PAN-TAH-FIVE (ITU, IMO) fa ïf /ˈfaɪf/ FYF /ˌpænˌtɑːˈfaɪv/ PAN-TAH-FYV

6 Six (FAA, USMC) Soxisix (ITU, IMO) SIX (ICAO, FAA) SOK-SEE-SIX (ITU, IMO) siks /ˈsɪks/ SIKS /ˌsɔːkˌsiːˈsɪks/ SOK-SEE-SIKS

7 Seven (FAA, USMC) Setteseven (ITU, IMO) SEV-EN (ICAO), SEV EN (FAA) SAY-TAY-SEVEN (ITU, IMO) sèv n /ˈsɛvɛn/ SEV-en /ˌseɪˌteɪˈsɛvɛn/ SAY-TAY-SEV-en

8 Eight (FAA), Ate (USMC) Oktoeight (ITU, IMO) AIT (ICAO, FAA) OK-TOH-AIT (ITU, IMO) eït /ˈeɪt/ AYT /ˌɔːkˌtoʊˈeɪt/ OK-TOH-AYT

9 Niner (FAA, USMC) Nine or niner (ICAO) Novenine (ITU, IMO) NIN-ER (ICAO), NIN ER (FAA) NO-VAY-NINER (ITU, IMO) naï neu /ˈnaɪnər/ NY-nər /ˌnɔːvˌeɪˈnaɪnər/ NOV-AY-NY-nər

100 Hundred
Hundred
(ICAO) HUN-dred (ICAO) hun-dred /ˈhʌndrɛd/ HUN-dred

1000 Thousand
Thousand
(ICAO) TOU-SAND (ICAO) taou zend /ˌtaʊˈsænd/ TOW-ZEND

. (decimal point) Point (FAA) Decimal (ITU, ICAO) DAY-SEE-MAL (ITU) (ICAO) dè si mal /ˌdeɪˌsiːˈmæl/ DAY-SEE-MAL

. (full stop) Stop (ITU) STOP (ITU)

/ˈstɒp/ STOP

PRONUNCIATION

Pronunciations are somewhat uncertain because the agencies, while ostensibly using the same pronunciations, give different transcriptions, which are often inconsistent from letter to letter. The ICAO
ICAO
gives a different pronunciation for IPA
IPA
transcription and for respelling, and the FAA also gives different pronunciations depending on the publication consulted, the FAA Aeronautical Information Manual (§ 4-2-7), the FAA Flight Services manual (§ 14.1.5), or the ATC manual (§ 2-4-16). ATIS gives English spellings, but does not give pronunciations or numbers. The ICAO, NATO, and FAA use modifications of English numerals, with stress on one syllable, while the ITU and IMO compound pseudo-Latinate numerals with a slightly different set of modified English numerals, and with stress on each syllable. Numbers 10–99 are spelled out (that is, 17 is "1–7" and 60 is "6–0"), while for hundreds and thousands the English words hundred and thousand are used.

The pronunciation of the digits 3, 4, 5, and 9 differs from standard English – being pronounced tree, fower, fife, and niner. The digit 3 is specified as tree so that it is not pronounced sri; the long pronunciation of 4 (still found in some English dialects) keeps it somewhat distinct from for; 5 is pronounced with a second "f" because the normal pronunciation with a "v" is easily confused with "fire" (a command to shoot); and 9 has an extra syllable to keep it distinct from German nein 'no'.

Only the ICAO
ICAO
prescribes pronunciation with the IPA
IPA
, and then only for letters. Several of the pronunciations indicated are slightly modified from their normal English pronunciations: /ˈælfɑ, ˈbrɑːˈvo, ˈʃɑːli, ˈdeltɑ, ˈfɔkstrɔt, ɡʌlf, ˈliːmɑ, ˈɔskɑ, siˈerɑ, ˈtænɡo, ˈuːnifɔrm, ˈviktɑ, ˈjænki/, partially due to the substitution of final schwas with the ah vowel; in addition, the intended distinction between the short vowels /o ɑ ɔ/ and the long vowels /oː ɑː ɔː/ is obscure, and has been ignored in the consolidated transcription above. Both the IPA
IPA
and respelled pronunciations were developed by the ICAO
ICAO
before 1956 with advice from the governments of both the United States
United States
and United Kingdom, so the pronunciations of both General American
General American
English and British Received Pronunciation
Received Pronunciation
are evident, especially in the rhotic and non-rhotic accents . The respelled version is usually at least consistent with a rhotic accent ('r' pronounced), as in CHAR LEE, SHAR LEE, NO VEM BER, YOU NEE FORM, and OO NEE FORM, whereas the IPA version usually specifies a non-rhotic accent ('r' pronounced only before a vowel), as in ˈtʃɑːli, ˈʃɑːli, noˈvembə, and ˈjuːnifɔːm. Exceptions are OSS CAH, VIK TAH and ˈuːnifɔrm. The IPA
IPA
form of Golf implies it is pronounced gulf, which is not either General American
General American
English or British Received Pronunciation. Different agencies assign different stress patterns to Bravo, Hotel, Juliett, November, Papa, X-ray; the ICAO
ICAO
has different stresses for Bravo, Juliett, X-ray in its respelled and IPA
IPA
transcriptions. The mid back vowel transcribed in Oscar and Foxtrot is actually a low vowel in both Received British and General American, and has been interpreted as such above. Furthermore, the pronunciation prescribed for "whiskey" has no initial , although some speakers in both General American
General American
and RP pronounce an (or ) here, and an initial (or ) is categorical in Scotland and Ireland.

