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Vital Cuinet's 1896 map of Syria, including the "Mutessariflik de Jerusalem"

Capital Jerusalem

History

 •  Established 1872

 •  British conquest 1917

Area

 •  1862[2] 12,486 km2 (4,821 sq mi)

Population

 •  1897[1] 298,653 

Today part of  Egypt  Israel  Jordan  Palestine

The Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Ottoman Turkish: Kudüs-i Şerif Mutasarrıflığı‎; Arabic: متصرفية القدس الشريف‎), also known as the Sanjak of Jerusalem, was an Ottoman district with special administrative status established in 1872.[3][4][5] The district encompassed Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as well as Bethlehem, Hebron, Jaffa, Gaza and Beersheba.[6] During the late Ottoman period, the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem, together with the Sanjak of Nablus
Sanjak of Nablus
and Sanjak of Akka (Acre), formed the region that was commonly referred to as "Southern Syria"[7] or "Palestine".[3][nb 1] The district was separated from Damascus and placed directly under Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1841,[4] and formally created as an independent province in 1872 by Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
Mahmud Nedim Pasha.[4] Scholars provide a variety of reasons for the separation, including increased European interest in the region, and strengthening of the southern border of the Empire against the Khedivate of Egypt.[4] Initially, the Mutasarrifate of Acre and Mutasarrifate of Nablus were combined with the province of Jerusalem, with the combined province being referred to in the register of the court of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as the "Jerusalem Eyalet",[8] and referred to by the British consul as creation of "Palestine into a separate eyalet".[9] However, after less than two months,[9] the sanjaks of Nablus and Acre were separated and added to the Vilayet
Vilayet
of Beirut, leaving just the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem.[10] In 1906, the Kaza of Nazareth was added to the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Mutasarrifate, as an exclave,[11] primarily in order to allow the issuance of a single tourist permit to Christian travellers.[12] The area was conquered by the Allied Forces in 1917 during World War I[6] and a military Occupied Enemy Territory Administration (OETA South) set up to replace the Ottoman administration. OETA South consisted of the Ottoman sanjaks of Jerusalem, Nablus and Acre. The military administration was replaced by a British civilian administration in 1920 and the area of OETA South was incorporated into the British Mandate of Palestine
British Mandate of Palestine
in 1923. The political status of the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was unique to other Ottoman province since it came under the direct authority of the Ottoman capital Constantinople.[5] The inhabitants identified themselves primarily on religious terms.[7] The district's villages were normally inhabited by farmers while its towns were populated by merchants, artisans, landowners and money-lenders. The elite consisted of the religious leadership, wealthy landlords and high-ranking civil servants.[7]

Contents

1 History 2 Boundaries 3 Administrative divisions 4 Mutasarrıfs of Jerusalem

4.1 Pre-separation from Damascus 4.2 Post-separation from Damascus 4.3 Post Young Turk Revolution

5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Bibliography

History In 1841, the district was separated from Damascus and placed directly under Constantinople
Constantinople
[4] and formally created as an independent Mutasarrifate in 1872. Before 1872, the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was officially a sanjak within the Syria Vilayet
Syria Vilayet
(created in 1864, following the Tanzimat
Tanzimat
reforms). The southern border of the Mutasarifate of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was redrawn in 1906, at the instigation of the British, who were interested in safeguarding their imperial interests and in making the border as short and patrollable as possible.[13] Towards the end of the 19th century, the idea that the region of Palestine or the Mutasarifate of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
formed a separate political entity became widespread among the district's educated Arab classes. In 1904, former Jerusalem
Jerusalem
official Najib Azuri formed in Paris, France the Ligue de la Patrie Arabe ("Arab Fatherland League") whose goal was to free Ottoman Syria
Ottoman Syria
and Iraq from Turkish domination. In 1908, Azuri proposed the elevation of the mutassarifate to the status of vilayet to the Ottoman Parliament[5] after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution. The area was conquered by the Allied Forces in 1917 during World War I[6] and a military Occupied Enemy Territory Administration
Occupied Enemy Territory Administration
(OETA South) set up to replace the Ottoman administration. OETA South consisted of the Ottoman sanjaks of Jerusalem, Nablus and Acre. The military administration was replaced by a British civilian administration in 1920 and the area of OETA South became the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine
British Mandate of Palestine
in 1923, with some border adjustments with Lebanon and Syria. Boundaries Below are six contemporary Ottoman maps showing the "Quds Al-Sharif Sancağı" or "Quds Al-Sharif Mutasarrıflığı". The fourth map shows the 1860 borders between Ottoman Syria
Ottoman Syria
and the Khedivate of Egypt, although the border was moved to the current Israel-Egypt border in 1906, and the area north of the Negev Desert
Negev Desert
is labelled "Filastin" (Palestine).

