Modena (Italian: [ˈmɔːdena] ( listen); Etruscan:
Mutna; Latin: Mutina; Modenese: Mòdna) is a city and comune
(municipality) on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of
Modena in the
Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
An ancient town, and seat of an archbishop, it is known for its
automotive industry since the factories of the famous Italian sports
car makers Ferrari, De Tomaso, Lamborghini, Pagani and
or were, located here and all, except Lamborghini, have headquarters
in the city or nearby. One of Ferrari's cars, the 360 Modena, was
named after the town itself.
The University of Modena, founded in 1175 and expanded by Francesco II
d'Este in 1686, has traditional strengths in economics, medicine and
law and is the second oldest athenaeum in Italy. Italian military
officers are trained at the Military Academy of Modena, and partly
housed in the Baroque Ducal Palace. The
Biblioteca Estense houses
historical volumes and 3,000 manuscripts. The Cathedral of Modena, the
Torre della Ghirlandina
Torre della Ghirlandina and Piazza Grande are a
UNESCO World Heritage
Site since 1997.
Modena is also known in culinary circles for its production of
Famous Modenesi include Mary of Modena, the
Queen consort of England
and Scotland; operatic tenor
Luciano Pavarotti and soprano Mirella
Freni, born in
Modena itself; Enzo Ferrari, eponymous founder of the
Ferrari motor company; Catholic priest Gabriele Amorth; chef Massimo
Bottura; comics artist Franco Bonvicini; the band
Modena City Ramblers
and singer-songwriter Francesco Guccini, who lived here for several
2 Municipal administration
2.1 City government
3.1 Ancient times
3.2 Middle Ages
3.3 Modern age
4 Main sights
4.1 Ducal Palace
4.2 Town Hall
4.3 The Cathedral and the Ghirlandina
4.4 Other churches
4.6 Other sights
5.1.1 Museum Palace
5.1.2 Museums of the Cathedral
5.1.3 Museum Enzo Ferrari
5.1.4 Museum of Picture Cards
5.2 Teatro Comunale Modena
6.1 Automobile legacy
7.2 Urban transport
10 International relations
10.1 Twin towns—sister cities
11 See also
13 Further reading
14 External links
Modena lies on the Pianura Padana, and is bounded by the two rivers
Secchia and Panaro, both affluents of the Po River. Their presence is
symbolized by the Two Rivers Fountain in the city's center, by
Giuseppe Graziosi. The city is connected to the Panaro by the Naviglio
The Apennines begin some 10 kilometres (6 miles) from the city, to the
The commune is divided into four circoscrizioni. These are:
Centro storico (Historical Center, San Cataldo)
Crocetta (San Lazzaro-East Modena, Crocetta)
Buon Pastore (Buon Pastore, Sant'Agnese, San Damaso)
San Faustino (S.Faustino-Saliceta San Giuliano, Madonnina-Quattro
Modena has a humid subtropical climate, with an average annual
precipitation of 809 millimetres (31.9 in). Summers are warm and
winters are chilly and wetter, with the possibility of snowfall. This
climate is described by the
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification as Cfa.
Climate data for Modena
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Source: Climate Data
Modena Cathedral (left) and City Hall (right)
From 1945 to 1992,
Modena had an uninterrupted consecutive series of
Communist mayors. From the 1990s, the city has been governed by
center-left coalitions. At the April 2006 elections, the city of
Modena gave about 50% of its votes to the Democratic Party.
The legislative body of the municipality (comune) is the City Council
(Consiglio Comunale) which is composed by 35 members elected every
five years. Modena's executive body is the City Committee (Giunta
Comunale) composed by 9 assessors, the deputy-mayor and the mayor. The
current mayor of
Modena is Giancarlo Muzzarelli, member of the
Democratic Party of Italy.
See also: Timeline of Modena
The territory around
Modena (Latin: Mutina, Etruscan: Mutna) was
inhabited by the Villanovans in the Iron Age, and later by Ligurian
tribes, Etruscans, and the
Boii (the settlement itself being
Etruscan). Although the exact date of its foundation is unknown, it is
known that it was already in existence in the 3rd century BC, for in
218 BC, during Hannibal's invasion of Italy, the
Boii revolted and
laid siege to the city.