PRIOR ALPHABETS

Military alphabets before 1956

ROYAL NAVY Western Front slang RAF radio alphabet Joint Army(Air Corps)/Navy(Marines)

1914–18 (WWI ) 1924–42 1943–56 1941–56

Apples Ack Ace Able or Affirm Able

Butter Beer Baker

Charlie

Duff Don Dog

Edward Easy

Freddy Freddie Fox

George Gee George

Harry How

Ink Item or Interrogatory Item

Johnnie Jig or Johnny Jig

King

London Love

Monkey Emma Monkey Mike

Nuts Nab or Negat Nan

Orange Oboe

Pudding Pip Peter or Prep Peter

Queenie Queen

Robert Roger

Sugar Esses Sugar

Tommy Toc Tare

Uncle

Vinegar Vic Victor

Willie William

Xerxes X-ray

Yellow Yorker Yoke

Zebra

ROYAL NAVY Western Front slang RAF 1924–42 RAF 1943–56 Joint Army/Navy

The first internationally recognized spelling alphabet was adopted by the ITU during 1927. The experience gained with that alphabet resulted in several changes being made during 1932 by the ITU. The resulting alphabet was adopted by the International Commission for Air Navigation, the predecessor of the ICAO
ICAO
, and was used for civil aviation until World War II. It continued to be used by the IMO until 1965:

Amsterdam, Baltimore, Casablanca, Denmark, Edison, Florida, Gallipoli, Havana, Italia, Jerusalem, Kilogramme, Liverpool, Madagascar, New York, Oslo, Paris, Quebec, Roma, Santiago, Tripoli, Upsala, Valencia, Washington, Xanthippe, Yokohama, Zurich

British and American armed forces had each developed their spelling alphabets before both forces adopted the ICAO
ICAO
alphabet during 1956. British forces adopted the RAF radio alphabet , which is similar to the phonetic alphabet used by the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
during World War I. At least two of the terms are sometimes still used by UK civilians to spell words over the phone, namely F for Freddie and S for Sugar.

The U.S. adopted the Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet during 1941 to standardize systems among all branches of its armed forces. The U.S. alphabet became known as Able Baker after the words for A and B. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
adapted its RAF alphabet during 1943 to be almost identical to the American Joint-Army-Navy (JAN) one.

After World War II, with many aircraft and ground personnel from the allied armed forces, "Able Baker" continued to be used for civil aviation. But many sounds were unique to English, so an alternative "Ana Brazil" alphabet was used in Latin America. But the International Air Transport Association (IATA), recognizing the need for a single universal alphabet, presented a draft alphabet to the ICAO
ICAO
during 1947 that had sounds common to English, French, Spanish and Portuguese. After further study and modification by each approving body, the revised alphabet was implemented on 1 November 1951 for civil aviation (but it may not have been adopted by any military):

Alfa, Bravo, Coca, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliett, Kilo, Lima, Metro, Nectar, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Union, Victor, Whisky, Extra, Yankee, Zulu

Problems were soon found with this list. Some users believed that they were so severe that they reverted to the old "Able Baker" alphabet. To identify the deficiencies of the new alphabet, testing was conducted among speakers from 31 nations, principally by the governments of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the United States. Confusion among words like Delta, Nectar, Victor, and Extra, or the unintelligibility of other words during poor receiving conditions were the main problems. After much study, only the five words representing the letters C, M, N, U, and X were replaced. The ICAO
ICAO
sent a recording of the new Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet to all member states in November 1955. The final version given in the table above was implemented by the ICAO
ICAO
on 1 March 1956, and the ITU adopted it no later than 1959 when they mandated its usage via their official publication, Radio Regulations. Because the ITU governs all international radio communications, it was also adopted by all radio operators, whether military, civilian, or amateur . It was finally adopted by the IMO in 1965. During 1947 the ITU adopted the compound number words (Nadazero, Unaone, etc.), later adopted by the IMO during 1965.