1883

1893

1889

c.1900

1907

1907

1912-13

The division was bounded on the west by the Mediterranean, on the east by the River Jordan
Jordan
and the Dead Sea, on the north by a line from the mouth of the river Auja to the bridge over the Jordan
Jordan
near Jericho, and on the south by a line from midway between Gaza and Arish
Arish
to Aqaba.[14]

Administrative divisions Administrative divisions of the Mutasarrifate (1872-1909):

Beersheba
Beersheba
Kaza (Ottoman Turkish: قضا بءرالسبع‎; Turkish: Birüsseb' kazası; Arabic: قضاء بئر السبع‎), which included two sub-districts and a municipality:

a-Hafir (Ottoman Turkish: ناحيه حفير‎; Turkish: Hafır nahiyesı; Arabic: ناحية عوجة الحفير‎), created in 1908 as a middle point between Beersheba
Beersheba
and Aqaba, close to the newly agreed border with Sinai[15] al-Mulayha, created in 1908 as a midway point between Hafir and Aqaba[15] Beersheba
Beersheba
(Ottoman Turkish: بلدية بءرالسبع‎; Turkish: Birüsseb' belediyesı; Arabic: بلدية بئر السبع‎), created in 1901

Gaza Kaza (Ottoman Turkish: قضا غزّه‎; Turkish: Gazze kazası; Arabic: قضاء غزة‎), which included three sub-districts and a municipality:

Al-Faluja
Al-Faluja
(Ottoman Turkish: ناحيه فلوجه‎; Turkish: Felluce nahiyesı; Arabic: ناحية الفالوجة‎), created in 1903 Khan Yunis
Khan Yunis
(Ottoman Turkish: ناحيه خان يونس‎; Turkish: Hanyunus nahiyesı; Arabic: ناحية خان يونس‎), created in 1903 and became a municipality in 1917 al-Majdal (Ottoman Turkish: ... ناحيه‎; Turkish: Mücdel nahiyesı; Arabic: ناحية المجدل‎), created in 1880 Gaza (Ottoman Turkish: بلدية غزّه‎; Turkish: Gazze belediyesı; Arabic: بلدية غزة‎), created in 1893

Hebron
Hebron
Kaza (Ottoman Turkish: قضا خليل الرحمن‎; Turkish: Halilü'r Rahman kazası; Arabic: قضاء الخليل‎), which included two sub-districts and a municipality:

Bayt 'Itab
Bayt 'Itab
(Ottoman Turkish: ناحيه بيت اعطاب‎; Turkish: Beyt-i a'tâb nahiyesı; Arabic: ناحية بيت عطاب‎), created in 1903 Bayt Jibrin
Bayt Jibrin
(Ottoman Turkish: ناحيه بيت جبرين‎; Turkish: Beyt-i Cireyn nahiyesı; Arabic: ناحية بيت جبرين‎), created in 1903 Hebron
Hebron
(Ottoman Turkish: بلدية خليل الرحمن‎; Turkish: Halilü'r Rahman belediyesı; Arabic: بلدية الخليل‎), created in 1886

Jaffa
Jaffa
Kaza (Ottoman Turkish: قضا يافه‎; Turkish: Yafa kazası; Arabic: قضاء يَافَا‎), which included two sub-districts and a municipality:

