Murmansk (Russian: Му́рманск, IPA: [ˈmurmənsk]; Kildin
Sami: Мурман ланнҍ; Northern Sami: Murmánska; Skolt Sami:
Muurman) is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk
Oblast in the far northwest part of Russia. It sits on both slopes and
banks of a modest ria or fjord, Kola Bay, an estuarine inlet of the
Barents Sea. Its bulk is on the east bank of the inlet. It is in the
north of the rounded
Kola Peninsula which covers most of the Oblast
(semi-autonomous region). The city is 67 miles (108 km) from the
Norway and 113 miles (182 km) from the Finnish
border. The city is named for the Murman Coast; an archaic term in
Russian for Norwegian.
Benefitting from the Gulf Stream,
Murmansk resembles cities of its
size across western Russia, with highway and railway access to the
rest of Europe, and the northernmost trolleybus system on Earth. Its
northern latitude of 68°58'N makes
Murmansk 2° north of the Arctic
Circle at approximately 66°33'N. Its connectivity contrasts to the
isolation of Arctic ports Dikson and
Krasnoyarsk Krai in
the shores of the
Kara Sea and Iqaluit,
Canada on Baffin
Frobisher Bay off the Labrador Sea. Having long, snowy
winters, Murmansk's climate is moderated by the generally ice-free
waters around it.
Although there was a building boom in the early twentieth century's
arms races, Murmansk's population has been in a slow reversal since
the Cold War; from 468,039 (1989 Census); 336,137 (2002
Census); 307,257 (2010 Census); to 299,148 (as at 2014
estimates). Still, it remains by far the largest city north of the
Arctic Circle and is a major port on the Arctic Ocean.
3 Administrative and municipal status
3.1 City divisions
9.2.1 Arctic Bridge
11 Twin towns and sister cities
12 Notable people
14 External links
Aerial view of Murmansk, 1936
Murmansk was the last city founded in the Russian Empire. In 1915,
World War I
World War I needs led to the construction of the railroad from
Petrozavodsk to an ice-free location on the
Murman Coast in the
Russian Arctic, to which Russia's allies shipped military supplies.
The terminus became known as the Murman station and soon boasted a
port, a naval base, and an adjacent settlement with a population that
quickly grew in size and soon surpassed the nearby towns of
Alexandrovsk and Kola.
On June 29 [O.S. July 12], 1916, Russian Transport Minister
Alexander Trepov petitioned to grant urban status to the railway
settlement. On July 6 [O.S. July 19], 1916, the petition
was approved and the town was named Romanov-on-Murman
(Рома́нов-на-Му́рмане, Romanov-na-Murmane), after
the imperial Russian dynasty of Romanovs. On September 21
[O.S. October 4], 1916, the official ceremony was performed,
and the date is now considered the official date of the city's
foundation. After the
February Revolution of 1917, on April 3
[O.S. April 16], 1917, the town was given its present name.
HMS Glory, flagship of the British North
Russia Squadron in Murmansk
in the First World War
In the winter of 1917 the British North
Russia Squadron under Rear
Admiral Thomas Kemp was established at Murmansk.
From 1918 to 1920, during the Russian Civil War, the town was occupied
by the Western powers, who had been allied in World War I, and by the
White Army forces.
On February 13, 1926, local self-government was organized in
Murmansk for the first time, during a plenary session of the Murmansk
City Soviet, which elected a Presidium. Before this, the city was
governed by the authorities of
Alexandrovsky Uyezd and later of
Murmansk Governorate. On August 1, 1927, the All-Russian
Central Executive Committee (VTsIK) issued two resolutions: "On the
Establishment of Leningrad Oblast" and "On the Borders and Composition
of the Okrugs of Leningrad Oblast", which transformed Murmansk
Murmansk Okrug within
Leningrad Oblast and made
Murmansk the administrative center of
In 1934, the
Murmansk Okrug Executive Committee developed a
redistricting proposal, which included a plan to enlarge the city by
merging the surrounding territories in the north, south, and west into
Murmansk. While this plan was not confirmed by the Leningrad
Oblast Executive Committee, in 1935–1937 several rural localities of
Kolsky and Polyarny Districts were merged into
According to the Presidium of the
Leningrad Oblast Executive Committee
resolution of February 26, 1935, the administrative center of
Polyarny District was moved from Polyarnoye to Sayda-Guba.
However, the provisions of the resolution were not fully implemented,
and due to military construction in Polyarnoye, the administrative
center was instead moved to
Murmansk in the beginning of 1935. In
addition to being the administrative center of
Murmansk continued to serve as the administrative center of Polyarny
District until September 11, 1938. On February 10, 1938,
when the VTsIK adopted a Resolution changing the
administrative-territorial structure of
Murmansk Okrug, the city of
Murmansk became a separate administrative division of the okrug, equal
in status to that of the districts. This status was retained when
Murmansk Okrug was transformed into
Murmansk Oblast on May 28,
During World War II,
Murmansk was a link to the Western world for the
Soviet Union with large quantities of goods important to the
respective military efforts traded with the Allies: primarily
manufactured goods and raw materials into the Soviet Union. The
supplies were brought to the city in the Arctic convoys.