USAGE

A spelling alphabet is used to spell parts of a message containing letters and numbers to avoid confusion, because many letters sound similar, for instance "n" and "m" or "f" and "s"; the potential for confusion increases if static or other interference is present. For instance the message "proceed to map grid DH98" could be transmitted as "proceed to map grid Delta-Hotel-Niner-Ait". Using "Delta" instead of "D" avoids confusion between "DH98" and "BH98" or "TH98". The unusual pronunciation of certain numbers was designed to reduce confusion.

In addition to the traditional military usage, civilian industry uses the alphabet to avoid similar problems in the transmission of messages by telephone systems. For example, it is often used in the retail industry where customer or site details are spoken by telephone (to authorize a credit agreement or confirm stock codes), although ad hoc coding is often used in that instance. It has been used often by information technology workers to communicate serial/reference codes (which are often very long) or other specialised information by voice. Most major airlines use the alphabet to communicate Passenger Name Records (PNRs) internally, and in some cases, with customers. It is often used in a medical context as well, to avoid confusion when transmitting information.

Several letter codes and abbreviations using the spelling alphabet have become well-known, such as Bravo Zulu (letter code BZ) for "well done", Checkpoint Charlie
Checkpoint Charlie
(Checkpoint C) in Berlin, and Zulu Time for Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
or Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
. During the Vietnam War , the U.S. government referred to the Viet Cong
Viet Cong
guerrillas and the group itself as VC, or Victor Charlie; the name "Charlie" became synonymous with this force.

VARIANTS

AVIATION

* "Delta" is replaced by "Data", "Dixie" or "David" at airports that have a majority of Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines
flights, such as Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport , in order to avoid confusion because "Delta" is also Delta's callsign.

TELEGRAMS

* As early as 1928, the U.S. public was taught to use the following list when composing telegrams:

Adam, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Edward, Frank, George, Henry, Ida, John, King, Lincoln, Mary, New York, Ocean, Peter, Queen, Roger, Sugar, Thomas, Union, , William, X-Ray, Young, Zero

OTHER

Many unofficial spelling alphabets are in use that are not based on a standard, but are based on words the transmitter can remember easily, including first names , states, or cities. The LAPD phonetic alphabet has many first names. The German spelling alphabet ("Deutsches Funkalphabet" (literally "German Radio Alphabet")) also uses first names. Also, during the Vietnam war, soldiers used 'Cain' instead of 'Charlie' because 'Charlie' meant Viet Cong
Viet Cong
(Charlie being short for Victor Charlie, the NATO
NATO
alphabet spelling of the initials VC).

ADDITIONS IN OTHER LANGUAGES

Certain languages' standard alphabets have letters, or letters with diacritics (e.g., umlauts , rings , tildes ), that do not exist in the English alphabet. If these letters have two-letter ASCII
ASCII
substitutes, the ICAO/ NATO
NATO
code words for the two letters are used.

SPANISH

In Spanish the word "Ñoño" (dull) is used for ñ .

GERMAN AND SWEDISH

In German , Alfa-Echo (ae) may be used for "ä ", Oscar-Echo (oe) for "ö ", Sierra-Sierra (ss) for " ß
ß
", and Uniform-Echo (ue) for "ü ". The same applies to "ä " and "ö " in Swedish , though Ärlig and Östen, from the Swedish spelling alphabet, are also used; similarly, Åke may be used for "å ".

DANISH AND NORWEGIAN

In Danish and Norwegian the letters "æ ", "ø " and "å " have their own code words. In Danish Ægir, Ødis and Åse represent the three letters, while in Norwegian the three code words are Ægir, Ørnulf and Ågot for civilians and Ærlig, Østen and Åse for military personnel.

CZECH

Czech "ů ", historically uo, is Uniform-Oscar (uo).

FINNISH

In Finnish there are special code words for the letters å, ä and ö. Åke is used to represent å, Äiti is used for ä and Öljy for ö. These code words are used only in national operations, the last remnants of the Finnish radio alphabet .

ESTONIAN

Estonian has 4 special letters, õ, ä, ö and ü. Õnne represents õ, Ärni for ä, Ööbik for ö and Ülle for ü.

MALAY

Malay replaces letter "L" with "London", since the word "Lima" in Malay means number 5 (five).

