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Muhammad[n 1] (Arabic: محمد‎; pronounced [muħammad];[n 2] French: Mahomet /məˈhɒmɪt/; Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)[1] was the founder of Islam.[2][3] According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet and God's messenger, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.[3][4][5][6] He is viewed as the final prophet of God
God
in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief.[n 3] Muhammad
Muhammad
united Arabia
Arabia
into a single Muslim
Muslim
polity and his teachings, practices, and the Quran
Quran
form the basis of Islamic religious belief. Born approximately 570 CE (Year of the Elephant) in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad
Muhammad
was orphaned at an early age; he was raised under the care of his paternal uncle Abu Talib. Periodically, he would seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira
Hira
for several nights of prayer; later, at age 40, he reported being visited by Gabriel
Gabriel
in the cave,[7][8] where he stated he received his first revelation from God. Three years later, in 610,[9] Muhammad
Muhammad
started preaching these revelations publicly,[10] proclaiming that " God
God
is One", that complete "surrender" (islām) to him is the right course of action (dīn),[11] and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam.[12][13][14] Muhammad
Muhammad
gained few early followers, and experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists. To escape ongoing persecution, he sent some followers to Abyssinia in 615, before he and his followers migrated from Mecca
Mecca
to Medina
Medina
(then known as Yathrib) later in 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad
Muhammad
united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent wars with Meccan tribes, Muhammad
Muhammad
gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim
Muslim
converts and marched on the city of Mecca. The conquest went largely uncontested and Muhammad
Muhammad
seized the city with little bloodshed. In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he fell ill and died. By his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam.[15][16] The revelations (each known as Ayah, lit. "Sign [of God]"), which Muhammad
Muhammad
reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the verbatim "Word of God" and around which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammad's teachings and practices (sunnah), found in the Hadith
Hadith
and sira (biography) literature, are also upheld and used as sources of Islamic law (see Sharia).

Contents

1 Quranic names and appellations 2 Sources

2.1 Quran 2.2 Early biographies 2.3 Hadith

3 Pre-Islamic Arabia 4 Life

4.1 Childhood and early life 4.2 Beginnings of the Quran 4.3 Opposition 4.4 Isra and Mi'raj 4.5 Last years before Hijra 4.6 Hijra

4.6.1 Migration to Medina 4.6.2 Establishment of a new polity 4.6.3 Beginning of armed conflict 4.6.4 Conflict with Mecca 4.6.5 Siege of Medina 4.6.6 Truce of Hudaybiyyah

4.7 Final years

4.7.1 Conquest of Mecca 4.7.2 Conquest of Arabia 4.7.3 Farewell pilgrimage 4.7.4 Death and tomb

4.8 After Muhammad

5 Islamic social reforms 6 Appearance 7 Household 8 Legacy

8.1 Muslim
Muslim
views

8.1.1 Islamic depictions

8.2 Medieval Christian
Christian
views 8.3 Emergence of positive views in Europe 8.4 Views by modern historians 8.5 Other religious views 8.6 Criticism

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Bibliography

12.1 Encyclopedias

13 Further reading 14 External links

Quranic names and appellations Main article: Names and titles of Muhammad

The name Muhammad
Muhammad
written in Thuluth, a script variety of Islamic calligraphy

The name Muhammad
Muhammad
(/mʊˈhæməd, -ˈhɑːməd/)[17] means "praiseworthy" and appears four times in the Quran.[18] The Quran addresses Muhammad
Muhammad
in the second person by various appellations; prophet, messenger, servant of God
God
('abd), announcer (bashir),[Quran 2:119] witness (shahid),[Quran 33:45] bearer of good tidings (mubashshir), warner (nathir),[Quran 11:2] reminder (mudhakkir),[Quran 88:21] one who calls [unto God] (dā'ī),[Quran 12:108] light personified (noor),[Quran 05:15] and the light-giving lamp (siraj munir).[Quran 33:46] Muhammad
Muhammad
is sometimes addressed by designations deriving from his state at the time of the address: thus he is referred to as the enwrapped (Al-Muzzammil) in Quran
Quran
73:1 and the shrouded (al-muddaththir) in Quran
Quran
74:1.[19] In Sura
Sura
Al-Ahzab 33:40 God
God
singles out Muhammad
Muhammad
as the "Seal of the prophets", or the last of the prophets.[20] The Quran
Quran
also refers to Muhammad
Muhammad
as Aḥmad "more praiseworthy" (Arabic: أحمد‎, Sura
Sura
As-Saff 61:6).[21] The name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim,[22] begins with the kunya[23] Abū, which corresponds to the English, father of.[24] Sources Main articles: Historiography of early Islam
Islam
and Historicity of Muhammad Quran

A folio from an early Quran, written in Kufic
Kufic
script ( Abbasid
Abbasid
period, 8th–9th century)

The Quran
Quran
is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe it represents the words of God
God
revealed by the archangel Gabriel
Gabriel
to Muhammad.[25][26][27] The Quran, however, provides minimal assistance for Muhammad's chronological biography; most Quranic verses do not provide significant historical context.[28][29] Early biographies Main article: Sirah Rasul Allah Important sources regarding Muhammad's life may be found in the historic works by writers of the 2nd and 3rd centuries of the Muslim era (AH – 8th and 9th century CE).[30] These include traditional Muslim
Muslim
biographies of Muhammad, which provide additional information about Muhammad's life.[31] The earliest surviving written sira (biographies of Muhammad
Muhammad
and quotes attributed to him) is Ibn Ishaq's Life of God's Messenger written c. 767 CE (150 AH). Although the work was lost, this sira was used at great length by Ibn Hisham and to a lesser extent by Al-Tabari.[32][33] However, Ibn Hisham admits in the preface to his biography of Muhammad
Muhammad
that he omitted matters from Ibn Ishaq's biography that "would distress certain people".[34] Another early history source is the history of Muhammad's campaigns by al-Waqidi (death 207 of Muslim
Muslim
era), and the work of his secretary Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi (death 230 of Muslim
Muslim
era).[30] Many scholars accept these early biographies as authentic, though their accuracy is unascertainable.[32] Recent studies have led scholars to distinguish between traditions touching legal matters and purely historical events. In the legal group, traditions could have been subject to invention while historic events, aside from exceptional cases, may have been only subject to "tendential shaping".[35] Hadith Main article: Hadith Other important sources include the hadith collections, accounts of the verbal and physical teachings and traditions of Muhammad. Hadiths were compiled several generations after his death by followers including Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Bukhari, Muslim
Muslim
ibn al-Hajjaj, Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi, Abd ar-Rahman al-Nasai, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, Malik bin Anas, al-Daraqutni.[36][37] Some Western academics cautiously view the hadith collections as accurate historical sources.[36] Scholars such as Madelung do not reject the narrations which have been compiled in later periods, but judge them in the context of history and on the basis of their compatibility with the events and figures.[38] Muslim
Muslim
scholars on the other hand typically place a greater emphasis on the hadith literature instead of the biographical literature, since hadiths maintain a verifiable chain of transmission (isnad); the lack of such a chain for the biographical literature makes it less verifiable in their eyes.[39] Pre-Islamic Arabia Main articles: Pre-Islamic Arabia, Jahiliyyah, and Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia

Main tribes and settlements of Arabia
Arabia
in Muhammad's lifetime

The Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
was largely arid and volcanic, making agriculture difficult except near oases or springs. The landscape was dotted with towns and cities; two of the most prominent being Mecca and Medina. Medina
Medina
was a large flourishing agricultural settlement, while Mecca
Mecca
was an important financial center for many surrounding tribes.[40] Communal life was essential for survival in the desert conditions, supporting indigenous tribes against the harsh environment and lifestyle. Tribal
Tribal
affiliation, whether based on kinship or alliances, was an important source of social cohesion.[41] Indigenous Arabs were either nomadic or sedentary, the former constantly travelling from one place to another seeking water and pasture for their flocks, while the latter settled and focused on trade and agriculture. Nomadic survival also depended on raiding caravans or oases; nomads did not view this as a crime.[42][43] In pre-Islamic Arabia, gods or goddesses were viewed as protectors of individual tribes, their spirits being associated with sacred trees, stones, springs and wells. As well as being the site of an annual pilgrimage, the Kaaba
Kaaba
shrine in Mecca
Mecca
housed 360 idols of tribal patron deities. Three goddesses were associated with Allah
Allah
as his daughters: Allāt, Manāt and al-'Uzzá. Monotheistic communities existed in Arabia, including Christians and Jews.[44] Hanifs – native pre-Islamic Arabs who "professed a rigid monotheism"[45] – are also sometimes listed alongside Jews
Jews
and Christians in pre-Islamic Arabia, although their historicity is disputed among scholars.[46][47] According to Muslim
Muslim
tradition, Muhammad
Muhammad
himself was a Hanif and one of the descendants of Ishmael, son of Abraham.[48] The second half of the sixth century was a period of political disorder in Arabia
Arabia
and communication routes were no longer secure.[49] Religious divisions were an important cause of the crisis.[50] Judaism became the dominant religion in Yemen
Yemen
while Christianity took root in the Persian Gulf area.[50] In line with broader trends of the ancient world, the region witnessed a decline in the practice of polytheistic cults and a growing interest in a more spiritual form of religion.[50] While many were reluctant to convert to a foreign faith, those faiths provided intellectual and spiritual reference points.[50] During the early years of Muhammad's life, the Quraysh
Quraysh
tribe he belonged to became a dominant force in western Arabia.[51] They formed the cult association of hums, which tied members of many tribes in western Arabia
Arabia
to the Kaaba
Kaaba
and reinforced the prestige of the Meccan sanctuary.[52] To counter the effects of anarchy, Quraysh
Quraysh
upheld the institution of sacred months during which all violence was forbidden, and it was possible to participate in pilgrimages and fairs without danger.[52] Thus, although the association of hums was primarily religious, it also had important economic consequences for the city.[52]

Life

Timeline of Muhammad's Life

Important dates and locations in the life of Muhammad

c. 569 Death of his father, Abdull

c. 570 Possible date of birth: 12 (or 17) Rabi al Awal: in Mecca
Mecca
Arabia

c. 576 Death of his mother, Amina

c. 583 his grand father transfers him to Syria

c. 595 Meets and marries Khadijah

597 Birth of Zainab, his first daughter, followed by: Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum, and Fatima Zahra

610 Qur'anic revelation begins in the Cave of Hira
Hira
on the Jabaal an Nur the "Mountain of Light" near Mecca

610 At age 40, Angel Jebreel (Gabriel) was said to appear to Muhammad
Muhammad
on the mountain and call him "the Prophet
Prophet
of Allah"

610 Begins in secret to gather followers in Mecca

c. 613 Begins spreading message of Islam
Islam
publicly to all Meccans

c. 614 Heavy persecution of Muslims begins

c. 615 Emigration of a group of Muslims to Ethiopia

616 Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
clan boycott begins

619 The year of sorrows: Khadija (his wife) and Abu Talib (his uncle) die

619 Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
clan boycott ends

c. 620 Isra and Mi'raj
Isra and Mi'raj
(reported ascension to heaven to meet God)

622 Hijra, emigration to Medina
Medina
(called Yathrib)

623 Battle of Badr

625 Battle of Uhud

627 Battle of the Trench
Battle of the Trench
(also known as the siege of Medina)

628 The Meccan tribe of Quraysh
Quraysh
and the Muslim
Muslim
community in Medina
Medina
signed a 10-year truce called the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah

629 Conquest of Mecca

632 Farewell pilgrimage and death, in what is now Saudi Arabia

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Childhood and early life See also: Mawlid, Family tree of Muhammad, and Muhammad
Muhammad
in Mecca Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim,[22] was born about the year 570[7] and his birthday is believed to be in the month of Rabi' al-awwal.[53] He belonged to the Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
clan, part of the Quraysh
Quraysh
tribe, and was one of Mecca's prominent families, although it appears less prosperous during Muhammad's early lifetime.[14][54] Tradition places the year of Muhammad's birth as corresponding with the Year of the Elephant, which is named after the failed destruction of Mecca
Mecca
that year by the Abraha, Yemen's king, who supplemented his army with elephants.[55][56][57] Alternatively some 20th century scholars have suggested different years, such as 568 or 569.[58]

Miniature from Rashid-al-Din Hamadani's Jami al-Tawarikh, c. 1315, illustrating the story of Muhammad's role in re-setting the Black Stone in 605. ( Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
period)[59]

Muhammad's father, Abdullah, died almost six months before he was born.[60] According to Islamic tradition, soon after birth he was sent to live with a Bedouin
Bedouin
family in the desert, as desert life was considered healthier for infants; some western scholars reject this tradition's historicity.[61] Muhammad
Muhammad
stayed with his foster-mother, Halimah bint Abi Dhuayb, and her husband until he was two years old. At the age of six, Muhammad
Muhammad
lost his biological mother Amina to illness and became an orphan.[61][62] For the next two years, until he was eight years old, Muhammad
Muhammad
was under the guardianship of his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, of the Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
clan until his death. He then came under the care of his uncle Abu Talib, the new leader of the Banu Hashim.[58] According to Islamic historian William Montgomery Watt there was a general disregard by guardians in taking care of weaker members of the tribes in Mecca
Mecca
during the 6th century, "Muhammad's guardians saw that he did not starve to death, but it was hard for them to do more for him, especially as the fortunes of the clan of Hashim seem to have been declining at that time."[63] In his teens, Muhammad
Muhammad
accompanied his uncle on Syrian trading journeys to gain experience in commercial trade.[63] Islamic tradition states that when Muhammad
Muhammad
was either nine or twelve while accompanying the Meccans' caravan to Syria, he met a Christian
Christian
monk or hermit named Bahira
Bahira
who is said to have foreseen Muhammad's career as a prophet of God.[64] Little is known of Muhammad
Muhammad
during his later youth, available information is fragmented, making it difficult to separate history from legend.[63] It is known that he became a merchant and "was involved in trade between the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
and the Mediterranean Sea."[65] Due to his upright character he acquired the nickname "al-Amin" (Arabic: الامين), meaning "faithful, trustworthy" and "al-Sadiq" meaning "truthful"[66] and was sought out as an impartial arbitrator.[8][14][67] His reputation attracted a proposal in 595 from Khadijah, a 40-year-old widow. Muhammad
Muhammad
consented to the marriage, which by all accounts was a happy one.[65] Several years later, according to a narration collected by historian Ibn Ishaq, Muhammad
Muhammad
was involved with a well-known story about setting the Black Stone
Black Stone
in place in the wall of the Kaaba
Kaaba
in 605 CE. The Black Stone, a sacred object, was removed during renovations to the Kaaba. The Meccan leaders could not agree which clan should return the Black Stone to its place. They decided to ask the next man who comes through the gate to make that decision; that man was the 35-year-old Muhammad. This event happened five years before the first revelation by Gabriel to him. He asked for a cloth and laid the Black Stone
Black Stone
in its center. The clan leaders held the corners of the cloth and together carried the Black Stone
Black Stone
to the right spot, then Muhammad
Muhammad
laid the stone, satisfying the honour of all.[68][69] Beginnings of the Quran See also: Muhammad's first revelation, History of the Quran, and Wahy

