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MIDDLE PERSIAN is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran
Iran
that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well. Middle Persian
Middle Persian
is classified as a Western Iranian language . It descends from Old Persian and is the linguistic ancestor of Modern Persian .

Traces of Middle Persian, or Parsik, are found in remnants of Sasanian inscriptions and Egyptian papyri , coins and seals, fragments of Manichaean writings, and treatises and Zoroastrian books from the Sasanian era, as well as in the post-Sasanian Zoroastrian variant of the language sometimes known as PAHLAVI, which originally referred to the Pahlavi scripts , and that was also the preferred writing system for several other Middle Iranian languages. Aside from the Aramaic alphabet -derived Pahlavi script, Zoroastrian Middle Persian
Middle Persian
was occasionally also written in Pazend , a system derived from the Avestan alphabet that, unlike Pahlavi, indicated vowels and did not employ logograms . Manichaean Middle Persian
Middle Persian
texts were written in the Manichaean alphabet , which also derives from Aramaic but in an Eastern Iranian form via the Sogdian alphabet .

CONTENTS

* 1 Name * 2 Transition from Old Persian * 3 Transition to New Persian * 4 Surviving literature

* 5 Samples

* 5.1 Poetry * 5.2 Other sample texts

* 6 Vocabulary

* 6.1 Affixes * 6.2 Location suffixes * 6.3 Comparison of Middle Persian
Middle Persian
and Modern Persian vocabulary * 6.4 Middle Persian
Middle Persian
loanwords in other languages * 6.5 Comparison of Middle Persian
Middle Persian
and Modern Persian names

* 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Sources

NAME

"Middle Iranian" refers to several languages and dialects. One of these is called "Pahlavi" (_Pahlavīk_), literally meaning "Parthian ", the native language of the Parthian Empire . Another variant is _Pārsīk_, the native language of Pars , and later official language of the Sasanian Empire. Previously, the languages of the Parthians and the Persians were thought to be identical, and therefore both were referred to as "Pahlavi". Currently the scholars use the term "Pahlavi" to refer to the scripts used for these language only.

The word _Pārsīk_ (also _Pārsīg_) translates to "language of Pārs ". It consists of _Pārs_ (local name of the Persis province) + adjective suffix _-īk_ ("having to do with"; from Proto-Indo-European _-(i)ko_ and related to Greek _–ikos_, French _–ique_, Slavic _–isku_; e.g. _Āsōrik_ "Assyrian", etc.). The word is consequently the origin of the native name for the Modern Persian language—_Parsi or Fārsī_.

The ISO 639 language code for Middle Persian
Middle Persian
is _pal_, which reflects the post-Sasanian era use of the term Pahlavi to refer to the language and not only the script.

TRANSITION FROM OLD PERSIAN

History of the Persian language

PROTO-IRANIAN (c. 1500 BCE)

Western Iranian languages -------------------------

OLD PERSIAN (c. 525 – 300 BCE)

Old Persian cuneiform -------------------------

MIDDLE PERSIAN (c. 300 BCE – 800 CE)

Pahlavi scripts Manichaean alphabet Avestan alphabet -------------------------

MODERN PERSIAN (from 800)

Persian alphabet • Tajiki Cyrillic alphabet

In the classification of the Iranian languages, the Middle Period includes those languages which were common in Iran
Iran
from the fall of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
in the fourth century BCE up to the fall of the Sasanian Empire in the seventh century CE.