SEE ALSO

* Greek spelling alphabet * International Code of Signals
International Code of Signals
(includes flag representations) * LAPD phonetic alphabet * List of military time zones * PGP word list * Procedure word * Q code * Russian spelling alphabet * Spelling alphabet * Ten-code * Voice procedure

REFERENCES

* ^ http://www.icao.int/Pages/AlphabetRadiotelephony.aspx * ^ Spelling out words Accessed 20 July 2015 * ^ International Code of Signals, United States
United States
Edition, 1969 Edition (Revised 2003), Chapter 1, pages 18–19, 148. * ^ "Globalization and Sea Power". Isn.ethz.ch. Retrieved 2014-08-11. * ^ Communication instructions – General, Allied Communications Publication ACP 121(H), Combined Communications-Electronics Board, April 2007, section 318 * ^ "The postal History of the ICAO". ICAO. Retrieved 2 July 2016. * ^ "Alphabet – Radiotelephony". ICAO. Retrieved 29 August 2012. * ^ A B "Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions ATIS-0100523.2011, ATIS Telecom Glossary 2011". Atis.org. Retrieved 22 August 2010. * ^ A B C Pamphlet included in the 1955 ICAO
ICAO
phonograph recording, viewable at The Postal History of ICAO, Annex 10 – Aeronautical Telecommunications * ^ A B C D E International Civil Aviation Organization, Aeronautical Telecommunications: Annex 10 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, Volume II (Fifth edition, 1995), Chapter 5, 38–40. * ^ "Military phonetic alphabet by US Army". Army.com. 2014-03-14. Retrieved 2014-08-11. * ^ A B "ITU Phonetic Alphabet and Figure Code". Life.itu.ch. Retrieved 22 August 2010. * ^ A B " ICAO
ICAO
Phonetics in the FAA ATC Manual, §2-4-16". Federal Aviation Administration . 11 February 2010. Retrieved 22 August 2010. * ^ A B "Phonetic alphabet in the \'\'FAA Aeronautical Information Manual\'\', §4-2-7". Faa.gov. Retrieved 2014-08-11. * ^ A B Service de l'Information Aéronautique, Radiotéléphonie, 2nd edition, 2006 * ^ A B The audio recording, available on airwaysmuseum.com does not follow the details of the ICAO
ICAO
transcription. Apart from the dual pronunciations of Charlie and Uniform, the speaker uses the normal English pronunciations of the code words. * ^ The ITU and ICAO
ICAO
(romanized) transcribe this as /nɔːˈvɛmbər/ naw-VEM-bər , presumably an error. * ^ "RP 0506 – Field Communication" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-08-11. * ^ The pronunciation "fife" is required. Failure to use this pronunciation has resulted in '5' being misheard as '9'. (McMillan, 1998, "Miscommunications in Air Traffic Control") * ^ Transcribed as if it were /ˈnɪnər/ NIN-ər , but this pronunciation is never used. * ^ Transcribed as if it rhymed with sand, but this pronunciation is never used. * ^ " ICAO
ICAO
phonetic alphabet by Canada". Tc.gc.ca. 20 May 2010. Retrieved 22 August 2010. * ^ A B C D L.J. Rose, "Aviation's ABC: The development of the ICAO spelling alphabet", ICAO
ICAO
Bulletin 11/2 (1956) 12–14. * ^ International Telecommunication Union, "Appendix 16: Phonetic Alphabet and Figure Code", Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1959) 430–431. * ^ "Where does the term "Bravo Zulu" originate?". 6 March 2005. Archived from the original on 6 March 2005. Retrieved 22 August 2010. * ^ Civil Aviation Authority, "Aircraft Call Sign Confusion Evaluation Safety Study", April 2000 * ^ "How to Write Telegrams Properly". * ^ "Sambandsregelmente för Försvarsmakten, Telefoni – HKV 12800: 70799" dated 26 June 2006. * ^ "Svenska bokstaveringsalfabetet" (in Swedish). Retrieved 30 December 2016. * ^ "Det fonetiske alfabet". Glemsom.dk. Retrieved 2014-08-11. * ^ "Internasjonalt alfabet for radiokommunikasjon". Aktivioslo.no. 2013-01-24. Retrieved 2014-08-11. * ^ Sotilaan käsikirja 2013 (PDF). Puolustusvoimat. 2013. p. 205. ISBN 978-951-25-2463-1 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Look up ICAO
ICAO
SPELLING ALPHABET in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

* Public ICAO
ICAO
site * " NATO
NATO
Declassified - The NATO
NATO
Phonetic Alphabet". North Atlantic Treaty Org

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