The cave Hira
Hira
in the mountain Jabal al-Nour
Jabal al-Nour
where, according to Muslim belief, Muhammad
Muhammad
received his first revelation

Muhammad
Muhammad
began to pray alone in a cave named Hira
Hira
on Mount Jabal al-Nour, near Mecca
Mecca
for several weeks every year.[70][71] Islamic tradition holds that during one of his visits to that cave, in the year 610 the angel Gabriel
Gabriel
appeared to him and commanded Muhammad
Muhammad
to recite verses that would be included in the Quran.[72] Consensus exists that the first Quranic words revealed were the beginning of Surah 96:1.[73] Muhammad
Muhammad
was deeply distressed upon receiving his first revelations. After returning home, Muhammad
Muhammad
was consoled and reassured by Khadijah and her Christian
Christian
cousin, Waraqah ibn Nawfal.[74] He also feared that others would dismiss his claims as being possessed.[43] Shi'a tradition states Muhammad
Muhammad
was not surprised or frightened at Gabriel's appearance; rather he welcomed the angel, as if he was expected.[75] The initial revelation was followed by a three-year pause (a period known as fatra) during which Muhammad
Muhammad
felt depressed and further gave himself to prayers and spiritual practices.[73] When the revelations resumed he was reassured and commanded to begin preaching: "Thy Guardian-Lord hath not forsaken thee, nor is He displeased."[76][77][78]

Muhammad
Muhammad
receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-tawarikh
Jami' al-tawarikh
by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307, Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
period.

Sahih Bukhari
Sahih Bukhari
narrates Muhammad
Muhammad
describing his revelations as "sometimes it is (revealed) like the ringing of a bell". Aisha reported, "I saw the Prophet
Prophet
being inspired Divinely on a very cold day and noticed the sweat dropping from his forehead (as the Inspiration was over)".[79] According to Welch these descriptions may be considered genuine, since they are unlikely to have been forged by later Muslims.[14] Muhammad
Muhammad
was confident that he could distinguish his own thoughts from these messages.[80] According to the Quran, one of the main roles of Muhammad
Muhammad
is to warn the unbelievers of their eschatological punishment ( Quran
Quran
38:70, Quran
Quran
6:19). Occasionally the Quran
Quran
did not explicitly refer to Judgment day but provided examples from the history of extinct communities and warns Muhammad's contemporaries of similar calamities ( Quran
Quran
41:13–16).[19] Muhammad did not only warn those who rejected God's revelation, but also dispensed good news for those who abandoned evil, listening to the divine words and serving God.[81] Muhammad's mission also involves preaching monotheism: The Quran
Quran
commands Muhammad
Muhammad
to proclaim and praise the name of his Lord and instructs him not to worship idols or associate other deities with God.[19]

Recite in the name of your Lord who created – Created man from a clinging substance. Recite, and your Lord is the most Generous – Who taught by the pen – Taught man that which he knew not. “ ”

Quran
Quran
(96:1–5)

The key themes of the early Quranic verses included the responsibility of man towards his creator; the resurrection of the dead, God's final judgment followed by vivid descriptions of the tortures in Hell
Hell
and pleasures in Paradise, and the signs of God
God
in all aspects of life. Religious duties required of the believers at this time were few: belief in God, asking for forgiveness of sins, offering frequent prayers, assisting others particularly those in need, rejecting cheating and the love of wealth (considered to be significant in the commercial life of Mecca), being chaste and not committing female infanticide.[14] Opposition See also: Persecution of Muslims by the Meccans
Persecution of Muslims by the Meccans
and Migration to Abyssinia

The last ayah from the sura An-Najm: "So prostrate to Allah
Allah
and worship." Muhammad's message of monotheism challenged the traditional order.

According to Muslim
Muslim
tradition, Muhammad's wife Khadija was the first to believe he was a prophet.[82] She was followed by Muhammad's ten-year-old cousin Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib, close friend Abu Bakr, and adopted son Zaid.[82] Around 613, Muhammad
Muhammad
began to preach to the public ( Quran
Quran
26:214).[10][83] Most Meccans ignored and mocked him, though a few became his followers. There were three main groups of early converts to Islam: younger brothers and sons of great merchants; people who had fallen out of the first rank in their tribe or failed to attain it; and the weak, mostly unprotected foreigners.[84] According to Ibn Saad, opposition in Mecca
Mecca
started when Muhammad delivered verses that condemned idol worship and the polytheism practiced by the Meccan forefathers.[85] However, the Quranic exegesis maintains that it began as Muhammad
Muhammad
started public preaching.[86] As his followers increased, Muhammad
Muhammad
became a threat to the local tribes and rulers of the city, whose wealth rested upon the Ka'aba, the focal point of Meccan religious life that Muhammad
Muhammad
threatened to overthrow. Muhammad's denunciation of the Meccan traditional religion was especially offensive to his own tribe, the Quraysh, as they were the guardians of the Ka'aba.[84] Powerful merchants attempted to convince Muhammad
Muhammad
to abandon his preaching; he was offered admission to the inner circle of merchants, as well as an advantageous marriage. He refused both of these offers.[84]

Have We not made for him two eyes? And a tongue and two lips? And have shown him the two ways? But he has not broken through the difficult pass. And what can make you know what is the difficult pass? It is the freeing of a slave. Or feeding on a day of severe hunger; an orphan of near relationship, or a needy person in misery. And then being among those who believed and advised one another to patience and advised one another to mercy. “ ”

Quran
Quran
(90:8–17)

Tradition records at great length the persecution and ill-treatment towards Muhammad
Muhammad
and his followers.[14] Sumayyah bint Khabbab, a slave of a prominent Meccan leader Abu Jahl, is famous as the first martyr of Islam; killed with a spear by her master when she refused to give up her faith. Bilal, another Muslim
Muslim
slave, was tortured by Umayyah ibn Khalaf who placed a heavy rock on his chest to force his conversion.[87][88] In 615, some of Muhammad's followers emigrated to the Ethiopian Aksumite Empire and founded a small colony under the protection of the Christian
Christian
Ethiopian emperor Aṣḥama ibn Abjar.[14] Ibn Sa'ad mentions two separate migrations. According to him, most of the Muslims returned to Mecca
Mecca
prior to Hijra, while a second group rejoined them in Medina. Ibn Hisham and Tabari, however, only talk about one migration to Ethiopia. These accounts agree that Meccan persecution played a major role in Muḥammad's decision to suggest that a number of his followers seek refuge among the Christians in Abyssinia. According to the famous letter of ʿUrwa preserved in al-Tabari, the majority of Muslims returned to their native town as Islam
Islam
gained strength and high ranking Meccans, such as Umar
Umar
and Hamzah converted.[89] However, there is a completely different story on the reason why the Muslims returned from Ethiopia to Mecca. According to this account—initially mentioned by Al-Waqidi then rehashed by Ibn Sa'ad and Tabari, but not by Ibn Hisham and not by Ibn Ishaq[90]—Muhammad, desperately hoping for an accommodation with his tribe, pronounced a verse acknowledging the existence of three Meccan goddesses considered to be the daughters of Allah. Muhammad
Muhammad
retracted the verses the next day at the behest of Gabriel, claiming that the verses were whispered by the devil himself. Instead, a ridicule of these gods was offered.[91][n 4][n 5] This episode, known as "The Story of the Cranes," is also known as "Satanic Verses". According to the story, this led to a general reconciliation between Muḥammad and the Meccans, and the Abyssinia Muslims began to return home. When they arrived Gabriel
Gabriel
had informed Muḥammad the two verses were not part of the revelation, but had been inserted by Satan. Notable scholars at the time argued against the historic authenticity of these verses and the story itself on various grounds.[92][93][n 6] Al-Waqidi was severely criticized by Islamic scholars such as Malik ibn Anas, al-Shafi'i, Ahmad
Ahmad
ibn Hanbal, Al-Nasa'i, al-Bukhari, Abu Dawood, Al-Nawawi
Al-Nawawi
and others as a liar and forger.[94][95][96][97] Later, the incident received some acceptance among certain groups, though strong objections to it continued onwards past the tenth century. The objections continued until rejection of these verses and the story itself eventually became the only acceptable orthodox Muslim position.[98] In 617, the leaders of Makhzum and Banu Abd-Shams, two important Quraysh
Quraysh
clans, declared a public boycott against Banu Hashim, their commercial rival, to pressure it into withdrawing its protection of Muhammad. The boycott lasted three years but eventually collapsed as it failed in its objective.[99][100] During this time, Muhammad
Muhammad
was only able to preach during the holy pilgrimage months in which all hostilities between Arabs was suspended. Isra and Mi'raj Main article: Isra and Mi'raj

The Al-Aqsa Mosque, part of the al-Haram ash- Sharif complex in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and built in 705, was named the "farthest mosque" to honor the possible location to which Muhammad
Muhammad
travelled in his night journey.[101]

Islamic tradition states that in 620, Muhammad
Muhammad
experienced the Isra and Mi'raj, a miraculous night-long journey said to have occurred with the angel Gabriel. At the journey's beginning, the Isra, he is said to have traveled from Mecca
Mecca
on a winged steed to "the farthest mosque." Later, during the Mi'raj, Muhammad
Muhammad
is said to have toured heaven and hell, and spoke with earlier prophets, such as Abraham, Moses, and Jesus.[102] Ibn Ishaq, author of the first biography of Muhammad, presents the event as a spiritual experience; later historians, such as Al-Tabari and Ibn Kathir, present it as a physical journey.[102] Some western scholars[who?] hold that the Isra and Mi'raj
Isra and Mi'raj
journey traveled through the heavens from the sacred enclosure at Mecca
Mecca
to the celestial al-Baytu l-Maʿmur (heavenly prototype of the Kaaba); later traditions indicate Muhammad's journey as having been from Mecca
Mecca
to Jerusalem.[103][page needed] Last years before Hijra

Quranic inscriptions on the Dome of the Rock. It marks the spot Muhammad
Muhammad
is believed to have ascended to heaven.[104]

Muhammad's wife Khadijah and uncle Abu Talib both died in 619, the year thus being known as the "Year of Sorrow". With the death of Abu Talib, leadership of the Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
clan passed to Abu Lahab, a tenacious enemy of Muhammad. Soon afterward, Abu Lahab
Abu Lahab
withdrew the clan's protection over Muhammad. This placed Muhammad
Muhammad
in danger; the withdrawal of clan protection implied that blood revenge for his killing would not be exacted. Muhammad
Muhammad
then visited Ta'if, another important city in Arabia, and tried to find a protector, but his effort failed and further brought him into physical danger.[14][100] Muhammad
Muhammad
was forced to return to Mecca. A Meccan man named Mut'im ibn Adi (and the protection of the tribe of Banu Nawfal) made it possible for him to safely re-enter his native city.[14][100] Many people visited Mecca
Mecca
on business or as pilgrims to the Kaaba. Muhammad
Muhammad
took this opportunity to look for a new home for himself and his followers. After several unsuccessful negotiations, he found hope with some men from Yathrib
Yathrib
(later called Medina).[14] The Arab population of Yathrib
Yathrib
were familiar with monotheism and were prepared for the appearance of a prophet because a Jewish community existed there.[14] They also hoped, by the means of Muhammad
Muhammad
and the new faith, to gain supremacy over Mecca; the Yathrib
Yathrib
were jealous of its importance as the place of pilgrimage. Converts to Islam
Islam
came from nearly all Arab
Arab
tribes in Medina; by June of the subsequent year, seventy-five Muslims came to Mecca
Mecca
for pilgrimage and to meet Muhammad. Meeting him secretly by night, the group made what is known as the "Second Pledge of al-'Aqaba", or, in Orientalists' view, the "Pledge of War".[105] Following the pledges at Aqabah, Muhammad encouraged his followers to emigrate to Yathrib. As with the migration to Abyssinia, the Quraysh
Quraysh
attempted to stop the emigration. However, almost all Muslims managed to leave.[106]

Hijra

Timeline of Muhammad
Muhammad
in Medina

c. 622 Emigrates to Medina
Medina
(Hijra)

