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The Minoan civilization
Minoan civilization
was an Aegean Bronze Age
Bronze Age
civilization on the island of Crete
Crete
and other Aegean islands
Aegean islands
which flourished from about 2600 to 1100 BC. It preceded the Mycenaean civilization of Ancient Greece.[1] The civilization was rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century through the work of British archaeologist Arthur Evans. It has been described as the earliest of its kind in Europe,[2] with historian Will Durant
Will Durant
calling the Minoans "the first link in the European chain".[3] The term "Minoan", which refers to the mythical King Minos, originally described in the pottery of the period. Minos
Minos
was associated in Greek mythology with the labyrinth and the Minotaur, which Evans identified with the site at Knossos
Knossos
(the largest Minoan site). According to Homer, Crete
Crete
once had 90 cities.[4] The Minoan period saw trade between Crete
Crete
and Aegean and Mediterranean settlements, particularly the Near East. Through their traders and artists, the Minoan cultural influence reached beyond Crete
Crete
to the Cyclades, Egypt's Old Kingdom, copper-bearing Cyprus, Canaan
Canaan
and the Levantine coast, and Anatolia. Some of its best art is preserved in the city of Akrotiri on the island of Santorini, which was destroyed by the Thera
Thera
eruption. Although the Minoan language
Minoan language
and writing systems (Linear A) remain undeciphered, and are the subject of academic dispute, they apparently conveyed a language entirely different from the later Greek. The reason for the end of the Minoan period (around 1400 BC) is unclear; theories include Mycenaean invasions from mainland Greece
Greece
and a volcanic eruption of Thera.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Chronology
Chronology
and history

2.1 Overview

2.1.1 Early Minoan 2.1.2 Middle Minoan 2.1.3 Late Minoan 2.1.4 Foreign influence

3 Geography

3.1 Settlements 3.2 Beyond Crete

4 Agriculture and cuisine

4.1 Tools

5 Society and culture

5.1 Saffron
Saffron
trade 5.2 Fashion 5.3 Language and writing 5.4 Religion

5.4.1 Symbolism 5.4.2 Burial
Burial
practices

5.5 Architecture

5.5.1 Palaces 5.5.2 Plumbing 5.5.3 Columns 5.5.4 Villas

5.6 Art

5.6.1 Pottery 5.6.2 Jewelry 5.6.3 Metal vessels

5.7 Warfare and the "Minoan peace"

5.7.1 Skepticism and weaponry

6 Collapse 7 Genetic studies 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References

Etymology[edit] The term "Minoan" refers to the mythical King Minos
Minos
of Knossos. Its origin is debated, but it is commonly attributed to archeologist Arthur Evans
Arthur Evans
(1851–1941).[5] Minos
Minos
was associated in Greek mythology with the labyrinth, which Evans identified with the site at Knossos. However, Karl Hoeck had already used the title Das Minoische Kreta in 1825 for volume two of his Kreta; this appears to be the first known use of the word "Minoan" to mean "ancient Cretan". Evans probably read Hoeck's book, and continued using the term in his writings and findings:[6] "To this early civilization of Crete
Crete
as a whole I have proposed—and the suggestion has been generally adopted by the archaeologists of this and other countries—to apply the name 'Minoan'."[7] Evans said that he applied it, not invented it. Hoeck, with no idea that the archaeological Crete
Crete
had existed, had in mind the Crete
Crete
of mythology. Although Evans' 1931 claim that the term was "unminted" before he used it was called a "brazen suggestion" by Karadimas and Momigliano,[6] he coined its archaeological meaning. Chronology
Chronology
and history[edit] Further information: Minoan chronology, Minoan pottery, and Dating the Thera
Thera
eruption

Minoan chronology

2500–2400 BC[8] EMI Prepalatial

2300–2100 BC EMII

2100–2000 BC EMIII

2000–1900 BC MMIA

1900–1850 BC MMIB Protopalatial (Old Palace
Palace
Period)

1850–? BC MMIIA

?–1750 BC MMIIB Neopalatial (New Palace
Palace
Period)

1700/1750–1600 BC MMIIIA

1600–1550 BC MMIIIB

1550–1500 BC LMIA

1500–1450 BC LMIB Postpalatial (at Knossos; Final Palace
Palace
Period)

1450–1400 BC LMII

1400–1300 BC LMIIIA

1300–1200 BC LMIIIB

Instead of dating the Minoan period, archaeologists use two systems of relative chronology. The first, created by Evans and modified by later archaeologists, is based on pottery styles and imported Egyptian artifacts (which can be correlated with the chronology of Ancient Egypt). Evans' system divides the Minoan period into three major eras: early (EM), middle (MM) and late (LM). These eras are subdivided—for example, Early Minoan I, II and III (EMI, EMII, EMIII). Another dating system, proposed by Greek archaeologist Nicolas Platon, is based on the development of architectural complexes known as "palaces" at Knossos, Phaistos, Malia and Kato Zakros. Platon divides the Minoan period into pre-, proto-, neo- and post-palatial sub-periods. The relationship between the systems in the table includes approximate calendar dates from Warren and Hankey (1989). The Thera eruption
Thera eruption
occurred during a mature phase of the LM IA period. Efforts to establish the volcanic eruption's date have been controversial. Radiocarbon dating
Radiocarbon dating
has indicated a date in the late 17th century BC;[9][10] this conflicts with estimates by archaeologists, who synchronize the eruption with conventional Egyptian chronology
Egyptian chronology
for a date of 1525–1500 BC.[11][12][13] Overview[edit] See also: History of Crete Although stone-tool evidence exists that hominins may have reached Crete
Crete
as early as 130,000 years ago, evidence for the first anatomically-modern human presence dates to 10,000–12,000 YBP.[14][15] The oldest evidence of modern human habitation on Crete are pre-ceramic Neolithic
Neolithic
farming-community remains which date to about 7000 BC.[16] A comparative study of DNA
DNA
haplogroups of modern Cretan men showed that a male founder group, from Anatolia
Anatolia
or the Levant, is shared with the Greeks.[17] The Neolithic
Neolithic
population lived in open villages. Fishermen's huts were found on the shores, and the fertile Mesara Plain
Mesara Plain
was used for agriculture.[18] Early Minoan[edit] The Early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(3500 to 2600 BC) has been described as indicating a "promise of greatness"[19] in light of later developments on the island. The Bronze Age
Bronze Age
began on Crete
Crete
around 2700 BC.[20] In the late third millennium BC, several locations on the island developed into centers of commerce and handiwork; this enabled the upper classes to exercise leadership and expand their influence. It is likely that the original hierarchies of the local elites were replaced by monarchies, a precondition for the palaces.[21] Middle Minoan[edit] At the end of the MMII period (1700 BC) there was a large disturbance on Crete—probably an earthquake, but possibly an invasion from Anatolia.[22] The palaces at Knossos, Phaistos, Malia and Kato Zakros were destroyed. At the beginning of the neopalatial period the population increased again,[23] the palaces were rebuilt on a larger scale and new settlements were built across the island. This period (the 17th and 16th centuries BC, MM III-Neopalatial) was the apex of Minoan civilization. After around 1700 BC, material culture on the Greek mainland reached a new high due to Minoan influence.[21] Late Minoan[edit] Another natural catastrophe occurred around 1600 BC, possibly an eruption of the Thera
Thera
volcano. The Minoans rebuilt the palaces with several major differences in function.[24][21][25] Around 1450 BC, Minoan culture reached a turning point due to a natural catastrophe (possibly an earthquake). Although another eruption of the Thera
Thera
volcano has been linked to this downfall, its dating and implications are disputed. Several important palaces, in locations such as Mallia, Tylissos, Phaistos
Phaistos
and Hagia Triada, and the living quarters of Knossos
Knossos
were destroyed. The palace in Knossos
Knossos
seems to have remained largely intact, resulting in its dynasty's ability to spread its influence over large parts of Crete
Crete
until it was overrun by the Mycenaean Greeks.[21] Foreign influence[edit] The influence of Minoan civilization
Minoan civilization
is seen in Minoan handicrafts on the Greek mainland. The shaft graves of Mycenae
Mycenae
had several Cretan imports (such as a bull's-head rhyton), which suggests a prominent role for Minoan symbolism. Connections between Egypt
Egypt
and Crete
Crete
are prominent; Minoan ceramics are found in Egyptian cities, and the Minoans imported items (particularly papyrus) and architectural and artistic ideas from Egypt. Egyptian hieroglyphs were models for Minoan pictographic writing, from which the Linear A
Linear A
and Linear B
Linear B
writing systems developed.[18] Archaeologist
Archaeologist
Hermann Bengtson has also found a Minoan influence in Canaanite artifacts. Minoan palace sites were occupied by the Mycenaeans (who adapted Linear A
Linear A
Minoan script for their own language) around 1420–1375 BC.[26][21] Their language, a form of Greek, was written in Linear B. The Mycenaeans tended to adapt (rather than supplant) Minoan culture, religion and art,[27] continuing the Minoan economic system and bureaucracy.[21] During LMIIIA (1400–1300 BC), Amenhotep III
Amenhotep III
noted k-f-t-w (Kaftor) as one of the "Secret Lands of the North of Asia" at Kom el-Hatan.[28] Also mentioned are Cretan cities (such as Amnisos, Phaistos, Kydonia and Knossos) and toponyms reconstructed as in the Cyclades
Cyclades
or the Greek mainland. If the values of these Egyptian names are accurate, the pharaoh did not value LMIII Knossos
Knossos
more than other states in the region.[29] After about a century of partial recovery, most Cretan cities and palaces declined during the 13th century BC (LHIIIB-LMIIIB). The last Linear A
Linear A
archives date to LMIIIA, contemporary with LHIIIA. Knossos
Knossos
remained an administrative center until 1200 BC. The last Minoan site was the defensive mountain site of Karfi, a refuge which had vestiges of Minoan civilization
Minoan civilization
nearly into the Iron Age.[30] Geography[edit]