German forces in Finnish territory launched an offensive against the
city in 1941 as part of Operation Silver Fox.
extensive destruction, the magnitude of which was rivaled only by the
destruction of Leningrad and Stalingrad. However, fierce
Soviet resistance and harsh local weather conditions with the bad
terrain prevented the Germans from capturing the city and cutting off
the vital Karelian railway line and the ice-free harbor.
For the rest of the war,
Murmansk served as a transit point for
weapons and other supplies entering the
Soviet Union from other Allied
nations. This unyielding, stoic resistance was commemorated at the
40th anniversary of the victory over the Germans in the formal
Murmansk as a
Hero City on May 6, 1985. During
Murmansk was a center of Soviet submarine and icebreaker
activity. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the nearby city
and naval base of
Severomorsk remains the headquarters of the Russian
In 1974, a massive 35.5-meter (116 ft) tall statue Alyosha,
depicting a Russian
World War II
World War II soldier, was installed on a 7-meter
(23 ft) high foundation. In 1984, the Hotel Arctic, now known
as Azimut Hotel Murmansk, opened and became the tallest building above
the Arctic Circle.
On January 1, 2015, the territory of
Murmansk was expanded, when
the urban-type settlement of Roslyakovo, previously in jurisdiction of
the closed administrative-territorial formation of Severomorsk, was
abolished and its territory merged into Murmansk.
Murmansk features a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc), with long and
cold winters and short, cool summers. In the city, freezing
temperatures are routinely experienced from October to May. Average
temperatures exceed 0 degrees Celsius only from May through October.
The average low during the coldest part of the year in
approximately −14 °C (7 °F). However, temperatures
routinely plunge below −20 °C (−4 °F) during the
Murmansk's brief summer is mild, with average highs in July exceeding
+17 °C (63 °F). The city is slightly wetter during the
summer than the winter and receives an annual average of just under
500 mm (20 in) of precipitation.
The "midnight sun" is above the horizon from 22 May to 23 July (63
days), and the period with continuous darkness lasts a bit shorter,
polar night from 2 December to 10 January (40 days).
Climate data for Murmansk
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average rainy days
Average snowy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net
Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)
Administrative and municipal status
Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated
as the City of Murmansk—an administrative unit with the status equal
to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the City of
Murmansk is incorporated as
Murmansk Urban Okrug.
As of 2012[update], the city is divided into three administrative
City districts were established in
Murmansk for the first time by the
Decree of the
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR of
April 20, 1939; at the time, three city districts (Kirovsky,
Leninsky, and Mikoyanovsky) were created. They were abolished on
June 2, 1948. The same city districts were created for the
second time on June 23, 1951.
Mikoyanovsky City District was renamed Oktyabrsky on October 30,
1957, but on September 30, 1958, all three city districts were
again abolished. On June 10, 1967, two city districts were
created (Leninsky and Oktyabrsky); Pervomaysky City District was split
from Oktyabrsky on February 21, 1975. In the Charter of the
Hero City of Murmansk, adopted on December 17, 1995, the
districts started to be referred to as administrative okrugs.
The population of the city, according to the 2010 Census, was 307,257,
down from 468,039 recorded in the 1989 Census. Ethnic
Russians make up
the majority of the population, but Ukrainian and Belarusian
minorities also live in the city.
In November 2010 direct mayoral election was abolished, and
re-instituted in January 2014, with the most recent elections for
mayor and city council taking place in September 2014.
Murmansk has two main (and several small) museums:
Murmansk Oblast Art Museum. There are three professional
theaters, libraries, and an aquarium in Murmansk.
The city's association football team, FC Sever Murmansk, played in the
Russian Second Division until 2014 when it folded due to financial
Bandy club Murman has played in the Russian
Bandy Super League,
last in 2011–2012. Since then they have been playing in the second
Bandy Supreme League. Their home arena Stadium Stroitel
has an audience capacity of 5 000.
The city is one of only three places with representation in the female
league, through the team Arktika.
To commemorate the 85th anniversary of the city's foundation, the
snow-white church of the Savior-on-the-Waters was modeled after the
White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal
White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal and built on the shore for the
sailors of Murmansk.
Murmansk's evening newspaper is Vecherniy Murmansk, published since
Murmansk central rail station, in the city center near Five Corners
The port of
Murmansk remains ice-free year round due to the warm North
Atlantic Current and is an important fishing and shipping destination.