623 Caravan Raids begin

623 Al Kudr Invasion

623 Battle of Badr: Muslims defeat Meccans

624 Battle of Sawiq, Abu Sufyan
Abu Sufyan
captured

624 Expulsion of Banu Qaynuqa

624 Invasion of Thi Amr, Muhammad
Muhammad
raids Ghatafan tribes

624 Assassination of Khaled b. Sufyan & Abu Rafi

624 Battle of Uhud: Meccans defeat Muslims

625 Tragedy of Bir Maona and Al Raji

625 Invasion of Hamra al-Asad, successfully terrifies enemy to cause retreat

625 Banu Nadir
Banu Nadir
expelled after Invasion

625 Invasion of Nejd, Badr and Dumatul Jandal

627 Battle of the Trench

627 Invasion of Banu Qurayza, successful siege

628 Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, gains access to Kaaba

628 Conquest of the Khaybar
Khaybar
oasis

629 First hajj pilgrimage

629 Attack on Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
fails: Battle of Mu'tah

629 Bloodless conquest of Mecca

629 Battle of Hunayn

630 Siege of Ta'if

631 Rules most of the Arabian peninsula

632 Attacks the Ghassanids: Tabuk

632 Farewell hajj pilgrimage

632 Death, on June 8 in Medina

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Main article: Hijra (Islam) The Hijra is the migration of Muhammad
Muhammad
and his followers from Mecca
Mecca
to Medina
Medina
in 622 CE. In June 622, warned of a plot to assassinate him, Muhammad
Muhammad
secretly slipped out of Mecca
Mecca
and moved his followers to Medina,[107] 450 kilometres (280 miles) north of Mecca.[108] Migration to Medina Main article: Muhammad
Muhammad
in Medina A delegation, consisting of the representatives of the twelve important clans of Medina, invited Muhammad
Muhammad
to serve as chief arbitrator for the entire community; due to his status as a neutral outsider.[109][110] There was fighting in Yathrib: primarily the dispute involved its Arab
Arab
and Jewish inhabitants, and was estimated to have lasted for around a hundred years before 620.[109] The recurring slaughters and disagreements over the resulting claims, especially after the Battle of Bu'ath
Battle of Bu'ath
in which all clans were involved, made it obvious to them that the tribal concept of blood-feud and an eye for an eye were no longer workable unless there was one man with authority to adjudicate in disputed cases.[109] The delegation from Medina pledged themselves and their fellow-citizens to accept Muhammad
Muhammad
into their community and physically protect him as one of themselves.[14] Muhammad
Muhammad
instructed his followers to emigrate to Medina, until nearly all his followers left Mecca. Being alarmed at the departure, according to tradition, the Meccans plotted to assassinate Muhammad. With the help of Ali, Muhammad
Muhammad
fooled the Meccans watching him, and secretly slipped away from the town with Abu Bakr.[111] By 622, Muhammad
Muhammad
emigrated to Medina, a large agricultural oasis. Those who migrated from Mecca
Mecca
along with Muhammad
Muhammad
became known as muhajirun (emigrants).[14] Establishment of a new polity Main article: Constitution of Medina Among the first things Muhammad
Muhammad
did to ease the longstanding grievances among the tribes of Medina
Medina
was to draft a document known as the Constitution of Medina, "establishing a kind of alliance or federation" among the eight Medinan tribes and Muslim
Muslim
emigrants from Mecca; this specified rights and duties of all citizens, and the relationship of the different communities in Medina
Medina
(including the Muslim
Muslim
community to other communities, specifically the Jews
Jews
and other "Peoples of the Book").[109][110] The community defined in the Constitution of Medina, Ummah, had a religious outlook, also shaped by practical considerations and substantially preserved the legal forms of the old Arab
Arab
tribes.[14] The first group of converts to Islam
Islam
in Medina
Medina
were the clans without great leaders; these clans had been subjugated by hostile leaders from outside.[112] This was followed by the general acceptance of Islam
Islam
by the pagan population of Medina, with some exceptions. According to Ibn Ishaq, this was influenced by the conversion of Sa'd ibn Mu'adh (a prominent Medinan leader) to Islam.[113] Medinans who converted to Islam
Islam
and helped the Muslim
Muslim
emigrants find shelter became known as the ansar (supporters).[14] Then Muhammad
Muhammad
instituted brotherhood between the emigrants and the supporters and he chose Ali
Ali
as his own brother.[114] Beginning of armed conflict Main articles: List of expeditions of Muhammad and Battle of Badr

v t e

Campaigns of Muhammad

Ghazwah (expeditions where he took part)

Abwa Buwat Safwan Dul 1st Badr Kudr Sawiq Qaynuqa Thi Bahran Uhud Asad Nadir 2nd Nejd 2nd Badr Jandal Trench Qurayza Lahyan Mustaliq Treaty Khaybar Fadak Qura Dhat Baqra Mecca Hunayn Autas Ta'if Tabouk

Following the emigration, the people of Mecca
Mecca
seized property of Muslim
Muslim
emigrants to Medina.[115] War
War
would later break out between the people of Mecca
Mecca
and the Muslims. Muhammad
Muhammad
delivered Quranic verses permitting Muslims to fight the Meccans (see sura Al-Hajj, Quran 22:39–40).[116] According to the traditional account, on 11 February 624, while praying in the Masjid al-Qiblatayn
Masjid al-Qiblatayn
in Medina, Muhammad received revelations from God
God
that he should be facing Mecca
Mecca
rather than Jerusalem
Jerusalem
during prayer. Muhammad
Muhammad
adjusted to the new direction, and his companions praying with him followed his lead, beginning the tradition of facing Mecca
Mecca
during prayer.[117]

Permission has been given to those who are being fought, because they were wronged. And indeed, Allah
Allah
is competent to give them victory. Those who have been evicted from their homes without right – only because they say, "Our Lord is Allah." And were it not that Allah checks the people, some by means of others, there would have been demolished monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques in which the name of Allah
Allah
is much mentioned. And Allah
Allah
will surely support those who support Him. Indeed, Allah
Allah
is Powerful and Exalted in Might. “ ”

Quran
Quran
(22:39–40)

In March 624, Muhammad
Muhammad
led some three hundred warriors in a raid on a Meccan merchant caravan. The Muslims set an ambush for the caravan at Badr.[118] Aware of the plan, the Meccan caravan eluded the Muslims. A Meccan force was sent to protect the caravan and went on to confront the Muslims upon receiving word that the caravan was safe. The Battle of Badr commenced.[119] Though outnumbered more than three to one, the Muslims won the battle, killing at least forty-five Meccans with fourteen Muslims dead. They also succeeded in killing many Meccan leaders, including Abu Jahl.[120] Seventy prisoners had been acquired, many of whom were ransomed.[121][122][123] Muhammad
Muhammad
and his followers saw the victory as confirmation of their faith[14] and Muhammad ascribed the victory as assisted from an invisible host of angels. The Quranic verses of this period, unlike the Meccan verses, dealt with practical problems of government and issues like the distribution of spoils.[124] The victory strengthened Muhammad's position in Medina
Medina
and dispelled earlier doubts among his followers.[125] As a result, the opposition to him became less vocal. Pagans who had not yet converted were very bitter about the advance of Islam. Two pagans, Asma bint Marwan of the Aws Manat tribe and Abu 'Afak of the 'Amr b. 'Awf tribe, had composed verses taunting and insulting the Muslims.[126] They were killed by people belonging to their own or related clans, and Muhammad
Muhammad
did not disapprove of the killings.[126] This report, however, is considered by some to be a fabrication.[127] Most members of those tribes converted to Islam, and little pagan opposition remained.[128] Muhammad
Muhammad
expelled from Medina
Medina
the Banu Qaynuqa, one of three main Jewish tribes,[14] but some historians contend that the expulsion happened after Muhammad's death.[129] According to al-Waqidi, after Abd-Allah ibn Ubaiy spoke for them, Muhammad
Muhammad
refrained from executing them and commanded that they be exiled from Medina.[130] Following the Battle of Badr, Muhammad
Muhammad
also made mutual-aid alliances with a number of Bedouin
Bedouin
tribes to protect his community from attacks from the northern part of Hejaz.[14] Conflict with Mecca Main article: Battle of Uhud

"The Prophet
Prophet
Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Muslim
Muslim
Army at the Battle of Uhud", from a 1595 edition of the Mamluk-Turkic Siyer-i Nebi

The Meccans were eager to avenge their defeat. To maintain economic prosperity, the Meccans needed to restore their prestige, which had been reduced at Badr.[131] In the ensuing months, the Meccans sent ambush parties to Medina
Medina
while Muhammad
Muhammad
led expeditions against tribes allied with Mecca
Mecca
and sent raiders onto a Meccan caravan.[132] Abu Sufyan gathered an army of 3000 men and set out for an attack on Medina.[133] A scout alerted Muhammad
Muhammad
of the Meccan army's presence and numbers a day later. The next morning, at the Muslim
Muslim
conference of war, a dispute arose over how best to repel the Meccans. Muhammad
Muhammad
and many senior figures suggested it would be safer to fight within Medina
Medina
and take advantage of the heavily fortified strongholds. Younger Muslims argued that the Meccans were destroying crops, and huddling in the strongholds would destroy Muslim
Muslim
prestige. Muhammad
Muhammad
eventually conceded to the younger Muslims and readied the Muslim
Muslim
force for battle. Muhammad
Muhammad
led his force outside to the mountain of Uhud (the location of the Meccan camp) and fought the Battle of Uhud
Battle of Uhud
on 23 March 625.[134][135] Although the Muslim
Muslim
army had the advantage in early encounters, lack of discipline on the part of strategically placed archers led to a Muslim
Muslim
defeat; 75 Muslims were killed including Hamza, Muhammad's uncle who became one of the best known martyrs in the Muslim
Muslim
tradition. The Meccans did not pursue the Muslims, instead, they marched back to Mecca
Mecca
declaring victory. The announcement is probably because Muhammad
Muhammad
was wounded and thought dead. When they discovered that Muhammad
Muhammad
lived, the Meccans did not return due to false information about new forces coming to his aid. The attack had failed to achieve their aim of completely destroying the Muslims.[136][137] The Muslims buried the dead and returned to Medina that evening. Questions accumulated about the reasons for the loss; Muhammad
Muhammad
delivered Quranic verses 3:152 indicating that the defeat was twofold: partly a punishment for disobedience, partly a test for steadfastness.[138] Abu Sufyan
Abu Sufyan
directed his effort towards another attack on Medina. He gained support from the nomadic tribes to the north and east of Medina; using propaganda about Muhammad's weakness, promises of booty, memories of Quraysh
Quraysh
prestige and through bribery.[139] Muhammad's new policy was to prevent alliances against him. Whenever alliances against Medina
Medina
were formed, he sent out expeditions to break them up.[139] Muhammad
Muhammad
heard of men massing with hostile intentions against Medina, and reacted in a severe manner.[140] One example is the assassination of Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf, a chieftain of the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir. Al-Ashraf went to Mecca
Mecca
and wrote poems that roused the Meccans' grief, anger and desire for revenge after the Battle of Badr.[141][142] Around a year later, Muhammad
Muhammad
expelled the Banu Nadir from Medina[143] forcing their emigration to Syria; he allowed them to take some possessions, as he was unable to subdue the Banu Nadir
Banu Nadir
in their strongholds. The rest of their property was claimed by Muhammad in the name of God
God
as it was not gained with bloodshed. Muhammad surprised various Arab
Arab
tribes, individually, with overwhelming force, causing his enemies to unite to annihilate him. Muhammad's attempts to prevent a confederation against him were unsuccessful, though he was able to increase his own forces and stopped many potential tribes from joining his enemies.[144] Siege of Medina Main article: Battle of the Trench

The Masjid al-Qiblatayn, where Muhammad
Muhammad
established the new Qibla, or direction of prayer

With the help of the exiled Banu Nadir, the Quraysh
Quraysh
military leader Abu Sufyan
Abu Sufyan
mustered a force of 10,000 men. Muhammad
Muhammad
prepared a force of about 3,000 men and adopted a form of defense unknown in Arabia
Arabia
at that time; the Muslims dug a trench wherever Medina
Medina
lay open to cavalry attack. The idea is credited to a Persian convert to Islam, Salman the Persian. The siege of Medina
Medina
began on 31 March 627 and lasted two weeks.[145] Abu Sufyan's troops were unprepared for the fortifications, and after an ineffectual siege, the coalition decided to return home.[146] The Quran
Quran
discusses this battle in sura Al-Ahzab, in verses 33:9–27.[86] During the battle, the Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza, located to the south of Medina, entered into negotiations with Meccan forces to revolt against Muhammad. Although the Meccan forces were swayed by suggestions that Muhammad
Muhammad
was sure to be overwhelmed, they desired reassurance in case the confederacy was unable to destroy him. No agreement was reached after prolonged negotiations, partly due to sabotage attempts by Muhammad's scouts.[147] After the coalition's retreat, the Muslims accused the Banu Qurayza of treachery and besieged them in their forts for 25 days. The Banu Qurayza eventually surrendered; according to Ibn Ishaq, all the men apart from a few converts to Islam
Islam
were beheaded, while the women and children were enslaved.[148][149] Walid N. Arafat and Barakat Ahmad
Ahmad
have disputed the accuracy of Ibn Ishaq's narrative.[150] Arafat believes that Ibn Ishaq's Jewish sources, speaking over 100 years after the event, conflated this account with memories of earlier massacres in Jewish history; he notes that Ibn Ishaq was considered an unreliable historian by his contemporary Malik ibn Anas, and a transmitter of "odd tales" by the later Ibn Hajar.[151] Ahmad
Ahmad
argues that only some of the tribe were killed, while some of the fighters were merely enslaved.[152][153] Watt finds Arafat's arguments "not entirely convincing", while Meir J. Kister has contradicted[clarification needed] the arguments of Arafat and Ahmad.[154] In the siege of Medina, the Meccans exerted the available strength to destroy the Muslim
Muslim
community. The failure resulted in a significant loss of prestige; their trade with Syria
Syria
vanished.[155] Following the Battle of the Trench, Muhammad
Muhammad
made two expeditions to the north, both ended without any fighting.[14] While returning from one of these journeys (or some years earlier according to other early accounts), an accusation of adultery was made against Aisha, Muhammad's wife. Aisha was exonerated from accusations when Muhammad
Muhammad
announced he had received a revelation confirming Aisha's innocence and directing that charges of adultery be supported by four eyewitnesses (sura 24, An-Nur).[156] Truce of Hudaybiyyah Main article: Treaty of Hudaybiyyah

"In your name, O God! This is the treaty of peace between Muhammad
Muhammad
Ibn Abdullah and Suhayl Ibn Amr. They have agreed to allow their arms to rest for ten years. During this time each party shall be secure, and neither shall injure the other; no secret damage shall be inflicted, but honesty and honour shall prevail between them. Whoever in Arabia
Arabia
wishes to enter into a treaty or covenant with Muhammad
Muhammad
can do so, and whoever wishes to enter into a treaty or covenant with the Quraysh
Quraysh
can do so. And if a Qurayshite comes without the permission of his guardian to Muhammad, he shall be delivered up to the Quraysh; but if, on the other hand, one of Muhammad's people comes to the Quraysh, he shall not be delivered up to Muhammad. This year, Muhammad, with his companions, must withdraw from Mecca, but next year, he may come to Mecca
Mecca
and remain for three days, yet without their weapons except those of a traveller; the swords remaining in their sheaths."

