* To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
* To achieve universal primary education
* To promote gender equality and empower women
* To reduce child mortality
* To improve maternal health
* To combat
Millennium Development Goals
Each goal had specific targets, and dates for achieving those
targets. To accelerate progress, the G8 finance ministers agreed in
June 2005 to provide enough funds to the
Critics of the MDGs complained of a lack of analysis and justification behind the chosen objectives, and the difficulty or lack of measurements for some goals and uneven progress, among others. Although developed countries' aid for achieving the MDGs rose during the challenge period, more than half went for debt relief and much of the remainder going towards natural disaster relief and military aid, rather than further development.
As of 2013, progress towards the goals was uneven. Some countries achieved many goals, while others were not on track to realize any. A UN conference in September 2010 reviewed progress to date and adopted a global plan to achieve the eight goals by their target date. New commitments targeted women's and children's health, and new initiatives in the worldwide battle against poverty, hunger and disease.
Among the non-governmental organizations assisting were the United Nations Millennium Campaign, the Millennium Promise Alliance, Inc., the Global Poverty Project, the Micah Challenge , The Youth in Action EU Programme, "Cartoons in Action" video project and the 8 Visions of Hope global art project.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) replaced the MDGs in 2016.
* 1 Background
* 1.1 Millennium Summit * 1.2 Precursors * 1.3 Human capital, infrastructure and human rights * 1.4 Partnership
* 2 Goals
* 2.1 Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger * 2.2 Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education * 2.3 Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women * 2.4 Goal 4: Reduce child mortality rates * 2.5 Goal 5: Improve maternal health * 2.6 Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases * 2.7 Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability * 2.8 Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
* 3 Criticism
* 3.1 General * 3.2 Alleged lack of legitimacy * 3.3 Human rights * 3.4 Human capital * 3.5 Equity * 3.6 Women\'s issues
* 4 Progress
* 4.1 Multilateral debt reduction * 4.2 Sub-Saharan Africa
* 4.3 Funding commitment
* 4.4 United States
* 4.4.1 OECD
* 4.5 Review Summit 2010 * 4.6 MDG3
* 5 Improvements * 6 Post 2015 development agenda
* 7 Related activities/organisations
* 7.1 Education
* 7.2 UN Goals
* 7.3 Libraries and the
Millennium Development Goals
* 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Bibliography * 11 External links
Preparations for the 2000
Millennium Summit launched with the report
of the Secretary-General entitled, "We the people: The Role of the
MDGs derive from earlier development targets, where world leaders adopted the United Nations Millennium Declaration . The approval of the Millennium Declaration was the main outcome of the Millennium Summit.
The MDGs originated from the United Nations Millennium Declaration . The Declaration asserted that every individual has dignity; and hence, the right to freedom, equality, a basic standard of living that includes freedom from hunger and violence and encourages tolerance and solidarity. The MDGs set concrete targets and indicators for poverty reduction in order to achieve the rights set forth in the Declaration.
The Brahimi Report provided the basis of the goals in the area of peace and security.
Millennium Summit Declaration was, however, only part of the
origins of the MDGs. More ideas came from Adam Figueroa, Organization
for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the
HUMAN CAPITAL, INFRASTRUCTURE AND HUMAN RIGHTS
The MDGs emphasized three areas: human capital , infrastructure and
human rights (social, economic and political ), with the intent of
increasing living standards.
Human capital objectives include
nutrition, healthcare (including child mortality ,
MDGs emphasize the role of developed countries in aiding developing countries, as outlined in Goal Eight, which sets objectives and targets for developed countries to achieve a "global partnership for development" by supporting fair trade , debt relief, increasing aid, access to affordable essential medicines and encouraging technology transfer. Thus developing nations ostensibly became partners with developed nations in the struggle to reduce world poverty.
A poster at the
United Nations Headquarters
The MDGs were developed out of several commitments set forth in the Millennium Declaration , signed in September 2000. There are eight goals with 21 targets, and a series of measurable health indicators and economic indicators for each target.