It is home port to Atomflot, the world's only fleet of nuclear-powered
Port of Murmansk is the headquarters of Sevmorput (Northern Sea
Route) and the administration of Russian Arctic maritime transport.
Murmansk is linked by the
Kirov Railway to St. Petersburg and is
linked to the rest of
Russia by the M18 Kola Motorway. Murmansk
Airport provides air links to
Moscow and St. Petersburg, as well
as an international connection to Tromsø, Norway.
Buses and trolleybuses provide local transport.
Trolley Ziu-682 with Azimut Hotel
Murmansk in the background
Murmansk is set to be the Russian terminus of the Arctic Bridge, a sea
route linking it to the Canadian port of Churchill, Manitoba. Even
though the passage has not been fully tested for commercial shipping
yet, Russian interest in this project (along with the Northwest
Passage) is substantial, as the bridge will serve as a major trade
route between North America,
Europe and Asia.
Murmansk is home to
Murmansk State Technical University, the Murmansk
State Humanities University (formerly
Murmansk State Pedagogical
Murmansk Institute of Humanities and the Murmansk
College of Arts (the only Art School of the Kola Peninsula,
formerly the '
Murmansk Music School'). The city has 86 primary schools
and 56 secondary schools, two boarding schools, and three reform
Twin towns and sister cities
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Murmansk is twinned or has sister city relationships with:
United States (1975)
Nikita Alexeev, ice hockey player
Aleksey Goman, pop singer
Valentina Gunina, chess grandmaster
Irina Kovalenko, supermodel and Miss
Vladimir Konstantinov, ice hockey player
Larisa Kruglova, sprinter
Sergey Kuryokhin, actor and musician
Irina Malgina, triathlete
Yevgeny Nikitin, opera singer
Sergei Rozhkov, biathlete
Alexei Semenov, ice hockey player
Zlata Ognevich, Ukrainian singer
Vitaly Zdorovetskiy, YouTube personality, prankster
Kate Grigorieva, supermodel
^ a b c d e f Law #96-01-ZMO
^ Stepanova, Anna (September 29, 2017). "День города в
Мурманске 2017: программа праздника и
перекрытия дорог". Komsomolskaya Pravda. Retrieved
November 20, 2017.
^ a b c Law #531-01-ZMO
^ a b
Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011).
"Всероссийская перепись населения 2010
года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census,
vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись
населения 2010 года (2010 All-
Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June
^ a b Численность населения Российской
Федерации по муниципальным
образованиям на 1 января 2014 года
^ Правительство Российской
закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об
исчислении времени», в ред.
Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03
июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в
Федеральный закон "Об исчислении
времени"». Вступил в силу по
истечении шестидесяти дней после дня
официального опубликования (6 августа
2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская
газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian
Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31,
2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ
of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating
Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the
^ a b c d e f g h Administrative-Territorial Division of Murmansk
Oblast, p. 24
Murmansk post office
^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись
населения 1989 г. Численность
наличного населения союзных и
автономных республик, автономных
областей и округов, краёв, областей,
районов, городских поселений и
сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989:
Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous
Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and
Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers].
Всесоюзная перепись населения
1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian).
Институт демографии Национального
Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at
the National Research University: Higher School of Economics].
Retrieved August 9, 2014.
Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004).
"Численность населения России,
субъектов Российской Федерации в
составе федеральных округов, районов,
городских поселений, сельских
населённых пунктов – районных
центров и сельских населённых пунктов
с населением 3 тысячи и более
человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal
Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural
Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with
Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская
перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia
Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9,
^ "Top 10 largest cities within the Arctic Circle".
Moscow Times. It's Always Colder in Murmansk, May 20, 2012
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Administrative-Territorial Division of
Murmansk Oblast, pp. 60–63
^ Clifford Kinvig (November 23, 2007), Churchill's Crusade, Hambledon
& London, ISBN 9781847250216, OCLC 747256147,
^ "Bolshevik, North Russian, Royal Navy, Expeditionary Force,
Archangel, Dvina River". Naval-history.net. Retrieved
^ a b Administrative-Territorial Division of
^ Мурманску исполняется 90 лет(in Russian)
^ Газета «Вечерний Мурманск» Выпуск №
93 от 28 мая 2005 (in Russian)
^ "Nature Administrative-territorial system". 2004.murman.ru.
1916-10-04. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
^ Law #1812-01-ZMO
^ "Климат Мурманска" [The Climate of Murmansk]. Weather
and Climate (Погода и климат) (in Russian). Retrieved
August 31, 2016.
Murmansk Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved February 12, 2016.
^ Charter of Murmansk, Article 3.1
^ Выборы мэра Мурманска пройдут 14
сентября Archived February 1, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Google Translate". translate.google.com. Retrieved
^ "Google Translate". Translate.google.se. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
^ «Арктика» Мурманск (жен.)
