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In Greek mythology
Greek mythology
Minos
Minos
(/ˈmaɪnɒs/ or /ˈmaɪnəs/; Greek: Μίνως, Minōs) was the first King of Crete, son of Zeus
Zeus
and Europa. Every nine years, he made King Aegeus
Aegeus
pick seven young boys and seven young girls to be sent to Daedalus's creation, the labyrinth, to be eaten by the Minotaur. After his death, Minos
Minos
became a judge of the dead in the underworld. The Minoan civilization
Minoan civilization
of Crete
Crete
has been named after him by the archaeologist Arthur Evans. By his wife, Pasiphaë
Pasiphaë
(or some say Crete), he fathered Ariadne, Androgeus, Deucalion, Phaedra, Glaucus, Catreus, Acacallis and Xenodice. By a nymph, Pareia, he had four sons, Eurymedon, Nephalion, Chryses and Philolaus, who were killed by Heracles
Heracles
in revenge for the murder of the latter's two companions. By Dexithea, one of the Telchines, he had a son called Euxanthius.[1] By Androgeneia of Phaestus
Phaestus
he had Asterion, who commanded the Cretan contingent in the war between Dionysus
Dionysus
and the Indians.[2] Also given as his children are Euryale, possibly the mother of Orion with Poseidon,[3] and Pholegander, eponym of the island Pholegandros.[4] Minos, along with his brothers, Rhadamanthys and Sarpedon, were raised by King Asterion (or Asterius) of Crete. When Asterion died, his throne was claimed by Minos[5] who banished Sarpedon
Sarpedon
and, according to some sources, Rhadamanthys too.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 The literary Minos

2.1 Later rationalization 2.2 Possible historical element

3 The mythological Minos

3.1 Glaucus 3.2 Poseidon, Daedalus
Daedalus
and Pasiphaë 3.3 Theseus 3.4 Nisus 3.5 The death of Minos

4 Minos
Minos
in art

4.1 In poetry 4.2 In books

5 Genealogy 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Etymology[edit] "Minos" is often interpreted as the Cretan word for "king",[6] or, by a euhemerist interpretation, the name of a particular king that was subsequently used as a title. There is a name in Minoan Linear A
Linear A
mi-nu-te that may be related to Minos. According to La Marle's reading of Linear A,[7] which has been heavily criticised as arbitrary,[8] we should read mwi-nu ro-ja ( Minos
Minos
the king) on a Linear A
Linear A
tablet. The royal title ro-ja is read on several documents, including on stone libation tables from the sanctuaries, where it follows the name of the main god, Asirai (the equivalent of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Asura, and of Avestan Ahura). La Marle suggests that the name mwi-nu (Minos) is expected to mean 'ascetic' as Sanskrit
Sanskrit
muni, and fits this explanation to the legend about Minos
Minos
sometimes living in caves on Crete.[9] If royal succession in Minoan Crete
Crete
descended matrilinearly— from the queen to her firstborn daughter— the queen's husband would have become the Minos, or war chief. Some scholars see a connection between Minos
Minos
and the names of other ancient founder-kings, such as Menes
Menes
of Egypt, Mannus of Germany, and Manu of India,[10][11] and even with Meon of Phrygia and Lydia (after him named Maeonia), Mizraim of Egypt in the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
and the Canaanite deity Baal.[12] The literary Minos[edit]