GOAL 1: ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER
* TARGET 1A: HALVE, BETWEEN 1990 AND 2015, THE PROPORTION OF PEOPLE LIVING ON LESS THAN $1.25 A DAY
* Poverty gap ratio * Share of poorest quintile in national consumption
* TARGET 1B: ACHIEVE DECENT EMPLOYMENT FOR WOMEN, MEN, AND YOUNG PEOPLE
* GDP Growth per Employed Person * Employment Rate * Proportion of employed population below $1.25 per day (PPP values) * Proportion of family-based workers in employed population
* TARGET 1C: HALVE, BETWEEN 1990 AND 2015, THE PROPORTION OF PEOPLE WHO SUFFER FROM HUNGER
* Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age * Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption
GOAL 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION
* TARGET 2A: BY 2015, ALL CHILDREN CAN COMPLETE A FULL COURSE OF PRIMARY SCHOOLING , GIRLS AND BOYS
* Enrollment in primary education * Completion of primary education
GOAL 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN
* TARGET 3A: ELIMINATE GENDER DISPARITY IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION PREFERABLY BY 2005, AND AT ALL LEVELS BY 2015
* Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education * Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector * Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament
GOAL 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY RATES
* TARGET 4A: REDUCE BY TWO-THIRDS, BETWEEN 1990 AND 2015, THE UNDER-FIVE MORTALITY RATE
* Under-five mortality rate * Infant (under 1) mortality rate * Proportion of 1-year-old children immunized against measles
GOAL 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH
The Maternal Mortality Ratio is the KPI used by the UN to measure Maternal health
* TARGET 5A: REDUCE BY THREE QUARTERS, BETWEEN 1990 AND 2015, THE MATERNAL MORTALITY RATIO
* Maternal mortality ratio * Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel
* TARGET 5B: ACHIEVE, BY 2015, UNIVERSAL ACCESS TO REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH
* Contraceptive prevalence rate * Adolescent birth rate * Antenatal care coverage * Unmet need for family planning
GOAL 6: COMBAT HIV/AIDS, MALARIA, AND OTHER DISEASES
* TARGET 6B: ACHIEVE, BY 2010, UNIVERSAL ACCESS TO TREATMENT FOR
* Proportion of population with advanced
* TARGET 6C: HAVE HALTED BY 2015 AND BEGUN TO REVERSE THE INCIDENCE OF MALARIA AND OTHER MAJOR DISEASES
* Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria * Proportion of children under 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated bednets * Proportion of children under 5 with fever who are treated with appropriate anti-malarial drugs * Incidence, prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis * Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Short Course)
GOAL 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
* TARGET 7A: INTEGRATE THE PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INTO COUNTRY POLICIES AND PROGRAMS; REVERSE LOSS OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES
* TARGET 7B: REDUCE BIODIVERSITY LOSS, ACHIEVING, BY 2010, A SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION IN THE RATE OF LOSS
* Proportion of land area covered by forest * CO2 emissions , total, per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP) * Consumption of ozone-depleting substances * Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limits * Proportion of total water resources used * Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected * Proportion of species threatened with extinction
* TARGET 7C: HALVE, BY 2015, THE PROPORTION OF THE POPULATION WITHOUT SUSTAINABLE ACCESS TO SAFE DRINKING WATER AND BASIC SANITATION
* Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source , urban and rural * Proportion of urban population with access to improved sanitation
* TARGET 7D: BY 2020, TO HAVE ACHIEVED A SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT IN THE LIVES OF AT LEAST 100 MILLION SLUM-DWELLERS
* Proportion of urban population living in slums
GOAL 8: DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT
* TARGET 8A: DEVELOP FURTHER AN OPEN, RULE-BASED, PREDICTABLE, NON-DISCRIMINATORY TRADING AND FINANCIAL SYSTEM
* Includes a commitment to good governance , development, and poverty reduction – both nationally and internationally
* TARGET 8B: ADDRESS THE SPECIAL NEEDS OF THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES (LDCS)
* Includes: tariff and quota free access for LDC exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for HIPC and cancellation of official bilateral debt ; and more generous ODA (Official Development Assistance) for countries committed to poverty reduction
* TARGET 8C: ADDRESS THE SPECIAL NEEDS OF LANDLOCKED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES
* Through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of
Small Island Developing States
* TARGET 8D: DEAL COMPREHENSIVELY WITH THE DEBT PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES THROUGH NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL MEASURES IN ORDER TO MAKE DEBT SUSTAINABLE IN THE LONG TERM
* Some of the indicators listed below are monitored separately for the least developed countries (LDCs), Africa, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States.