Knossos

Gortyn

Clickable map of Greece, with major Minoan sites

Crete
Crete
is a mountainous island with natural harbors. There are signs of earthquake damage at many Minoan sites, and clear signs of land uplifting and submersion of coastal sites due to tectonic processes along its coast.[31] According to Homer, Crete
Crete
had 90 cities.[4] Judging by the palace sites, the island was probably divided into at least eight political units at the height of the Minoan period. The north is thought to have been governed from Knossos, the south from Phaistos, the central-eastern region from Malia, the eastern tip from Kato Zakros and the west from Chania. Smaller palaces have been found elsewhere on the island. Major Minoan archaeological sites include:

Palaces:

Knossos
Knossos
– the largest[32] Bronze Age
Bronze Age
archaeological site on Crete; was purchased for excavations by Evans on March 16, 1900. Phaistos
Phaistos
– the second-largest[32] palatial building on the island, excavated by the Italian school shortly after Knossos Malia – the subject of French excavations, a palatial center which provides a look into the proto-palatial period Kato Zakros
Zakros
– palatial site excavated by Greek archaeologists in the far east of the island, also known as "Zakro" in archaeological literature Galatas – confirmed as a palatial site during the early 1990s

Agia Triada – administrative center near Phaistos Gournia
Gournia
– town site excavated in the first quarter of the 20th century Pyrgos – early Minoan site in southern Crete Vasiliki – early eastern Minoan site which gives its name to distinctive ceramic ware Fournou Korfi – southern site Pseira
Pseira
– island town with ritual sites Mount Juktas
Mount Juktas
– the greatest Minoan peak sanctuary, associated with the palace of Knossos[33] Arkalochori
Arkalochori
– site of the Arkalochori
Arkalochori
Axe Karfi – refuge site, one of the last Minoan sites Akrotiri – settlement on the island of Santorini
Santorini
(Thera), near the site of the Thera
Thera
Eruption Zominthos
Zominthos
– mountainous city in the northern foothills of Mount Ida

Settlements[edit]

Minoan fresco, showing a fleet and settlement

See also: Historical urban community sizes and List of largest cities throughout history Knossos
Knossos
had an estimated population of 1,300 to 2,000 in 2500 BC, 18,000 in 2000 BC, 20,000 to 100,000 in 1600 BC and 30,000 in 1360 BC. Gortyn
Gortyn
was also a noted Minoan settlement.[34][35][36] Beyond Crete[edit]

Minoan copper ingot

The Minoans were traders, and their cultural contacts reached Egypt's Old Kingdom, copper-containing Cyprus, Canaan
Canaan
and the Levantine coast and Anatolia. In late 2009 Minoan-style frescoes and other artifacts were discovered during excavations of the Canaanite palace at Tel Kabri, Israel, leading archaeologists to conclude that the Minoan influence was the strongest on the Canaanite city-state. These are the only Minoan artifacts which have been found in Israel.[37] Minoan techniques and ceramic styles had varying degrees of influence on Helladic Greece. Along with Santorini, Minoan settlements are found[38] at Kastri on Cythera, an island near the Greek mainland influenced by the Minoans from the mid-third millennium BC (EMII) to its Mycenaean occupation in the 13th century.[39][40][41] Minoan strata replaced a mainland-derived early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
culture, the earliest Minoan settlement outside Crete.[42] The Cyclades
Cyclades
were in the Minoan cultural orbit, and (closer to Crete) the islands of Karpathos, Saria and Kasos
Kasos
also contained middle-Bronze Age (MMI-II) Minoan colonies or settlements of Minoan traders. Most were abandoned in LMI, but Karpathos
Karpathos
recovered and continued its Minoan culture until the end of the Bronze
Bronze
Age.[43] Other supposed Minoan colonies, such as that hypothesized by Adolf Furtwängler
Adolf Furtwängler
on Aegina, were later dismissed by scholars.[44] However, there was a Minoan colony at Ialysos
Ialysos
on Rhodes.[45] Minoan cultural influence indicates an orbit extending through the Cyclades
Cyclades
to Egypt
Egypt
and Cyprus. Fifteenth-century BC paintings in Thebes, Egypt
Thebes, Egypt
depict Minoan-appearing individuals bearing gifts. Inscriptions describing them as coming from keftiu ("islands in the middle of the sea") may refer to gift-bringing merchants or officials from Crete.[46] Some locations on Crete
Crete
indicate that the Minoans were an "outward-looking" society.[47] The neo-palatial site of Kato Zakros
Zakros
is located within 100 meters of the modern shoreline in a bay. Its large number of workshops and wealth of site materials indicate a possible entrepôt for trade. Such activities are seen in artistic representations of the sea, including the "Flotilla" fresco in room five of the West House at Akrotiri.[citation needed] Agriculture and cuisine[edit]

The partially-restored "campstool fresco" from Knossos

See also: Cretan cuisine The Minoans raised cattle, sheep, pigs and goats, and grew wheat, barley, vetch and chickpeas. They also cultivated grapes, figs and olives, and grew poppies for seed and (perhaps) opium. The Minoans also domesticated bees.[48] Crops, including lettuce, celery, asparagus and carrots, grew wild on Crete. Pear, quince, and olive trees were also native. Date palm
Date palm
trees and cats (for hunting) were imported from Egypt.[49] The Minoans adopted pomegranates from the Near East, but not lemons and oranges. They may have practiced polyculture,[50] and their varied, healthy diet resulted in a population increase. Polyculture
Polyculture
theoretically maintains soil fertility and protects against losses due to crop failure. Linear B
Linear B
tablets indicate the importance of orchards (figs, olives and grapes) in processing crops for "secondary products".[51] Olive
Olive
oil in Cretan (or Mediterranean) cuisine is comparable to butter in northern European cuisine.[52] The process of fermenting wine from grapes was probably a factor of the "Palace" economies; wine would have been a trade commodity and an item of domestic consumption.[53] Farmers used wooden plows, bound with leather to wooden handles and pulled by pairs of donkeys or oxen. Seafood was also important in Cretan cuisine. The prevalence of edible molluscs in site material[54] and artistic representations of marine fish and animals (including the distinctive LM IIIC "Octopus" stirrup jar), indicate appreciation (and occasional use) of fish by the economy. However, scholars believe that these resources were not as significant as grain, olives and animal produce. "Fishing was one of the major activities...but there is as yet no evidence for the way in which they organized their fishing."[55] An intensification of agricultural activity is indicated by the construction of terraces and dams at Pseira
Pseira
in the Late Minoan period. Cretan cuisine
Cretan cuisine
included wild game; Cretans ate wild deer and boar and meat from livestock. Wild game is now extinct on Crete.[56] Not all plants and flora were purely functional, and arts depict scenes of lily-gathering in green spaces. The fresco known as the Sacred Grove at Knossos
Knossos
depicts women facing left, flanked by trees. Some scholars have suggested that it is a harvest festival, or ceremony, to honor the fertility of the soil. Artistic depictions of farming scenes also appear on the Second Palace
Palace
Period "Harvester Vase" (an egg-shaped rhyton), on which 27 men led by another carry hoes. This demonstrates the importance of farming as an artistic motif. The discovery of storage areas in the palace compounds has prompted debate. At the second "palace" at Phaistos, rooms on the west side of the structure have been identified as a storage area. Jars, jugs and vessels have been recovered in the area, indicating the complex's possible role as a re-distribution center for agricultural produce. At larger sites such as Knossos, there is evidence of craft specialization (workshops). The palace at Kato Zakro indicates that workshops were integrated into palace structure. The Minoan palatial system may have developed through economic intensification, where an agricultural surplus could support a population of administrators, craftsmen and religious practitioners. The number of sleeping rooms in the palaces indicates that they could have supported a sizable population which was removed from manual labor. Tools[edit] Tools, originally made of wood or bone, were bound to handles with leather straps. During the Bronze
Bronze
Age, they were made of bronze with wooden handles. Due to its round hole, the tool head would spin on the handle. The Minoans developed oval-shaped holes in their tools to fit oval-shaped handles, which prevented spinning.[48] Tools included double adzes, double- and single-bladed axes, axe-adzes, sickles and chisels. Society and culture[edit]

The "saffron-gatherers"