17th-century engraving of Scylla falling in love with Minos

Minos
Minos
appears in Greek literature as the king of Knossos
Knossos
as early as Homer's Iliad
Iliad
and Odyssey.[13] Thucydides
Thucydides
tells us Minos
Minos
was the most ancient man known to build a navy.[14] He reigned over Crete
Crete
and the islands of the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
three generations before the Trojan War. He lived at Knossos
Knossos
for periods of nine years, where he received instruction from Zeus
Zeus
in the legislation which he gave to the island. He was the author of the Cretan constitution and the founder of its naval supremacy.[14][15] On the Athenian stage Minos
Minos
is a cruel tyrant,[16] the heartless exactor of the tribute of Athenian youths to feed to the Minotaur; in revenge for the death of his son Androgeus
Androgeus
during a riot (see Theseus).[17] Later rationalization[edit] To reconcile the contradictory aspects of his character, as well as to explain how Minos
Minos
governed Crete
Crete
over a period spanning so many generations, two kings of the name of Minos
Minos
were assumed by later poets and rationalizing mythologists, such as Diodorus Siculus[18] and Plutarch— "putting aside the mythological element", as he claims— in his life of Theseus.[19] According to this view, the first King Minos
Minos
was the son of Zeus
Zeus
and Europa and brother of Rhadamanthys and Sarpedon. This was the 'good' king Minos, and he was held in such esteem by the Olympian gods that, after he died, he was made one of the three 'Judges of the Dead',[20] alongside his brother Rhadamanthys and half-brother Aeacus. The wife of this ' Minos
Minos
I' was said to be Itone (daughter of Lyctius) or Crete (a nymph or daughter of his stepfather Asterion), and he had a single son named Lycastus, his successor as King of Crete. Lycastus had a son named Minos, after his grandfather, born by Lycastus' wife, Ida, daughter of Corybas. This ' Minos
Minos
II'— the 'bad' king Minos— is the son of this Lycastus, and was a far more colorful character than his father and grandfather. It would be to this Minos that we owe the myths of Theseus, Pasiphaë, the Minotaur, Daedalus, Glaucus, and Nisus. Unlike Minos
Minos
I, Minos
Minos
II fathered numerous children, including Androgeus, Catreus, Deucalion, Ariadne, Phaedra, and Glaucus
Glaucus
— all born to him by his wife Pasiphaë. Through Deucalion, he was the grandfather of King Idomeneus, who led the Cretans to the Trojan War. Possible historical element[edit]

Palace
Palace
of Minos

Doubtless there is a considerable historical element in the legend, perhaps in the Phoenician origin of Europa; it is possible that not only Athens, but Mycenae
Mycenae
itself, were once culturally bound to the kings of Knossos, as Minoan objects appear at Mycenaean sites.[citation needed] Minos
Minos
himself is said to have died at Camicus in Sicily, whither he had gone in pursuit of Daedalus, who had given Ariadne
Ariadne
the clue by which she guided Theseus
Theseus
through the labyrinth. He was killed by the daughter of Cocalus, king of Agrigentum, who poured boiling water over him while he was taking a bath.[21] Subsequently his remains were sent back to the Cretans, who placed them in a sarcophagus, on which was inscribed: "The tomb of Minos, the son of Zeus." The earlier legend knows Minos
Minos
as a beneficent ruler, legislator, and suppressor of piracy.[22] His constitution was said to have formed the basis of that of Lycurgus for Sparta.[23] In accordance with this, after his death he became judge of the shades in the underworld.[24] In later versions, Aeacus
Aeacus
and Rhadamanthus
Rhadamanthus
were made judges as well, with Minos
Minos
leading as the "appeals court" judge.[25] The mythological Minos[edit]

Greek underworld

Residents

Aeacus Angelos Arae Ascalaphus Cerberus Ceuthonymus Charon Erinyes Eurynomos Hades/Pluto Hecate Hypnos Macaria Melinoe Menoetius Minos Moirai Mormolykeia Persephone Rhadamanthus Thanatos