Ni'lin
Ni'lin
(Ottoman Turkish: ناحيه نعلين‎; Turkish: Na’leyn nahiyesı; Arabic: ناحية نعلين‎), created in 1903 Ramla
Ramla
(Ottoman Turkish: ناحيه رمله‎; Turkish: Remle nahiyesı; Arabic: ناحية الرملة‎), created in 1880, became municipality before 1888 and re-established as sub-district in 1889 Lydda (Ottoman Turkish: ... بلدية‎; Turkish: Lod
Lod
belediyesı; Arabic: ... بلدية‎)

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Kaza (Ottoman Turkish: قضا قدس‎; Turkish: Kudüs-i Şerif kazası; Arabic: قضاء القدس الشريف‎), which included four sub-districts and two municipalities:

Abwein
Abwein
(Ottoman Turkish: ... ناحيه‎; Turkish: Abaveyn nahiyesı; Arabic: ناحية عبوين‎), created in 1903; Bethlehem
Bethlehem
(Ottoman Turkish: ناحيه بيت اللحم‎; Turkish: Beytü'l lahim nahiyesı; Arabic: ناحية بيت لحم‎), created in 1883 and became a municipality in 1894; Ramallah
Ramallah
(Ottoman Turkish: ناحيه رام الله‎; Turkish: Ramallah
Ramallah
nahiyesı; Arabic: ناحية رام الله‎), created in 1903 and became a municipality in 1911, Saffa (Ottoman Turkish: ناحيه صفا‎; Turkish: Safa nahiyesı; Arabic: ناحية صفّا‎), Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Ottoman Turkish: بلدية قدس‎; Turkish: Kudüs-i Şerif belediyesı; Arabic: بلدية القدس الشريف‎), created in 1867 and Beit Jala
Beit Jala
(Ottoman Turkish: ... بلدية‎; Turkish: ... belediyesı; Arabic: بلدية بيت جالا‎), created in 1912.

Nazareth Kaza (Ottoman Turkish: قضا الْنَاصِرَة‎; Turkish: Nasra kazası; Arabic: قضاء الْنَاصِرَة‎), established 1906.

Mutasarrıfs of Jerusalem The Mutasarrıfs of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
were appointed by the Porte to govern the district. They were usually experienced civil servants who spoke little or no Arabic, but knew a European language - most commonly French - in addition to Ottoman Turkish.[16] Pre-separation from Damascus

Sureyya Pasha 1857–63 Izzet Pasha 1864–67 Nazif Pasha 1867–69 Kamil Pasha 1869–71 Ali Bey 1871–72

Post-separation from Damascus

Nazif Pasha (same as above) 1872–73 Kamil Pasha (same as above) 1873–75 Ali Bey (same as above) 1874–76 Faik Bey 1876–77 Şerif Mehmed Rauf Paşa (tr) 1877–89 Resad Pasha 1889–90 Ibrahim Hakki Pasha
Ibrahim Hakki Pasha
1890–97 Mehmet Tevfik Biren (fr) 1897–01 Mehmet Cavit Bey
Mehmet Cavit Bey
1901–02 Osman Kazim Bey 1902–04 Ahmed Resid Bey 1904–06 Ali Ekrem Bolayır (tr) 1906–08

Post Young Turk Revolution List of mutasarrıfs after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution:

Subhi Bey 1908–09 Nazim Bey 1909–10 Azmi Bey 1910–11 Cevdet Bey 1911–12 Muhdi Bey 1912 Tahir Hayreddin Bey 1912–13 Ahmed Macid Bey 1913–15

See also

Ottoman Syria History of Jerusalem Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate Timeline of the name "Palestine"

Notes

^ The 1915 Filastin Risalesi ("Palestine Document") is a country survey of the VIII Corps of the Ottoman Army, which identified Palestine as a region including the sanjaqs of Akka (the Galilee), the Sanjaq of Nablus, and the Sanjaq of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Kudus Sherif), see Ottoman Conceptions of Palestine-Part 2: Ethnography and Cartography, Salim Tamari

