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Minerva
Minerva
(/mɪˈnɜːr.və/; Latin: [mɪˈnɛr.wa]; Etruscan: Menrva) was the Roman goddess of wisdom and strategic warfare, although it is noted that the Romans did not stress her relation to battle and warfare as the Greeks would come to, and the sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy. From the second century BC onward, the Romans equated her with the Greek goddess Athena.[1] Following the Greek myths around Athena, she was born of Metis, who had been swallowed by Jupiter, and burst from her father's head, fully armed and clad in armor.[2] After impregnating the titaness Metis notably forcefully which resulted in her attempting to change shape or shapeshift to escape him, Jupiter
Jupiter
recalled the prophecy that his own child would overthrow him as he had Saturn and in turn, Saturn had Caelus. Fearing that their child would be male, and would grow stronger than he was and rule the Heavens in his place, Jupiter
Jupiter
swallowed Metis whole after tricking her into turning herself into a fly. The titaness gave birth to Minerva
Minerva
and forged weapons and armor for her child while within Jupiter's body nevertheless. It is said in some versions that Metis continued to live inside of Jupiter's mind and that she is the source of his wisdom though others say she was simply a vessel for the birth of Minerva. Nevertheless, the constant pounding and ringing left Jupiter
Jupiter
with agonizing pain and to relieve the pain, Vulcan used a hammer to split Jupiter's head and, from the cleft, Minerva
Minerva
emerged, whole, adult, and in full battle armor. She was the virgin goddess of music, poetry, medicine, wisdom, commerce, weaving, and the crafts.[3] She is often depicted with her sacred creature, an owl usually named as the "owl of Minerva",[4] which symbolised her association with wisdom and knowledge as well as, less frequently, the snake and the olive tree.

Contents

1 Worship in Rome and Italy

1.1 Roman coinage

2 Etruscan Menrva 3 Universities and educational establishments 4 Use by societies and governments 5 Public monuments, places, and modern culture 6 See also 7 References and sources 8 External links

Worship in Rome and Italy[edit]

Raised-relief
Raised-relief
image of Minerva
Minerva
on a Roman gilt silver bowl, first century BC

Temple of Minerva
Minerva
in Sbeitla, Tunisia

A head of "Sulis-Minerva" found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath

Silver denarius of the Roman Emperor Domitianus (Domitian) featuring Minerva, dated c. 90 AD, IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIIII, laureate head right; IMP XXI COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva
Minerva
standing left, holding spear and thunderbolt, shield resting against back of leg; References: BMC 167, RIC 691, RSC 260, Paris 159, Cohen 260

Minerva
Minerva
was worshipped at several locations in Rome, including most prominently as part of the Capitoline Triad, and also at the Temple of Minerva
Minerva
Medica, and at the "Delubrum Minervae", a temple founded around 50 BC by Pompey
Pompey
on the site now occupied by the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. The Romans celebrated her festival from March 19 to March 23 during the day which is called, in the neuter plural, Quinquatria, the fifth after the Ides of March, the nineteenth, an artisans' holiday. A lesser version, the Minusculae Quinquatria, was held on the Ides of June, June 13, by the flute-players, who were particularly useful to religion. In 207 BC, a guild of poets and actors was formed to meet and make votive offerings at the temple of Minerva
Minerva
on the Aventine Hill. Among others, its members included Livius Andronicus. The Aventine sanctuary of Minerva
Minerva
continued to be an important center of the arts for much of the middle Roman Republic. As Minerva
Minerva
Medica, she was the goddess of medicine and physicians. As Minerva
Minerva
Achaea, she was worshipped at Lucera
Lucera
in Apulia
Apulia
where votive gifts and arms said to be those of Diomedes
Diomedes
were preserved in her temple.[5][6] Her worship also was spread throughout the empire. In Britain, for example, she was syncretized with the local goddess Sulis, who often was invoked for restitution for theft.[7] In Fasti III, Ovid
Ovid
called her the "goddess of a thousand works". Minerva
Minerva
was worshipped throughout Italy, and when she eventually became equated with the Greek goddess Athena, she also became a goddess of battle. Unlike Mars, god of war, she was sometimes portrayed with sword lowered, in sympathy for the recent dead, rather than raised in triumph and battle lust. In Rome her bellicose nature was emphasized less than elsewhere.[8] Roman coinage[edit] Minerva
Minerva
is featured on the coinage of different Roman Emperors. She often is represented on the reverse side of a coin holding an owl and a spear among her attributes.[9] Etruscan Menrva[edit] Main article: Menrva Stemming from an Italic moon goddess *Meneswā ('She who measures'), the Etruscans adopted the inherited Old Latin name, *Menerwā, thereby calling her Menrva. It is presumed that her Roman name, Minerva, is based on this Etruscan mythology. Minerva
Minerva
was the goddess of wisdom, war, art, schools, and commerce. She was the Etruscan counterpart to Greek Athena. Like Athena, Minerva
Minerva
burst from the head of her father, Jupiter
Jupiter
(Greek Zeus), who had devoured her mother (Metis) in an unsuccessful attempt to prevent her birth. By a process of folk etymology, the Romans could have linked her foreign name to the root men- in Latin words such as mens meaning "mind", perhaps because one of her aspects as goddess pertained to the intellectual. The word mens is built from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- 'mind' (linked with memory as in Greek Mnemosyne/μνημοσύνη and mnestis/μνῆστις: memory, remembrance, recollection, manush in Sanskrit meaning mind). The Etruscan Menrva
Menrva
was part of a holy triad with Tinia
Tinia
and Uni, equivalent to the Roman Capitoline Triad
Capitoline Triad
of Jupiter-Juno-Minerva. Universities and educational establishments[edit] Main article: Minerva
Minerva
in the emblems of educational establishments As a patron goddess of wisdom, Minerva
Minerva
frequently features in statuary, as an image on seals, and in other forms at educational institutions. Use by societies and governments[edit]