Geography

Acheron Asphodel Fields Cocytus Elysium Erebus Lethe Phlegethon Styx Tartarus

Famous Tartarus
Tartarus
inmates

The Danaides Ixion Salmoneus Sisyphus Tantalus The Titans Tityus

Visitors

Aeneas Dionysus Heracles Hermes Odysseus Orpheus Pirithous Psyche Theseus

v t e

Asterion, king of Crete, adopted the three sons of Zeus
Zeus
and Europa, Minos, Sarpedon
Sarpedon
and Rhadamanthus. According to the Odyssey
Odyssey
he spoke with Zeus
Zeus
every nine years or for nine years. He got his laws straight from Zeus
Zeus
himself. When Minos' son Androgeos had won the Panathenaic Games the king, Aegeus, sent him to Marathon to fight a bull, resulting in the death of Androgeos. Outraged, Minos
Minos
went to Athens
Athens
to avenge his son, and on the way he camped at Megara where Nisos
Nisos
lived. Learning that Nisos' strength came from his hair, Minos
Minos
gained the love of Scylla and her aid in cutting off her father's hair so that he could conquer the city. After his triumph, he punished Scylla for her treachery against her father by tying her to a boat and dragging her until she drowned. On arriving in Attica, he asked Zeus
Zeus
to punish the city, and the god struck it with plague and hunger. An oracle told the Athenians to meet any of Minos' demands if they wanted to escape the punishment. Minos
Minos
then asked Athens
Athens
to send seven boys and seven girls to Crete
Crete
every nine years to be sacrificed to the Minotaur, the offspring from the zoophilic encounter of Minos' wife Pasiphaë
Pasiphaë
with a certain bull that the king refused to sacrifice to Poseidon, which he had placed within a labyrinth he commanded his architect Daedalus
Daedalus
to build. The Minotaur
Minotaur
was defeated by the hero Theseus
Theseus
with the help of Minos' daughter Ariadne. Glaucus[edit] Main article: Glaucus
Glaucus
(son of Minos) One day, Glaucus
Glaucus
was playing with a ball[26] or mouse[27] and suddenly disappeared. The Curetes told the Cretans "A marvelous creature has been born amongst you: whoever finds the true likeness for this creature will also find the child." Polyidus of Argos observed the similarity of a newborn calf in Minos' herd, colored white and red and black, to the ripening of the fruit of the bramble plant, and so Minos
Minos
sent him to find Glaucus. Searching for the boy, Polyidus saw an owl driving bees away from a wine-cellar in Minos' palace. Inside the wine-cellar was a cask of honey, with Glaucus
Glaucus
dead inside. Minos
Minos
demanded Glaucus
Glaucus
be brought back to life, though Polyidus objected. Minos
Minos
shut Polyidus up in the wine-cellar with a sword. When a snake appeared nearby, Polyidus killed it with the sword. Another snake came for the first, and after seeing its mate dead, the second serpent left and brought back an herb which brought the first snake back to life. Following this example, Polyidus used the same herb to resurrect Glaucus. Minos
Minos
refused to let Polyidus leave Crete
Crete
until he taught Glaucus
Glaucus
the art of divination. Polyidus did so, but then, at the last moment before leaving, he asked Glaucus
Glaucus
to spit in his mouth. Glaucus
Glaucus
did so, and forgot everything he had been taught. Poseidon, Daedalus
Daedalus
and Pasiphaë[edit] Minos
Minos
justified his accession as king and prayed to Poseidon
Poseidon
for a sign. Poseidon
Poseidon
sent a giant white bull out of the sea.[28] Minos
Minos
was committed to sacrificing the bull to Poseidon,[29] but then decided to substitute a different bull. In rage, Poseidon
Poseidon
cursed Pasiphaë, Minos' wife, with a mad passion for the bull. Daedalus
Daedalus
built her a wooden cow, which she hid inside. The bull mated with the wooden cow and Pasiphaë
Pasiphaë
was impregnated by the bull, giving birth to a horrible monster, again named Asterius,[30] the Minotaur, half man half bull. Daedalus
Daedalus
then built a complicated "chamber that with its tangled windings perplexed the outward way"[31] called the Labyrinth, and Minos
Minos
put the Minotaur
Minotaur
in it. To make sure no one would ever know the secret of who the Minotaur
Minotaur
was and how to get out of the Labyrinth ( Daedalus
Daedalus
knew both of these things), Minos
Minos
imprisoned Daedalus
Daedalus
and his son, Icarus, along with the monster. Daedalus
Daedalus
and Icarus flew away on wings Daedalus
Daedalus
invented, but Icarus' wings melted because he flew too close to the sun. Icarus fell in the sea and drowned. Theseus[edit]

Amphora showing Theseus
Theseus
slaying the Minotaur, 460 BC. Ref:1837,0609.57 .