The Minoans were primarily a mercantile people who engaged in overseas trade. After 1700 BC, their culture indicates a high degree of organization. Minoan-manufactured goods suggest a network of trade with mainland Greece
Greece
(notably Mycenae), Cyprus, Syria, Anatolia, Egypt, Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and westward as far as the Iberian peninsula. Minoan religion
Minoan religion
apparently focused on female deities, with women officiants.[57] While historians and archaeologists have long been skeptical of an outright matriarchy, the predominance of female figures in authoritative roles over male ones seems to indicate that Minoan society was matriarchal, and among the most well-supported examples known.[58] Saffron
Saffron
trade[edit] A fresco of saffron-gatherers at Santorini
Santorini
is well-known. The Minoan trade in saffron, the stigma of a naturally-mutated crocus which originated in the Aegean basin, has left few material remains. According to Evans, the saffron (a sizable Minoan industry) was used for dye.[59] Other archaeologists emphasize durable trade items: ceramics, copper, tin, gold and silver.[59] The saffron may have had a religious significance.[60] The saffron trade, which predated Minoan civilization, was comparable in value to that of frankincense or black pepper. Fashion[edit] Minoan men wore loincloths and kilts. Women wore robes with short sleeves and layered, flounced skirts. The robes were open to the navel, exposing their breasts.[61] Women could also wear a strapless, fitted bodice, and clothing patterns had symmetrical, geometric designs. Language and writing[edit]

One side of the Phaistos
Phaistos
Disc

Main article: Minoan language Knowledge of the spoken and written language of the Minoans is scant due to the small number of records found. Clay
Clay
tablets, dating to around 3000 BC, were found with Aegean scripts.[62] Clay
Clay
tablets were apparently in use around 3000 BC or earlier. Two clay cups from Knossos
Knossos
had remnants of ink, and inkwells similar to animal-shaped Mesopotamian inkstands have been found.[63] The Eteocretan language, written with a Euboean-derived alphabet after the Greek Dark Ages, is believed to be a descendant of Minoan; however, there is not enough source material in either language to allow a firm conclusion. The earliest dated writings found on Crete
Crete
are Cretan hieroglyphs. It is unknown whether the language is Minoan, and its origin is debated. Although the hieroglyphs are often associated with the Egyptians, they also indicate a relationship to Mesopotamian writings.[63] They came into use during MMI, and were used at the same time as Linear A
Linear A
(18th century BC; MM II). The hieroglyphs disappeared during the 17th century BC (MM III). Linear A
Linear A
served as the foundation for Linear B, which recorded the earliest attested form of the Greek language: Mycenaean Greek. Although Linear B
Linear B
was deciphered by Michael Ventris
Michael Ventris
in 1952, the earlier scripts remain a mystery. Nearly all the tablets, written in the Linear B
Linear B
script, seem to be inventories of goods or resources. Others are inscriptions on religious objects associated with a cult. Because most of the inscriptions are economic records rather than dedicatory inscriptions, the translation of Minoan remains a challenge. Unless Eteocretan is its descendant, the Minoan language may have become extinct during the Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
(a period of economic and sociopolitical collapse).[64] Religion[edit] Main article: Minoan religion

The smaller of two Minoan snake goddess figurines

The Minoans seem to have primarily worshiped a Great Goddess, and their society has been described as matriarchal.[65][66][67][68][69][70] Some scholars see in the Minoan Goddess a female divine solar figure.[71][72] Some evidence of male gods exists, but depictions of Minoan goddesses vastly outnumber those of gods.[73] Although some depictions of women may be images of worshipers and priestesses officiating at religious ceremonies (as opposed to deities), goddesses seem to include a mother goddess of fertility, a goddess of animals and female protectors of cities, the household, the harvest and the underworld. They are often represented by serpents, birds, poppies or an animal on the head. According to Nanno Marinatos, "The hierarchy and relationship of gods within the pantheon is difficult to decode from the images alone."[74] Marinatos disagrees with earlier descriptions of Minoan religion
Minoan religion
as primitive, saying that it "was the religion of a sophisticated and urbanized palatial culture with a complex social hierarchy. It was not dominated by fertility any more than any religion of the past or present has been, and it addressed gender identity, rites of passage, and death. It is reasonable to assume that both the organization and the rituals, even the mythology, resembled the religions of Near Eastern palatial civilizations."[74] It even seems that the later Greek pantheon would synthesize the Minoan female deity and Hittite goddess from the Near East.[75] Symbolism[edit] Minoan horn-topped altars, which Arthur Evans
Arthur Evans
called Horns of Consecration, are represented in seal impressions and have been found as far afield as Cyprus. Minoan sacred symbols include the bull (and its horns of consecration), the labrys (double-headed axe), the pillar, the serpent, the sun-disc and the tree.

The Bull Leaper, from Knossos
Knossos
( Heraklion
Heraklion
Archaeological Museum)

Haralampos V. Harissis and Anastasios V. Harissis posit a different interpretation of these symbols, saying that they were based on apiculture rather than religion.[76] A major festival was exemplified in bull-leaping, represented in the frescoes of Knossos[77] and inscribed in miniature seals.[78] Burial
Burial
practices[edit] Similar to other Bronze Age
Bronze Age
archaeological finds, burial remains constitute much of the material and archaeological evidence for the period. By the end of the Second Palace
Palace
Period, Minoan burial was dominated by two forms: circular tombs (tholoi) in southern Crete
Crete
and house tombs in the north and the east. However, much Minoan mortuary practice does not conform to this pattern. Burial
Burial
was more popular than cremation.[79] Individual burial was the rule, except for the Chrysolakkos complex in Malia. Here, a number of buildings form a complex in the center of Mallia's burial area and may have been the focus for burial rituals or a crypt for a notable family.[citation needed] Evidence of possible human sacrifice by the Minoans has been found at three sites: at Anemospilia, in a MMII building near Mt. Juktas considered a temple; an EMII sanctuary complex at Fournou Korifi in south-central Crete, and in an LMIB building known as the North House in Knossos
Knossos
(explanation of abbreviations). Architecture[edit]

Restored model of a Minoan house found in Archanes

Minoan cities were connected by roads paved with blocks cut with bronze saws. Streets were drained, and water and sewage facilities were available to the upper class through clay pipes.[80] Minoan buildings often had flat, tiled roofs; plaster, wood or flagstone floors, and stood two to three stories high. Lower walls were typically constructed of stone and rubble, and the upper walls of mudbrick. Ceiling timbers held up the roofs. Construction materials for villas and palaces varied, and included sandstone, gypsum and limestone. Building techniques also varied, with some palaces using ashlar masonry and others roughly-hewn, megalithic blocks. Palaces[edit]

Storage jars at Knossos

Ruins of the palace at Knossos

Palaces (anaktora) are the best-known Minoan building types excavated on Crete. They are monumental buildings with administrative purposes, as evidenced by large archives unearthed by archaeologists. Each palace excavated to date has unique features, but they also share aspects which set them apart from other structures. Palaces are often multi-story, with interior and exterior staircases, lightwells, massive columns, storage areas and courtyards. The first palaces were constructed at the end of the Early Minoan period in the third millennium BC at Malia. Although it was formerly believed that the foundation of the first palaces was synchronous and dated to the Middle Minoan period (around 2000 BC, the date of the first palace at Knossos), scholars now think that the palaces were built over a longer period in response to local developments. The main older palaces are Knossos, Malia and Phaistos. Elements of the Middle Minoan palaces (at Knossos, Phaistos
Phaistos
and Malia, for example) have precedents in Early Minoan construction styles.[81] These include an indented western court and special treatment of the western façade. One example is the House on the Hill at Vasiliki, dated to the Early Minoan II period.[82] The palaces were centers of government, administrative offices, shrines, workshops and storage spaces.[83][self-published source][84]

Bull-Leaping Fresco
Bull-Leaping Fresco
found at Knossos

The Middle Minoan palaces are characteristically aligned with their surrounding topography. The MM palace of Phaistos
Phaistos
appears to align with Mount Ida and Knossos
Knossos
is aligned with Mount Juktas,[85] both on a north-south axis. Scholars suggest that the alignment was related to the mountains' ritual significance; a number of peak sanctuaries (spaces for public ritual) have been excavated, including one at Petsofas. These sites have yielded clusters of clay figurines and evidence of animal sacrifice. Late palaces are characterized by multi-story buildings with west facades of sandstone ashlar masonry; Knossos
Knossos
is the best-known example. Other building conventions included storage areas, north-south orientation, a pillar room and a western court. Architecture
Architecture
during the First Palace
Palace
Period is identified by a square-within-a-square style; Second Palace
Palace
Period construction has more internal divisions and corridors.[86] Furthermore, the palace of Knossos
Knossos
was not just a regular palace that the Minoans built. The Palace
Palace
of Knossos
Knossos
was the biggest palace that the Minoan people had ever constructed. The palace is about 150 meters across and it spreads over an area of some 20,000 square meters, with its original upper levels possibly having a thousand chambers. The palace is connected to the mythological story of The Bull of Minos, since it is in this palace where it was written that the labyrinth existed. Focusing on the architectural aspects of the Palace
Palace
of Knossos, it was a combination of foundations that depended on the aspects of its walls for; the dimensions of the rooms, staircases, porticos, and chambers. The palace was designed in such a fashion that the structure was laid out to surround the central court of the Minoans. Aesthetically speaking, the pillars along with the stone paved northern entrance gave the palace a look and feel that was unique to the Palace
Palace
of Knossos. The space surrounding the court was covered with rooms and hallways, some of which were stacked on top of the lower levels of the palace being linked through multiple ramps and staircases.[87] Others were built into a hill, as described by the site's excavator Arthur John Evans, "...The palace of Knossos
Knossos
is the most extensive and occupies several hills."[88] On the east side of the court there was a grand staircase passing through the many levels of the palace, added for the royal residents. On the west side of the court, the throne room, a modest room with a ceiling some two meters high,[34] can be found along with the frescoes that were decorating the walls of the hallways and storage rooms. Plumbing[edit] During the Minoan Era extensive waterways were built in order to protect the growing population. These system had two primary functions, first providing and distributing water, and secondly relocating sewage and stormwater.[89] One of the defining aspects of the Minoan Era was the architectural feats of their waste management. The Minoans used technologies such as wells, cisterns, and aqueducts to manage their water supplies. Structural aspects of their buildings even played a part. Flat roofs and plentiful open courtyards were used for collecting water to be stored in cisterns.[90] Significantly, the Minoans had water treatments devices. One such device seems to have been a porous clay pipe through which water was allowed to flow until clean. Columns[edit]