The most important and distinct development in the structure of Iranian languages of this period is the transformation from the synthetic form of the Old Period ( Old Persian and Avestan ) to an analytic form:

* nouns , pronouns , and adjectives lost their case inflections * prepositions were used to indicate the different roles of words. * many tenses began to be formed from a composite form

TRANSITION TO NEW PERSIAN

The modern-day descendant of Middle Persian
Middle Persian
is New Persian . The changes between late Middle and Early New Persian were very gradual, and in the 10th-11th centuries, Middle Persian
Middle Persian
texts were still intelligible to speakers of Early New Persian. However, there are definite differences that had taken place already by the 10th century:

* Sound changes, such as

* the dropping of unstressed initial vowels * the epenthesis of vowels in initial consonant clusters * the loss of -g when word final * change of initial w- to either b- or (gw- → g-)

* Changes in the verbal system, notably the loss of distinctive subjunctive and optative forms, and the increasing use of verbal prefixes to express verbal moods * Changes in the vocabulary, especially the substitution of a large number of Arabic loanwords for words of native or Aramaic origin * The substitution of Arabic script for Pahlavi script.

SURVIVING LITERATURE

_Pahlavi Middle Persian_ is the language of quite a large body of literature which details the traditions and prescriptions of Zoroastrianism , which was the state religion of Sasanian Iran
Iran
(224 to c. 650) before the Muslim conquest of Persia . The earliest texts in Zoroastrian Middle Persian
Middle Persian
were probably written down in late Sasanian times (6th–7th centuries), although they represent the codification of earlier oral tradition. However, most texts, including the translated versions of the Zoroastrian canon, date from the ninth to the 11th century, when Middle Persian
Middle Persian
had long ceased to be a spoken language, so they reflect the state of affairs in living Middle Persian only indirectly. The surviving manuscripts are usually 14th-century copies. Other, less abundantly attested varieties are _Manichaean Middle Persian_, used for a sizable amount of Manichaean religious writings, including many theological texts, homilies and hymns (3rd–9th, possibly 13th century), and the Middle Persian
Middle Persian
of the Church of the East , evidenced in the Pahlavi Psalter (7th century); these were used until the beginning of the second millennium in many places in Central Asia, including Turpan
Turpan
and even localities in South India
South India
. All three differ minimally from one another and indeed the less ambiguous and archaizing scripts of the latter two have helped to elucidate some aspects of the Sasanian-era pronunciation of the former.

SAMPLES

Below is transcription and translation of the first page of the facsimile known as _ Book of Arda Viraf _, originally written in a Pahlavi script.

_ _ pad nām ī yazdān

ēdōn gōwēnd kū ēw-bār ahlaw zardušt dēn ī padīrift andar gēhān rawāg be kard. tā bawandagīh sēsad sāl dēn andar abēzagīh ud mardōm andar abē-gumānīh būd hēnd. ud pas gizistag gannāg mēnōg druwand gumān kardan ī mardōmān pad ēn dēn rāy ān gizistag *alek/sandar ī *hrōmāyīg ī muzrāyīg-mānišn wiyāb/ānēnīd *ud pad garān sezd ud *nibard ud *wišēg ō ērān-šahr *frēstīd. u-š ōy ērān dahibed ōzad ud dar ud xwadāyīh wišuft ud awērān kard. ud ēn dēn čiyōn hamāg abestāg ud zand abar gāw pōstīhā ī wirāstag pad āb ī zarr nibištag andar staxr pābagān pad diz *nibišt nihād ēstād. ōy petyārag ī wad-baxt ī ahlomōγ ī druwand ī anāg-kardār *aleksandar hrōmāyīg mu/zrāyīg-mānišn abar āwurd ud be sōxt. In the name of God

Thus they have said that once the righteous Zoroaster accepted a religion, he established it in the world. After/Within the period of 300 years (the) religion remained in holiness and the people were in peace and without any doubt. But then, the sinful, corrupt and deceitful spirit, in order to cause people doubt this religion, illusioned/led astray that Alexander the Roman, resident of Egypt, and sent him to Iran
Iran
with much anger and violence. He murdered the ruler of Iran
Iran
and ruined court, and the religion, as all the Avesta and Zand (which were) written on the ox-hide and decorated with water-of-gold (gold leaves) and had been placed/kept in Stakhr of Papak in the 'citadel of the writings.' That wretched, ill-fated, heretic, evil/sinful Alexander, The Roman, who was dwelling in Egypt, and he burned them up.