Minos' son Androgeus
Androgeus
won every game in a contest hosted by Aegeas
Aegeas
of Athens. Alternatively, the other contestants were jealous of Androgeus and killed him. Minos
Minos
was angry and declared war on Athens. He offered the Athenians peace if they sent Minos
Minos
seven young men and seven virgin maidens to feed the Minotaur
Minotaur
every year (which corresponded directly to the Minoans' meticulous records of lunar alignments - a full moon falls on the equinoxes once every eight years). This continued until Theseus
Theseus
killed the Minotaur
Minotaur
with the help of Ariadne, Minos' lovestruck daughter. Nisus[edit] Minos
Minos
was also part of the King Nisus story. Nisus was King of Megara, and he was invincible as long as a lock of crimson hair still existed, hidden in his white hair. Minos
Minos
attacked Megara but Nisus knew he could not be beaten because he still had his lock of crimson hair.[32] His daughter, Scylla, fell in love with Minos
Minos
and proved it by cutting the crimson hair off her father's head. Nisus died and Megara fell to Crete. Minos
Minos
spurned Scylla for disobeying her father. She was changed into a shearer bird, relentlessly pursued by her father, who was a falcon. The death of Minos[edit] Minos
Minos
searched for Daedalus
Daedalus
by traveling from city to city asking a riddle; he presented a spiral seashell and asked for it to be strung all the way through. When he reached Camicus, Sicily, King Cocalus, knowing Daedalus
Daedalus
would be able to solve the riddle, fetched the old man. He tied the string to an ant, which walked through the seashell, stringing it all the way through. Minos
Minos
then knew Daedalus
Daedalus
was in the court of King Cocalus and demanded he be handed over. Cocalus managed to convince him to take a bath first; then Cocalus' daughters and Daedalus, with Minos
Minos
trapped in the bath, scalded him to death with boiling water. After his death, Minos
Minos
became a judge of the dead in Hades
Hades
together with Aeacus
Aeacus
and Rhadamanthus. Rhadamanthus
Rhadamanthus
judged the souls of Asians, Aeacus
Aeacus
judged Europeans, and Minos
Minos
had the deciding vote.[33] Minos
Minos
in art[edit]

Judge Minos
Minos
in The Last Judgement.

On Cretan coins, Minos
Minos
is represented as bearded, wearing a diadem, curly-haired, haughty and dignified, like the traditional portraits of his reputed father, Zeus. On painted vases and sarcophagus bas-reliefs he frequently occurs with Aeacus
Aeacus
and Rhadamanthus
Rhadamanthus
as judges of the underworld and in connection with the Minotaur
Minotaur
and Theseus. In Michelangelo's famous fresco, The Last Judgment (located in the Sistine Chapel), Minos
Minos
appears as judge of the underworld, surrounded by a crowd of devils. With his tail coiled around him and two donkey ears (symbol of stupidity), Minos
Minos
judges the damned as they are brought down to hell (see Inferno, Second Circle). In poetry[edit]

Minos
Minos
depicted by Romantic British artist William Blake
William Blake
as part of his illustrations of Dante's Divine Comedy. The original object for this image is held by the National Gallery of Victoria.[34]

In the Aeneid
Aeneid
of Virgil, Minos
Minos
was the judge of those who had been given the death penalty on a false charge - Minos
Minos
sits with a gigantic urn, and decides whether a soul should go to Elysium
Elysium
or Tartarus
Tartarus
with the help of a silent jury. Radamanthus, his brother, is a judge at Tartarus
Tartarus
who decides upon suitable punishments for sinners there.[35] In Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
story Inferno, Minos
Minos
is depicted as having a snake-like tail. He sits at the entrance to the second circle in the Inferno, which is the beginning of Hell proper. There, he judges the sins of each soul and assigns it to its rightful punishment by indicating the circle to which it must descend. He does this by circling his tail around his own body the appropriate number of times. He can also speak, to clarify the soul's location within the circle indicated by the wrapping of his tail.[36] In books[edit]