Columns at Knossos

One of the most notable Minoan contributions to architecture is their inverted column, wider at the top than the base (unlike most Greek columns, which are wider at the bottom to give an impression of height). The columns were made of wood (not stone) and were generally painted red. Mounted on a simple stone base, they were topped with a pillow-like, round capital.[91][92] Villas[edit] A number of compounds known as "villas" have been excavated on Crete. These structures share features of neopalatial palaces: a conspicuous western facade, storage facilities and a three-part Minoan Hall.[93] These features may indicate a similar role or that the structures were artistic imitations, suggesting that their occupants were familiar with palatial culture. The villas were often richly decorated, as evidenced by the frescos of Haghia Triadha Villa A. Art[edit] Main article: Minoan art

Fresco
Fresco
from the Palace
Palace
of Minos
Minos
at Knossos

The largest collection of Minoan art
Minoan art
is in the museum at Heraklion, near Knossos, on the northern coast of Crete. Minoan art
Minoan art
and other remnants of material culture, especially the sequence of ceramic styles, have been used by archaeologists to define the three phases of Minoan culture (EM, MM, LM). Since wood and textiles have decomposed, the best-preserved (and most instructive) surviving examples of Minoan art
Minoan art
are its pottery, palace architecture (with frescos which include landscapes), stone carvings and intricately-carved seal stones. Frescoes were the primary art form of Minoan culture.[citation needed] They include many depictions of people, with sexes distinguished by color; the men's skin is reddish-brown, and the women's white.[94] Several frescoes at Knossos
Knossos
and Santorini
Santorini
survive. In contrast to Egyptian frescoes, Crete
Crete
had true frescoes. Probably the most famous fresco is the bull-leaping fresco.[95] Pottery[edit] Main article: Minoan pottery

Marine style Minoan decorated jug, 1575–1500 BC (Brooklyn Museum)

A variety of wares were produced in Crete. Early Minoan ceramics were characterized by patterns of spirals, triangles, curved lines, crosses, fish bones, and beak-spouts. During the Middle Minoan period, naturalistic designs (such as fish, squid, birds and lilies) were common. In the Late Minoan period, flowers and animals were still characteristic but more variety existed. The palace style of the region around Knossos
Knossos
is characterized by geometric simplicity and monochromatic painting. Late Minoan art resembles that of Mycenae. Minoan knowledge of the sea was continued by the Mycenaeans in their frequent use of marine forms as artistic motifs. The so-called "marine style", perhaps inspired by frescoes, has the entire surface of a pot covered with sea creatures, octopus, fish and dolphins, against a background of rocks, seaweed and sponges. Jewelry[edit] The Minoans created elaborate metalwork with imported gold and copper.[96] Bead necklaces, bracelets and hair ornaments appear in the frescoes,[97] and many labrys pins survive. The Minoans apparently mastered faience and granulation, as indicated by a gold bee pendant. Minoan metalworking included intense, precise temperature, to bond gold to itself without burning it.[citation needed] Metal vessels[edit]

Golden cup from a LH IIA Mycenaean grave at Vapheio, one of a pair known as the "Vapheio Cups". This cup is believed to be of Minoan manufacture while its twin is thought to be Mycenaean. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.

Metal vessels were produced in Crete
Crete
from at least as early as EM II (c. 2500) in the Prepalatial period through to LM IA (c. 1450) in the Postpalatial period and perhaps as late as LM IIIB/C (c. 1200),[98] although it is likely that many of the vessels from these later periods were heirlooms from earlier periods.[99] The earliest were probably made exclusively from precious metals, but from the Protopalatial period (MM IB – MM IIA) they were also produced in arsenical bronze and, subsequently, tin bronze.[100] The archaeological record suggests that mostly cup-type forms were created in precious metals,[101] but the corpus of bronze vessels was diverse, including cauldrons, pans, hydrias, bowls, pitchers, basins, cups, ladles and lamps.[102] The Minoan metal vessel tradition influenced that of the Mycenaean culture on mainland Greece, and they are often regarded as the same tradition.[103] Many precious metal vessels found on mainland Greece
Greece
exhibit Minoan characteristics, and it is thought that these were either imported from Crete
Crete
or made on the mainland by Minoan metalsmiths working for Mycenaean patrons or by Mycenaean smiths who had trained under Minoan masters.[104] Warfare and the "Minoan peace"[edit] According to Arthur Evans, a "Minoan peace" (Pax Minoica) existed; there was little internal armed conflict in Minoan Crete
Crete
until the Mycenaean period.[105] However, it is difficult to draw hard-and-fast conclusions from the evidence[106] and Evans' idealistic view has been questioned.[107] No evidence has been found of a Minoan army or the Minoan domination of peoples beyond Crete, and few signs of warfare appear in Minoan art: "Although a few archaeologists see war scenes in a few pieces of Minoan art, others interpret even these scenes as festivals, sacred dance, or sports events" (Studebaker, 2004, p. 27). Although armed warriors are depicted as stabbed in the throat with swords, the violence may be part of a ritual or blood sport.[citation needed] On mainland Greece
Greece
during the shaft-grave era at Mycenae, there is little evidence for major Mycenaean fortifications; the citadels follow the destruction of nearly all neopalatial Cretan sites. Warfare by other contemporaries of the ancient Minoans, such as the Egyptians and the Hittites, is well-documented. Skepticism and weaponry[edit]

Fresco
Fresco
of children boxing, recovered from the island of Santorini

Despite finding ruined watchtowers and fortification walls,[108] Evans said that there was little evidence of ancient Minoan fortifications. According to Stylianos Alexiou (in Kretologia 8), a number of sites (especially early and middle Minoan sites such as Aghia Photia) are built on hilltops or otherwise fortified.[full citation needed] Lucia Nixon wrote, "We may have been over-influenced by the lack of what we might think of as solid fortifications to assess the archaeological evidence properly. As in so many other instances, we may not have been looking for evidence in the right places, and therefore we may not end with a correct assessment of the Minoans and their ability to avoid war."[109] Chester Starr said in "Minoan Flower Lovers" (Hagg-Marinatos, eds. Minoan Thalassocracy) that since Shang China and the Maya had unfortified centers and engaged in frontier struggles, a lack of fortifications alone does not prove that the Minoans were a peaceful civilization unparalleled in history.[full citation needed] In 1998, when Minoan archaeologists met in a Belgian conference to discuss the possibility that the Pax Minoica was outdated, evidence of Minoan war was still scanty. According to Jan Driessen, the Minoans frequently depicted "weapons" in their art in a ritual context:

The construction of fortified sites is often assumed to reflect a threat of warfare, but such fortified centres were multifunctional; they were also often the embodiment or material expression of the central places of the territories at the same time as being monuments glorifying and merging leading power.[110]

Stella Chryssoulaki's work on small outposts (or guardhouses) in eastern Crete
Crete
indicates a possible defensive system; type A (high-quality) Minoan swords were found in the palaces of Mallia and Zarkos (see Sanders, AJA 65, 67, Hoeckmann, JRGZM 27, or Rehak and Younger, AJA 102).[full citation needed] Keith Branigan estimated that 95 percent of Minoan "weapons" had hafting (hilts or handles) which would have prevented their use as such.[111] However, tests of replicas indicated that the weapons could cut flesh down to the bone (and score the bone's surface) without damaging the weapons themselves.[112] According to Paul Rehak, Minoan figure-eight shields could not have been used for fighting or hunting, since they were too cumbersome.[113] Although Cheryl Floyd concluded that Minoan "weapons" were tools used for mundane tasks such as meat processing,[114] Middle Minoan "rapiers nearly three feet in length" have been found.[115] About Minoan warfare, Branigan concluded:

The quantity of weaponry, the impressive fortifications, and the aggressive looking long-boats all suggested an era of intensified hostilities. But on closer inspection there are grounds for thinking that all three key elements are bound up as much with status statements, display, and fashion as with aggression;... Warfare such as there was in the southern Aegean early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
was either personalized and perhaps ritualized (in Crete) or small-scale, intermittent and essentially an economic activity (in the Cyclades
Cyclades
and the Argolid/Attica).[116]