POETRY

A sample Middle Persian
Middle Persian
poem from manuscript of Jamasp Asana:

ORIGINAL IN MIDDLE PERSIAN: Dārom andarz-ē az dānāgān Az guft-ī pēšēnīgān Ō šmāh bē wizārom Pad rāstīh andar gēhān Agar ēn az man padīrēd Bavēd sūd-ī dō gēhān NEAR LITERAL TRANSLATION INTO MODERN PERSIAN: Dāram andarz-ē az dānāyān دارم اندرزی از دانایان Az gufta-yi pēšēniyān از گفتهٔ پیشینیان Ba šumā be-gozāram به شما بگزارم Ba rāstī andar jahān به راستی اندر جهان agar īn az man pazīrēd اگر این از من پذیرد Buwad sūd-i dō jahān بوَد سود دو جهان TRANSLATION INTO ENGLISH: I have a counsel from the wise, from the advises of the ancients, I will pass it upon you By truth in the world If you accept this counsel It will be your benefits for this life and the next

OTHER SAMPLE TEXTS

Šābuhr šāhān šāh ī hormizdān hamāg kišwarīgān pad paykārišn yazdān āhang kard ud hamāg gōwišn ō uskār ud wizōyišn āwurd pas az bōxtan ī ādūrbād pad gōwišn ī passāxt abāg hamāg ōyšān jud-sardagān ud nask-ōšmurdān-iz ī jud-ristagān ēn-iz guft kū nūn ka-mān dēn pad stī dēn dīd kas-iz ag-dēnīh bē nē hilēm wēš abar tuxšāg tuxšēm ud ham gōnag kard.

Shapur , the king of kings, son of Hormizd , induced all countrymen to orient themselves to god by disputation, and put forth all oral traditions for consideration and examination. After the triumph of Ādurbād, through his declaration put to trial by ordeal (in disputation) with all those sectaries and heretics who recognized (studied) the Nasks, he made the following statement: ‘Now that we have gained an insight into the Religion in the worldly existence, we shall not tolerate anyone of false religion, and we shall be more zealous.

Andar xwadāyīh šābuhr ī ohrmazdān tāzīgān mad hēnd ušān xōrīg ī rudbār grift was sāl pad xwār tāzišn dāšt t šābuhr ō xwadāyīh mad oyšān tāzīgān spōxt ud šahr aziš stād ud was šāh tāzīgān ābaxšēnēd ud was maragīh.

During the rulership of Shapur , the son of Hormizd , the Arabs came; they took Xorig Rūdbār; for many years with contempt (they) rushed until Shapur came to rulership; he destroyed the Arabs and took the land and destroyed many Arab rulers and pulled out many number of shoulders.

VOCABULARY

AFFIXES

There are a number of affixes in Middle Persian
Middle Persian
that did not survive into Modern Persian:

MIDDLE PERSIAN ENGLISH OTHER INDO-EUROPEAN EXAMPLE(S)

_A-_ Privative prefix, un-, non-, not- Greek _a- _ (e.g. atom) _a-spās_ 'ungrateful', _a-bim_ 'fearless', _a-čār_ 'inevitable', _a-dād_ 'unjust'

_An-_ Prevocalic privative prefix, un-, non- English _-un_, German _ant-_ _an-ērān_ 'non-Iranian', _an-ast_ 'non-existent'

_-ik_ (_-ig_ in Late Middle Persian) Having to do with, having the nature of, made of, caused by, similar to English _-ic_, Latin
Latin
_-icus_, Greek _–ikos_, Slavic _-isku_ _Pārsīk_ 'Persian', _Āsōrik_ 'Assyrian', _Pahlavik_ 'Parthian', _Hrōmāyīk/Hrōmīk_ 'Byzantine, Roman', _Tāzīk_ 'Arab'

LOCATION SUFFIXES

MIDDLE PERSIAN OTHER INDO-EUROPEAN EXAMPLE(S)