Livy described it as a fortified citadel where
Roman magistrates took shelter. The outcome of the siege is not known,
but the city was most likely abandoned after Hannibal's arrival.
Mutina was refounded as a Roman colony in 183 BC, to be used as a
military base by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, causing the Ligurians to
sack it in 177 BC. Nonetheless, it was rebuilt, and quickly became the
most important centre in Cisalpine Gaul, both because of its strategic
importance and because it was on an important crossroads between Via
Aemilia and the road going to Verona.
A view of Piazza Grande
In the 1st century BC Mutina was besieged twice. The first siege was
Pompey in 78 BC, when Mutina was defended by Marcus Junius Brutus
(a populist leader, not to be confused with his son, Caesar's best
known assassin). The city eventually surrendered out of hunger, and
Brutus fled, only to be slain in Regium Lepidi. In the civil war
following Caesar's assassination, the city was besieged again, this
time by Mark Antony, in 44 BC, and defended by Decimus Junius Brutus.
Octavian relieved the city with the help of the Senate.
Cicero called it Mutina splendidissima ("most beautiful Mutina") in
his Philippics (44 BC). Until the 3rd century AD, it kept its position
as the most important city in the newly formed Aemilia province, but
the fall of the Empire brought Mutina down with it, as it was used as
a military base both against the barbarians and in the civil wars. It
is said that Mutina was never sacked by Attila, for a dense fog hid it
(a miracle said to be provided by Saint Geminianus, bishop and patron
of Modena), but it was eventually buried by a great flood in the 7th
century and abandoned.
As of December 2008, Italian researchers have discovered the pottery
center where the oil lamps that lit the ancient Roman empire were
made. Evidence of the pottery workshops emerged in Modena, in
central-northern Italy, during construction work to build a
residential complex near the ancient walls of the city. "We found a
large ancient Roman dumping filled with pottery scraps. There were
vases, bottles, bricks, but most of all, hundreds of oil lamps, each
bearing their maker's name", Donato Labate, the archaeologist in
charge of the dig, stated.
Its exiles founded a new city a few miles to the northwest, still
represented by the village of Cittanova (literally "new city"). About
the end of the 9th century,
Modena was restored and refortified by its
bishop, Ludovicus. At about this time the Song of the Watchmen of
Modena was composed. Later the city was part of the possessions of the
Countess Matilda of Tuscany, becoming a free comune starting from the
12th century. In the wars between Emperor Frederick II and Pope
Modena sided with the emperor.
The Este family were identified as lords of
Modena from 1288 (Obizzo
d'Este). After the death of Obizzo's successor (Azzo VIII, in 1308)
the comune reasserted itself, but by 1336 the Este family was
permanently in power. Under
Modena was made a duchy.
Enlarged and fortified by Ercole II, it was made the primary ducal
residence when Ferrara, the main Este seat, fell to the Pope in 1598.
Francesco I d'Este, Duke of Modena
Francesco I d'Este, Duke of Modena (1629–1658) built the citadel and
began the palace, which was largely embellished by Francesco II. In
the 18th century, Rinaldo d'Este was twice driven from his city by
French invasions, and Francesco III built many of Modena's public
buildings, but the Este pictures were sold and many of them wound up
in Dresden. Ercole III died in exile at Treviso, having refused
Napoleonic offers of compensation when
Modena was made part of the
Napoleonic Cispadane Republic. His only daughter, Maria Beatrice
d'Este, married Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria-Este, son of Empress
Maria Theresa of Austria; and in 1814 their eldest son, Francis IV,
received back the estates of the Este. Quickly, in 1816, he dismantled
the fortifications that might well have been used against him and
began Modena's years under Austrian rule which, despite being just,
constitutional and fair, nevertheless had to face another
foreign-inspired rebellion in 1830, this time happily unsuccessful.
His son Francis V was also a just ruler and famously tended the
victims of war and cholera with his own hands. However, he too had to
face yet more foreign-inspired revolutions and was temporarily
Modena in the European Revolutions of 1848. He was
restored, amidst wide popular acclaim, by Austrian troops. Ten years
later, on 20 August 1859, the revolutionaries again invaded (this time
the Piedmontese), annexing
Modena into the revolutionary Savoyard
Italy as a territorial part of the Kingdom of Italy.