—The statement of the treaty of Hudaybiyyah[157]

Although Muhammad
Muhammad
had delivered Quranic verses commanding the Hajj,[158] the Muslims had not performed it due to Quraysh
Quraysh
enmity. In the month of Shawwal 628, Muhammad
Muhammad
ordered his followers to obtain sacrificial animals and to prepare for a pilgrimage (umrah) to Mecca, saying that God
God
had promised him the fulfillment of this goal in a vision when he was shaving his head after completion of the Hajj.[159] Upon hearing of the approaching 1,400 Muslims, the Quraysh
Quraysh
dispatched 200 cavalry to halt them. Muhammad
Muhammad
evaded them by taking a more difficult route, enabling his followers to reach al-Hudaybiyya just outside Mecca.[160] According to Watt, although Muhammad's decision to make the pilgrimage was based on his dream, he was also demonstrating to the pagan Meccans that Islam
Islam
did not threaten the prestige of the sanctuaries, that Islam
Islam
was an Arabian religion.[160]

The Kaaba
Kaaba
in Mecca
Mecca
long held a major economic and religious role for the area. Seventeen months after Muhammad's arrival in Medina, it became the Muslim
Muslim
Qibla, or direction for prayer (salat). The Kaaba has been rebuilt several times; the present structure, built in 1629, is a reconstruction of an earlier building dating to 683.[161]

Negotiations commenced with emissaries traveling to and from Mecca. While these continued, rumors spread that one of the Muslim negotiators, Uthman
Uthman
bin al-Affan, had been killed by the Quraysh. Muhammad
Muhammad
called upon the pilgrims to make a pledge not to flee (or to stick with Muhammad, whatever decision he made) if the situation descended into war with Mecca. This pledge became known as the "Pledge of Acceptance" or the "Pledge under the Tree". News of Uthman's safety allowed for negotiations to continue, and a treaty scheduled to last ten years was eventually signed between the Muslims and Quraysh.[160][162] The main points of the treaty included: cessation of hostilities, the deferral of Muhammad's pilgrimage to the following year, and agreement to send back any Meccan who emigrated to Medina without permission from their protector.[160] Many Muslims were not satisfied with the treaty. However, the Quranic sura "Al-Fath" (The Victory) ( Quran
Quran
48:1–29) assured them that the expedition must be considered a victorious one.[163] It was later that Muhammad's followers realized the benefit behind the treaty. These benefits included the requirement of the Meccans to identify Muhammad as an equal, cessation of military activity allowing Medina
Medina
to gain strength, and the admiration of Meccans who were impressed by the pilgrimage rituals.[14] After signing the truce, Muhammad
Muhammad
assembled an expedition against the Jewish oasis of Khaybar, known as the Battle of Khaybar. This was possibly due to housing the Banu Nadir
Banu Nadir
who were inciting hostilities against Muhammad, or to regain prestige from what appeared as the inconclusive result of the truce of Hudaybiyya.[133][164] According to Muslim
Muslim
tradition, Muhammad
Muhammad
also sent letters to many rulers, asking them to convert to Islam
Islam
(the exact date is given variously in the sources).[14][165][166] He sent messengers (with letters) to Heraclius of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(the eastern Roman Empire), Khosrau of Persia, the chief of Yemen
Yemen
and to some others.[165][166] In the years following the truce of Hudaybiyya, Muhammad
Muhammad
directed his forces against the Arabs on Transjordanian Byzantine
Byzantine
soil in the Battle of Mu'tah.[167] Final years Conquest of Mecca Main articles: Conquest of Mecca
Mecca
and Muhammad
Muhammad
after the conquest of Mecca

A depiction of Muhammad
Muhammad
(with veiled face) advancing on Mecca
Mecca
from Siyer-i Nebi, a 16th-century Ottoman manuscript. The angels Gabriel, Michael, Israfil and Azrail, are also shown.

The truce of Hudaybiyyah was enforced for two years.[168][169] The tribe of Banu Khuza'a had good relations with Muhammad, whereas their enemies, the Banu Bakr, had allied with the Meccans.[168][169] A clan of the Bakr made a night raid against the Khuza'a, killing a few of them.[168][169] The Meccans helped the Banu Bakr with weapons and, according to some sources, a few Meccans also took part in the fighting.[168] After this event, Muhammad
Muhammad
sent a message to Mecca
Mecca
with three conditions, asking them to accept one of them. These were: either the Meccans would pay blood money for the slain among the Khuza'ah tribe, they disavow themselves of the Banu Bakr, or they should declare the truce of Hudaybiyyah null.[170] The Meccans replied that they accepted the last condition.[170] Soon they realized their mistake and sent Abu Sufyan
Abu Sufyan
to renew the Hudaybiyyah treaty, a request that was declined by Muhammad. Muhammad
Muhammad
began to prepare for a campaign.[171] In 630, Muhammad marched on Mecca
Mecca
with 10,000 Muslim
Muslim
converts. With minimal casualties, Muhammad
Muhammad
seized control of Mecca.[172] He declared an amnesty for past offences, except for ten men and women who were "guilty of murder or other offences or had sparked off the war and disrupted the peace".[173] Some of these were later pardoned.[174] Most Meccans converted to Islam
Islam
and Muhammad
Muhammad
proceeded to destroy all the statues of Arabian gods in and around the Kaaba.[175][176] According to reports collected by Ibn Ishaq and al-Azraqi, Muhammad
Muhammad
personally spared paintings or frescos of Mary and Jesus, but other traditions suggest that all pictures were erased.[177] The Quran
Quran
discusses the conquest of Mecca.[86][178] Conquest of Arabia Main articles: Battle of Hunayn
Battle of Hunayn
and Battle of Tabouk

Conquests of Muhammad
Muhammad
(green lines) and the Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphs (black lines). Shown: Byzantine
Byzantine
empire (North and West) & Sassanid-Persian empire (Northeast).

Following the conquest of Mecca, Muhammad
Muhammad
was alarmed by a military threat from the confederate tribes of Hawazin
Hawazin
who were raising an army double the size of Muhammad's. The Banu Hawazin
Hawazin
were old enemies of the Meccans. They were joined by the Banu Thaqif (inhabiting the city of Ta'if) who adopted an anti-Meccan policy due to the decline of the prestige of Meccans.[179] Muhammad
Muhammad
defeated the Hawazin
Hawazin
and Thaqif tribes in the Battle of Hunayn.[14] In the same year, Muhammad
Muhammad
organized an attack against northern Arabia because of their previous defeat at the Battle of Mu'tah and reports of hostility adopted against Muslims. With great difficulty he assembled 30,000 men; half of whom on the second day returned with Abd- Allah
Allah
ibn Ubayy, untroubled by the damning verses which Muhammad hurled at them. Although Muhammad
Muhammad
did not engage with hostile forces at Tabuk, he received the submission of some local chiefs of the region.[14][180] He also ordered the destruction of any remaining pagan idols in Eastern Arabia. The last city to hold out against the Muslims in Western Arabia
Arabia
was Taif. Muhammad
Muhammad
refused to accept the city's surrender until they agreed to convert to Islam
Islam
and allowed men to destroy the statue of their goddess Allat.[181][182][183] A year after the Battle of Tabuk, the Banu Thaqif sent emissaries to surrender to Muhammad
Muhammad
and adopt Islam. Many bedouins submitted to Muhammad
Muhammad
to safeguard against his attacks and to benefit from the spoils of war.[14] However, the bedouins were alien to the system of Islam
Islam
and wanted to maintain independence: namely their code of virtue and ancestral traditions. Muhammad
Muhammad
required a military and political agreement according to which they "acknowledge the suzerainty of Medina, to refrain from attack on the Muslims and their allies, and to pay the Zakat, the Muslim
Muslim
religious levy."[184] Farewell pilgrimage

Main article: Farewell Pilgrimage

Anonymous illustration of al-Bīrūnī's The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries, depicting Muhammad
Muhammad
prohibiting Nasi' during the Farewell Pilgrimage, 17th-century Ottoman copy of a 14th-century (Ilkhanate) manuscript (Edinburgh codex).

In 632, at the end of the tenth year after migration to Medina, Muhammad
Muhammad
completed his first true Islamic pilgrimage, setting precedence for the annual Great Pilgrimage, known as Hajj.[14] On the 9th of Dhu al-Hijjah
Dhu al-Hijjah
Muhammad
Muhammad
delivered his Farewell Sermon, at Mount Arafat east of Mecca. In this sermon, Muhammad
Muhammad
advised his followers not to follow certain pre-Islamic customs. For instance, he said a white has no superiority over a black, nor a black has any superiority over a white except by piety and good action.[185] He abolished old blood feuds and disputes based on the former tribal system and asked for old pledges to be returned as implications of the creation of the new Islamic community. Commenting on the vulnerability of women in his society, Muhammad
Muhammad
asked his male followers to "be good to women, for they are powerless captives (awan) in your households. You took them in God's trust, and legitimated your sexual relations with the Word of God, so come to your senses people, and hear my words ..." He told them that they were entitled to discipline their wives but should do so with kindness. He addressed the issue of inheritance by forbidding false claims of paternity or of a client relationship to the deceased and forbade his followers to leave their wealth to a testamentary heir. He also upheld the sacredness of four lunar months in each year.[186][187] According to Sunni
Sunni
tafsir, the following Quranic verse was delivered during this event: "Today I have perfected your religion, and completed my favours for you and chosen Islam
Islam
as a religion for you" ( Quran
Quran
5:3).[14] According to Shia
Shia
tafsir, it refers to the appointment of Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib at the pond of Khumm as Muhammad's successor, this occurring a few days later when Muslims were returning from Mecca
Mecca
to Medina.[188] Death and tomb A few months after the farewell pilgrimage, Muhammad
Muhammad
fell ill and suffered for several days with fever, head pain, and weakness. He died on Monday, 8 June 632, in Medina, at the age of 62 or 63, in the house of his wife Aisha.[189] With his head resting on Aisha's lap, he asked her to dispose of his last worldly goods (seven coins), then spoke his final words:

O Allah, to Ar-Rafiq Al-A'la (exalted friend, highest Friend or the uppermost, highest Friend in heaven).[190][191][192] — Muhammad

According to Encyclopedia of Islam, Muhammad's death may be presumed to have been caused by Medinan fever exacerbated by physical and mental fatigue.[193] A Shia
Shia
hadith found in The Book
Book
of Sulaym ibn Qays quotes Muhammad
Muhammad
as saying that he was killed by poison.[194][undue weight? – discuss] Academics Reşit Haylamaz and Fatih Harpci say that Ar-Rafiq Al-A'la is referring to God.[195] He was buried where he died in Aisha's house.[14][196][197] During the reign of the Umayyad caliph al-Walid I, al-Masjid an-Nabawi (the Mosque
Mosque
of the Prophet) was expanded to include the site of Muhammad's tomb.[198] The Green Dome
Green Dome
above the tomb was built by the Mamluk
Mamluk
sultan Al Mansur Qalawun
Al Mansur Qalawun
in the 13th century, although the green color was added in the 16th century, under the reign of Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.[199] Among tombs adjacent to that of Muhammad
Muhammad
are those of his companions (Sahabah), the first two Muslim
Muslim
caliphs Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar, and an empty one that Muslims believe awaits Jesus.[197][200][201] When bin Saud took Medina in 1805, Muhammad's tomb was stripped of its gold and jewel ornaments.[202] Adherents to Wahhabism, bin Saud's followers destroyed nearly every tomb dome in Medina
Medina
in order to prevent their veneration,[202] and the one of Muhammad
Muhammad
is said to have narrowly escaped.[203] Similar events took place in 1925 when the Saudi militias retook—and this time managed to keep—the city.[204][205][206] In the Wahhabi interpretation of Islam, burial is to take place in unmarked graves.[203] Although frowned upon by the Saudis, many pilgrims continue to practice a ziyarat—a ritual visit—to the tomb.[207][208]

Al-Masjid an-Nabawi
Al-Masjid an-Nabawi
("the Prophet's mosque") in Medina, Saudi Arabia, with the Green Dome
Green Dome
built over Muhammad's tomb in the center

After Muhammad Further information: Succession to Muhammad, Rashidun, and Muslim conquests

Expansion of the caliphate, 622–750 CE.    Muhammad, 622–632 CE.    Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphate, 632–661 CE.    Umayyad caliphate, 661–750 CE.