* Official development assistance (ODA):
* Net ODA, total and to LDCs, as percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ GNI * Proportion of total sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation) * Proportion of bilateral ODA of OECD/DAC donors that is untied * ODA received in landlocked countries as proportion of their GNIs * ODA received in small island developing States as proportion of their GNIs
* Market access:
* Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) from developing countries and from LDCs, admitted free of duty * Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and textiles and clothing from developing countries * Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as percentage of their GDP * Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity
* Debt sustainability:
* Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points and number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative) * Debt relief committed under HIPC initiative, US$ * Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services
* TARGET 8E: IN CO-OPERATION WITH PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES, PROVIDE ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE, ESSENTIAL DRUGS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
* Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis
* TARGET 8F: IN CO-OPERATION WITH THE PRIVATE SECTOR, MAKE AVAILABLE THE BENEFITS OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES, ESPECIALLY INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS
* Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100 population * Personal computers in use per 100 population * Internet users per 100 Population
General criticisms include a perceived lack of analytical power and justification behind the chosen objectives.
The MDGs lack strong objectives and indicators for within-country equality, despite significant disparities in many developing nations.
Iterations of proven local successes should be scaled up to address
the larger need through human energy and existing resources using
methodologies such as participatory rural appraisal , asset-based
community development , or
MDG 8 uniquely focuses on donor achievements, rather than development successes. The Commitment to Development Index , published annually by the Center for Global Development in Washington, D.C., is considered the best numerical indicator for MDG 8. It is a more comprehensive measure of donor progress than official development assistance, as it takes into account policies on a number of indicators that affect developing countries such as trade, migration and investment.
The MDGs were attacked for insufficient emphasis on environmental sustainability . Thus, they do not capture all elements needed to achieve the ideals set out in the Millennium Declaration.
Agriculture was not specifically mentioned in the MDGs even though most of the world's poor are farmers.
ALLEGED LACK OF LEGITIMACY
The entire MDG process has been accused of lacking legitimacy as a result of failure to include, often, the voices of the very participants that the MDGs seek to assist. The International Planning Committee for Food Sovereignty, in its post 2015 thematic consultation document on MDG 69 states "The major limitation of the MDGs by 2015 was the lack of political will to implement due to the lack of ownership of the MDGs by the most affected constituencies".
The MDGs may under-emphasize local participation and empowerment (other than women’s empowerment). FIAN International, a human rights organization focusing on the right to adequate food, contributed to the Post 2015 process by pointing out a lack of: "primacy of human rights; qualifying policy coherence; and of human rights based monitoring and accountability . Without such accountability, no substantial change in national and international policies can be expected."
MDG 2 focuses on primary education and emphasizes enrollment and completion. In some countries, primary enrollment increased at the expense of achievement levels. In some cases, the emphasis on primary education has negatively affected secondary and post-secondary education.
A publication from 2005 argued that goals related to maternal mortality , malaria and tuberculosis are impossible to measure and that current UN estimates lack scientific validity or are missing. Household surveys are the primary measure for the health MDGs but may be poor and duplicative measurements that consume limited resources. Furthermore, countries with the highest levels of these conditions typically have the least reliable data collection. The study also argued that without accurate measures, it is impossible to determine the amount of progress, leaving MDGs as little more than a rhetorical call to arms.
MDG proponents such as McArthur and Sachs countered that setting goals is still valid despite measurement difficulties, as they provide a political and operational framework to efforts. With an increase in the quantity and quality of healthcare systems in developing countries, more data could be collected. They asserted that non-health related MDGs were often well measured, and that not all MDGs were made moot by lack of data.
The attention to well being other than income helps bring funding to achieving MDGs. Further MDGs prioritize interventions, establish obtainable objectives with useful measurements of progress despite measurement issues and increased the developed world’s involvement in worldwide poverty reduction. MDGs include gender and reproductive rights, environmental sustainability, and spread of technology. Prioritizing interventions helps developing countries with limited resources make decisions about allocating their resources. MDGs also strengthen the commitment of developed countries and encourage aid and information sharing. The global commitment to the goals likely increases the likelihood of their success. They note that MDGs are the most broadly supported poverty reduction targets in world history.
Achieving the MDGs does not depend on economic growth alone. In the
case of MDG 4, developing countries such as
Fundamental issues such as gender, the divide between the humanitarian and development agendas and economic growth will determine whether or not the MDGs are achieved, according to researchers at the Overseas Development Institute (ODI).