Façade of the Cathedral
Interior of the Cathedral
Piazza Grande, with the Cathedral and the Communal Palace.
Ducal Palace of Modena
Ducal Palace of Modena (now a military academy)
Main article: Ducal Palace of Modena
The Ducal Palace, begun by
Francesco I d'Este
Francesco I d'Este in 1634 and finished by
Francis V, was the seat of the Este court from the 17th to 19th
centuries. The palace occupies the site of the former Este Castle,
once located in the periphery of the city. Although generally credited
to Bartolomeo Avanzini, it has been suggested that advice and guidance
in the design process had been sought from the contemporary
luminaries, Cortona, Bernini, and Borromini.
The Palace currently houses the Accademia Militare di Modena, the
Military Museum and a precious Library.
The Palace has a Baroque façade from which the Honour Court, where
the military ceremonies are held, and the Honour Staircase can be
accessed. The Central Hall has a frescoed ceiling with the
17th-century Incoronation of Bradamante by Marco Antonio Franceschini.
The Salottino d'Oro ("Golden Hall"), covered with gilted removable
panels, was used by Duke Francis III as his main cabinet of work.
Facing the Piazza Grande (a
UNESCO World Heritage Site), the Town Hall
Modena was put together in the 17th and 18th centuries from several
pre-existing edifices built from 1046 as municipal offices.
It is characterized by a Clock Tower (Torre dell'Orologio, late 15th
century), once paired with another tower (Torre Civica) demolished
after an earthquake in 1671. In the interior, noteworthy is the Sala
del Fuoco ("Fire Hall"), with a painted frieze by Niccolò dell'Abbate
(1546) portraying famous characters from Ancient
Rome against a
typical Emilia background. The Camerino dei Confirmati ("Chamber of
the Confirmed") houses one of the symbols of the city, the Secchia
Rapita, a bucket kept in memory of the victorious Battle of Zappolino
(1325) against Bologna. This relic inspired the poem of the same title
by Alessandro Tassoni. Another relic from the Middle Ages in
the Preda Ringadora, a rectangular marble stone next to the palace
porch, used as a speakers' platform, and the statue called La
Bonissima ("The Very Good"): the latter, portraying a female figure,
was erected in the square in 1268 and later installed over the porch.
The Cathedral and the Ghirlandina
The Cathedral of
Modena and the annexed campanile are a
Heritage Site. Begun under the direction of the Countess Matilda of
Tuscany with its first stone laid June 6, 1099 and its crypt ready for
the city's patron, Saint Geminianus, and consecrated only six years
later, the Duomo of
Modena was finished in 1184. The building of a
great cathedral in this flood-prone ravaged former center of Arianism
was an act of urban renewal in itself, and an expression of the flood
of piety that motivated the contemporary First Crusade. Unusually, the
master builder's name, Lanfranco, was celebrated in his own day: the
city's chronicler expressed the popular confidence in the master-mason
from Como, Lanfranco: by God's mercy the man was found (inventus est
vir). The sculptor Wiligelmus who directed the mason's yard was
praised in the plaque that commemorated the founding. The program of
the sculpture is not lost in a welter of detail: the wild dangerous
universe of the exterior is mediated by the Biblical figures of the
portals leading to the Christian world of the interior. In Wiligelmus'
sculpture at Modena, the human body takes on a renewed physicality it
had lost in the schematic symbolic figures of previous centuries. At
the east end, three apses reflect the division of the body of the
cathedral into nave and wide aisles with their bold, solid masses.
Modena's Duomo inspired campaigns of cathedral and abbey building in
emulation through the valley of the Po.
The Gothic campanile (1224–1319) is called Torre della Ghirlandina
from the bronze garland surrounding the weathercock.
San Vincenzo: erected in 17th century over a prior 13th-century
church. The original design was by Paolo Reggiano, but completed by
Bernardo Castagnini, probably helped by the young Guarino Guarini. The
interior contains frescoes by
Sigismondo Caula portraying episodes of
the Lives of Saints Vincent and Cajetan. The dome was destroyed during
World War II. This church houses the funerary monuments of the Dukes
Santa Maria della Pomposa: also known as Aedes Muratoriana, is
probably the oldest religious church in town, cocumented as early as
1135. Little remains of the original medieval temple. Construction of
the present church is mainly due to Ludovico Antonio Muratori, the
parish priest (1716–1750), who rebuilt it from the ground.