References

^ Mutlu, Servet. "Late Ottoman population and its ethnic distribution" (PDF). pp. 29–31.  Corrected population for Mortality Level=8. ^ The Popular encyclopedia: or, conversations lexicon. Blackie. 1862. p. 698. Retrieved 2013-06-01.  ^ a b Büssow, Johann (2011-08-11). Hamidian Palestine: Politics and Society in the District of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
1872-1908. BRILL. p. 5. ISBN 978-90-04-20569-7. Retrieved 2013-05-17.  ^ a b c d e Abu-Manneh 1999, p. 36. ^ a b c James P. Jankowski; Israel
Israel
Gershoni (January 1997). Rethinking Nationalism in the Arab Middle East. Columbia University Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-231-10695-5. Retrieved 2013-06-29.  ^ a b c Adel Beshara (2012-04-23). "The Name of Syria in Ancient and Modern Usage". The Origins of Syrian Nationhood: Histories, Pioneers and Identity. CRC Press. pp. 56–59. ISBN 978-1-136-72450-3. Retrieved 2013-06-29.  ^ a b c Hasan Afif El-Hasan (2010). Israel
Israel
Or Palestine? Is the Two-state Solution Already Dead?. Algora Publishing. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-87586-793-9. Retrieved 2013-06-29.  ^ Abu-Manneh 1999, p. 43. ^ a b Abu-Manneh 1999, p. 39. ^ Büssow, Johann (2011-08-11). Hamidian Palestine: Politics and Society in the District of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
1872-1908. BRILL. pp. 41–44. ISBN 978-90-04-20569-7. Retrieved 2013-05-17.  ^ Rût Kark (1994). American Consuls in the Holy Land: 1832 - 1914. Wayne State University Press. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-8143-2523-0. Retrieved 2013-05-17.  ^ Büssow, Johann (2011-08-11). Hamidian Palestine: Politics and Society in the District of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
1872-1908. BRILL. p. 70. ISBN 978-90-04-20569-7. Retrieved 2013-05-17.  ^ Gardus, Yehuda; Shmueli, Avshalom, eds. (1978–79). [The Land of the Negev] (in Hebrew). Ministry of Defense Publishing. , pp. 369–370 ^ Abu-Manneh 1999, p. 43–44. ^ a b David Kushner (2005). To be governor of Jerusalem: the city and district during the time of Ali Ekrem Bey, 1906-1908. Isis Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-975-428-310-5.  ^ Kushner, David (July 1987). "The Ottoman Governors of Palestine, 1864-1914". Middle Eastern Studies. 23 (3): 274–290. doi:10.1080/00263208708700707. JSTOR 4283185. 

Bibliography

Abu-Manneh, Butrus (1999). "The Rise of the Sanjak of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the Late Nineteenth Century". In Ilan Pappé. The Israel/Palestine Question. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-16948-6. Retrieved 2013-06-28. 

v t e

Administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire

c. 1365 – 1867 (eyalets)

Africa

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Muhammad Ali dynasty (1805-67

Habesh Tripolitania Tunis

Anatolia

Adana Aidin Anatolia Ankara Childir Diyarbekir Dulkadir Erzurum Hüdavendigâr Karaman Kars Kastamonu Rum Trebizond Van

Europe

Adrianople Archipelago Bosnia Budin Crete Egir Herzegovina Kanije Kefe Morea Niš Podolia Rumelia Salonica Silistra Temeşvar Uyvar Varat Widdin Yanina

Middle East

Aleppo Baghdad Basra Cyprus Damascus Lahsa Mosul Rakka Shahrizor Sidon Tripoli Yemen

1867–1922 (vilayets and mutasarrıfates)

Africa

Tripolitania

Anatolia

Adana Aidin Ankara Archipelago Bitlis Diyarbekir Erzurum Hüdavendigâr Kastamonu Konya Mamuret-ul-Aziz Sivas Trebizond Van

Europe

Adrianople Bosnia Constantinople Crete Danube Janina Kosovo Manastir Salonica Scutari

Middle East

Aleppo Baghdad Basra Beirut Hejaz Jerusalem Mosul Mount Lebanon Syria Yemen

Vassals and autonomies

Vassals

Cossack Hetmanate

Ottoman Ukraine

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Autonomies

Cretan State Khedivate of Egypt Eastern Rumelia Principality of Samos

See also the list of short-lived

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