Minerva
Minerva
and owl (right) depicted on Confederate currency (1861)

The Seal of California
Seal of California
depicts the Goddess
Goddess
Minerva. Her birth fully-grown parallels California becoming a state without first being a territory.[10] In the early twentieth century, Manuel José Estrada Cabrera, President of Guatemala, tried to promote a "Worship of Minerva" in his country; this left little legacy other than a few interesting Hellenic style "Temples" in parks around Guatemala. According to John Robison's Proofs of a Conspiracy (1798), the third degree of the Bavarian Illuminati
Illuminati
was called Minerval or Brother of Minerva, in honour of the goddess of learning. Later, this title was adopted for the first initiation of Aleister Crowley's OTO rituals. Minerva
Minerva
is displayed on the Medal of Honor, the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. Minerva
Minerva
is featured in the logo of the Max Planck Society. Minerva
Minerva
alongside Mars is displayed on the cap badge of the Artists Rifles Territorial SAS Regiment of the British Army. Kingston upon Hull's oldest Masonic lodge
Masonic lodge
is named The Minerva
Minerva
Lodge. Minerva
Minerva
is the patron goddess of the Theta Delta Chi and Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternities, the Phi Theta Kappa Honor Society, and the Kappa Kappa Gamma and Delta Sigma Theta[11][additional citation(s) needed] sororities LSV Minerva
Minerva
is the oldest student society in the Netherlands and strongly related to Leiden University. Minerva Schools at KGI
Minerva Schools at KGI
is an innovative global four-year undergraduate program that took their name from Minerva.

Public monuments, places, and modern culture[edit]

This article appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture rather than simply listing appearances; add references to reliable sources if possible. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2017)

A statue of Minerva
Minerva
is displayed by the University of North Carolina at Greensboro and is the university's new graphic identity starting 2004. A small Roman shrine to Minerva
Minerva
stands in Handbridge, Chester. It sits in a public park, overlooking the River Dee. A statue to Minerva
Minerva
was designed by John Charles Felix Rossi
John Charles Felix Rossi
to adorn the Town Hall of Liverpool, where it has stood since 1799. It remains extant and was restored as part of the 2014 renovations conducted by the city.[12][13] The Minerva
Minerva
Roundabout in Guadalajara, Mexico, located at the crossing of the López Mateos, Vallarta, López Cotilla, Agustín Yáñez, and Golfo de Cortez avenues, features the goddess standing on a pedestal, surrounded by a large fountain, with an inscription that says "Justice, wisdom and strength guard this loyal city". A bronze statue of Minerva
Minerva
stands in Monument Square (Portland, Maine). "Our Lady of Victories Monument" dedicated in 1891, features a 14-feet-tall bronze figure by Franklin Simmons
Franklin Simmons
atop a granite pedestal with smaller bronze sculptures by Richard Morris Hunt.[14][15] A sculpture of Minerva
Minerva
by Andy Scott, known as the Briggate Minerva, stands outside Trinity Leeds shopping centre. Minerva
Minerva
is displayed as a statue in Pavia, Italy, near the train station, and is considered as an important landmark in the city. Minerva
Minerva
is displayed as a cast bronze statue in the Minneapolis Central Library, rendered in 1889 by Jakob Fjelde.[16] Minerva
Minerva
is displayed as a 7-ft statue in the Science Library at the State University of New York at Albany and is on the official academic seal of the University.[17] Minerva
Minerva
is displayed as a bronze statue in Frederick Ruckstull's 1920 Altar to Liberty: Minerva
Minerva
monument near the top of Battle Hill, the highest point of Brooklyn, New York, in Green-Wood Cemetery. Minerva
Minerva
is displayed as an 11-ft statue in Antonin Carlès's 1895 "James Gordon Bennett Memorial" in New York City's Herald Square.[18] A statue of Minerva
Minerva
is displayed at Wells College
Wells College
outside of Main Building. Each year, the senior class decorates Minerva
Minerva
at the beginning of the fall semester. Minerva
Minerva
remains decorated throughout the school year; then during the morning of the last day of classes and after singing around the Sycamore tree, the senior class takes turns kissing the feet of Minerva, believed to be good luck and bring success and prosperity to all graduation seniors.[19][20][21]