San Giovanni Decollato: church of St. John Baptist Beheaded built in
the 16th century over a pre-existing temple dedicated to St Michael,
and modified in 18th century.
Sant'Agostino: 14th-century church of St Augustine, largely renovated
in 1663 for the funeral of Alfonso IV d'Este. The sober original
structure was embellished with 17th-century stuccoes and a panelled
ceiling. The most notable artwork is the Deposition (1476) by the
Modenese Antonio Begarelli, once in the church of San Giovanni
Battista. Traces of a 14th-century fresco by
Tommaso da Modena
Tommaso da Modena can
still be seen.
San Francesco: construction of the church of St Francis begun in 1224
by the Franciscans, and not finished for two centuries. The
Gothic-style church houses one of Begarelli's masterworks, a
Deposition of Christ made up of thirteen statues.
San Pietro: church erected, according to tradition, over the temple of
Jupiter Capitulinus. The current Renaissance-style edifice is from
1476, built next to a
Benedictine abbey founded in 996 outside the
city walls; the church is among the few 15th-century structures of
this style Modena. The interior has a 15th-century organ and numerous
terracotta works by Begarelli. The campanile was built in 1629.
San Giorgio: church of St George, and also known as the Sanctuary of
the Blessed Virgin Helper of the Modenese People. The church boasts a
venerated image of the Madonna as a main altarpiece. The main altar
(1666) was built with polychrome marbles by Antonio Loraghi. The
layout is that of a Greek cross, and was erected in 1647.
San Bartolomeo, Modena
Chiesa del Voto: Votive Church erected after the cessation of the
Plague of 1630.
The Synagogue, next to the Palazzo Comunale, was built by the Jewish
Modena in Lombardesque style and inaugurated in 1873.
Mercato Albinelli, a historical covered market founded in 1931
Orto Botanico dell'Università di
Modena e Reggio Emilia, a botanical
San Cataldo Cemetery, designed by avant-gardist Italian architect Aldo
The Museum Palace, on the St. Augustine square, is an example of civil
architecture from the Este period, built as a Hostel for the Poor
together with the nearby Hospital in the late 18th century. Today it
houses the main museums of Modena:
Estense Gallery, with works by Tintoretto, Paolo Veronese, Guido Reni,
Cosmé Tura and brothers Annibale and Agostino Carracci.
The most famous works are the two portraits of Francis I d'Este, a
Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Gian Lorenzo Bernini and a canvas by Diego Velázquez.
Estense Library, one of the most important libraries in Italy.
Museum of Medieval and Modern Art.
Municipal Museum of Risorgimento.
Este Headstones Museum.
Roman Lapidary Museum.
Graziosi Gallery of Plaster Casts.
City Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology.
Estense Gallery and Library have reopened on 29 May 2015 after the
earthquake of 2012. The Gallery has been completely restored but some
pieces are still damaged and thus cannot be seen.
Museums of the Cathedral
Opened for the
Great Jubilee in 2000, the Museum of the Cathedral
houses a rich collection of artistic heritage, in particular
liturgical ornaments and furnishings. Apart from the finds of the
cathedral building site by Wiligelmus and Lanfranco, such as
romanesque metopes and roof decorations, in the Lapidary there are
also reliefs, sculptures and inscriptions of the Roman, Medieval and
Renaissance era found in the cathedral area during the restoration
works between the 19th and the 20th century.
Museum Enzo Ferrari
Inaugurated on 10 March 2012, the museum complex includes Enzo
Ferrari’s birthplace and a futuristic automotive design gallery,
painted in the yellow that Enzo
Ferrari chose as the background for
the Prancing horse on his logo. The exhibition gallery was designed by
the famous architect Jan Kaplický, who suddenly died in 2009, and
carried on by his associate and loyal assistant Andrea Morgante.
The interior features a multimedia display of pictures, unpublished
films and precious mementoes of Enzo Ferrari’s life as a man, driver
and car-maker throughout the 20th century.
The Exhibition Gallery houses a flexible mounting representing story,
figures, places and races of the Modenese sport motor racing.