_-gerd_ Russian _-grad_, German _-gart_ Mithradatgerd "Mithridates City", Susangerd (City of Susan), Darabgerd "Darius City", Bahramjerd "Bahram City", Dastgerd , Virugerd, Borujerd

_-vīl_ _-ville_, _villa_, _village_ in English/French, Italian _villaggio_ Ardabil "Holy City", Erbil , Kabul
Kabul
and Zabol

_-āpāt_ (later _-ābād_)

Ashkābād > Ashgabat "Land of Arsaces"

_-stān _ English _stead_ 'town', Russian _stan_ 'settlement', common root with Germanic _stand_ Tapurstan , Sakastan

COMPARISON OF MIDDLE PERSIAN AND MODERN PERSIAN VOCABULARY

There are a number of phonological differences between Middle Persian and New Persian. The long vowels of Middle Persian
Middle Persian
did not survive in many present-day dialects. Also, initial consonant clusters were very common in Middle Persian
Middle Persian
(e.g. سپاس SPās "thanks"). However, New Persian does not allow initial consonant clusters, whereas final consonant clusters are common (e.g. اسب aSB "horse").

EARLY MIDDLE PERSIAN ENGLISH EARLY NEW PERSIAN NOTES OTHER INDO-EUROPEAN

_Drōt_ Hello (lit. 'health') _Dōrūd_ (_درود_)

_Pat-drōt_ Goodbye _Bē dōrūd_ (_به درود_), later _bedrūd_ (_بدرود_)

_Spās_ Thanks _Sipās_ (_سپاس_)

PIE _speḱ-_

_Pat_ To, at, in, on _Bē_ (_به_)

_Hač_ From _Az_ (_از_)

_Šēr_1 Lion _Šēr_ (_شیر_) From Old Persian *_šagra_-. Preserved as Tajiki шер _šer_ and Kurdish (_شێر_) _šēr_

_Šīr_1 Milk _Šīr_ (_شیر_) From Old Persian *_*xšīra-_. Tajiki шир _šir_ and Kurdish (_šīr_, شیر) from PIE *_swēyd_-

_Āhsan_ Iron _Āhan_ (_آهن_) _Āsin_ (_آسِن_) in Kurdish German Eisen

_Arjat_ Silver Extinct

Latin
Latin
_argentum_ (French _argent_), Armenian _arsat_, Old Irish _airget_, PIE _h₂erǵn̥t_-, an n-stem

_Arž_ Silver coinage _Arj_ (_ارج_) 'value/worth' Same as _Arg_ (_АргЪ_) 'price' in Ossetian

_Ēvārak_ Evening Extinct in Modern Persian Survived as ēvār (ایوار) in Kurdish and Lurish

_Tāpstān_ (adjective for) summer تابستان Tābestān

_Hāmīn_ Summer Extinct Hāmīn has survived in Balochi , and Central Kurdish

_Stārak, Star_ Star _Setāre_ (_ستاره_)

Latin
Latin
_stella_, Old English _steorra_, Gothic _stairno_, Old Norse _stjarna_

_Fratom_ First Extinct Preserved as _pronin_ in Sangsari language _First_, _primary_, Greek _prim_

_Fratāg_ Tomorrow _Fardā_ (_فردا_) _Fra-_ 'towards' + _tāg_ 'light' Greek _pro-_, Lithuanian _pra_, etc.