Minos
Minos
appeared as an antagonist against Percy Jackson in The Battle of the Labyrinth, the fourth book in the Percy Jackson series by Rick Riordan. Minos
Minos
appeared to be helping the character Nico di Angelo raise his sister, who died in The Titan's Curse. It was later revealed that he was working with Luke Castellan to destroy Olympus. He revealed that he only helped Nico to trick him into killing Daedalus so he would come back instead of Bianca. King Minos
Minos
and the Minotaur
Minotaur
appear in In the Grip of the Minotaur
Minotaur
by Farnham Bishop and Arthur Gilchrist Brodeur, a novel which was serialized in Adventure magazine in 1916. Set around 1400 B.C., it tells the story of a group of Northmen who visit the ancient Mediterranean on a trading mission and become embroiled in intrigues between the rising power of Troy and the mistress of the Mediterranean, Crete. Brodeur was a professor at Berkeley who translated Prose Edda
Prose Edda
by Snorri Sturluson
Snorri Sturluson
and was a well-known Beowulf scholar. The novel was printed in book form for the first time in 2010 (ISBN 978-1-928619-98-7) by Black Dog Books. In Mark Z. Danielewski's House of Leaves, the story of Minos
Minos
and the Minotaur
Minotaur
is referenced several times, both accurately and inaccurately, when Zampanó discusses the thematic similarities between it and the house's labyrinth. Minos
Minos
appears as a sympathetic character in Mary Renault's "The King Must Die". Slowly succumbing to the rages of leprosy, he hides his face by wearing a bull mask. Having no heir but an illegitimate stepson nicknamed "The Minotaur", he sees in captive Theseus
Theseus
a future king and husband to his daughter, Ariadne.

Genealogy[edit]

Argive genealogy in Greek mythology

v t e

Inachus

Melia

Zeus

Io

Phoroneus

Epaphus

Memphis

Libya

Poseidon

Belus

Achiroë

Agenor

Telephassa

Danaus

Pieria

Aegyptus

Cadmus

Cilix

Europa

Phoenix

Mantineus

Hypermnestra

Lynceus

Harmonia

Zeus

Polydorus

Sparta

Lacedaemon

Ocalea

Abas

Agave

Sarpedon

Rhadamanthus

Autonoë

Eurydice

Acrisius

Ino

Minos

Zeus

Danaë

Semele

Zeus

Perseus

Dionysus

Colour key:      Male      Female      Deity

See also[edit]

Minos, a dialogue attributed to Plato Menes
Menes
a pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period of ancient Egypt

Notes[edit]

^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Library 3.1.2. ^ Nonnus, Dionysiaca, 13. 220ff. ^ Hyginus, Poetical Astronomy 2. 34 ^ Stephanus of Byzantium
Stephanus of Byzantium
s. v. Pholegandros ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.1.3. ^ "We call him Minos, but we do not know his name, probably the word is a title, like Pharaoh
Pharaoh
or Caesar, and covers a multitude of kings" (Will Durant, The Life of Greece [The Story of Civilization Part II), New York: Simon & Schuster), 1939:11). ^ Hubert La Marle, Linéaire A : la première écriture syllabique de Crete, Geuthner, Paris, 4 volumes, 1997–99 (in vol. 3, ch. XIV concerns kings and meetings) ^ Younger, John. Critique of Decipherments by Hubert La Marle and Kjell Aartun. University of Kansas. 15 August 2009; last update: 5 July 2010 (Retrieved 25 August 2011): [La Marle] "assigns phonetic values to Linear signs based on superficial resemblances to signs in other scripts (the choice of scripts being already prejudiced to include only those from the eastern Mediterranean and northeast Africa), as if "C looks like O so it must be O." ^ La Marle 1997–99. ^ Archivio veneto, Volume 16, 1878, p. 367. ^ Hesperien: zur Lösung des religiös-geschichtlichen Problems der alten Welt, Joseph Wormstall, 1878, p.73. ^ On the origin and ramifications of the English language: Preceded by an inquiry into the primitive seats, early migrations, and final settlements of the principal European nations, Henry Welsford, 1845, pp. 11–12. ^ Homer, Iliad
Iliad
13.450; Odyssey
Odyssey
11.321. ^ a b Thucydides, 1.4. ^ Herodotus
Herodotus
3.122 ^ Powell, Barry B. Classical Myth. Second ed. With new translations of ancient texts by Herbert M. Howe. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1998, p. 346. ^ William Godwin (1876). "Lives of the Necromancers". p. 40.  ^ Diodorus Siculus, Library of History, 4. 60. 3 ^ Plutarch, Theseus
Theseus
§16 notes the discrepancy: "on the Attic stage Minos
Minos
is always vilified... and yet Minos
Minos
is said to have been a king and a lawgiver..." Lemprière A Classical Dictionary, s.v. "Minos" and " Minos
Minos
II". ^ Horace, Odes 4.7.21. ^ Diodorus Siculus, 4.79. ^ Thucydides
Thucydides
1.4. ^ Pausanias 3. 2, 4. ^ Odyssey, 11.568. ^ Plato, Gorgias; 524 ^ Hyginus, Fabula 136. ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.3.1. ^ Bibliotheke 3.1.3; compare Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
4.77.2 and John Tzetzes, Chiliades i.479ff. Lactantius Placidus, commentary on Statius, Thebaid v.431, according to whom the bull was sent, in answer to Minos's prayer, not by Poseidon
Poseidon
but by Jupiter. ^ The act would have "returned" the bull to the god who sent it. ^ Bibliotheke 3.1.4. ^ Apparently a quotation, according to Sir James George Frazer, (Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation, 1921), commenting on Bibliotheke 3.1.4 (. ^ Bibliotheke 3.15.8 ^ Plato, Gorgias 523a and 524b ff (trans. Lamb) ^ Morris Eaves, Robert N. Essick, and Joseph Viscomi (eds.). "Illustrations to Dante's "Divine Comedy", object 9 (Butlin 812.9) "Minos"". William Blake
William Blake
Archive. Retrieved September 26, 2013. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Aeneid
Aeneid
VI, 568–572). ^ Inferno V, 4–24; XXVII, 124–127).