Muhammad
Muhammad
united several of the tribes of Arabia
Arabia
into a single Arab Muslim
Muslim
religious polity in the last years of his life. With Muhammad's death, disagreement broke out over who his successor would be.[16] Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattab, a prominent companion of Muhammad, nominated Abu Bakr, Muhammad's friend and collaborator. With additional support Abu Bakr was confirmed as the first caliph. This choice was disputed by some of Muhammad's companions, who held that Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib, his cousin and son-in-law, had been designated the successor by Muhammad at Ghadir Khumm. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
immediately moved to strike against the Byzantine
Byzantine
(or Eastern Roman Empire) forces because of the previous defeat, although he first had to put down a rebellion by Arab
Arab
tribes in an event that Muslim
Muslim
historians later referred to as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy".[209] The pre-Islamic Middle East was dominated by the Byzantine
Byzantine
and Sassanian empires. The Roman-Persian Wars
Roman-Persian Wars
between the two had devastated the region, making the empires unpopular amongst local tribes. Furthermore, in the lands that would be conquered by Muslims many Christians (Nestorians, Monophysites, Jacobites and Copts) were disaffected from the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
which deemed them heretics. Within a decade Muslims conquered Mesopotamia, Byzantine Syria, Byzantine
Byzantine
Egypt,[210] large parts of Persia, and established the Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate. Islamic social reforms Main article: Early social changes under Islam According to William Montgomery Watt, religion for Muhammad
Muhammad
was not a private and individual matter but "the total response of his personality to the total situation in which he found himself. He was responding [not only]... to the religious and intellectual aspects of the situation but also to the economic, social, and political pressures to which contemporary Mecca
Mecca
was subject."[211] Bernard Lewis says there are two important political traditions in Islam – Muhammad
Muhammad
as a statesman in Medina, and Muhammad
Muhammad
as a rebel in Mecca. In his view, Islam
Islam
is a great change, akin to a revolution, when introduced to new societies.[212] Historians generally agree that Islamic social changes in areas such as social security, family structure, slavery and the rights of women and children improved on the status quo of Arab
Arab
society.[212][213] For example, according to Lewis, Islam
Islam
"from the first denounced aristocratic privilege, rejected hierarchy, and adopted a formula of the career open to the talents".[which?][212] Muhammad's message transformed society and moral orders of life in the Arabian Peninsula; society focused on the changes to perceived identity, world view, and the hierarchy of values.[214][page needed] Economic reforms addressed the plight of the poor, which was becoming an issue in pre-Islamic Mecca.[215] The Quran
Quran
requires payment of an alms tax (zakat) for the benefit of the poor; as Muhammad's power grew he demanded that tribes who wished to ally with him implement the zakat in particular.[216][217] Appearance

A hilya containing a description of Muhammad, by Hâfiz Osman (1642–1698)

The description given in Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Bukhari's book Sahih al-Bukhari, in Chapter 61, Hadith
Hadith
57 & Hadith
Hadith
60,[218][219] is depicted by two of his companions as:

Allah's Messenger was neither very tall nor short, neither absolutely white nor deep brown. His hair was neither curly nor lank. Allah
Allah
sent him (as an Apostle) when he was forty years old. Afterwards he resided in Mecca
Mecca
for ten years and in Medina
Medina
for ten more years. When Allah took him unto Him, there was scarcely twenty white hairs in his head and beard. — Anas

The Prophet
Prophet
was of moderate height having broad shoulders (long) hair reaching his ear-lobes. Once I saw him in a red cloak and I had never seen anyone more handsome than him. — Al-Bara

The description given in Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi's book Shama'il al-Mustafa, attributed to Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib and Hind ibn Abi Hala is as follows:[220][221][222]

Muhammad
Muhammad
was middle-sized, did not have lank or crisp hair, was not fat, had a white circular face, wide black eyes, and long eye-lashes. When he walked, he walked as though he went down a declivity. He had the "seal of prophecy" between his shoulder blades ... He was bulky. His face shone like the moon. He was taller than middling stature but shorter than conspicuous tallness. He had thick, curly hair. The plaits of his hair were parted. His hair reached beyond the lobe of his ear. His complexion was azhar [bright, luminous]. Muhammad
Muhammad
had a wide forehead, and fine, long, arched eyebrows which did not meet. Between his eyebrows there was a vein which distended when he was angry. The upper part of his nose was hooked; he was thick bearded, had smooth cheeks, a strong mouth, and his teeth were set apart. He had thin hair on his chest. His neck was like the neck of an ivory statue, with the purity of silver. Muhammad
Muhammad
was proportionate, stout, firm-gripped, even of belly and chest, broad-chested and broad-shouldered.

The "seal of prophecy" between Muhammad's shoulders is generally described as having been a type of raised mole the size of a pigeon's egg.[221] Another description of Muhammad
Muhammad
was provided by Umm Ma'bad, a woman he met on his journey to Medina:[223][224]

I saw a man, pure and clean, with a handsome face and a fine figure. He was not marred by a skinny body, nor was he overly small in the head and neck. He was graceful and elegant, with intensely black eyes and thick eyelashes. There was a huskiness in his voice, and his neck was long. His beard was thick, and his eyebrows were finely arched and joined together. When silent, he was grave and dignified, and when he spoke, glory rose up and overcame him. He was from afar the most beautiful of men and the most glorious, and close up he was the sweetest and the loveliest. He was sweet of speech and articulate, but not petty or trifling. His speech was a string of cascading pearls, measured so that none despaired of its length, and no eye challenged him because of brevity. In company he is like a branch between two other branches, but he is the most flourishing of the three in appearance, and the loveliest in power. He has friends surrounding him, who listen to his words. If he commands, they obey implicitly, with eagerness and haste, without frown or complaint.

Descriptions like these were often reproduced in calligraphic panels (hilya or, in Turkish, hilye), which in the 17th century developed into an art form of their own in the Ottoman Empire.[223] Household Main articles: Muhammad's wives
Muhammad's wives
and Ahl al-Bayt See also: Possessions of Muhammad

The tomb of Muhammad
Muhammad
is located in the quarters of his third wife, Aisha. (Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Medina)

Muhammad's life is traditionally defined into two periods: pre-hijra (emigration) in Mecca
Mecca
(from 570 to 622), and post-hijra in Medina (from 622 until 632). Muhammad
Muhammad
is said to have had thirteen wives in total (although two have ambiguous accounts, Rayhana bint Zayd and Maria al-Qibtiyya, as wife or concubine.[225][226]) Eleven of the thirteen marriages occurred after the migration to Medina. At the age of 25, Muhammad
Muhammad
married the wealthy Khadijah bint Khuwaylid who was 40 years old.[227] The marriage lasted for 25 years and was a happy one.[228] Muhammad
Muhammad
did not enter into marriage with another woman during this marriage.[229][230] After Khadija's death, Khawla bint Hakim suggested to Muhammad
Muhammad
that he should marry Sawda bint Zama, a Muslim
Muslim
widow, or Aisha, daughter of Um Ruman and Abu Bakr of Mecca. Muhammad
Muhammad
is said to have asked for arrangements to marry both.[156] Muhammad's marriages after the death of Khajida were contracted mostly for political or humanitarian reasons. The women were either widows of Muslims killed in battle and had been left without a protector, or belonged to important families or clans whom it was necessary to honor and strengthen alliances with.[231] According to traditional sources Aisha
Aisha
was six or seven years old when betrothed to Muhammad,[156][232][233] with the marriage not being consummated until she had reached puberty at the age of nine or ten years old.[156][232][234][235][236][237][238][239][240] She was therefore a virgin at marriage.[232] Modern Muslim
Muslim
authors who calculate Aisha's age based on other sources of information, such that available about her sister Asma about whom more is known, estimate that she was over thirteen and perhaps in her late teens at the time of her marriage.[241][242][243][244][245] After migration to Medina, Muhammad, who was then in his fifties, married several more women. Muhammad
Muhammad
performed household chores such as preparing food, sewing clothes, and repairing shoes. He is also said to have had accustomed his wives to dialogue; he listened to their advice, and the wives debated and even argued with him.[246][247][248] Khadijah is said to have had four daughters with Muhammad
Muhammad
(Ruqayyah bint Muhammad, Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad, Zainab bint Muhammad, Fatimah
Fatimah
Zahra) and two sons ( Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad and Qasim ibn Muhammad, who both died in childhood). All but one of his daughters, Fatimah, died before him.[249] Some Shi'a scholars contend that Fatimah
Fatimah
was Muhammad's only daughter.[250] Maria al-Qibtiyya bore him a son named Ibrahim ibn Muhammad, but the child died when he was two years old.[249] Nine of Muhammad's wives
Muhammad's wives
survived him.[226] Aisha, who became known as Muhammad's favourite wife in Sunni
Sunni
tradition, survived him by decades and was instrumental in helping assemble the scattered sayings of Muhammad
Muhammad
that form the Hadith
Hadith
literature for the Sunni
Sunni
branch of Islam.[156] Muhammad's descendants through Fatimah
Fatimah
are known as sharifs, syeds or sayyids. These are honorific titles in Arabic, sharif meaning 'noble' and sayed or sayyid meaning 'lord' or 'sir'. As Muhammad's only descendants, they are respected by both Sunni
Sunni
and Shi'a, though the Shi'a place much more emphasis and value on their distinction.[251] Zayd ibn Haritha was a slave that Muhammad
Muhammad
bought, freed, and then adopted as his son. He also had a wetnurse.[252] According to a BBC summary, "the Prophet
Prophet
Muhammad
Muhammad
did not try to abolish slavery, and bought, sold, captured, and owned slaves himself. But he insisted that slave owners treat their slaves well and stressed the virtue of freeing slaves. Muhammad
Muhammad
treated slaves as human beings and clearly held some in the highest esteem".[253] Legacy

Part of a series on

Muhammad

Life

Life in Mecca Migration to Medina Life in Medina Farewell Pilgrimage Milestones and records

Career

First revelation Military career Diplomatic career Conquest of Mecca Hadith

Miracles

Quran Isra and Mi'raj Splitting of the moon Miracles of Muhammad

Views

Jews Christians

Succession

Farewell Sermon Hadith
Hadith
(Pen and Paper) Saqifah Ahl al-Bayt Sahaba History

Praise

Durood Naat Mawlid

Perspectives

Islamic Muhammad
Muhammad
in the Bible Jewish Medieval Christian Historicity Criticism

Related

Mosque
Mosque
of the prophet Possessions Relics

Muhammad
Muhammad
portal Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Muslim
Muslim
views Main article: Muhammad
Muhammad
in Islam Following the attestation to the oneness of God, the belief in Muhammad's prophethood is the main aspect of the Islamic faith. Every Muslim
Muslim
proclaims in Shahadah: "I testify that there is no god but God, and I testify that Muhammad
Muhammad
is a Messenger of God." The Shahadah
Shahadah
is the basic creed or tenet of Islam. Islamic belief is that ideally the Shahadah
Shahadah
is the first words a newborn will hear; children are taught it immediately and it will be recited upon death. Muslims repeat the shahadah in the call to prayer (adhan) and the prayer itself. Non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam
Islam
are required to recite the creed.[254] In Islamic belief, Muhammad
Muhammad
is regarded as the last prophet sent by God.[255][256][257][258][259] Quran 10:37 states that "...it (the Quran) is a confirmation of (revelations) that went before it, and a fuller explanation of the Book – wherein there is no doubt – from The Lord of the Worlds.". Similarly Quran 46:12 states "...And before this was the book of Moses, as a guide and a mercy. And this Book
Book
confirms (it)...", while 2:136 commands the believers of Islam
Islam
to "Say: we believe in God
God
and that which is revealed unto us, and that which was revealed unto Abraham and Ishmael
Ishmael
and Isaac
Isaac
and Jacob
Jacob
and the tribes, and that which Moses and Jesus
Jesus
received, and which the prophets received from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and unto Him we have surrendered."

The Muslim
Muslim
profession of faith, the Shahadah, illustrates the Muslim conception of the role of Muhammad: "There is no god except the God and Muhammad
Muhammad
is the Messenger of God." (Topkapı Palace)

Muslim
Muslim
tradition credits Muhammad
Muhammad
with several miracles or supernatural events.[260] For example, many Muslim
Muslim
commentators and some Western scholars have interpreted the Surah 54:1–2 as referring to Muhammad
Muhammad
splitting the Moon
Moon
in view of the Quraysh
Quraysh
when they began persecuting his followers.[261][262] Western historian of Islam
Islam
Denis Gril believes the Quran
Quran
does not overtly describe Muhammad
Muhammad
performing miracles, and the supreme miracle of Muhammad
Muhammad
is identified with the Quran
Quran
itself.[261] According to Islamic tradition, Muhammad
Muhammad
was attacked by the people of Ta'if
Ta'if
and was badly injured. The tradition also describes an angel appearing to him and offering retribution against the assailants. It is said that Muhammad
Muhammad
rejected the offer and prayed for the guidance of the people of Ta'if.[263] The Sunnah
Sunnah
represents actions and sayings of Muhammad
Muhammad
(preserved in reports known as Hadith), and covers a broad array of activities and beliefs ranging from religious rituals, personal hygiene, burial of the dead to the mystical questions involving the love between humans and God. The Sunnah
Sunnah
is considered a model of emulation for pious Muslims and has to a great degree influenced the Muslim
Muslim
culture. The greeting that Muhammad
Muhammad
taught Muslims to offer each other, "may peace be upon you" (Arabic: as-salamu 'alaykum) is used by Muslims throughout the world. Many details of major Islamic rituals such as daily prayers, the fasting and the annual pilgrimage are only found in the Sunnah
Sunnah
and not the Quran.[264]

Calligraphic rendering of "peace be upon him", customarily added after Muhammad's name in writing. The phrase is encoded as a ligature at Unicode
Unicode
codepoint U+FDFA.[265] ﷺ‬.

The Sunnah
Sunnah
contributed much to the development of Islamic law, particularly from the end of the first Islamic century.[266] Muslim mystics, known as sufis, who were seeking for the inner meaning of the Quran
Quran
and the inner nature of Muhammad, viewed the prophet of Islam not only as a prophet but also as a perfect human-being. All Sufi orders trace their chain of spiritual descent back to Muhammad.[267] Muslims have traditionally expressed love and veneration for Muhammad. Stories of Muhammad's life, his intercession and of his miracles (particularly "Splitting of the moon") have permeated popular Muslim thought and poetry. Among Arabic odes to Muhammad, Qasidat al-Burda ("Poem of the Mantle") by the Egyptian Sufi
Sufi
al-Busiri (1211–1294) is particularly well known, and widely held to possess a healing, spiritual power.[268] The Quran
Quran
refers to Muhammad
Muhammad
as "a mercy (rahmat) to the worlds" ( Quran
Quran
21:107).[14] The association of rain with mercy in Oriental countries has led to imagining Muhammad
Muhammad
as a rain cloud dispensing blessings and stretching over lands, reviving the dead hearts, just as rain revives the seemingly dead earth (see, for example, the Sindhi poem of Shah ʿAbd al-Latif).[14] Muhammad's birthday is celebrated as a major feast throughout the Islamic world, excluding Wahhabi-dominated Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
where these public celebrations are discouraged.[269] When Muslims say or write the name of Muhammad, they usually follow it with Peace
Peace
be upon him (Arabic: ṣallā llahu ʿalayhi wa-sallam).[270] In casual writing, this is sometimes abbreviated as PBUH or SAW; in printed matter, a small calligraphic rendition is commonly used (ﷺ). Islamic depictions Main article: Depictions of Muhammad

Muhammad's entry into Mecca
Mecca
and the destruction of idols. Muhammad
Muhammad
is shown as a flame in this manuscript. Found in Bazil's Hamla-i Haydari, Kashmir, 1808.

In line with the hadith's prohibition against creating images of sentient living beings, which is particularly strictly observed with respect to God
God
and Muhammad, Islamic religious art is focused on the word.[271][272] Muslims generally avoid depictions of Muhammad, and mosques are decorated with calligraphy and Quranic inscriptions or geometrical designs, not images or sculptures.[271][273] Today, the interdiction against images of Muhammad – designed to prevent worship of Muhammad, rather than God – is much more strictly observed in Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
(85%–90% of Muslims) and Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Islam (1%) than among Shias (10%–15%).[274] While both Sunnis and Shias have created images of Muhammad
Muhammad
in the past,[275] Islamic depictions of Muhammad
Muhammad
are rare.[271] They have mostly been limited to the private and elite medium of the miniature, and since about 1500 most depictions show Muhammad
Muhammad
with his face veiled, or symbolically represent him as a flame.[273][276] The earliest extant depictions come from 13th century Anatolian Seljuk and Ilkhanid
Ilkhanid
Persian miniatures, typically in literary genres describing the life and deeds of Muhammad.[276][277] During the Ilkhanid
Ilkhanid
period, when Persia's Mongol rulers converted to Islam, competing Sunni
Sunni
and Shi'a groups used visual imagery, including images of Muhammad, to promote their particular interpretation of Islam's key events.[278] Influenced by the Buddhist tradition of representational religious art predating the Mongol elite's conversion, this innovation was unprecedented in the Islamic world, and accompanied by a "broader shift in Islamic artistic culture away from abstraction toward representation" in "mosques, on tapestries, silks, ceramics, and in glass and metalwork" besides books.[279] In the Persian lands, this tradition of realistic depictions lasted through the Timurid dynasty until the Safavids
Safavids
took power in the early 16th century.[278] The Safavaids, who made Shi'i Islam
Islam
the state religion, initiated a departure from the traditional Ilkhanid
Ilkhanid
and Timurid artistic style by covering Muhammad's face with a veil to obscure his features and at the same time represent his luminous essence.[280] Concomitantly, some of the unveiled images from earlier periods were defaced.[278][281][282] Later images were produced in Ottoman Turkey and elsewhere, but mosques were never decorated with images of Muhammad.[275] Illustrated accounts of the night journey (mi'raj) were particularly popular from the Ilkhanid
Ilkhanid
period through the Safavid era.[283] During the 19th century, Iran
Iran
saw a boom of printed and illustrated mi'raj books, with Muhammad's face veiled, aimed in particular at illiterates and children in the manner of graphic novels. Reproduced through lithography, these were essentially "printed manuscripts".[283] Today, millions of historical reproductions and modern images are available in some Muslim countries, especially Turkey and Iran, on posters, postcards, and even in coffee-table books, but are unknown in most other parts of the Islamic world, and when encountered by Muslims from other countries, they can cause considerable consternation and offense.[275][276] Medieval Christian
Christian
views See also: Medieval Christian
Christian
views on Muhammad The earliest documented Christian
Christian
knowledge of Muhammad
Muhammad
stems from Byzantine
Byzantine
sources. They indicate that both Jews
Jews
and Christians saw Muhammad
Muhammad
as a false prophet.[284] Another Greek source for Muhammad
Muhammad
is Theophanes the Confessor, a 9th-century writer. The earliest Syriac source is the 7th-century writer John bar Penkaye.[285] According to Hossein Nasr, the earliest European literature often refers to Muhammad
Muhammad
unfavorably. A few learned circles of Middle Ages Europe – primarily Latin-literate scholars – had access to fairly extensive biographical material about Muhammad. They interpreted the biography through a Christian
Christian
religious filter; one that viewed Muhammad
Muhammad
as a person who seduced the Saracens
Saracens
into his submission under religious guise.[14] Popular European literature of the time portrayed Muhammad
Muhammad
as though he were worshipped by Muslims, similar to an idol or a heathen god.[14] In later ages, Muhammad
Muhammad
came to be seen as a schismatic: Brunetto Latini's 13th century Li livres dou tresor represents him as a former monk and cardinal,[14] and Dante's Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
(Inferno, Canto 28), written in the early 1300s, puts Muhammad
Muhammad
and his son-in-law, Ali, in Hell
Hell
"among the sowers of discord and the schismatics, being lacerated by devils again and again."[14] Emergence of positive views in Europe

Muhammad
Muhammad
in La vie de Mahomet by M. Prideaux (1699). He holds a sword and a crescent while trampling on a globe, a cross, and the Ten Commandments.

After the Reformation, Muhammad
Muhammad
was often portrayed in a similar way.[14][286] Guillaume Postel
Guillaume Postel
was among the first to present a more positive view of Muhammad
Muhammad
when he argued that Muhammad
Muhammad
should be esteemed by Christians as a valid prophet.[14][287] Gottfried Leibniz praised Muhammad
Muhammad
because "he did not deviate from the natural religion".[14] Henri de Boulainvilliers, in his Vie de Mahomed which was published posthumously in 1730, described Muhammad
Muhammad
as a gifted political leader and a just lawmaker.[14] He presents him as a divinely inspired messenger whom God
God
employed to confound the bickering Oriental Christians, to liberate the Orient from the despotic rule of the Romans
Romans
and Persians, and to spread the knowledge of the unity of God
God
from India to Spain.[288] Voltaire
Voltaire
had a somewhat mixed opinion on Muhammad: in his play Le fanatisme, ou Mahomet le Prophète he vilifies Muhammad
Muhammad
as a symbol of fanaticism, and in a published essay in 1748 he calls him "a sublime and hearty charlatan", but in his historical survey Essai sur les mœurs, he presents him as legislator and a conqueror and calls him an "enthusiast."[288] Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in his Social Contract (1762), "brushing aside hostile legends of Muhammad
Muhammad
as a trickster and impostor, presents him as a sage legislator who wisely fused religious and political powers."[288] Emmanuel Pastoret published in 1787 his Zoroaster, Confucius
Confucius
and Muhammad, in which he presents the lives of these three "great men", "the greatest legislators of the universe", and compares their careers as religious reformers and lawgivers. He rejects the common view that Muhammad
Muhammad
is an impostor and argues that the Quran proffers "the most sublime truths of cult and morals"; it defines the unity of God
God
with an "admirable concision." Pastoret writes that the common accusations of his immorality are unfounded: on the contrary, his law enjoins sobriety, generosity, and compassion on his followers: the "legislator of Arabia" was "a great man."[288] Napoleon Bonaparte admired Muhammad
Muhammad
and Islam,[289] and described him as a model lawmaker and a great man.[290][291] Thomas Carlyle
Thomas Carlyle
in his book Heroes and Hero Worship and the Heroic in History (1840) describes Muhammad
Muhammad
as "[a] silent great soul; [...] one of those who cannot but be in earnest".[292] Carlyle's interpretation has been widely cited by Muslim
Muslim
scholars as a demonstration that Western scholarship validates Muhammad's status as a great man in history.[293] Views by modern historians Recent writers such as William Montgomery Watt
William Montgomery Watt
and Richard Bell dismiss the idea that Muhammad
Muhammad
deliberately deceived his followers, arguing that Muhammad
Muhammad
"was absolutely sincere and acted in complete good faith"[294] and Muhammad's readiness to endure hardship for his cause, with what seemed to be no rational basis for hope, shows his sincerity.[295] Watt, however, says that sincerity does not directly imply correctness: In contemporary terms, Muhammad
Muhammad
might have mistaken his subconscious for divine revelation.[296] Watt and Bernard Lewis argue that viewing Muhammad
Muhammad
as a self-seeking impostor makes it impossible to understand Islam's development.[297][298] Alford T. Welch holds that Muhammad
Muhammad
was able to be so influential and successful because of his firm belief in his vocation.[14] Other religious views See also: Judaism's views on Muhammad
Muhammad
and Muhammad
Muhammad
in the Bahá'í Faith Bahá'ís venerate Muhammad
Muhammad
as one of a number of prophets or "Manifestations of God". He is thought to be the final manifestation, or seal of the Adamic cycle, but consider his teachings to have been superseded by those of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahai faith, and the first of Manifestation of the current cycle.[299][300] Criticism Main article: Criticism of Muhammad As early as the 7th century Muhammad
Muhammad
was attacked by non- Muslim
Muslim
Arab contemporaries for preaching monotheism. In modern times, criticism has also dealt with Muhammad's sincerity in claiming to be a prophet, his morality, warfare, and his marriages.[citation needed] See also

Book: Islam Book: Military career of Muhammad

Ashtiname of Muhammad Arabian tribes that interacted with Muhammad Comparison of the founders of religious traditions Diplomatic career of Muhammad Glossary of Islam List of founders of religious traditions Muhammad
Muhammad
in film Muhammad
Muhammad
in the Bible List of biographies of Muhammad List of notable Hijazis The Message (1976 film) Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet
Prophet
(documentary) Military career of Muhammad Prophethood (Ahmadiyya) Relics of Muhammad Umm Ayman (Barakah)

Biography portal Islam
Islam
portal Middle East portal Muhammad
Muhammad
portal

Notes

^ Full name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (Arabic: ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم‎, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad
Muhammad
son of Abd Allah
Allah
son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) ^ Classical Arabic pronunciation ^ The Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
Community considers Muhammad
Muhammad
to be the "Seal of the Prophets" (Khātam an-Nabiyyīn) and the last law-bearing Prophet but not the last Prophet. See:

Simon Ross Valentine (2008). Islam
Islam
and the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Jama'at: History, Belief, Practice. Columbia University Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-1-85065-916-7.  "Finality of Prophethood Hadhrat Muhammad
Muhammad
(PUBH) the Last Prophet". Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
Community. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. 

There are also smaller sects which believe Muhammad
Muhammad
to be not the last Prophet:

The Nation of Islam
Islam
considers Elijah
Elijah
Muhammad
Muhammad
to be a prophet (source: African American Religious Leaders – p. 76, Jim Haskins, Kathleen Benson – 2008). United Submitters International consider Rashad Khalifa to be a prophet. (Source: Daniel Pipes, Miniatures: Views of Islamic and Middle Eastern Politics, p. 98 (2004))

^ The aforementioned Islamic histories recount that as Muhammad
Muhammad
was reciting Sūra Al-Najm (Q.53), as revealed to him by the Archangel Gabriel, Satan tempted him to utter the following lines after verses 19 and 20: "Have you thought of Allāt
Allāt
and al-'Uzzā and Manāt the third, the other; These are the exalted Gharaniq, whose intercession is hoped for." (Allāt, al-'Uzzā and Manāt were three goddesses worshiped by the Meccans). cf Ibn Ishaq, A. Guillaume p. 166 ^ "Apart from this one-day lapse, which was excised from the text, the Quran
Quran
is simply unrelenting, unaccommodating and outright despising of paganism." (The Cambridge Companion to Muhammad, Jonathan E. Brockopp, p. 35) ^ "Although, there could be some historical basis for the story, in its present form, it is certainly a later, exegetical fabrication. Sura
Sura
LIII, 1–20 and the end of the sura are not a unity, as is claimed by the story, XXII, 52 is later than LIII, 2107 and is almost certainly Medinan; and several details of the story—the mosque, the sadjda, and others not mentioned in the short summary above do not belong to Meccan setting. Caetani and J. Burton have argued against the historicity of the story on other grounds, Caetani on the basis of week isnads, Burton concluded that the story was invented by jurists so that XXII 52 could serve as a Kuranic proof-text for their abrogation theories."("Kuran" in the Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Vol. 5 (1986), p. 404)

References

^ Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition. Many earlier (primarily non-Islamic) traditions refer to him as still alive at the time of the invasion of Palestine. See Stephen J. Shoemaker,The Death of a Prophet: The End of Muhammad's Life and the Beginnings of Islam, page 248, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011. ^ Buhl, F., Welch, A.T., Schimmel, Annemarie, Noth, A. and Ehlert, Trude (2012). "Muḥammad". In P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
(2nd ed.). Brill. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0780. (Subscription required (help)). Muḥammad, the Prophet
Prophet
of Islam. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ a b Alford T. Welch, Ahmad
Ahmad
S. Moussalli, Gordon D. Newby (2009). "Muḥammad". In John L. Esposito. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. The Prophet
Prophet
of Islam
Islam
was a religious, political, and social reformer who gave rise to one of the great civilizations of the world. From a modern, historical perspective, Muḥammad was the founder of Islam. From the perspective of the Islamic faith, he was God's Messenger (rasūl Allāh), called to be a "warner," first to the Arabs and then to all humankind. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Esposito (2002b), pp. 4–5. ^ Peters, F.E. (2003). Islam: A Guide for Jews
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Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, pp. 26–27. UK Islamic Academy. ISBN 978-1872531656. ^ Anis Ahmad
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Prophet
Abraham. Here it stands for the straight path (al-dīn al-ḥanīf) toward which Abraham
Abraham
and other messengers called the people [...] The Qurʿān asserts that this was the path or practice followed by Abraham
Abraham
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Holt (1977a), p. 57 Lapidus (2002), pp. 31–32

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Book
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Book
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Esposito, Islam, Extended Edition, Oxford University Press, pp. 5–7 Quran
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Louis Jacobs (1995), p. 272 Turner (2005), p. 16

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waited for Aisha
Aisha
to reach physical maturity before consummation comes from al-Ṭabarī, who says she was too young for intercourse at the time of the marriage contract;  ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:58:234, Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:58:236, Sahih al-Bukhari, 7:62:64, Sahih al-Bukhari, 7:62:65, Sahih al-Bukhari, 7:62:88, Sahih Muslim, 8:3309, 8:3310, 8:3311, 41:4915, Sunan Abu Dawood, 41:4917 ^ Tabari, Volume 9, Page 131; Tabari, Volume 7, Page 7 ^ Barlas, Asma (2012). "Believing Women" in Islam: Unreading Patriarchal Interpretations of the Qur'an. University of Texas Press. p. 126. On the other hand, however, Muslims who calculate 'Ayesha's age based on details of her sister Asma's age, about whom more is known, as well as on details of the Hijra (the Prophet's migration from Mecca
Mecca
to Madina), maintain that she was over thirteen and perhaps between seventeen and nineteen when she got married. Such views cohere with those Ahadith that claim that at her marriage Ayesha had "good knowledge of Ancient Arabic poetry and genealogy" and "pronounced the fundamental rules of Arabic Islamic ethics.  ^ "The Concept of Polygamy and the Prophet's Marriages (Chapter: The Other Wives)". Archived from the original on 7 February 2011.  ^ Ali, Muhammad
Muhammad
(1997). Muhammad
Muhammad
the Prophet. Ahamadiyya Anjuman Ishaat Islam. p. 150. ISBN 978-0913321072. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016.  ^ Ayatollah Qazvini. "Ayesha married the Prophet
Prophet
when she was young? (In Persian and Arabic)". Archived from the original on 26 September 2010.  ^ A.C. Brown, Jonathan (2014). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications. pp. 146–47. ISBN 978-1780744209.  ^ Tariq Ramadan
Tariq Ramadan
(2007), pp. 168–69 ^ Asma Barlas (2002), p. 125 ^ Armstrong (1992), p. 157 ^ a b Nicholas Awde (2000), p. 10 ^ Ordoni (1990), pp. 32, 42–44. ^ "Ali". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.  ^ Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya recorded the list of some names of Muhammad's female-slaves in Zad al-Ma'ad, Part I, p. 116 ^ "Slavery in Islam". BBC. Archived from the original on 24 June 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2016.  ^ Farah (1994), p. 135 ^ Esposito (1998), p. 12. ^ Clark, Malcolm (2003). Islam
Islam
for Dummies. Indiana: Wiley Publishing Inc. p. 100. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.  ^ Nigosian, S. A. (2004). Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices. Indiana: Indiana
Indiana
University Press. p. 17. ISBN 0-253-21627-3. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.  ^ Juan E. Campo, ed. (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Facts on File. p. 494. ISBN 978-0-8160-5454-1. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015.  ^ "Muhammad". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2013. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013.  ^ A.J. Wensinck, Muʿd̲j̲iza, Encyclopedia of Islam ^ a b Denis Gril, Miracles, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an ^ Daniel Martin Varisco, Moon, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an ^ A Restatement of the History of Islam
Islam
and Muslims chapter "Muhammad's Visit to Ta’if Archived 26 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine." on al-islam.org ^ Muhammad, Encyclopædia Britannica, p. 9 ^ "Arabic Presentation Forms-A" (PDF). The Unicode
Unicode
Standard, Version 5.2. Mountain View, Ca.: Unicode, Inc. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 9 May 2010.  ^ J. Schacht, Fiḳh, Encyclopedia of Islam ^ Muhammad, Encyclopædia Britannica, pp. 11–12 ^ Suzanne Pinckney Stetkevych (24 May 2010). The mantle odes: Arabic praise poems to the Prophet
Prophet
Muḥammad. Indiana
Indiana
University Press. p. xii. ISBN 978-0-253-22206-0. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2012.  ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Encyclopædia Britannica, Muhammad, p. 13 ^ Ann Goldman, Richard Hain, Stephen Liben (2006), p. 212 ^ a b c Kees Wagtendonk (1987). "Images in Islam". In Dirk van der Plas. Effigies dei: essays on the history of religions. Brill. pp. 119–24. ISBN 978-90-04-08655-5. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2011.  ^ John L. Esposito (2011). What everyone needs to know about Islam
Islam
(2 ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-0-19-979413-3. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015.  ^ a b F.E. Peters (10 November 2010). Jesus
Jesus
and Muhammad: Parallel Tracks, Parallel Lives. Oxford University Press. pp. 159–61. ISBN 978-0-19-974746-7. Archived from the original on 14 June 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2011.  ^ Safi2010 (2 November 2010). 2 November 2010. HarperCollins. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-06-123135-3. Archived from the original on 14 June 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2011.  ^ a b c Safi, Omid (5 May 2011). "Why Islam
Islam
does (not) ban images of the Prophet". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2 February 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2011.  ^ a b c Freek L. Bakker (15 September 2009). The challenge of the silver screen: an analysis of the cinematic portraits of Jesus, Rama, Buddha and Muhammad. Brill. pp. 207–09. ISBN 978-90-04-16861-9. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2011.  ^ Christiane Gruber (2009). "Between Logos (Kalima) and Light (Nur): Representations of the Muslim
Muslim
Prophet
Prophet
Muhammad
Muhammad
in Islamic Painting". In Gulru Necipoglu. Muqarnas. 26. Brill. pp. 234–35. ISBN 978-90-04-17589-1. Archived from the original on 11 July 2012.  ^ a b c Johan Elverskog (2010). Buddhism
Buddhism
and Islam
Islam
on the Silk Road. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-8122-4237-9. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015.  ^ Johan Elverskog (2010). Buddhism
Buddhism
and Islam
Islam
on the Silk Road. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 164–69. ISBN 978-0-8122-4237-9. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.  ^ Christiane Gruber (2011). "When Nubuvvat encounters Valayat: Safavid painting of the "Prophet" Mohammad's Mi'raj, c. 1500–50". In Pedram Khosronejad. The Art and Material Culture of Iranian Shi'ism: Iconography and Religious Devotion in Shi'i Islam. I. B. Tauris. pp. 46–47. ISBN 978-1-84885-168-9. Archived from the original on 2 January 2017.  ^ Elizabeth Edwards; Kaushik Bhaumik (2008). Visual sense: a cultural reader. Berg. p. 344. ISBN 978-1-84520-741-0. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015.  ^ D. Fairchild Ruggles
D. Fairchild Ruggles
(2011). Islamic Art and Visual Culture: An Anthology of Sources. John Wiley and Sons. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-4051-5401-7. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.  ^ a b Ali
Ali
Boozari (2010). "Persian illustrated lithographed books on the miʻrāj: improving children's Shi'i beliefs in the Qajar period". In Christiane J. Gruber; Frederick Stephen Colby. The Prophet's ascension: cross-cultural encounters with the Islamic mi'rāj tales. Indiana
Indiana
University Press. pp. 252–54. ISBN 978-0-253-35361-0. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015.  ^ Walter Emil Kaegi, Jr., "Initial Byzantine
Byzantine
Reactions to the Arab Conquest", Church History, Vol. 38, No. 2 (June 1969), pp. 139–42, quoting from Doctrina Jacobi nuper baptizati 86–87 ^ Philip K. Hitti, History of the Arabs, 10th edition (1970), p. 112. ^ Lewis (2002) ^ Warraq, Ibn (2007). Defending the West: A Critique of Edward Said's Orientalism. Prometheus Books. p. 147. ISBN 9781615920204. Indeed, [Postel's] greater tolerance for other religions was much in evidence in Παvθεvωδια: compostio omnium dissidiorum, where, astonishingly for the sixteenth century, he argued that Muhammad
Muhammad
ought to be esteemed even in Christendom as a genuine prophet.  ^ a b c d Brockopp, Jonathan E (2010). The Cambridge Companion to Muḥammad. New York: Cambridge UP. pp. 240–42. ISBN 978-0521713726.  ^ Talk
Talk
Of Napoleon At St. Helena (1903), pp. 279–80 ^ Brockopp, Jonathan E., ed. (2010). The Cambridge Companion to Muhammad. Cambridge Companions to Religion. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-71372-6. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013.  ^ Younos, Farid (2010). Islamic Culture. Cambridge Companions to Religion. AuthorHouse. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-4918-2344-6. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Carlyle, Thomas (1841). On heroes, hero worship and the heroic in history. London: James Fraser. p. 87.  ^ Kecia Ali
Ali
(2014). The Lives of Muhammad. Harvard UP. p. 48. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015.  ^ Watt, Bell (1995) p. 18 ^ Watt (1974), p. 232 ^ Watt (1974), p. 17 ^ Watt, The Cambridge History of Islam, p. 37 ^ Lewis (1993), p. 45. ^ Smith, P. (1999). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications. p. 251. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.  ^ "A Bahá'í Approach to the Claim of Finality in Islam". bahai-library.com. Archived from the original on 19 June 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2016. 

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Muhammad
Mohar (1997). The Biography of the Prophet
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Prophet
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(1977). The Cambridge History of Islam
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(paperback). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29135-4.  Hourani, Albert; Ruthven, Malise (2003). A History of the Arab Peoples. Belknap Press; Revised edition. ISBN 978-0-674-01017-8.  ibn Isa, Muhammad
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(Imam Tirmidhi) (2011). Syama'il Muhammadiyah: KeanggunanMu Ya Rasulullah (Hardcover) (in Arabic and Malay). Malaysia: PTS Islamika Sdn. Bhd. p. 388. ISBN 978-967-3-66064-3.  Ishaq, Ibn (2002). Guillaume, Alfred, ed. The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-636033-1.  Jacobs, Louis (1995). The Jewish Religion: A Companion. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826463-1.  Kelsay, John (1993). Islam
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and War: A Study in Comparative Ethics. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-25302-4.  Khan, Majid Ali
Ali
(1998). Muhammad
Muhammad
The Final Messenger. Islamic Book Service, New Delhi, 110002 (India). ISBN 81-85738-25-4.  Kochler, Hans (1982). Concept of Monotheism
Monotheism
in Islam
Islam
& Christianity. I.P.O. ISBN 3-7003-0339-4.  Lapidus, Ira (2002). A History of Islamic Societies (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77933-3.  Larsson, Göran (2003). Ibn Garcia's Shu'Ubiyya Letter: Ethnic and Theological Tensions in Medieval Al-Andalus. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-12740-2.  Lewis, Bernard (2002) [1993]. The Arabs in History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280310-7.  Lewis, Bernard (1992). Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry (Reprint ed.). Oxford University Press, US. ISBN 978-0-19-505326-5.  Lewis, Bernard (21 January 1998). "Islamic Revolution". The New York Review of Books.  Lings, Martin (1983). Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources. Islamic Texts Society. ISBN 978-0-946621-33-0.  US edn. by Inner Traditions International, Ltd. Madelung, Wilferd (1997). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-64696-0.  Momen, Moojan (1985). An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shiʻism. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03531-4.  Neusner, Jacob
Jacob
(2003). God's Rule: The Politics of World Religions. Georgetown University Press. ISBN 0-87840-910-6.  Nigosian, S. A. (2004). Islam:Its History, Teaching, and Practices. Indiana
Indiana
University Press. ISBN 0-253-21627-3.  Ordoni, Abu Muhammad; Muhammad
Muhammad
Kazim Qazwini (1992). Fatima the Gracious. Ansariyan Publications. ASIN B000BWQ7N6.  Peters, Francis Edward (2003). Islam: A Guide for Jews
Jews
and Christians. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11553-2.  Peters, Francis Edward (2003). The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11461-7. ASIN: B0012385Z6.  Peters, Francis Edward (1994). Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Origins of Islam. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-1876-6.  Peters, F.E. (1991). "The Quest of the Historical Muhammad". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 23 (3): 291–315. doi:10.1017/S0020743800056312.  Peterson, Daniel (2007). Muhammad, Prophet
Prophet
of God. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8028-0754-2.  Rahman, Fazlur (1979). Islam. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-70281-2.  Ramadan, Tariq (2007). In the Footsteps of the Prophet: Lessons from the Life of Muhammad. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-530880-8.  Razwi, Ali
Ali
Asgher (1997). A Restatement of the History of Islam
Islam
and Muslims. World Federation of K S I Muslim
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Communities Islamic Centre. ISBN 0-9509879-1-3.  Reeves, Minou (2003). Muhammad
Muhammad
in Europe: A Thousand Years of Western Myth-Making. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-7564-6.  Robinson, David
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(2004). Muslim
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Societies in African History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82627-6.  Rodinson, Maxime (2002). Muhammad: Prophet
Prophet
of Islam. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. ISBN 1-86064-827-4.  Rue, Loyal (2005). Religion Is Not about God: How Spiritual Traditions Nurture Our Biological. Rutgers. ISBN 0-8135-3955-2.  Serin, Muhittin (1998). Hattat Aziz Efendi. Istanbul. ISBN 975-7663-03-4. OCLC 51718704.  Sikand, Yoginder (2004). Muslims in India since 1947: Islamic perspectives on inter-faith relations. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-415-31486-0.  Tabatabae, Sayyid
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Mohammad Hosayn. AL-MIZAN:AN EXEGESIS OF THE QUR'AN, translation by S. Saeed Rizvi. WOFIS. ISBN 964-6521-14-2.  Teed, Peter (1992). A Dictionary of Twentieth Century History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-211676-2.  Turner, Colin (2005). Islam: The Basics. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-34106-X.  Watt, W. Montgomery (1961). Muhammad: Prophet
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at Medina. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-577307-1.  Watt, W. Montgomery (1953). Muhammad
Muhammad
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Encyclopedias

William H. McNeill; Jerry H. Bentley; David
David
Christian, eds. (2005). Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History. Berkshire Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-9743091-0-1.  Richard C. Martin; Said Amir Arjomand; Marcia Hermansen; Abdulkader Tayob; Rochelle Davis; John Obert Voll, eds. (2003). Encyclopedia of Islam
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& the Muslim
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World. MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0-02-865603-8.  P.J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.  Lindsay Jones, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of Religion (2nd ed.). MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0-02-865733-2.  Jane Dammen McAuliffe, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of the Qur'an. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-12356-4.  Encyclopedia of World History. Oxford University Press. 1998. ISBN 0-19-860223-5.  The New Encyclopædia Britannica (Rev ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica, Incorporated. 2005. ISBN 978-1-59339-236-9. 