The International Health Partnership (IHP+) aimed to accelerate MDG progress by applying international principles for effective aid and development in the health sector. In developing countries, significant funding for health came from external sources requiring governments to coordinate with international development partners. As partner numbers increased variations in funding streams and bureaucratic demands followed. By encouraging support for a single national health strategy, a single monitoring and evaluation framework, and mutual accountability, IHP+ attempted to build confidence between government, civil society, development partners and other health stakeholders.
Further developments in rethinking strategies and approaches to
achieving the MDGs include research by the Overseas Development
Institute into the role of equity . Researchers at the ODI argued
that progress could be accelerated due to recent breakthroughs in the
role equity plays in creating a virtuous circle where rising equity
ensures the poor participate in their country's development and
creates reductions in poverty and financial stability. Yet equity
should not be understood purely as economic, but also as political .
Examples abound, including Brazil's cash transfers ,
The effects of increasing drug use were noted by the International
Increased focus on gender issues could accelerate MDG progress, e.g.
empowering women through access to paid work could help reduce child
mortality. In South Asian countries babies often suffered from low
birth weight and high mortality due to limited access to healthcare
and maternal malnutrition . Paid work could increase women's access to
health care and better nutrition, reducing child mortality. Increasing
female education and workforce participation increased these effects.
Improved economic opportunities for women also decreased participation
in the sex market, which decreased the spread of AIDS, MDG 6A.
Another way in which women can be empowered is through access to paid
work. Kabeer states that this access increases women’s agency in
their households, it does so in the economic and political spheres as
well. A study of women in rural Mexico found that those of them
engaged in industrial work were able to negotiate and obtain a greater
degree of respect in their households. Additionally, another study
Although the resources, technology and knowledge exist to decrease poverty through improving gender equality, the political will is often missing. If donor and developing countries focused on seven "priority areas", great progress could be made towards the MDG. These seven priority areas include: increasing girls’ completion of secondary school, guaranteeing sexual and reproductive health rights, improving infrastructure to ease women’s and girl’s time burdens, guaranteeing women’s property rights, reducing gender inequalities in employment, increasing seats held by women in government , and combating violence against women.
It is thought that the current MDGs targets do not place enough emphasis on tracking gender inequalities in poverty reduction and employment as there are only gender goals relating to health, education, and political representation. To encourage women’s empowerment and progress towards the MDGs, increased emphasis should be placed on gender mainstreaming development policies and collecting data based on gender.
Graph of global population living on under 1, 1.25 and 2
equivalent of 2005 US dollars a day (red) and as a proportion of world
population (blue) from 1981 to 2008 based on data from The
Progress towards reaching the goals has been uneven across countries.
In the early 1990s
Between 1990 and 2010 the population living on less than $1.25 a day in developing countries halved to 21%, or 1.2 billion people, achieving MDG1A before the target date, although the biggest decline was in China, which took no notice of the goal. However, the child mortality and maternal mortality are down by less than half. Sanitation and education targets will also be missed.
MULTILATERAL DEBT REDUCTION
G‑8 Finance Ministers met in
The Gleaneagles plan became the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI). Countries became eligible once their lending agency confirmed that the countries had continued to maintain the reforms they had implemented.
One success was to strengthen rice production in Sub-Saharan Africa. By the mid‑1990s, rice imports reached nearly $1 billion annually. Farmers had not found suitable rice varieties that produce high yields. New Rice for Africa (NERICA), a high-yielding and well adapted strain, was developed and introduced in areas including Congo Brazzaville, Côte d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, Togo and Uganda. Some 18 varieties of this strain became available, enabling African farmers to produce enough rice to feed their families and have extra to sell.
The region also showed progress towards MDG 2. School fees that
included Parent-Teacher Association and community contributions,
textbook fees, compulsory uniforms and other charges took up nearly a
quarter of a poor family’s income and led countries including
GRAPHS FROM THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2010
Although developed countries' financial aid rose during the
Millennium Challenge, more than half went towards debt relief. Much of
the remainder aid money went towards disaster relief and military aid.
According to the
Over the past 35 years, UN members have repeatedly "commit 0.7% of rich-countries' gross national income (GNI) to Official Development Assistance ". The commitment was first made in 1970 by the UN General Assembly .
The text of the commitment was:
Each economically advanced country will progressively increase its official development assistance to the developing countries and will exert its best efforts to reach a minimum net amount of 0.7 percent of its gross national product at market prices by the middle of the decade.
In 2005 the
However, the United States as well as other nations disputed the Monterrey Consensus that urged "developed countries that have not done so to make concrete efforts towards the target of 0.7% of gross national product (GNP) as ODA to developing countries".
The US consistently opposed setting specific foreign-aid targets
UN General Assembly
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
The Australian government committed to providing 0.5% of GNI in International Development Assistance by 2015-2016.
REVIEW SUMMIT 2010
A major conference was held at
According to MDG Monitor, the target under MDG 3 "To eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005, and in all levels of education by 2015" was met.
However MDG monitor points out that while parity has been achieved across the developing world, there are regional and national differences favouring girls in some cases and boys in others. In secondary education in "Western Asia, Oceania, and sub-Saharan Africa, girls are still at a disadvantage, while the opposite is true in Latin America and the Caribbean – boys are at a disadvantage." Similarly in tertiary education there are disparities "at the expense of men in Northern Africa, Eastern Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean" while conversely they are "at the expense of women in Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa."
Improving living conditions in developing countries may encourage healthy workers not to move to other places that offer a better lifestyle.
POST 2015 DEVELOPMENT AGENDA
Although there has been major advancements and improvements achieving some of the MDGs even before the deadline of 2015, the progress has been uneven between the countries. In 2012 the UN Secretary-General established the "UN System Task Team on the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda", bringing together more than 60 UN agencies and international organizations to focus and work on sustainable development.
At the MDG Summit, UN Member States discussed the Post-2015 Development Agenda and initiated a process of consultations. Civil society organizations also engaged in the post-2015 process, along with academia and other research institutions, including think tanks.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have been proposed as targets relating to future international development once they expire at the end of 2015.
On 31 July 2012, Secretary-General
In 2014, the UN's Commission on the Status of Women agreed on a document that called for the acceleration of progress towards achieving the millennium development goals, and confirmed the need for a stand-alone goal on gender equality and women's empowerment in post-2015 goals, and for gender equality to underpin all of the post-2015 goals.
The United Nations Millennium Campaign is a UNDP campaign to increase support for the Millennium Development Goals. The Millennium Campaign targets intergovernmental, government, civil society organizations and media at global and regional levels.
The Millennium Promise Alliance, Inc. (or simply the "Millennium
Promise") is a U.S.-based non-profit organization founded in 2005 by
The Global Poverty Project is an international education and advocacy organisation that encourages MC support in English-speaking countries.
The Micah Challenge is an international campaign that encourages Christians to support the Millennium Development Goals. Their aim is to "encourage our leaders to halve global poverty by 2015".
The Youth in Action EU Programme "Cartoons in Action" project created animated videos about MDGs, and videos about MDG targets using Arcade C64 videogames.
The World We Want 2015 is a platform and joint venture between the
Accessing Development Education is a web portal. It provides relevant information about development and global education and helps educators share resources and materials that are most suitable for their work.
The Teach MDGs European project aims to increase MDG awareness and public support by engaging teacher training institutes, teachers and pupils in developing local teaching resources that promote the MDGs with a focus on sub-Saharan Africa.
Global Education Magazine is an initiative launched by the teaching
team that formulated the proposal most voted in the group "Sustainable
Development for the Eradication of Poverty in
Rio+20 ". It is
UN Goals is a global project dedicated to spreading knowledge of MDG through various internet and offline awareness campaigns.
LIBRARIES AND THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
Librarians and others in the information professions are in a unique position to help achieve the Millennium Development Goals. It is often the dissemination of key information, e.g., about health, that changes daily life and can affect an entire community.
Millennium Development Goals
Albright and Kwooya (2007) report that cultural and financial barriers in Sub-Saharan Africa impede LIS education programs. As a result, MDG goals for poverty, healthcare, and education fall short. High rates of HIV/AIDS, and escalating child and maternal mortality are the direct result of poverty and substandard medical care. Limited instruction in information access and exchange contributes to this ongoing dilemma.
* 8 (2008), a series of eight short films about the eight MDGs
Declaration of Human Duties and Responsibilities
* ^ ,
* Official website * One page chart of the