Museum of Picture Cards
Founded in 1986 by Giuseppe Panini, who then decided to donate his
collection to the city, the Museum was opened to the public on 15
December 2006. It is located inside the Santa Margherita Palace, which
also houses the Delfini Library and the City Gallery.
The Museum houses several collections, including, apart from the
classic stickers, cigarette cards, letter seals, matchboxes and
calendars, all of which represent a very important historical document
of the development of picture cards throughout the years.
Teatro Comunale Modena
Teatro Comunale Modena
Teatro Comunale Modena (Community Theatre of Modena, but renamed
in October 2007 as "Teatro Comunale Luciano Pavarotti") is an opera
house in Modena. The idea for the creation of the present theatre
dates from 1838, when it became apparent that the then-existing Teatro
Comunale di via Emilia (in dual private and public ownership) was no
longer suitable for staging opera. However, this house had been the
venue for presentations of all of the works of Donizetti, Bellini and
Rossini up to this time, and a flourishing operatic culture existed in
Under the Mayor of
Modena in collaboration with the Conservatorio
dell'Illustrissima Comunità (Conservatory of the Most Illustrious
Community), architect Francesco Vandelli was engaged to design the
Teatro dell'Illustrissima Comunità, as the theatre was first called,
"for the dignity of the city and for the transmission of the scenic
arts". Paid for in the manner typical of the time – from the sale
of boxes – in addition to a significant gift from Duke Friedrich IV,
Vandelli created a design for the new theatre combining ideas from
those in Piacenza, Mantua, and Milan, and it opened on 2 October 1841
with a performance of Gandini's Adelaide di Borgogna al Castello di
Canossa, an opera specially commissioned for the occasion.
"Cotechino Modena", as served with polenta and lentils.
Modena has a rich and diversified cuisine, often including meats, hams
and salamis. One of the most famous Modenese dishes is "zampone" (the
fatter and heartier version) or "cotechino modena" (cotechino is
leaner and less fat than zampone). Cotechino dates back to around 1511
to Mirandola, where, whilst besieged, the people had to find a way to
preserve meat and use the less tender cuts, so made the cotechino. By
the 18th century it had become more popular than the yellowish sausage
had been around at the time, and in the 19th century was in mass
production in and around the area.
Modena's contribution to the Italian pasta culture are tortellini and
tortelloni which are squares of pasta shaped in the form of a ring and
stuffed with meat or cheese.
"Cappello da prete" is also a popular meal, which is a very fatty
pig's trotter. Other dishes include "Torta Barozzi" or "Torta Nera",
which is a black tart (a dessert made with a coffee/cocoa and almond
filling encased in a fine pastry dough), "Ciccioli", made by slowly
cooking, compressing, drying, and aging fatty, leftover pieces of
pork, and "Pesto modenese", which is cured pork back fat pounded with
garlic, rosemary and
Parmigiano-Reggiano used to fill borlenghi and
Balsamic vinegar of
Modena became a protected geographical indication
under EU law in 2000. The vinegar is a condiment for salad, cheese,
strawberries and many other dishes. The practice of cooking the must
of grapes can be traced back to the ancient Romans: the so-called
sapum was used both as a medicinal product and in the kitchen as a
sweetener and condiment.
Modena contains Italy's most acclaimed restaurant, Osteria
Francescana, which holds three stars in the
Michelin Guide since 2013
and is currently ranked world number 2 in The World's 50 Best
Panini Group, including Panini Comics, is headquartered in Modena.
Modena is, along with Turin, one of Italy's main centres of the
automotive industry, and has a long automobile legacy. The iconic
Ferrari supercar was founded in
Modena by Modenese car manufacturer
Enzo Ferrari. Several Italian supercars such as Pagani, De Tomaso, and
Maserati are headquartered in the urban area.
Modena railway station, opened in 1859, forms part of the
Bologna railway, and is also a terminus of two secondary
Verona and Sassuolo, respectively.
Modena's urban public transport network is operated by SETA. The
network includes the
Modena trolleybus system.
At the census od 2011, there were 179,149 people residing in the city.