Further reading See also: List of biographies of Muhammad

Berg, Herbert (ed) (2003). Method and Theory in the Study of Islamic Origins. E. J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-12602-3. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Cook, Michael (1983). Muhammad. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-287605-8.  Hamidullah, Muhammad
Muhammad
(1998). The Life and Work of the Prophet
Prophet
of Islam. Islamabad: Islamic Research Institute. ISBN 969-8413-00-6.  Motzki, Harald, ed. (2000). The Biography of Muhammad: The Issue of the Sources – Islamic History and Civilization: Studies and Texts, Vol. 32. Brill. ISBN 90-04-11513-7. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Musa, A.Y. Hadith
Hadith
as Scripture: Discussions on The Authority Of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, New York: Palgrave, 2008 Rubin, Uri (1995). The Eye of the Beholder: The Life of Muhammad
Muhammad
as Viewed by the Early Muslims (A Textual Analysis). Darwin Press. ISBN 0-87850-110-X.  Schimmel, Annemarie (1985). And Muhammad
Muhammad
is His Messenger: The Veneration of the Prophet
Prophet
in Islamic Piety. The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4128-5.  Alfred Guillaume, Ibn Ishaq: The life of Muhammad, a translation of Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah, with introduction and notes, Oxford University Press, 1955, ISBN 0 19 636033 1

External links

Find more aboutMuhammadat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Data from Wikidata

Muḥammad, in The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World Muhammad, article on Encyclopædia Britannica Online Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet — PBS Site

v t e

Muhammad

Relatives

Parents

Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib Aminah

Foster parents

Sobia Halimah bint Abi Dhuayb

Foster brothers and sisters

Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib
Abdul-Muttalib
(Uncle) Abu Salama 'Abd Allah
Allah
ibn 'Abd al-Asad Abu Sufyan
Abu Sufyan
ibn al-Harith

Wives

Khadija bint Khuwaylid Sawda bint Zamʿa Aisha Hafsa bint Umar Zaynab bint Khuzayma Umm Salama Zaynab bint Jahsh Jawairia bint Harith Maria al-Qibtiyya Ramla bint Abi Sufyan Safiyya bint Huyayy Maymunah bint al-Harith

Children

Children

Qasim ibn Muhammad Abd- Allah
Allah
ibn Muhammad Ibrahim ibn Muhammad Zainab bint Muhammad Ruqayyah bint Muhammad Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad Fatimah

Grand sons

Hasan ibn Ali Husayn ibn Ali Muhsin ibn Ali Zaynab bint Ali Umm Kulthum bint Ali

Miracles

Quran Splitting of the moon Isra and Mi'raj

Events

Hijra (Islam) Expeditions Farewell Pilgrimage

Farewell Sermon

Delegates Year Year of Sorrow Aqaba pledge of allegiance Muhammad's visit to Ta'if

People

Abu Bakr Umar Uthman
Uthman
(son-in-law) Ali
Ali
(son-in-law and Cousin) Ja'far ibn Abi Talib (Cousin) Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib
Abdul-Muttalib
(Uncle) Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib
Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib
(Uncle) Abū Lahab
Abū Lahab
(Uncle) Al-‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib
Al-‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib
(Uncle) Abdul-Muttalib
Abdul-Muttalib
(Grandfather) Abu Sufyan
Abu Sufyan
ibn Harb Waraka ibn Nawfal Zayd ibn Harithah Hassan ibn Thabit
Hassan ibn Thabit
(poet) Bilal Ibn Rabah Anas ibn Malik Umm Ayman (Barakah) Gabriel

Related topics

Mawlid Naat Durood Salam Al-Burda Tala' al Badru 'Alayna Family tree of Muhammad Muhammad's letters to the Heads-of-State Names of Muhammad Hadith Muhammad
Muhammad
in the Bible

Related things

Possessions of Muhammad Sacred Relics (Topkapı Palace) Pulpit Qaswa
Qaswa
(Camel)

Books

Hadith

Sahih al-Bukhari Sahih Muslim Jami` at-Tirmidhi Sunan ibn Majah Sunan Abu Dawood Al-Sunan al-Sughra Kitab al-Kafi

Books about

Sirat Ibn Hisham Al-Muwahib al-Ladunniyyah Sirat-un-Nabi Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum

Sirat-un-Nabi

Ash-Shifa Shama'il Muhammadiyah

Durood

Durod e Ibrahimi Dala'il al-Khayrat

Places

Cities

Mecca Medina Ta'if Khaybar Jerusalem Abyssinia Mutah Tabuk

Symbolic

Jabal al-Nour Mount Uhud Hira Jabal Thawr Mina, Saudi Arabia Muzdalifah Mount Arafat Green Dome Green Dome Al-Baqi'

Mosques

Masjid al-Haram Al-Masjid an-Nabawi Al-Aqsa Mosque Masjid al-Qiblatayn Quba Mosque

v t e

Prophets in the Quran

آدم إدريس نوح هود صالح إبراهيم لوط إسماعيل

Adam Adam

Idris Enoch (?)

Nuh Noah

Hud Eber
Eber
(?)

Saleh Salah
Salah
(?)

Ibrahim Abraham

Lut Lot

Ismail Ishmael

إسحاق يعقوب يوسف أيوب شُعيب موسى هارون ذو الكفل داود

Is'haq Isaac

Yaqub Jacob

Yusuf Joseph

Ayyub Job

Shuayb Jethro (?)

Musa Moses

Harun Aaron

Dhul-Kifl Ezekiel
Ezekiel
(?)

Daud David

سليمان إلياس إليسع يونس زكريا يحيى عيسى مُحمد

Sulaiman Solomon

Ilyas Elijah

Al-Yasa Elisha

Yunus Jonah

Zakaria Zechariah

Yahya John

Isa Jesus

Muhammad Muhammad

Note: Muslims believe that there were many prophets sent by God
God
to mankind. The Islamic prophets above are only the ones mentioned by name in the Quran.

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron
Aaron
and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib
Yathrib
or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib
Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib
ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah
Ummah
of Islam
Islam
( Ummah
Ummah
of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad
Muhammad
and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat
Salat
(Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book
Book
of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah
Umrah
al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

v t e

Muhammad's ancestors

Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib
Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib
ibn Hashim ibn Abd Manaf ibn Qusai ibn Kilab ibn Murrah ibn Ka'b
Murrah ibn Ka'b
ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr ibn Malik ibn An-Nadr ibn Kinanah ibn Khuzaimah ibn Mudrikah ibn Ilyas ibn Mudar ibn Nizar ibn Ma'ad
Nizar ibn Ma'ad
ibn Adnan

v t e

Family of Muhammad

Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf

Abdul-Muttalib

Salma bint Amr

Abdullah

Amr ibn A'ez

Fatimah

Sakhra bint Abd

Muhammad

Abd Manaf ibn Zuhrah

Wahb

Atikah bint Al Awqas

Aminah

Abdul Uzza ibn Othman

Barrah

Um Habib bint Assad

v t e

Islam
Islam
topics

Outline of Islam

Beliefs

God
God
in Islam Tawhid Muhammad

In Islam

Prophets of Islam Angels Revelation Predestination Judgement Day

Five Pillars

Shahada Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj

History Leaders

Timeline of Muslim
Muslim
history Conquests Golden Age Historiography Sahaba Ahl al-Bayt Shi'a Imams Caliphates

Rashidun Umayyad Abbasid Córdoba Fatimid Almohad Sokoto Ottoman

Religious texts

Quran Sunnah Hadith Tafsir Seerah

Denominations

Sunni Shia Ibadi Black Muslims Ahmadiyya Quranism Non-denominational

Life Culture

Animals Art Calendar Children Clothing Holidays Mosques Madrasas Moral teachings Music Philosophy Political aspects Qurbani Science

medieval

Social welfare Women LGBT Islam
Islam
by country

Law Jurisprudence

Economics

Banking Economic history Sukuk Takaful Murabaha Riba

Hygiene

Ghusl Miswak Najis Tayammum Toilet Wudu

Marriage Sex

Marriage contract Mahr Mahram Masturbation Nikah Nikah Mut‘ah Zina

Other aspects

Cleanliness Criminal Dhabiĥa Dhimmi Divorce Diet Ethics Etiquette Gambling Gender segregation Honorifics Hudud Inheritance Jizya Leadership Ma malakat aymanukum Military

POWs

Slavery Sources of law Theological

baligh kalam

 Islamic studies

Arts

Arabesque Architecture Calligraphy Carpets Gardens Geometric patterns Music Pottery

Medieval science

Alchemy and chemistry Astronomy Cosmology Geography and cartography Mathematics Medicine Ophthalmology Physics

Philosophy

Early Contemporary Eschatology Theological

Other areas

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Liberalism
and progressivism Literature

poetry

Psychology Shu'ubiyya Conversion to mosques

Other religions

Christianity

Mormonism Protestantism

Hinduism Jainism Judaism Sikhism

Related topics

Apostasy Criticism of Islam Cultural Muslim Islamism

Criticism Post-Islamism Qutbism Salafi movement

Islamophobia

Incidents

Islamic terrorism Islamic view of miracles Domestic violence Nursing Persecution of Muslims Quran
Quran
and miracles Symbolism

Islam
Islam
portal Category

v t e

Social and political philosophy

Pre-modern philosophers

Aquinas Aristotle Averroes Augustine Chanakya Cicero Confucius Al-Ghazali Han Fei Laozi Marsilius Mencius Mozi Muhammad Plato Shang Socrates Sun
Sun
Tzu Thucydides

Modern philosophers

Bakunin Bentham Bonald Bosanquet Burke Comte Emerson Engels Fourier Franklin Grotius Hegel Hobbes Hume Jefferson Kant Kierkegaard Le Bon Le Play Leibniz Locke Machiavelli Maistre Malebranche Marx Mill Montesquieu Möser Nietzsche Paine Renan Rousseau Royce Sade Smith Spencer Spinoza Stirner Taine Thoreau Tocqueville Vivekananda Voltaire

20th–21th-century Philosophers

Ambedkar Arendt Aurobindo Aron Azurmendi Badiou Baudrillard Bauman Benoist Berlin Judith Butler Camus Chomsky De Beauvoir Debord Du Bois Durkheim Foucault Gandhi Gehlen Gentile Gramsci Habermas Hayek Heidegger Irigaray Kirk Kropotkin Lenin Luxemburg Mao Marcuse Maritain Michels Mises Negri Niebuhr Nozick Oakeshott Ortega Pareto Pettit Plamenatz Polanyi Popper Radhakrishnan Rand Rawls Rothbard Russell Santayana Sarkar Sartre Schmitt Searle Simonović Skinner Sombart Spann Spirito Strauss Sun Taylor Walzer Weber Žižek

Social theories

Ambedkarism Anarchism Authoritarianism Collectivism Communism Communitarianism Conflict theories Confucianism Consensus theory Conservatism Contractualism Cosmopolitanism Culturalism Fascism Feminist political theory Gandhism Individualism Legalism Liberalism Libertarianism Mohism National liberalism Republicanism Social constructionism Social constructivism Social Darwinism Social determinism Socialism Utilitarianism Vaisheshika

Concepts

Civil disobedience Democracy Four occupations Justice Law Mandate of Heaven Peace Property Revolution Rights Social contract Society War more...

Related articles

Jurisprudence Philosophy and economics Philosophy of education Philosophy of history Philosophy of love Philosophy of sex Philosophy of social science Political ethics Social epistemology

Category Portal Task Force

v t e

Depictions of Muhammad

History

Muhammad
Muhammad
in Islam Aniconism in Islam Hadith List of hadith collections Ibn Ishaq Ibn Hisham Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Jarir al-Tabari Hilya

Controversy

Criticism of Muhammad Criticism of Hadith Reactions to Innocence of Muslims Chennai Protest of Innocence of Muslims Lars Vilks Muhammad
Muhammad
drawings controversy Everybody Draw Mohammed Day Jyllands-Posten Muhammad
Muhammad
cartoons controversy (Category) •

Descriptions of the cartoons Economic and social consequences International reactions List of newspapers that reprinted the cartoons Opinions Timeline

Asmaa Abdol-Hamid Ahmed Akkari Geert Wilders Akkari-Laban dossier Charlie Hebdo

2015 shooting Je suis Charlie

Amir Abdur Rehman Cheema Danish embassy bombing in Islamabad El Fagr The Islamic Society
Society
in Denmark Islamist demonstration outside Danish Embassy in London in 2006 Israeli antisemitic cartoons contest Umran Javed Naser Khader Omar Khayam Ahmad
Ahmad
Abu Laban Manifesto: Together Facing the New Totalitarianism Flemming Rose Mohamad Al-Khaled Samha The Satanic Verses Andrea Santoro Vebjørn Selbekk Trial of Ghazi Beji and Jabeur Mejri Kurt Westergaard Curtis Culwell Center attack

Books

List of biographies of Muhammad
Muhammad
(Category)

Sirah Rasul Allah Shama'il Muhammadiyah Sirat-un-Nabi Al-Sira Al-Nabawiyya (Ibn Kathir) Al-Khasais-ul-Kubra Siyer-i Nebi Marzubannama Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet Muhammad: A Prophet
Prophet
for Our Time Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources The Life and Religion of Mohammed Muhammad
Muhammad
(book) Muhammad
Muhammad
at Mecca Muhammad
Muhammad
at Medina
Medina
(book)

Novel and controversial

Mahomet (play) Inferno (Dante) Captain Stormfield's Visit to Heaven The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History Vita Mahumeti The Jewel of Medina Muhammad: The "Banned" Images The Quest for the Historical Muhammad The Truth About Muhammad The Cartoons that Shook the World

Films (Category)

Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet Muhammad: The Last Prophet The Message Islam: Empire of Faith Innocence of Muslims Islam: What the West Needs to Know Fetih 1453 Muhammad: The Messenger of God Bilal

Television

Drama serials and documentaries

Muhammad: The Final Legacy The Life of Muhammad Islam: The Untold Story Omar

South Park

"Super Best Friends" "Cartoon Wars Part I" "Cartoon Wars Part II" "200" "201"

Video games

Quraish Muslim
Muslim
Massacre Faith Fighter

Category Commons Portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 97245226 LCCN: n79130881 ISNI: 0000 0001 2103 2851 GND: 118583158 SELIBR: 195602 SUDOC: 029179238 BNF: cb12085994z (data) BIBSYS: 90079298 NLA: 35367089 NDL: 00621048 NKC: jn20000701276 BNE: XX1012

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