German _tag_ 'day'

_Mūrt_ Died _Mōrd_ (_مرد_)

Latin
Latin
_morta_, English _murd-er_, Old Russian _mirtvu_, Lithuanian _mirtis_

_Rōč_ Day _Rūz_ (_روز_) From _rōšn_ 'light'. Kurdish _rōž_ (رۆژ), also preserved as _rōč_ (رُوچ) in Balochi Armenian _lois_ 'light', Latin
Latin
_lux_ 'light'

_Sāl_ Year _Sāl_ (_سال_)

Sanskrit _sarð_ 'year', Armenian _sārd_ 'sun', German _sonne_, Russian _solntsi_

_Mātar_ Mother _Mādar_ (مادر)

Latin
Latin
_māter_, Old Church Slavonic _mater_, Lithuanian _motina_

_Pētar_ Father _Pēdar_ (پدر)

Latin
Latin
_pater_ (Italian _padre_), Old High German _fater_

_Brātar_ Brother _Barādar_ (برادر)

Old Ch. Slavonic _brat(r)u_, Lithuanian _brolis_, Latin
Latin
_frāter_, Old Irish _brathair_, O. H. German _bruoder_

_Xāhar_ Sister _Xāhar_ (_خواهر_)

Armenian _khoyr_

_Dōxtar_ Daughter _Dōxtar_ (_دختر_)

Gothic _dauhtar_, O. H. German _tohter_, Old Prussian _duckti_, Armenian _dowstr_, Lithuanian _dukte_

_Ōhāy_ Yes _ārē_ (_آری_)

_Nē_ No _Na_ (_نه_)

1 Since many long vowels of Middle Persian
Middle Persian
did not survive, a number of homophones were created in New Persian. For example, _šir_ and _šer_, meaning "milk" and "lion", respectively, are now both pronounced _šir_. In this case, the correct pronunciation has been preserved in Kurdish and Tajiki.

MIDDLE PERSIAN LOANWORDS IN OTHER LANGUAGES

There is a number of Persian loanwords in English , many of which can be traced to Middle Persian. The lexicon of Classical Arabic also contains many borrowings from Middle Persian. In such borrowings Iranian consonants that sound foreign to Arabic, _g_, _č_, _p_, and _ž_, have been replaced by _q/k_, _j_, _š_, _f/b_, and _s/z_. Here is a parallel word list of such terms:

MIDDLE PERSIAN ENGLISH INDO-EUROPEAN COGNATES ARABIC BORROWING ENGLISH

_Srat_ Street Latin
Latin
_strata_ 'street', Welsh _srat_ 'plain'; from PIE root _stere-_ 'to spread, extend, stretch out' ( Avestan _star-_, Latin _sternere_, Old Church Slavonic _stira_) _Sirāt_ (_صراط_) Path

_Tarjōmak_ Translation French _traduction_, Italian _traduzione_, Greek _dragomanos_; from PIE root _tra-_ 'to across, over, beyond' _Tarjama_ (_ترجمة_) Translation

_Burg_ Tower Germanic _burg_ 'castle' or 'fort' _Burj_ (_برج_) Tower

_A-sar_; _A-_ (negation prefix) + _sar_ (end, beginning) Infinite, endless _A-_ prefix in Greek; Sanskrit _siras_, Hittite _harsar_ 'head' _Azal_ (_أزل_) Infinite

_A-pad_; _a-_ (prefix of negation) + _pad_ (end) Infinity - _Abad_ (_أبد_) Infinity, forever

_Dēn_ (from Avestan _daena_) Religion

_Dīn_ (_دين_) Religion

_Bōstān_ (_bō_ 'aroma, scent' + _-stan_ place-name element) Garden

_Bust_ān'

(_بستان_)Garden

_Čarāg_ Lamp

_Sirāj_ (_سراج_) Lamp

_Tag_ Crown, tiara

_T_ā_j_ (_تاج_) Crown

_Pargār_ Compass

_Firjār_ (_فرجار_) Compass (drawing tool)

_Ravāg_ Current

_Rawāj_ (_رواج_) Popularity

_Ravāk_ (older form of _ravāg_; from the root _rav_ (v. _raftan_) 'to go') Current