References[edit]

Apollodorus, Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.B.A., F.R.S. in 2 Volumes, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1921. Herodotus, Herodotus, with an English translation by A. D. Godley, Cambridge. Harvard University Press. 1920. Homer, The Iliad
Iliad
with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, Ph.D. in two volumes, Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1924. Homer, The Odyssey
Odyssey
with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, PH.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1919. Hyginus, Gaius Julius, The Myths of Hyginus. Edited and translated by Mary A. Grant, Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1960. Smith, William; Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, London (1873). " Minos
Minos
1.", " Minos
Minos
2." Thucydides, Thucydides
Thucydides
translated into English; with introduction, marginal analysis, notes, and indices, Volume 1., Benjamin Jowett. translator. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1881. Ziolkowski, Theodore, Minos
Minos
and the Moderns: Cretan Myth in Twentieth-century Literature and Art. (Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2008). Pp. xii, 173 (Classical Presences). Kelides,Yianni Minos
Minos
SA: A study of the mind. ( Minos
Minos
SA University: I love Greece Club, 2000 BC). Pp. xii, 173 (Classical Presences).

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Minos.

Media related to Minos
Minos
at Wikimedia Commons The death of Minos
Minos
in Sicily

v t e

Dante's Divine Comedy

Characters and locations

Inferno

Acheron Alichino Barbariccia Ciampolo Cocytus Dis Ugolino della Gherardesca Malacoda Paolo Malatesta Malebranche Malebolge Minos Odysseus Phlegethon Francesca da Rimini Satan Scarmiglione Styx Virgil

Purgatorio

Cato the Younger Forese Donati Eunoe Beatrice Portinari Statius

Paradiso

Adam Thomas Aquinas Bernard of Clairvaux Bonaventure Cacciaguida Charles Martel of Anjou David Empyrean Justinian I Peter Lombard Piccarda

Verses

"Papé Satàn, papé Satàn aleppe" "Raphèl mai amècche zabì almi"

Adaptations

Classical music

Après une Lecture de Dante: Fantasia quasi Sonata (Liszt, 1849) Dante Symphony
Dante Symphony
(Liszt, 1857) Francesca da Rimini
Francesca da Rimini
(Tchaikovsky, 1876) Francesca da Rimini
Francesca da Rimini
(Rachmaninoff, 1904) Francesca da Rimini
Francesca da Rimini
(Zandonai, 1914) Gianni Schicchi
Gianni Schicchi
(Puccini, 1918) The Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
(Smith, 1996)

Paintings

The Barque of Dante
The Barque of Dante
(Delacroix, 1822) The Wood of the Self-Murderers: The Harpies and the Suicides (Blake, 1827) Francesca da Rimini
Francesca da Rimini
and Paolo Malatesta
Paolo Malatesta
appraised by Dante and Virgil (Scheffer, 1835) Pia de' Tolomei (Rossetti, 1868) Paolo and Francesca da Rimini
Francesca da Rimini
(Rossetti, 1885) La barca de Aqueronte
La barca de Aqueronte
(Hidalgo, 1887) La Laguna Estigia
La Laguna Estigia
(Hidalgo, 1887)

Sculptures

The Kiss (Rodin, 1882) The Thinker
The Thinker
(Rodin, 1904) The Gates of Hell
The Gates of Hell
(Rodin, 1917)

Architecture

Danteum (Terragni, 1938)

Modern music

Inferno (1973 album) "Dante's Inferno" (1995 song) Dante XXI
Dante XXI
(2006 album) A Place Where the Sun Is Silent
A Place Where the Sun Is Silent
(2011 album)

Film

L'Inferno (1911) Dante's Inferno
Dante's Inferno
(1924) Dante's Inferno
Dante's Inferno
(1935) The Dante Quartet
The Dante Quartet
(1987) A TV Dante (1989) Dante's Inferno
Dante's Inferno
(2007) Dante's Inferno: An Animated Epic (2010) Dante's Inferno
Dante's Inferno
Animated (2010)

Literature

The Story of Rimini (1816) La Comédie humaine
La Comédie humaine
(1830–1850) Earth Inferno (1905) The Cantos
The Cantos
(1917–1962) As I Was Going Down Sackville Street (1937) The System of Dante's Hell
The System of Dante's Hell
(1965) Demon Lord Dante
Demon Lord Dante
(1971) Inferno (1976) The Dante Club
The Dante Club
(2003) Jimbo's Inferno (2006) Inferno (2013)

Video games

Tamashii no Mon (1994) Devil May Cry
Devil May Cry
series (2001) Bayonetta
Bayonetta
(2009) Dante's Inferno
Dante's Inferno
(2010) The Lost (cancelled)

Related

Cultural references in Divina Commedia Dante Alighiere and the Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
in popular culture English translations Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
Illustrated by Botticelli

Botticelli Inferno, 2016 documentary

Category

v t e

Ancient Greek deities by affiliation

Primordial deities

Achlys Aether Aion/Chronos Ananke Chaos Erebus Eros/Phanes Gaia Hemera Nyx The Ourea Pontus/Thalassa Tartarus Uranus Fates

Atropos Clotho Lachesis

Titan deities

Titanes (male)

Coeus Crius Cronus Hyperion Iapetus Oceanus Ophion

Titanides (female)

Dione Eurybia Mnemosyne Phoebe Rhea Tethys Theia Themis

Hyperionides

Eos Helios Selene

Koionides

Asteria Leto

Krionides

Astraeus Pallas Perses

Iapetionides

Atlas Epimetheus Menoetius Prometheus

Mousai (Muses)

Aoide Arche Melete Mneme

Olympian deities

Dodekatheon

Aphrodite Apollo Ares Artemis Athena Demeter Dionysus Hephaestus Hera Hermes Hestia Poseidon Zeus

Theoi Olympioi

Asclepius Deimos Ganymede Eileithyia Enyo Eris Iris Harmonia Hebe Heracles Paean Pan Phobos

Mousai (Muses)

Daughters of Zeus

Calliope Clio Euterpe Erato Melpomene Polyhymnia Terpsichore Thalia Urania

Daughters of Apollo

Apollonis Borysthenis Cephisso

Muses
Muses
of the Lyre

Hypate Mese Nete

Muses
Muses
at Sicyon

Polymatheia

Charites
Charites
(Graces)

Aglaea Antheia Euphrosyne Hegemone Pasithea Thalia

Horae
Horae
(Hours)

Dike Eirene Eunomia

Styktides

Bia Kratos Nike Zelos

Aquatic deities

Theoi Halioi

Amphitrite Benthesikyme Brizo Calypso Ceto Glaucus The Ichthyocentaurs Kymopoleia Leucothea Melicertes Nereus Nerites The Nesoi Oceanus Phorcys Pontus/Thalassa Poseidon Proteus Rhodos Tethys Thaumas Thetis Triton

Oceanids

Acaste Admete Adrasteia Amalthea Asia Callirrhoe Ceto Clytie Dione Dodone Doris Electra Eurynome Idyia Melia Metis Nemesis Perse Pleione Plouto Styx Telesto Zeuxo

Nereides

Amphitrite Arethusa Dynamene Galatea Galene Psamathe Thetis

Potamoi

Achelous Almo Alpheus Anapos Asopus Asterion Axius Caanthus Cebren Cephissus Clitumnus Enipeus Kladeos Meander Nilus Numicus Phyllis Peneus Rivers of the Underworld

Cocytus Eridanos Lethe Phlegethon Styx

Sangarius Scamander Simoeis Strymon

Naiads

Aegina Achiroe Aganippe The Anigrides Argyra Bistonis Bolbe Caliadne Cassotis Castalia Cleocharia Creusa Daphne Drosera Harpina The Ionides Ismenis Larunda Lilaea Liriope Melite Metope Minthe Moria Nana Nicaea Orseis Pallas Pirene Salmacis Stilbe The Thriae

Corycia Kleodora Melaina

Tiasa

Chthonic deities

Theoi Chthonioi

Angelos Demeter Gaia Hades Hecate The Lampads Macaria Melinoë Persephone Zagreus

Erinyes
Erinyes
(Furies)

Alecto Megaera Tisiphone

Earthborn

Cyclopes Gigantes Hecatonchires Kouretes Meliae Telchines Typhon

Apotheothenai

Trophonius Triptolemus Orpheus Aeacus Minos Rhadamanthus

Personifications

Children of Nyx

Achlys Apate Dolos Eleos Elpis Epiphron Eris Geras Hesperides Hybris Hypnos Ker The Keres The Moirai

Aisa Clotho Lachesis

Momus Moros Oizys The Oneiroi

Epiales Morpheus Phantasos Phobetor

Nemesis Philotes Sophrosyne Thanatos

Children of Eris

Algos Amphillogiai Ate The Androktasiai Dysnomia Horkos Hysminai Lethe Limos Machai Phonoi Ponos Neikea Pseudea Logoi

Children of other gods

Aergia Aidos Alala Aletheia Angelia Arete Bia Caerus The Younger Charites

Eucleia Eupheme Euthenia Philophrosyne

Corus Deimos The Erotes

Anteros Eros Hedylogos Hermaphroditus Hymen

Eupraxia Hedone Homonoia Iacchus Kratos The Litae Homonoia Nike Peitho Phobos Tyche Zelos

Others

Adephagia Alala Alke Amechania Anaideia Alastor Apheleia Aporia The Arae Dikaiosyne Dyssebeia Ekecheiria Eulabeia Eusebeia Gelos Heimarmene Homados Horme Ioke Kakia Kalokagathia Koalemos Kydoimos Lyssa The Maniae Methe Nomos Palioxis Peitharchia Penia Penthus Pepromene Pheme Philotes Phrike Phthonus Pistis Poine Polemos Poros Praxidike Proioxis Prophasis Roma Soter Soteria Techne Thrasos

Other deities

Sky deities

The Anemoi The Astra Planeti

Stilbon Eosphorus Hesperus Pyroeis Phaethon Phaenon

Aura Chione The Hesperides The Hyades Nephele The Pleiades

Alcyone Sterope Celaeno Electra Maia Merope Taygete

Agricultural deities

Aphaea Ariadne Carmanor Demeter Despoina Eunostus Philomelus Plutus

Health deities

Asclepius Aceso Epione Iaso Hygieia Panacea Telesphorus

Rustic deities

Aetna The Alseids The Auloniads Amphictyonis The Anthousai Aristaeus Attis Britomartis The Cabeiri Comus The Dryades

Erato Eurydice The Hamadryades

Chrysopeleia

The Epimeliades Hecaterus Leuce Ma The Maenades The Meliae The Napaeae The Nymphai Hyperboreioi The Oreads

Adrasteia Echo Helike Iynx Nomia Oenone Pitys

The Pegasides Priapus Rhapso Silenus Telete

Others

Acratopotes Adrasteia Agdistis Alexiares and Anicetus Aphroditus Astraea Circe Eiresione Enyalius Harpocrates Ichnaea Palaestra

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 50029

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