The population density was 978.9 persons per square kilometre. Minors
(children ages 18 and younger) totalled 16.20 percent of the
population compared to pensioners who number 22.54 percent. This
compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94
percent (pensioners). The average age of
Modena resident is 44
compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002
and 2007, the population of
Modena experienced 2.42% growth, while
Italy as a whole grew by 3.56 percent. The current birth rate of
Modena is 9.62 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian
average of 9.45 births.
As of 2006[update], 89.61% of the population was Italian. The largest
foreign group comes from other parts of Europe (namely
Albania): 3.94%, followed by North Africa: 2.40%, and sub-saharan
The Stadio Alberto Braglia, home of
Modena has a strong sporting tradition, linked mainly to motor racing
as the birthplace of Enzo Ferrari, founder of the eponymous motor
racing team and car manufacturer which is based in nearby Maranello.
Modena was named after the city. Indeed,
known as the World's '
Supercar Capital', being the nearest large town
to the homes of Maserati, Lamborghini, Pagani and previously also
Bugatti and De Tomaso.
The city had two major football clubs:
Modena F.C., who played in
Serie B for many years but was dissolved after going bankrupt in 2017,
and Carpi Carpi F.C. whose profile has risen rapidly with two
promotions in the last three seasons. They play at the 21,151-seater
Stadio Alberto Braglia, which has also hosted international rugby
Volleyball plays an important role in Modena's sport history, with
Modena Volley having won 12 National championships, four Champion's
League seasons, and a handful of other trophies.
There is also a baseball club with 50 years' tradition—the Modena
BBC, currently playing in the A-Series of the Italian Baseball League.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy
Twin towns—sister cities
Modena is twinned with:
Highland Park, Illinois, United States
Novi Sad, Serbia
Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States
Modena and Reggio
List of Dukes of
Ferrara and of Modena
New Holland Agriculture
^ "Climate: Modena". Retrieved 13 March 2015.
^ Quoted in Lynn, p.191
^ "Council Regulation (EC) No 813/2000 of 17 April 2000 supplementing
the Annex to Commission Regulation (EC) No 1107/96 on the registration
of geographical indications and designations of origin under the
procedure laid down in Article 17 of Regulation (EEC) No
^ "Corporate Info Archived 23 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine.."
Panini Group. Retrieved on 5 September 2009.
^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. Retrieved
^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. Retrieved
See also: Bibliography of the history of Modena
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Description of the cathedral
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World Heritage Sites in Italy
Mantua and Sabbioneta
Monte San Giorgio1
Porto Venere, Palmaria, Tino and Tinetto, Cinque Terre
Monterosso al Mare
Residences of the Royal House of Savoy
Castle of Moncalieri
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Rhaetian Railway in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes1
Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy
Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
Vineyard Landscape of Piedmont: Langhe-
Roero and Monferrato
Torre della Ghirlandina
Torre della Ghirlandina and Piazza Grande, Modena
Orto botanico di Padova
Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto
Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi
Etruscan Necropolises of
Cerveteri and Tarquinia
Piazza del Duomo, Pisa
Castel del Monte, Apulia
Vallo di Diano
Vallo di Diano National Park,
Paestum and Velia, Certosa
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Aqueduct of Vanvitelli
Aqueduct of Vanvitelli and
San Leucio Complex
Sassi di Matera
Palermo and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalù and Monreale
Archaeological Area of Agrigento
Syracuse and Necropolis of Pantalica
Val di Noto
Militello in Val di Catania
Villa Romana del Casale
Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568–774 A.D.)
Cividale del Friuli
Temple of Clitumnus
Temple of Clitumnus located at Campello sul Clitunno
Santa Sofia located at Benevento
Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo
Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo located at Monte Sant'Angelo
Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3
Primeval Beech Forests of Europe4
Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries5
Peschiera del Garda
1 Shared with Switzerland
2 Shared with the Holy See
3 Shared with Austria, France, Germany, Slovenia, and Switzerland
4 Shared with Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany,
Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spain and Ukraine
5 Shared with
Croatia and Montenegro
Emilia-Romagna · Comuni of the Province of Modena
Castelvetro di Modena
Concordia sulla Secchia
Marano sul Panaro
Novi di Modena
Pavullo nel Frignano
Prignano sulla Secchia
San Cesario sul Panaro
San Felice sul Panaro
Savignano sul Panaro
Italy by population
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