Archaeologist
Archaeologist
Olga Krzyszkowska agreed: "The stark fact is that for the prehistoric Aegean we have no direct evidence for war and warfare per se."[117] Collapse[edit] Between 1935 and 1939, Greek archaeologist Spyridon Marinatos
Spyridon Marinatos
posited the Minoan eruption
Minoan eruption
theory. An eruption on the island of Thera (present-day Santorini), about 100 kilometres (62 mi) from Crete, occurred during the LM IA period (1550 - 1500 BC). One of the largest volcanic explosions in recorded history, it ejected about 60 to 100 cubic kilometres (14 to 24 cu mi) of material and was measured at 7 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index.[118][119][120] The eruption devastated the nearby Minoan settlement at Akrotiri on Santorini, which was entombed in a layer of pumice.[121] Although it is believed to have severely affected the Minoan culture of Crete, the extent of its effects has been debated. Early theories proposed that volcanic ash from Thera
Thera
choked off plant life on the eastern half of Crete, starving the local population;[122] however, more-thorough field examinations have determined that no more than 5 millimetres (0.20 in) of ash fell anywhere on Crete.[123] Based on archaeological evidence, studies indicate that a massive tsunami generated by the Thera eruption
Thera eruption
devastated the coast of Crete
Crete
and destroyed many Minoan settlements.[124][125][126] Although the LM IIIA (late Minoan) period is characterized by affluence (wealthy tombs, burials and art) and ubiquitous Knossian ceramic styles,[127] by LM IIIB Knossos' wealth and importance as a regional center apparently declined. Significant remains have been found above the late Minoan I-era Thera ash layer, implying that the Thera eruption
Thera eruption
did not cause the immediate collapse of Minoan civilization.[128] The Minoans were a sea power, however, and the Thera eruption
Thera eruption
probably caused significant economic hardship. Whether this was enough to trigger a Minoan downfall is debated. Mycenaean Greece
Mycenaean Greece
conquered the Minoans during the late Minoan II period, and Mycenaean weaponry has been found in burials on Crete
Crete
soon after the eruption.[129] Many archaeologists believe that the eruption triggered a crisis, making the Minoans vulnerable to conquest by the Mycenaeans.[124] According to Sinclair Hood, the Minoans were most likely conquered by an invading force. Although the civilization's collapse was aided by the Thera
Thera
eruption, its ultimate end came from conquest. Archaeological evidence suggests that the island was destroyed by fire, with the palace at Knossos
Knossos
receiving less damage than other sites on Crete. Since natural disasters are not selective, the uneven destruction was probably caused by invaders who would have seen the usefulness of preserving a palace like Knossos
Knossos
for their own use.[130] Several authors have noted evidence that Minoan civilization
Minoan civilization
had exceeded its environmental carrying capacity, with archaeological recovery at Knossos
Knossos
indicating deforestation in the region near the civilization's later stages.[131][132] Genetic studies[edit] A genetic study published in the journal Nature in August 2017 concluded that the Minoans were genetically closely related with the Mycenaean Greeks. Their genomes were similar though not identical. The same study also stated that at least three-quarters of DNA
DNA
of both the Minoans and the Myceneans came from the first Neolithic-era farmers that lived in Western Anatolia
Anatolia
and the Aegean Sea.[133] A 2013 mt DNA
DNA
genetic study was conducted by a research team that analyzed some DNA
DNA
from ancient Minoan skeletons that were sealed in a cave in Crete's Lassithi Plateau between 3,700 and 4,400 years ago, as well as other Greek, Anatolian, western and northern European samples, and North African and Egyptian samples.[134][135] They then compared the skeletal mitochondrial DNA, which is passed on through the maternal line, with that found in a sample of 135 modern and ancient populations from around Europe
Europe
and Africa. The researchers found that the Minoan skeletons were genetically very similar to modern-day Europeans — and especially close to modern-day Cretans, particularly those from the Lassithi Plateau. They were also genetically similar to Neolithic
Neolithic
Europeans, but distinct from Egyptian or Libyan populations.[136] "We now know that the founders of the first advanced European civilization were European," said study co-author George Stamatoyannopoulos, a human geneticist at the University of Washington. "They were very similar to Neolithic
Neolithic
Europeans and very similar to present day-Cretans."[135] Other genetic studies have also found that the ancient Minoans exhibited many Middle Eastern maternal genetic lineages, from populations in contemporary Iraq, Syria, and Turkey, and that "the female [Minoan genetic] component is influenced by Asia
Asia
and the Middle East as well as Europe."[137][138][139] Additionally, the study carried out by Stamatoyannopoulos's team did not analyze paternal DNA, and acknowledged that previous research found Middle Eastern genetic influences for both the ancient Minoans paternal and maternal lineages.[134] See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Minoan civilization.

Atlantis Caucasus Hyksos Minoa Philistines Sacred caves of Crete

Notes[edit]