_Riwāq_ (_رواق_) Place of passage, corridor

_Gund_ Army, troop

_Jund_ (_جند_) Army

_Šalwār_ Trousers

_Sirwāl_ (_سروال_) Trousers

_Rōstāk_ Village, district, province

_Ruzdāq_ (_رزداق_) Village

_Zar-parān_ Saffron

_zaʿfarān_ (_زعفران_) Saffron

COMPARISON OF MIDDLE PERSIAN AND MODERN PERSIAN NAMES

MIDDLE PERSIAN NEW PERSIAN OLD PERSIAN ENGLISH

Anāhid Nāhid Anāhitā Anahita
Anahita

Artaxšēr Ardašir Artaxšatra Artaxerxes

Mitr Mehr Mithra Mithra

Rokhsāna Roksāne Rokh-šwana Roxana

Pāpak Bābak

Āleksandar, Sukandar Eskandar

Alexander the Great

Pērōz Pīruz Pērōč

Mithradāt Mehrdād

Mithridates

Borān Borān

Borān

Husraw, Xusraw Khosrow

Chosroes

Zaratu(x)št Zartōšt Zartušt Zoroaster

Ōhrmazd Hormizd Ahura Mazda Ahura Mazda , astr. Jupiter
Jupiter

_ MIDDLE PERSIAN TEST _ of at Wikimedia Incubator

SEE ALSO

* Avestan * Old Persian * Parthian language * Persian language * Persian language#History * Middle Persian literature

REFERENCES

* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Pahlavi". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Linguist List - Description of Pehlevi". Detroit: Eastern Michigan University. 2007. * ^ See also Omniglot.com\'s page on Middle Persian
Middle Persian
scripts * ^ Spooner, Brian ; Hanaway, William L. (2012). _Literacy in the Persianate World: Writing and the Social Order_. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 1-934536-56-3 . , p. 14. * ^ Strazny, P. (2005). Encyclopedia of Linguistics (p. 325). New York: Fitzroy Dearborn. * ^ Joneidi, F. (n.d.). (Pahlavi Language and Script: Sassanid and Arsacid) نامه پهلواني خودآموز زبان پهلوي (p. 24). Balkh (نشر بلخ). * ^ Joneidi, F. (n.d.). (Pahlavi Language and Script: Sassanid and Arsacid) نامه پهلواني خودآموز زبان پهلوي (p. 231). Balkh (نشر بلخ), -ik adjective-forming element (ایک،ای، پسوند نسبت: _ ) * ^ "-ic". Etymology Online_. Retrieved 12 December 2015. * ^ Sundermann, Werner. 1989. Mittelpersisch. P. 141. In _Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum_ (ed. Rüdiger Schmidt). * ^ Sundermann, Werner. 1989. Mittelpersisch. P. 138. In _Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum_ (ed. Rüdiger Schmidt). * ^ Sundermann, Werner. 1989. Mittelpersisch. P. 143. In _Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum_ (ed. Rüdiger Schmidt). * ^ R. Mehri\'s Parsik/Pahlavi Web page (archived copy) at the Internet Archive * ^ Joneidi, F. (1966). Pahlavi Script and Language (Arsacid and Sassanid) نامه پهلوانی: آموزش خط و زبان پهلوی اشکانی و ساسانی (p. 54). Balkh (نشر بلخ). * ^ David Neil MacKenzie (1971). _A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary_. London: Oxford University Press. * ^ Joneidi, F. (1972). The Story of Iran. First Book: Beginning of Time to Dormancy of Mount Damavand (داستان ایران بر بنیاد گفتارهای ایرانی، دفتر نخست: از آغاز تا خاموشی دماوند). * ^ Strazny, P. (2005). Encyclopedia of linguistics (p. 325). New York: Fitzroy Dearborn. * ^ Mackenzie, D. N. (2014). _A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary_. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-61396-8 . * ^ "ARABIC LANGUAGE ii. Iranian loanwords in Arabic". _Encyclopædia Iranica_. 15 December 1986. Retrieved 31 December 2015.

* ^ Joneidi, F. (1965). Dictionary of Pahlavi Ideograms (فرهنگ هزوارش هاي دبيره پهلوي) (p. 8). Balkh (نشر بلخ).