See also[edit]

Celtic mythology Second French Empire Sulis

References and sources[edit]

References

^ Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia, Book People, Haydock, 1995, p. 215. ^ Encarta World English Dictionary 1998–2004 Microsoft Corporation. ^ Candau, Francisco J. Cevallos (1994). Coded Encounters: Writing, Gender, and Ethnicity in Colonial Latin America. University of Massachusetts Press. p. 215. ISBN 0-87023-886-8.  ^ Philosophy of Right
Philosophy of Right
(1820), "Preface" ^ Aristotle Mirab. Narrat. 117 ^ Schmitz, Leonhard (1867). "Achaea (2)". In Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. Boston. p. 8.  ^ R. S. O. Tomlin (1992). "Voices from the Sacred Spring" (PDF). Bath History. 4: 8, 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-23.  ^ Mark Cartwright. "Minerva". Ancient History Encyclopedia.  ^ "American Numismatic Society: Browse Collection". Retrieved 2017-03-02.  ^ "California State Symbols". California State Library.  ^ "List of Registered Trademarks and Service Marks" (PDF).  ^ Cavanagh, Terry (1997). Public sculpture of Liverpool. Liverpool University Press. pp. 70–1.  ^ Elson, Peter (2014-10-14). " Liverpool
Liverpool
Town Hall's Minerva
Minerva
statue restored to heavenly condition". Liverpool
Liverpool
Echo.  ^ "Our Lady of Victories (The Portland Sailors and Soldiers Monument)". Public Art Portland. Retrieved 28 January 2017.  ^ "Maine Civil War Monuments: Portland (Monument Square)". Maine.gov. Archived from the original on 2015-05-24. Retrieved 28 January 2017.  ^ "Minerva". Hennepin County Library.  ^ "University at Albany - SUNY -". albany.edu.  ^ "Herald Square Monuments - James Gordon Bennett Memorial : NYC Parks".  ^ "minerva Search Results Wellsipedia". wellsipedia.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2017-03-09.  ^ Citizen, Erik Sorensen / Special
Special
to The. " Wells College
Wells College
to graduate its first males this weekend". Auburn Citizen. Retrieved 2017-03-09.  ^ York, Michelle (2005-09-06). "Wells College: Newly, and Uneasily, Coed". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-03-09. 

Sources

Origins of English History see Chapter Ten. Romans in Britain – Roman religion and beliefs see The Roman gods. Old Norse Myths, Literature and Society[permanent dead link]  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.  See page 1090

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Minerva.

The dictionary definition of Minerva
Minerva
at Wiktionary Media related to Minerva
Minerva
at Wikimedia Commons Roman Mythology

v t e

Ancient Roman religion and mythology

Deities

Apollo Bellona Bona Dea Castor and Pollux Ceres Cupid Diana Dīs Pater Egeria Fauna Faunus Flora Genius Hercules Janus Juno Jupiter Lares Liber Libertas Lucina Mars Mercury Minerva Orcus Neptune Penates Pluto Pomona Priapus Proserpina Quirinus Saturn Silvanus Sol Venus Vesta Vulcan

Abstract deities

Abundantia Aequitas Concordia Fides Fortuna Pietas Roma Salus Securitas Spes Victoria Terra

Legendary figures

Aeneas Rhea Silvia Romulus and Remus Numa Pompilius Tullus Hostilius Servius Tullius Ancus Marcius Lucius Tarquinius Priscus Lucius Tarquinius Superbus

Texts

Virgil

Aeneid

Ovid

Metamorphoses Fasti

Propertius Apuleius

The Golden Ass

Varro

Concepts and practices

Religion in ancient Rome Festivals Interpretatio graeca Imperial cult Temples

See also

Glossary of ancient Roman religion Greek mythology Myth and ritual Classical mythology Conversion to Christianity Decline of Greco-Roman polytheism

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 13107

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