^ "Ancient Crete
Crete
– Classics – Oxford Bibliographies".  ^ Sakoulas, Thomas. "History of Minoan Crete".  ^ Durant, Will (1939). "The Life of Greece". The Story of Civilization. II. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 21. ISBN 9781451647587.  ^ a b Homer, Odyssey xix. ^ John Bennet, "Minoan civilization", Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd ed., p. 985. ^ a b Karadimas, Nektarios; Momigliano, Nicoletta (2004). "On the Term 'Minoan' before Evans's Work in Crete
Crete
(1894)" (PDF). Studi micenei ed egeo-anatolici. Roma: Edizione del 'Ateneo. 46 (2): 243–258.  ^ Evans 1921, p. 1. ^ R W Hutchinson (1965). Prehistoric Crete. Pelican.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Manning, Sturt W; Ramsey, CB; Kutschera, W; Higham, T; Kromer, B; Steier, P; Wild, EM (2006). " Chronology
Chronology
for the Aegean Late Bronze
Bronze
Age 1700–1400 BC". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 312 (5773): 565–569. Bibcode:2006Sci...312..565M. doi:10.1126/science.1125682. PMID 16645092. Retrieved 2007-03-10.  ^ Friedrich, Walter L; Kromer, B; Friedrich, M; Heinemeier, J; Pfeiffer, T; Talamo, S (2006). " Santorini
Santorini
Eruption Radiocarbon Dated to 1627–1600 B.C". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 312 (5773): 548. doi:10.1126/science.1125087. PMID 16645088. Retrieved 2007-03-10.  ^ "Chronology". Thera
Thera
Foundation. Retrieved 2009-01-03.  ^ Balter, M (2006). "New Carbon Dates Support Revised History of Ancient Mediterranean". Science. 312 (5773): 508–509. doi:10.1126/science.312.5773.508. PMID 16645054.  ^ Warren PM (2006). Czerny E, Hein I, Hunger H, Melman D, Schwab A, eds. Timelines: Studies in Honour of Manfred Bietak (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 149). Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium: Peeters. pp. 2: 305–321. ISBN 90-429-1730-X.  ^ Wilford, J.N., "On Crete, New Evidence of Very Ancient Mariners", The New York Times, Feb 2010 ^ Bowner, B., "Hominids Went Out of Africa
Africa
on Rafts", Wired, Jan 2010 ^ Broodbank, C.; Strasser, T. (1991). "Migrant farmers and the Neolithic
Neolithic
colonisation of Crete". Antiquity. 65 (247): 233–245. doi:10.1017/s0003598x00079680.  ^ R.J. King, S.S. Ozcan et al., "Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic" Archived 2009-03-05 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Hermann Bengtson: Griechische Geschichte, C.H. Beck, München, 2002. 9th Edition. ISBN 340602503X. pp.8–15 ^ Hermann Kinder & Werner Hilgemann, Anchor Atlas of World History, (Anchor Press: New York, 1974) p. 33. ^ Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times (Charles Scribner's Sons: New York, 1966) p. 101. ^ a b c d e f Karl-Wilhelm Welwei: Die Griechische Frühzeit, C.H. Beck, München, 2002. ISBN 3406479855. pp.12–18 ^ Beck, Roger B.; Linda Black; Larry S. Krieger; Phillip C. Naylor; Dahia Ibo Shabaka (1999). World History: Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell. ISBN 0-395-87274-X.  ^ All estimates have been revised downward by Todd Whitelaw, “Estimating the Population of Neopalatial Knossos,” in G. Cadogan, E. Hatzaki, and A. Vasilakis (eds.), Knossos: Palace, City, State (British School at Athens Studies 12) (London 2004); at Moschlos in eastern Crete, the population expansion was at the end of the Neoplalatial period (Jeffrey S. Soles and Davaras, Moschlos IA 2002: Preface p. xvii). ^ McEnroe, John C. (1 May 2010). " Architecture
Architecture
of Minoan Crete: Constructing Identity in the Aegean Bronze
Bronze
Age". University of Texas Press – via Google Books.  ^ (Driesson, Jan, and MacDonald, Colin F. 2000) ^ Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times p. 77. ^ Roebuck, p. 107. ^ Kozloff, Arielle P. (20 February 2012). "Amenhotep III: Egypt's Radiant Pharaoh". Cambridge University Press – via Google Books.  ^ "Minos". Universidad de Salamanca. 1 January 1999 – via Google Books.  ^ BBC "The Minoan Civilisation of Crete": "The later Minoan towns are in more and more inaccessible places, the last one being at Karfi, high in the Dikti Mountains. From that time onward, there are no traces of the Minoans". ^ For instance, the uplift as much as 9 metres in western Crete
Crete
linked with the earthquake of 365 is discussed in L. Stathis, C. Stiros, "The 8.5+ magnitude, AD365 earthquake in Crete: Coastal uplift, topography changes, archaeological and Ihistorical signature," Quaternary International (23 May 2009). ^ a b " Thera
Thera
and the Aegean World III". Archived from the original on 2010-04-25. Retrieved 2009-09-13.  ^ Donald W. Jones (1999) Peak Sanctuaries and Sacred Caves in Minoan Crete
Crete
ISBN 91-7081-153-9 ^ a b "The Knossos
Knossos
Labyrinth".  ^ "Minoan Life in Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Crete".  ^ " Atlantis
Atlantis
Destroyed".  ^ "Remains of Minoan fresco found at Tel Kabri"; "Remains Of Minoan-Style Painting Discovered During Excavations of Canaanite Palace", ScienceDaily, 7 December 2009 ^ Best, Jan G. P.; Vries, Nanny M. W. de (1 January 1980). "Interaction and Acculturation in the Mediterranean: Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Mediterranean Pre- and Protohistory, Amsterdam, 19–23 November 1980". John Benjamins Publishing – via Google Books.  ^ "The Minoans".  ^ Hägg and Marinatos 1984; Hardy (ed.) 1984; Broadbank 2004 ^ Branigan, Keith (1 January 1981). "Minoan Colonialism". The Annual of the British School at Athens. 76: 23–33. doi:10.1017/s0068245400019444. JSTOR 30103026 – via JSTOR.  ^ J. N. Coldstream and G. L. Huxley, Kythera: Excavations and Studies Conducted by the University of Pennsylvania Museum and the British School at Athens (London: Faber & Faber) 1972. ^ E. M. Melas, The Islands of Karpathos, Saros and Kasos
Kasos
in the Neolithic
Neolithic
and Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(Studies in Mediterranean archaeology 68) (Göteburg) 1985. ^ James Penrose Harland, Prehistoric Aigina: A History of the Island in the Bronze
Bronze
Age, ch. V. (Paris) 1925. ^ Arne Furumark, "The settlement at Ialysos
Ialysos
and Aegean history c. 1500-1400 B.B.", in Opuscula archaeologica 6 (Lund) 1950;T. Marketou, "New Evidence on the Topography and Site History of Prehistoric Ialysos." in Soren Dietz and Ioannis Papachristodoulou (eds.), Archaeology in the Dodecanese (1988:28–31). ^ Dickinson, O (1994) Pg. 248 ^ Hoffman, Gail L. (1 January 1997). "Imports and Immigrants: Near Eastern Contacts with Iron Age
Iron Age
Crete". University of Michigan Press – via Google Books.  ^ a b Sinclair Hood (1971) "The Minoans; the story of Bronze
Bronze
Age Crete" ^ Sinclair Hood (1971) "The Minoans; the story of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Crete" p.87 ^ However, Hamilakis raised doubts in 2007 that systematic polyculture was practiced on Crete. (Hamilakis, Y. (2007) Wiley.com ^ Sherratt, A. (1981) Plough and Pastoralism: Aspects of the Secondary Products Revolution ^ Sinclair Hood (1971), The Minoans; The Story of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Crete, pp. 86 ^ Hamilakis, Y (1999) Food Technologies/Technologies of the Body: The Social Context of Wine and Oil Production and Consumption in Bronze Age Crete
Crete
[1] ^ Dickinson, O (1994) The Aegean Bronze Age
Bronze Age
pg. 28) ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=g8eIAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA113 ^ Sinclair Hood (1971), The Minoans; The Story of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Crete, pp. 83 ^ Patricia Rosof Family History p.12 ^ [2] ^ a b "Classical Views". Classical Association of Canada. 1 January 2000 – via Google Books.  ^ Nilsson, Martin Persson (1 January 1950). "The Minoan-Mycenaean Religion and Its Survival in Greek Religion". Biblo & Tannen Publishers – via Google Books.  ^ "Minoan Dress".  ^ Hood, Sinclair. The Minoans: Crete
Crete
in the Bronze
Bronze
Age. Thames and Hudson, 1971, pg.114 ^ a b Hood, Sinclair. The Minoans: Crete
Crete
in the Bronze
Bronze
Age. Thames and Hudson, 1971, pg.111 ^ Davis, Simon (1 January 1960). "The Decipherment of the Linear A
Linear A
and Linear B
Linear B
Scripts of the Minoan Crete
Crete
and Mycenaean Greece: Inaugural Lecture Delivered 15 April 1959". Witwatersrand University Press – via Google Books.  ^ Jaqueline Tyrwhitt (1 May 2015). Society and Environment: A Historical Review. Taylor & Francis. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-317-43466-5.  ^ Sarah Iles Johnston (2004). Religions of the Ancient World: A Guide. Harvard University Press. p. 206. ISBN 978-0-674-01517-3.  ^ Bury, J. B.; Meiggs, Russell (1956). A history of Greece
Greece
to the death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
(3 ed.). London: Macmillan. p. 18.  ^ Burn, A. R. (1988). The Pelican history of Greece. Penguin. p. 38.  ^ Hammond, N. G. L. (1967). A history of Greece
Greece
to 322 B. C. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 30.  ^ Hood, Sinclair (1967). The home of the heroes: The Aegean before the Greeks. London: Thames and Hudson. p. 90.  ^ Evidence of Minoan Astronomy and Calendrical Practises ^ Marinatos, Nanno. Minoan Kingship and the Solar Goddess: A Near Eastern Koine (2013). ^ MacKenzie 1917, p. 59 ^ a b Nanno Marinatos (2004). "Minoan and Mycenaean Civilizations". In Sarah Isles Johnston. Religions of the Ancient World: A Guide. Harvard University Press. pp. 206–207. ISBN 978-0674015173.  ^ [3] Sailors, Cara. “The Function of Mythology and Religion in Ancient Greek
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Society.” East Tennessee State University, Digital Commons, 2008, dc.etsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3471&context=etd. ^ Harissis, Haralampos V.; Harissis, Anastasios V. (2009). Apiculture in the Prehistoric Aegean: Minoan and Mycenaean Symbols Revisited. British Archaeological Reports (S1958). ISBN 978-1-4073-0454-0.  ^ In the small courtyard of the east wing of the palace of Knossos. ^ An ivory figure reproduced by Spyridon Marinatos
Spyridon Marinatos
and Max Hirmer, Crete
Crete
and Mycenae
Mycenae
(New York) 1960, fig. 97, also shows the bull dance. ^ Sinclair Hood (1971) The Minoans; The Story of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Crete, pp. 140 ^ Ian Douglas, Cities: An Environmental History, p. 16, I.B. Tauris: London and New York (2013) ^ D. Preziosi and L.A. Hitchcock Aegean Art and Architecture
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pg. 48–9, Oxford University Press
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(1999) ^ Dudley J. Moore (2015). In Search of the Classical World: An Introduction to the Ancient Aegean. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-4438-8145-6.  ^ Demetrios Protopsaltis (May 2012). An Encyclopedic Chronology
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of Greece
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and Its History. Xlibris Corporation. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-4691-3999-9.  ^ Marvin Perry (2012). Western Civilization: A Brief History, Volume I: To 1789. Cengage Learning. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-133-71418-7.  ^ Preziosi, D. & Hitchcock, L.A. (1999) pg. 86 ^ Preziosi, D. & Hitchcock, L.A. (1999) Pg. 121 ^ Scarre, Christopher; Stefoff, Rebecca (2003). "4, Knossos
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Today". The Palace
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of Minos
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at Knossos. New York: Oxford University. ISBN 978-0195142723.  ^ Castleden, Rodney (1990). The Knossos
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Labyrinth : A New View of the ' Palace
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of Minos' at Knossos. London: Routledge.  ^ J.B, Rose; A.N, Angelakis (2014). Evolution of Sanitation and Wastewater Technologies through the Centuries. London: IWA Publishing. p. 2.  ^ J.B, Rose; A.N, Angelakis (2014). Evolution of Sanitation and Wastewater Technologies Through the Centuries. London: IWA Publishing. p. 5.  ^ Benton and DiYanni 1998, p. 67. ^ Bourbon 1998, p 34 ^ Letesson, Quentin. "Minoan Halls: A Syntactical Genealogy". Retrieved 7 April 2017.  ^ Hood, Sinclair (1985). "The Primitive Aspects of Minoan Artistic Convention". Bulletin de Correspondence Héllenique. Suppl. 11: 21–26.  ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=hR5FBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA139 ^ Thomas Sakoulas. "Minoan Art".  ^ "Greek Jewelry – AJU".  ^ Hemingway, Séan (1 January 1996). "Minoan Metalworking in the Postpalatial Period: A Deposit of Metallurgical Debris from Palaikastro". The Annual of the British School at Athens. 91: 213–252. doi:10.1017/s0068245400016488. JSTOR 30102549.  ^ Rehak, Paul (1997). "Aegean Art Before and After the LM IB Cretan Destructions". In Laffineur, Robert; Betancourt, Philip P. TEXNH. Craftsmen, Craftswomen and Craftsmanship in the Aegean Bronze Age
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/ Artisanat et artisans en Égée à l'âge du Bronze: Proceedings of the 6th International Aegean Conference / 6e Rencontre égéenne internationale, Philadelphia, Temple University, 18–21 April 1996. Liège: Université de Liège, Histoire de l'art et archéologie de la Grèce antique. p. 145. ISBN 9781935488118.  ^ Clarke, Christina F. (2013). The Manufacture of Minoan Metal Vessels: Theory and Practice. Uppsala: Åströms Förlag. p. 1. ISBN 978-91-7081-249-1.  ^ Davis, Ellen N. (1977). The Vapheio Cups and Aegean Gold
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and Silver Ware. New York: Garland Pub. ISBN 9780824026813.  ^ Matthäus, Hartmut (1980). Die Bronzegefässe der kretisch-mykenischen Kultur. München: C.H. Beck. ISBN 9783406040023.  ^ Catling, Hector W. (1964). Cypriot Bronzework in the Mycenaean World. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 187.  ^ Davis 1977, pp. 328–352 ^ Niemeier, W.-B. "Mycenaean Knossos
Knossos
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Knossos
and the Prophets of Modernism ^ Nixon 1983. ^ Driessen 1999. ^ Branigan 1999, pp. 87–94. ^ Early Aegean Warrior 5000–1450 BC Archived 2014-05-08 at the Wayback Machine. Osprey Publishing, 2013. ^ Rehak 1999. ^ Floyd 1999. ^ Hood, S. The Minoans, 1971. Thames and Hudson Ltd: London ^ Branigan 1999, p. 92. ^ Krzyszkowska 1999. ^ " Santorini
Santorini
eruption much larger than originally believed". 2006. Retrieved 2007-03-10.  ^ McCoy, FW, & Dunn, SE (2002). "Modelling the Climatic Effects of the LBA Eruption of Thera: New Calculations of Tephra Volumes May Suggest a Significantly Larger Eruption than Previously Reported" (PDF). Chapman Conference on Volcanism and the Earth's Atmosphere. Thera, Greece: American Geographical Union. Retrieved 2007-05-29. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Sigurdsson H, Carey, S, Alexandri M, Vougioukalakis G, Croff K, Roman C, Sakellariou D, Anagnostou C, Rousakis G, Ioakim C, Gogou A, Ballas D, Misaridis T, & Nomikou P (2006). "Marine Investigations of Greece's Santorini
Santorini
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Atlantis
myth". USA Today. Retrieved 2008-03-09.  ^ Marinatos, S (1939). "The Volcanic Destruction of Minoan Crete". Antiquity. 13: 425–439.  ^ Callender, G (1999). The Minoans and the Mycenaeans: Aegean Society in the Bronze
Bronze
Age. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195510283.  ^ a b Antonopoulos, J. (1992). "The great Minoan eruption
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of Thera volcano and the ensuing tsunami in the Greek Archipelago". Natural Hazards. 5 (2): 153–168. doi:10.1007/BF00127003.  ^ Pareschi, MT, Favalli, M & Boschi, E (2006). "Impact of the Minoan tsunami of Santorini: Simulated scenarios in the eastern Mediterranean". Geophysical Research Letters. 33 (18): L18607. Bibcode:2006GeoRL..3318607P. doi:10.1029/2006GL027205. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ LaMoreaux, PE (1995). "Worldwide environmental impacts from the eruption of Thera". Environmental Geology. 26 (3): 172–181. Bibcode:1995EnGeo..26..172L. doi:10.1007/BF00768739.  ^ Dickinson, O (1994) The Aegean Bronze Age
Bronze Age
pg. 22 ^ "Minoan Culture Survived Ancient Volcano, Evidence Shows". The New York Times. 28 November 1989.  ^ Bruce Bowen: Mycenae
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and Minoan Crete, 2000, ^ Sinclair Hood (1971), The Minoans; The Story of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Crete, pp. 58 ^ Pendlebury & Evans 2003. ^ C. Michael Hogan, " Knossos
Knossos
fieldnotes", Modern Antiquarian (2007) ^ Katz, Brigit. " DNA
DNA
Analysis Sheds Light on the Mysterious Origins of the Ancient Greeks". Smithsonian.  ^ a b Hughey, Jeffrey (2013). "A European population in Minoan Bronze Age Crete". Nature Communications. 4: 1861. Bibcode:2013NatCo...4E1861H. doi:10.1038/ncomms2871. Retrieved 19 May 2013.  ^ a b Tia Ghose, LiveScience: “Mysterious Minoans Were European, DNA Finds”, 2013, ^ "Minoans Were European, Genetic Study Reveals – Ancient Civilizations". LiveScience.com.  ^ Wolinsky, Howard (2008). "Our history, our genes. Population genetics lets researchers look back in time at human migrations". EMBO Reports. 9: 127–9. doi:10.1038/sj.embor.7401164. PMC 2246420 . PMID 18246104.  ^ Fernández, E; Pérez-Pérez, A; Gamba, C; Prats, E; Cuesta, P; et al. (2014). "Ancient DNA
DNA
Analysis of 8000 B.C. Near Eastern Farmers Supports an Early Neolithic
Neolithic
Pioneer Maritime Colonization of Mainland Europe
Europe
through Cyprus
Cyprus
and the Aegean Islands". PLoS Genet. 10 (6): e1004401. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004401. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Martinz, L; Mirabal, S; Luiz, JR; Herrera, RJ; et al. (2008). "Middle Eastern and European mt DNA
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lineages characterize populations from eastern Crete". Am J Phys Anthropol. 137: 213–23. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20857. PMID 18500747. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link)