^ see photograph)
Atomflot – Bellona". Bellona. Archived from the original on July
16, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2010.
^ "Chinese goods may come to US via Murmansk". Barentsnova.
2014-08-18. Archived from the original on 2014-09-12.
^ "Мурманский колледж искусств" [Murmansk
College of Arts]. mki-51.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2017-07-03.
^ "Groningen – Partner Cities". © 2008 Gemeente Groningen,
Kreupelstraat 1,9712 HW Groningen. Archived from the original on
September 26, 2007. Retrieved December 8, 2008.
^ "Kontakty partnerskie Miasta Szczecin". Urząd Miasta
Polish). Archived from the original on August 18, 2012. Retrieved July
^ Мурманск и Харбин стали побратимами
Дума. Закон №96-01-ЗМО от 6
января 1998 г. «Об
устройстве Мурманской области», в ред.
Закона №1953-01-ЗМО от 24 декабря 2015
г. «О внесении изменений в Закон
Мурманской области "Об
устройстве Мурманской области"».
Опубликован: "Мурманский Вестник", №10,
стр. 3, 16 января 1998 г. (
Duma. Law #96-01-ZMO of January 6, 1998 On
the Administrative-Territorial Structure of
Murmansk Oblast, as
amended by the Law #1953-01-ZMO of December 24, 2015 On
Amending the Law of
Murmansk Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial
Murmansk Oblast". ).
Дума. Закон №531-01-ЗМО от 2
декабря 2004 г. «О статусе
муниципального образования город
Мурманск». Вступил в
силу 1 января 2005 г.
Опубликован: "Мурманский Вестник", №234,
стр. 3, 7 декабря 2004 г. (
Duma. Law #531-01-ZMO of December 2, 2004 On
the Status of the Municipal Formation of the City of Murmansk.
Effective as of January 1, 2005.).
Совет депутатов города
Мурманска. Решение №20-235 от 10
марта 2006 г. «Устав муниципального
образования город Мурманск», в ред.
Решения №15-202 от 4 февраля 2010 г «О
внесении изменений в Устав
муниципального образования город
Мурманск, утверждённый Решением
Совета Депутатов города Мурманска от
10.03.2006 (с изменениями и дополнениями от
31.05.2006 №23-263, от 05.10.2006 №24-298), с
последующими изменениями, внесёнными
Решениями Совета депутатов города
Мурманска от 13.11.2007 №43-529, от 03.04.2008
№48-588 и от 03.06.2009 №5-57». Вступил в
силу в соответствии со статьёй 81.
Опубликован: "Вечерний Мурманск",
спецвыпуск, стр. 1–12, 10 ноября 2006 г.
(Council of Deputies of the City of
Murmansk. Decision #20-235 of March 10, 2006
Charter of the Municipal Formation of the City of Murmansk, as amended
by the Decision #15-202 of February 4, 2010 On Amending
the Charter of the Municipal Formation of the City of Murmansk,
Adopted by the Decision of the Council of Deputies of the City of
Murmansk of March 10, 2006 (with the Amendments and Supplements
#23-263 of May 31, 2006, #24-298 of October 5, 2006), with
Subsequent Amendments, Introduced by the Decisions of the Council of
Deputies of the City of
Murmansk #43-529 of November 13, 2007,
#48-588 of April 3, 2008, and #5-57 of June 3, 2009.
Effective as of the day determined by the provisions of
Архивный отдел Администрации
Мурманской области. Государственный
Архив Мурманской области. (1995).
деление Мурманской области (1920–1993
гг.). Справочник. Мурманск: Мурманское
Дума. Закон №1812-01-ЗМО от 19
декабря 2014 г. «Об упразднеии
населённого пункта Мурманской
области и о внесении изменений в
отдельные законодательные акты
Мурманской области». Вступил в
силу 1 января 2015 г. Опубликован:
"Мурманский Вестник", №246–247, с. 56, 25
декабря 2014 г. (
Duma. Law #1812-01-ZMO of December 19, 2014
On Abolishing an Inhabited Locality in
Murmansk Oblast and on Amending
Various Legislative Acts of
Murmansk Oblast. Effective as
of January 1, 2015.).
Official website of
Murmansk (in Russian)
News of Murmansk
Interactive map of Murmansk
Murmansk business news, statistics
Atomic ice breaker fleet
Murmansk's gorgeous garages — a photo journal by BBC news journalist
Murmansk group on Flickr
Video overview of
Murmansk in English, 4½ minutes, 2009
Murmansk State Technical University
British North Russian Expeditionary Force 1918–1919 (based at
"Big-dollar deals tempt Arctic firms" BBC article on the energy
industry's effect on Murmansk
Administrative divisions of
Administrative center: Murmansk
Cities and towns
Hero Cities of the Soviet Union