SOURCES

* _Lessons in Pahlavi-Pazend_ by S.D.Bharuchī and E.S.D.Bharucha (1908) at the Internet Archive - Part 1 and 2 * Middle Persian
Middle Persian
texts on TITUS * Scholar Raham Asha\'s website, including many Middle Persian
Middle Persian
texts in original and translation * An organization promoting the revival of Middle Persian
Middle Persian
as a literary and spoken language (contains a grammar and lessons) * Edward Thomas (1868). _Early Sassanian inscriptions, seals and coins_. Trübner. p. 137. Retrieved 2011-07-05.

* v * t * e

Persian language

HISTORY

* Old Persian * Middle Persian * Modern Persian

DIALECTS AND VARIETIES

* Western (_Iranian_) * Dari (_Afghan_) * Tajik * `imi (Kuwaiti) * Hazaragi * Tat * Aimaq * Judeo-Persian (_Dzhidi_) * Judeo-Tat (_Juhuri_) * Judeo-Tajik (_Bukhori_)

LANGUAGE FEATURES

* Vocabulary

* Nouns * Verbs

* Phonology

GRAMMAR

* Standard New Persian * Central Asian Persian

WRITING SYSTEMS

* Old Persian cuneiform * Pahlavi scripts

* Persian alphabet

* Persian calligraphy

* Tajik alphabet

* Romanized Persian alphabet

* Fingilish

* Persian Braille

LITERATURE

* Persian literature * Middle Persian literature * Tajik literature

* v * t * e

Persian literature

OLD

* Behistun Inscription * Old Persian inscriptions * Ganjnameh * Inscription of Xerxes the Great in Van Fortress
Van Fortress
* Achaemenid inscription in the Kharg Island

MIDDLE

* Ayadgar-i Zariran * Counsels of Adurbad-e Mahrspandan * Dēnkard * Book of Jamasp * Book of Arda Viraf * Karnamak-i Artaxshir-i Papakan * Cube of Zoroaster * Dana-i Menog Khrat * Shabuhragan of Mani * Shahrestanha-ye Eranshahr * Bundahishn * Menog-i Khrad * Jamasp Namag * Dadestan-i Denig * Anthology of Zadspram * Warshtmansr * Zand-i Wahman yasn * Drakht-i Asurig * Shikand-gumanig Vizar

CLASSICAL

900S

* Rudaki
Rudaki
* Abu-Mansur Daqiqi * Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
( Shahnameh
Shahnameh
) * Abu Shakur Balkhi * Abu Tahir Khosrovani * Shahid Balkhi * Bal\'ami * Rabia Balkhi * Abusaeid Abolkheir (967–1049) * Avicenna (980–1037) * Unsuri * Asjadi * Kisai Marvazi * Ayyuqi

1000S

* Bābā Tāher * Nasir Khusraw (1004–1088) * Al-Ghazali (1058–1111) * Khwaja Abdullah Ansari (1006–1088) * Asadi Tusi * Qatran Tabrizi (1009–1072) * Nizam al-Mulk (1018–1092) * Masud Sa\'d Salman (1046–1121) * Moezi Neyshapuri * Omar Khayyām (1048–1131) * Fakhruddin As\'ad Gurgani * Ahmad Ghazali * Hujwiri * Manuchehri * Ayn-al-Quzat Hamadani (1098–1131) * Uthman Mukhtari * Abu-al-Faraj Runi * Sanai * Banu Goshasp * Borzu-Nama * Afdal al-Din Kashani * Abu\'l Hasan Mihyar al-Daylami * Mu\'izzi * Mahsati
Mahsati
Ganjavi

1100S

* Hakim Iranshah * Suzani Samarqandi * Hassan Ghaznavi * Faramarz Nama * Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi (1155–1191) * Adib Sabir * Falaki Shirvani * Am\'aq * Najm al-Din Razi * Attār (1142–c. 1220) * Khaghani (1120–1190) * Anvari (1126–1189) * