HOME
ListMoto - Minotaur


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

In Greek mythology, the Minotaur
Minotaur
(/ˈmaɪnətɔːr/,[1] /ˈmɪnəˌtɔːr/;[2] Ancient Greek: Μῑνώταυρος [miːnɔ̌ːtau̯ros], Latin: Minotaurus, Etruscan: Θevrumineś) is a mythical creature portrayed in Classical times with the head of a bull and the body of a man[3] or, as described by Roman poet Ovid, a being "part man and part bull".[4] The Minotaur
Minotaur
dwelt at the center of the Labyrinth, which was an elaborate maze-like construction[5] designed by the architect Daedalus
Daedalus
and his son Icarus, on the command of King Minos
Minos
of Crete. The Minotaur
Minotaur
was eventually killed by the Athenian hero Theseus. The term Minotaur
Minotaur
derives from the Ancient Greek Μῑνώταυρος, a compound of the name Μίνως (Minos) and the noun ταύρος "bull", translated as "(the) Bull of Minos". In Crete, the Minotaur
Minotaur
was known by the name Asterion,[6] a name shared with Minos' foster-father.[7] "Minotaur" was originally a proper noun in reference to this mythical figure. The use of "minotaur" as a common noun to refer to members of a generic species of bull-headed creatures developed much later, in 20th-century fantasy genre fiction.

Contents

1 Birth and appearance 2 Theseus
Theseus
and the Minotaur 3 Etruscan view 4 Interpretations 5 Cultural references

5.1 Dante's Inferno 5.2 Surrealist art and other references

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Birth and appearance[edit]

The bronze "Horned God" from Enkomi, Cyprus

After he ascended the throne of the island of Crete, Minos
Minos
competed with his brothers to rule. Minos
Minos
prayed to Poseidon, the sea god, to send him a snow-white bull, as a sign of support (the Cretan Bull). He was to kill the bull to show honor to the deity, but decided to keep it instead because of its beauty. He thought Poseidon
Poseidon
would not care if he kept the white bull and sacrificed one of his own. To punish Minos, Poseidon
Poseidon
made Pasiphaë, Minos's wife, fall deeply in love with the bull. Pasiphaë
Pasiphaë
had craftsman Daedalus
Daedalus
make a hollow wooden cow, and climbed inside it in order to mate with the white bull. The offspring was the monstrous Minotaur. Pasiphaë
Pasiphaë
nursed him, but he grew and became ferocious, being the unnatural offspring of a woman and a beast; he had no natural source of nourishment and thus devoured humans for sustenance. Minos, after getting advice from the oracle at Delphi, had Daedalus
Daedalus
construct a gigantic labyrinth to hold the Minotaur. Its location was near Minos' palace in Knossos.[8] The Minotaur
Minotaur
is commonly represented in Classical art with the body of a man and the head and tail of a bull. One of the figurations assumed by the river spirit Achelous
Achelous
in seducing Deianira
Deianira
is as a man with the head of a bull, according to Sophocles' Trachiniai. From Classical times through the Renaissance, the Minotaur
Minotaur
appears at the center of many depictions of the Labyrinth.[9] Ovid's Latin account of the Minotaur, which did not elaborate on which half was bull and which half man, was the most widely available during the Middle Ages, and several later versions show the reverse of the Classical configuration, a man's head and torso on a bull's body, reminiscent of a centaur.[10] This alternative tradition survived into the Renaissance, and still figures in some modern depictions, such as Steele Savage's illustrations for Edith Hamilton's Mythology (1942). Theseus
Theseus
and the Minotaur[edit]

Rhyton
Rhyton
in the shape of a bull's head, Heraklion Archaeological Museum; shown here at the Greek pavilion at Expo '88

Androgeus, son of Minos, had been killed by the Athenians, who were jealous of the victories he had won at the Panathenaic festival. Others say he was killed at Marathon by the Cretan Bull, his mother's former taurine lover, which Aegeus, king of Athens, had commanded him to slay. The common tradition is that Minos
Minos
waged war to avenge the death of his son and won. Catullus, in his account of the Minotaur's birth,[11] refers to another version in which Athens
Athens
was "compelled by the cruel plague to pay penalties for the killing of Androgeos." Aegeus
Aegeus
had to avert the plague caused by his crime by sending "young men at the same time as the best of unwed girls as a feast" to the Minotaur. Minos
Minos
required that seven Athenian youths and seven maidens, drawn by lots, be sent every seventh or ninth year (some accounts say every year[12]) to be devoured by the Minotaur. When the third sacrifice approached, Theseus
Theseus
volunteered to slay the monster. He promised his father, Aegeus, that he would put up a white sail on his journey back home if he was successful, but would have the crew put up black sails if he was killed. In Crete, Minos' daughter Ariadne
Ariadne
fell madly in love with Theseus
Theseus
and helped him navigate the labyrinth. In most accounts she gave him a ball of thread, allowing him to retrace his path. Theseus
Theseus
killed the Minotaur
Minotaur
with the sword of Aegeus
Aegeus
and led the other Athenians back out of the labyrinth. On the way home, Theseus
Theseus
abandoned Ariadne
Ariadne
on the island of Naxos and continued. He neglected, however, to put up the white sail. King Aegeus, from his lookout on Cape Sounion, saw the black-sailed ship approach and, presuming his son dead, committed suicide by throwing himself into the sea that is since named after him.[13] This act secured the throne for Theseus. Etruscan view[edit]

Pasiphaë
Pasiphaë
and the Minotaur, Attic red-figure kylix found at Etruscan Vulci
Vulci
(Cabinet des Médailles, Paris)

This essentially Athenian view of the Minotaur
Minotaur
as the antagonist of Theseus
Theseus
reflects the literary sources, which are biased in favour of Athenian perspectives. The Etruscans, who paired Ariadne
Ariadne
with Dionysus, never with Theseus, offered an alternative Etruscan view of the Minotaur, never seen in Greek arts: on an Etruscan red-figure wine-cup of the early-to-mid fourth century Pasiphaë
Pasiphaë
tenderly cradles an infant Minotaur
Minotaur
on her knee.[14] Interpretations[edit]

Theseus
Theseus
fighting the Minotaur
Minotaur
by Jean-Etienne Ramey, marble, 1826, Tuileries Gardens, Paris

The contest between Theseus
Theseus
and the Minotaur
Minotaur
was frequently represented in Greek art. A Knossian didrachm exhibits on one side the labyrinth, on the other the Minotaur
Minotaur
surrounded by a semicircle of small balls, probably intended for stars; one of the monster's names was Asterion ("star"). While the ruins of Minos' palace at Knossos
Knossos
were discovered, the labyrinth never was. The enormous number of rooms, staircases and corridors in the palace has led some archaeologists to suggest that the palace itself was the source of the labyrinth myth, an idea generally discredited today.[15] Homer, describing the shield of Achilles, remarked that the labyrinth was Ariadne's ceremonial dancing ground. Some modern mythologists regard the Minotaur
Minotaur
as a solar personification and a Minoan adaptation of the Baal- Moloch
Moloch
of the Phoenicians. The slaying of the Minotaur
Minotaur
by Theseus
Theseus
in that case indicates the breaking of Athenian tributary relations with Minoan Crete.[16]

The Minotaur
Minotaur
in the Labyrinth, engraving of a 16th-century AD gem in the Medici Collection in the Palazzo Strozzi, Florence[17]

According to A. B. Cook, Minos
Minos
and Minotaur
Minotaur
are only different forms of the same personage, representing the sun-god of the Cretans, who depicted the sun as a bull. He and J. G. Frazer both explain Pasiphaë's union with the bull as a sacred ceremony, at which the queen of Knossos
Knossos
was wedded to a bull-formed god, just as the wife of the Tyrant
Tyrant
in Athens
Athens
was wedded to Dionysus. E. Pottier, who does not dispute the historical personality of Minos, in view of the story of Phalaris, considers it probable that in Crete
Crete
(where a bull cult may have existed by the side of that of the labrys) victims were tortured by being shut up in the belly of a red-hot brazen bull. The story of Talos, the Cretan man of brass, who heated himself red-hot and clasped strangers in his embrace as soon as they landed on the island, is probably of similar origin. A historical explanation of the myth refers to the time when Crete
Crete
was the main political and cultural potency in the Aegean Sea. As the fledgling Athens
Athens
(and probably other continental Greek cities) was under tribute to Crete, it can be assumed that such tribute included young men and women for sacrifice. This ceremony was performed by a priest disguised with a bull head or mask, thus explaining the imagery of the Minotaur. Once continental Greece was free from Crete's dominance, the myth of the Minotaur
Minotaur
worked to distance the forming religious consciousness of the Hellene poleis from Minoan beliefs. Cultural references[edit] Dante's Inferno[edit]

Dante
Dante
and Virgil
Virgil
meet the Minotaur, illustration by Gustave Doré

William Blake's image of the Minotaur
Minotaur
to illustrate Inferno XII

The Minotaur
Minotaur
(infamia di Creti, Italian for "infamy of Crete"), appears briefly in Dante's Inferno, in Canto 12 (l. 12–13, 16–21), where Dante
Dante
and his guide Virgil
Virgil
find themselves picking their way among boulders dislodged on the slope and preparing to enter into the Seventh Circle of Hell.[18] Dante
Dante
and Virgil
Virgil
encounter the beast first among the "men of blood": those damned for their violent natures. Some commentators believe that Dante, in a reversal of classical tradition, bestowed the beast with a man's head upon a bull's body,[19] though this representation had already appeared in the Middle Ages.[20]

Inferno, Canto XII, lines 16–20

Lo savio mio inver' lui grido: "Forse tu credi che qui sia 'l duca d'Atene, che sú nel mondo la morte ti porse? Pártiti, bestia, ché questi non vene ammaestrato da la tua sorella, ma vassi per veder la vostre pene."

English translation

My sage cried out to him: "You think, perhaps, this is the Duke of Athens, who in the world put you to death. Get away, you beast, for this man does not come tutored by your sister; he comes to view your punishments."

In these lines Virgil
Virgil
taunts the Minotaur
Minotaur
in order to distract him, and reminds the Minotaur
Minotaur
that he was killed by Theseus
Theseus
the Duke of Athens
Athens
with the help of the monster's half-sister Ariadne. The Minotaur
Minotaur
is the first infernal guardian whom Virgil
Virgil
and Dante encounter within the walls of Dis.[21] The Minotaur
Minotaur
seems to represent the entire zone of Violence, much as Geryon
Geryon
represents Fraud in Canto XVI, and serves a similar role as gatekeeper for the entire seventh Circle.[22] Giovanni Boccaccio
Giovanni Boccaccio
writes of the Minotaur
Minotaur
in his literary commentary of the Commedia: "When he had grown up and become a most ferocious animal, and of incredible strength, they tell that Minos
Minos
had him shut up in a prison called the labyrinth, and that he had sent to him there all those whom he wanted to die a cruel death".[23] Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti, in his own commentary,[24][25] compares the Minotaur
Minotaur
with all three sins of violence within the seventh circle: "The Minotaur, who is situated at the rim of the tripartite circle, fed, according to the poem was biting himself (violence against oneself) and was conceived in the 'false cow' (violence against nature, daughter of God)." Virgil
Virgil
and Dante
Dante
then pass quickly by to the centaurs (Nessus, Chiron, Pholus, and Nessus) who guard the Flegetonte ("river of blood"), to continue through the seventh Circle.[26] Surrealist art and other references[edit]

From 1933 to 1939, Albert Skira published an avant-garde literary magazine Minotaure, with covers featuring a Minotaur
Minotaur
theme. The first issue had cover art by Pablo Picasso. Later covers included work by Salvador Dali, Rene Magritte, Max Ernst, and Diego Rivera. Picasso made a series of etchings in the Vollard Suite
Vollard Suite
showing the Minotaur
Minotaur
being tormented, possibly inspired also by Spanish bullfighting.[27] The Minotaur
Minotaur
appears as the protagonist of Steven Sherill's The Minotaur
Minotaur
Takes a Cigarette Break[28] The character returns in The Minotaur
Minotaur
Takes His Own Sweet Time[29] The documentary Room 237
Room 237
suggests that The Shining is a re-telling of the myth of the Minotaur. A minotaur, descended from the original mythological figure, appears in the third episode of The Librarians ("And The Horns of a Dilemma"). Golden Axe Foods, an agribusiness firm founded by survivors of the Minoan civilization
Minoan civilization
(the name refers to a symbol of the Minoan monarchy) have imprisoned the minotaur to recreate the Labyrinth
Labyrinth
in order to maintain their wealth and prosperity. The minotaur itself is presented as a large, bull-headed man in leather garb, who can shapeshift into the form of a muscular biker (Tyler Mane). It is freed when the labyrinth is destroyed, and proceeds to exact revenge upon its captors. In a 2011 episode of Doctor Who ("The God Complex") The Doctor, Amy and Rory find themselves in a mysterious hotel with rooms and corridors that constantly change to form an endless labyrinth, allowing the minotaur trapped inside to hunt people down one by one with their secret fears...until they give in and are consumed. The minotaur itself is not revealed until the end of the episode Minotaurs are common enemies in the God of War series. The 2017 verse novel Bull by David Elliot retells the story of the Minotaur
Minotaur
in a modern light, paying special attention to Asterion's childhood, relationships between the characters, and other such details never touched on by the original myths.

See also[edit]

Apis – the Egyptian god is often depicted as a bull, or bull-headed man Bull-Leaping Fresco Madness and the Minotaur
Madness and the Minotaur
- a 1981 a text adventure game for the TRS-80 Color Computer Mahishasura
Mahishasura
– Buffalo headed Asura Minoan Bull-leaper Centaur Minotaur
Minotaur
– a novel by Benjamin Tammuz first published in 1981 Minotaur
Minotaur
– a 2006 horror film Molech
Molech
or Ba'al
Ba'al
– worshipped in the Middle East and depicted as a horned man Nandi – a bull that serves Lord Shiva in Hindu mythology Ox-Head – guardian of the Underworld in Chinese mythology, had a bull head and a human body Sarangay – a creature resembling a bull with a huge muscular body and a jewel attached to its ears Tauren – a fictional bovine species from the Warcraft franchise modeled after the Minotaur Shedu
Shedu
– in Mesopotamian mythology, had a bull body and a human head Ushi-oni
Ushi-oni
– a bull-headed monster from Japanese folklore

Notes[edit]

^ "English Dictionary: Definition of Minotaur". Collins. Retrieved 20 July 2013.  ^ "American English Dictionary: Definition of Minotaur". Collins. Retrieved 20 July 2013.  ^ Kern, Hermann (2000). Through the Labyrinth. Munich, London, New York: Prestel. p. 34. ISBN 3791321447.  ^ semibovemque virum semivirumque bovem, according to Ovid, Ars Amatoria 2.24, one of the three lines that his friends would have deleted from his work, and one of the three that he, selecting independently, would preserve at all cost, in the apocryphal anecdote told by Albinovanus Pedo. (noted by J. S. Rusten, "Ovid, Empedocles and the Minotaur" The American Journal of Philology 103.3 (Autumn 1982, pp. 332-333) p. 332. ^ In a counter-intuitive cultural development going back at least to Cretan coins of the 4th century BC, many visual patterns representing the Labyrinth
Labyrinth
do not have dead ends like a maze; instead, a single path winds to the center. See Kern, Through the Labyrinth, Prestel, 2000, Chapter 1, and Doob, The Idea of the Labyrinth, Cornell University Press, 1990, Chapter 2. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 31. 1 ^ The Hesiodic Catalogue of Women
Catalogue of Women
fr. 140, says of Zeus' establishment of Europa in Crete: "...he made her live with Asterion the king of the Cretans. There she conceived and bore three sons, Minos, Sarpedon and Rhadamanthys." ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Minotaur". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^ Several examples are shown in Kern, Through the Labyrinth, Prestel, 2000. ^ Examples include illustrations 204, 237, 238, and 371 in Kern. op. cit. ^ Carmen 64. ^ Servius
Servius
on Aeneid, 6. 14: singulis quibusque annis "every one year". The annual period is given by J. E. Zimmerman, Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Harper & Row, 1964, article "Androgeus"; and H. J. Rose, A Handbook of Greek Mythology, Dutton, 1959, p. 265. Zimmerman cites Virgil, Apollodorus, and Pausanias. The nine-year period appears in Plutarch and Ovid. ^ Plutarch, Theseus, 15—19; Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
i. I6, iv. 61; Bibliotheke iii. 1,15 ^ The wine cup is illustrated in Larissa Bonfante and Judith Swaddling, Etruscan Mythology (Series The Legendary Past, British Museum / University of Texas at Austin) 2006, fig.29 p. 44 ("early fourth century") (on-line illustration). ^ Sir Arthur Evans, the first of many archaeologists who have worked at Knossos, is often given credit for this idea, but he did not himself believe it; see David McCullough, The Unending Mystery, Pantheon, 2004, p. 34-36. Modern scholarship generally discounts the idea; see Kern, Through the Labyrinth, Prestel, 2000, p. 42-43, and Doob, The Idea of the Labyrinth, Cornell University Press, p. 1990, p. 25. ^ The Encyclopaedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information. Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. 1911.  ^ Paolo Alessandro Maffei, Gemmae Antiche, 1709, Pt. IV, pl. 31; Hermann Kern, Through the Labyrinth, Prestel, 2000, fig. 371, p. 202): Maffei "erroneously deemed the piece to be from Classical antiquity". ^ The traverse of this circle is a long one, filling Cantos 12 to 17. ^ Inferno XII, Verse Translation by Dr. R. Hollander, p. 228 commentary ^ Kern, Hermann (2000). Through the Labyrinth. Munich, London, New York: Prestel. p. 116–117. ISBN 3791321447.  ^ The fallen angels, the Erinyes [Furies], and the unseen Medusa were located on the city's defensive ramparts in Canto IX. ^ Boccaccio Comedia delle ninfe fiorentine commentary ^ Boccaccio's Expositions on Dante's Comedy, University of Toronto Press, 30 Nov 2009 ^ Bennett, Pre-Raphaelite Circle, 177-180. ^ " Dante
Dante
Family letters Rossetti Archive". Rossettiarchive.org.  ^ Beck, Christopher, "Justice among the Centaurs," Forum Italcium 18 (1984): 217-29 ^ Tidworth, Simon Theseus
Theseus
in the Modern World essay in The Quest for Theseus
Theseus
London 1970 pp244-9 ISBN 0269026576 ^ O'Grady, Megan (12 December 2002). "Dreaming of Hoofbeats". The New York Times.  ^ Gurganus, Allan (October 2, 2016). "A Minotaur's in Maintenance in a Tale of Rust Belt America". The New York Times. 

References[edit]

Minotaur
Minotaur
in Greek Myth source Greek texts and art. Percy Jackson's Greek Heroes, Rick Riordan, 2015

External links[edit]

The dictionary definition of Minotaur
Minotaur
at Wiktionary Media related to Minotaur
Minotaur
at Wikimedia Commons Works related to Minotaur
Minotaur
at Wikisource

Authority control

.

Time at 25408030, Busy percent: 30
***************** NOT Too Busy at 25408030 3../logs/periodic-service_log.txt
1440 = task['interval'];
25408741.35 = task['next-exec'];
25407301.35 = task['last-exec'];
daily-work.php = task['exec'];
25408030 Time.

10080 = task['interval'];
25415941.3 = task['next-exec'];
25405861.3 = task['last-exec'];
weekly-work.php = task['exec'];
25408030 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25408741.833333 = task['next-exec'];
25407301.833333 = task['last-exec'];
PeriodicStats.php = task['exec'];
25408030 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25408741.85 = task['next-exec'];
25407301.85 = task['last-exec'];
PeriodicBuild.php = task['exec'];
25408030 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25408741.9 = task['next-exec'];
25407301.9 = task['last-exec'];
cleanup.php = task['exec'];
25408030 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25408741.916667 = task['next-exec'];
25407301.916667 = task['last-exec'];
build-sitemap-xml.php = task['exec'];
25408030 Time.