Library resources about Minoan Civilization

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References[edit]

Baboula, Evanthia (2000). "'Buried' Metals in Late Minoan Inheritance Customs". In Pare, C. F. E. Metals Make the World Go Round: The Supply and Circulation of Metals in Bronze Age
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Europe : Proceedings of a Conference Held at the University of Birmingham in June 1997. Oxford: Oxbow. pp. 70–81. ISBN 9781842170199.  Benton, Janetta Rebold and DiYanni, Robert. Arts and Culture: An Introduction to the Humanities. Volume 1. Prentice Hall. New Jersey, 1998. Bourbon, F. Lost Civilizations. Barnes and Noble, Inc. New York, 1998. Branigan, Keith, 1970. The Foundations of Palatial Crete. Branigan, Keith (1999). "The Nature of Warfare in the Southern Aegean During the Third Millennium BC". In Laffineur, Robert. Polemos: Le Contexte Guerrier en Egee a L'Age du Bronze. Actes de la 7e Rencontre egeenne internationale Universite de Liège, 1998. Universite de Liège, Histoire de l'art d'archeologie de la Grece antique. pp. 87–94.  Burkert, Walter, 1985. Greek Religion. J. Raffan, trans. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-36281-0 Cadogan, Gerald, 1992, " Ancient and Modern Crete," in Myers et al., 1992, Aerial Atlas of Ancient Crete. Callender, Gae (1999) The Minoans and the Mycenaeans: Aegean Society in the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Oxford university press, Victoria 3205, Australia Castleden, Rodney (1993). Minoans: Life in Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Crete. Routledge. ISBN 0415040701. 041508833X.  Catling, Hector W. (1964). Cypriot Bronzework in the Mycenaean World. Oxford: Clarendon Press.  Clarke, Christina F. (2013). The Manufacture of Minoan Metal Vessels: Theory and Practice. Uppsala: Åströms Förlag. ISBN 978-91-7081-249-1.  Clarke, Christina (2014). "Minoan Metal Vessel Manufacture: Reconstructing Techniques and Technology with Experimental Archaeology" (PDF). In Scott, Rebecca B.; Braekmans, Dennis; Carremans, Mike; Degryse, Patrick. 39th International Symposium on Archaeometry: 28 May – 1 June 2012 Leuven, Belgium. Leuven: Centre for Archaeological Sciences, KU Leuven. pp. 81–85.  Crowley, Janice L. (1989). The Aegean and the East: An Investigation into the Transference of Artistic Motifs between the Aegean, Egypt, and the Near East in the Bronze
Bronze
Age. Göteborg: Åström. ISBN 9789186098551.  Davis, Ellen N. (1977). The Vapheio Cups and Aegean Gold
Gold
and Silver Ware. New York: Garland Pub. ISBN 9780824026813.  Dickinson, Oliver (1994; 2005 re-print) The Aegean Bronze
Bronze
Age, Cambridge World Archaeology, Cambridge University Press. Driessen, Jan (1999). "The Archaeology of Aegean Warfare". In Laffineur, Robert. Polemos: Le Contexte Guerrier en Egee a L'Age du Bronze. Actes de la 7e Rencontre egeenne internationale Universite de Liège, 1998. Universite de Liège, Histoire de l'art d'archeologie de la Grece antique. pp. 11–20.  Driessen J., Langohr C. (2014), "Recent developments in the archaeology of Minoan Crete", Pharos, 20: 75–115; doi:10.2143/PHA.20.1.3064537. —— (1921). The Palace
Palace
of Minos: a comparative account of the successive stages of the early Cretan civilization as illustrated by the discoveries at Knossos. Volume I: The Neolithic
Neolithic
and Early and Middle Minoan Ages.  Sir Arthur Evans, 1921–35. The Palace
Palace
of Minos: A Comparative Account of the Successive Stages of the Early Cretan Civilization as Illustrated by the Discoveries at Knossos, 4 vols. in 6 (reissued 1964). Floyd, Cheryl (1999). "Observations on a Minoan Dagger from Chrysokamino". In Laffineur, Robert. Polemos: Le Contexte Guerrier en Egee a L'Age du Bronze. Actes de la 7e Rencontre egeenne internationale Universite de Liège, 1998. Universite de Liège, Histoire de l'art d'archeologie de la Grece antique. pp. 433–442.  Furumark, Arne (1972). Mycenaean Pottery
Pottery
I: Analysis and Classification (Reprint 1941 ed.). Stockholm: Åström. ISBN 9185086045.  Gates, Charles, 1999. "Why Are There No Scenes of Warfare in Minoan Art?" pp 277–284 In Laffineur, Robert, ed., Polemos: Le Contexte Guerrier en Egee a L'Age du Bronze. Actes de la 7e Rencontre egeenne internationale Universite de Liège, 1998. Universite de Liège, Histoire de l'art d'archeologie de la Grece antique. Gere, Cathy. Knossos
Knossos
and the Prophets of Modernism, University of Chicago Press 2009. Gesell, G.C. (1983). "The Place of the Goddess in Minoan Society". In O. Krzyszkowska; L. Nixon. Minoan Society. Bristol.  Hemingway, Séan (1 January 1996). "Minoan Metalworking in the Postpalatial Period: A Deposit of Metallurgical Debris from Palaikastro". The Annual of the British School at Athens. 91: 213–252. doi:10.1017/s0068245400016488. JSTOR 30102549.  Hutchinson, Prehistoric Crete, many editions hardcover and softcover Goodison, Lucy, and Christine Morris, 1998, "Beyond the Great Mother: The Sacred World of the Minoans," in Goodison, Lucy, and Christine Morris, eds., Ancient Goddesses: The Myths and the Evidence, London: British Museum Press, pp. 113–132. Hägg, R. and N. Marinatos, eds. The Minoan Thalassocracy: Myth and Reality (Stockholm) 1994. A summary of revived points-of-view of a Minoan thalassocracy, especially in LMI.. Haralampos V. Harissis, Anastasios V. Harissis. Apiculture
Apiculture
in the Prehistoric Aegean. Minoan and Mycenaean Symbols Revisited British Archaeological Reports S1958, 2009 ISBN 978-1-4073-0454-0. Higgins, Reynold, 1981. Minoan and Mycenaean Art, (revised edition). Hogan, C. Michael, 2007. Knossos
Knossos
fieldnotes, Modern Antiquarian Hood, Sinclair, 1971, The Minoans: Crete
Crete
in the Bronze
Bronze
Age. London. Hood, Sinclair, 1971. The Minoans: The Story of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Crete Hughes, Dennis, 1991. Human Sacrifice in Ancient Greece. Routledge: London. Hutchinson, Richard W., 1962. Prehistoric Crete
Crete
(reprinted 1968) Kristiansen, Kristiansen & Larsson, Thomas B. (2005) The Rise of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Society: Travels, Transmissions and Transformations Cambridge University Press Krzyszkowska, Olga (1999). "So Where's the Loot? The Spoils of War and the Archaeological Record". In Laffineur, Robert. Polemos: Le Contexte Guerrier en Egee a L'Age du Bronze. Actes de la 7e Rencontre egeenne internationale Universite de Liège, 1998. Université de Liège, Histoire de l'art d'archeologie de la Grece antique. pp. 489–498.  Lapatin, Kenneth, 2002. Mysteries of the Snake Goddess: Art, Desire, and the Forging of History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-306-81328-9 MacKenzie, Donald A. (1917). Myths of Crete
Crete
& Pre-Hellenic Europe.  Manning, S.W., 1995. "An approximate Minoan Bronze Age
Bronze Age
chronology" in A.B. Knapp, ed., The absolute chronology of the Aegean Early Bronze Age: Archaeology, radiocarbon and history (Appendix 8), in series Monographs in Mediterranean Archaeology, Vol. 1 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press) A standard current Minoan chronology. Marinatos, Nanno, 1993. Minoan Religion: Ritual, Image, and Symbol. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press. Marinatos, Spyridon, 1960. Crete
Crete
and Mycenae
Mycenae
(originally published in Greek, 1959), photographs by Max Hirmer. Marinatos, Spyridon, 1972. "Life and Art in Prehistoric Thera," in Proceedings of the British Academy, vol 57. Matthäus, Hartmut (1980). Die Bronzegefässe der kretisch-mykenischen Kultur. München: C.H. Beck. ISBN 9783406040023.  Mellersh, H.E.L., 1967. Minoan Crete. New York, G.P. Putnam's Sons. Nixon, L. (1983). "Changing Views of Minoan Society". In L. Nixon. Minoan society: Proceedings of the Cambridge Colloquium, 1981.  Papadopoulos, John K., "Inventing the Minoans: Archaeology, Modernity and the Quest for European Identity", Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 18:1:87-149 (June 2005) Pedley, John Griffiths. Greek Art and Archaeology. ISBN 0-205-00133-5.  Pendlebury, J. D. S.; Evans, Arthur (2003). Handbook to the Palace
Palace
of Minos
Minos
at Knossos
Knossos
with Its Dependencies (2nd ed.). Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-3916-6.  Preziosi, Donald & Hitchcock, Louise A. (1999) Aegean Art and Architecture, Oxford History of Art series, Oxford University Press. Preston, Laura (2008). "Late Minoan II to IIIB Crete". In Shelmerdine, Cynthia W. The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze
Bronze
Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 310–326. doi:10.1017/CCOL9780521814447.014. ISBN 9781139001892.  Quigley, Carroll, 1961. The Evolution of Civilizations: An Introduction to Historical Analysis, Indianapolis: Liberty Press. Rehak, Paul (1997). "Aegean Art Before and After the LM IB Cretan Destructions". In Laffineur, Robert; Betancourt, Philip P. TEXNH. Craftsmen, Craftswomen and Craftsmanship in the Aegean Bronze Age
Bronze Age
/ Artisanat et artisans en Égée à l'âge du Bronze: Proceedings of the 6th International Aegean Conference / 6e Rencontre égéenne internationale, Philadelphia, Temple University, 18–21 April 1996. Liège: Université de Liège, Histoire de l'art et archéologie de la Grèce antique. p. 145. ISBN 9781935488118.  Rehak, Paul (1999). "The Mycenaean 'Warrior Goddess' Revisited". In Laffineur, Robert. Polemos: Le Contexte Guerrier en Egee a L'Age du Bronze. Actes de la 7e Rencontre egeenne internationale Universite de Liège, 1998. Universite de Liège, Histoire de l'art d'archeologie de la Grece antique. pp. 227–240.  Sakellarakis, Y. & E. Sapouna-Sakellarakis (1981). "Drama of Death in a Minoan Temple". National Geographic. 159 (2): 205–222.  Schoep, Ilse, 2004. "Assessing the role of architecture in conspicuous consumption in the Middle Minoan I-II Periods." Oxford Journal of Archaeology vol 23/3, pp. 243–269. Sherratt, Andrew; Taylor, Timothy (1989). "Metal Vessels in Bronze
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Age Europe
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and the Context of Vulchetrun". In Best, Jan Gijsbert Pieter; De Vries, Manny M. W. Thracians and Mycenaeans: Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Thracology, Rotterdam, 24–26 September 1984. Leiden: Brill Archive. pp. 106–134. ISBN 9789004088641.  Soles, Jeffrey S., 1992, The Prepalatial Cemeteries at Mochlos and Gournia
Gournia
and the House Tombs of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Crete: And the House Tombs of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Crete, Published by ASCSA, 1992. Soles, Jeffrey S. (2008). Mochlos IIA: Period IV: The Mycenaean Settlement and Cemetery: The Sites. INSTAP Academic Press. ISBN 9781931534239.  Warren P., Hankey V., 1989. Aegean Bronze Age
Bronze Age
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Chronology
(Bristol). Watrous, L. Vance (1991), "The origin and iconography of the Late Minoan painted larnax", Hesperia, 60(3): 285–307; JSTOR 148065. Willetts, R. F., 1976 (1995 edition). The Civilization of Ancient Crete. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. ISBN 1-84212-746-2 Wright, James C. (2004). "A Survey of Evidence for Feasting in Mycenaean Society". Hesperia. 73 (2): 133–178. doi:10.2972/hesp.2004.73.2.133. JSTOR 4134891.  Yule, Paul. Early Cretan Seals: A Study of Chronology. Marburger Studien zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte 4, Mainz 1980 ISBN 3-8053-0490-0

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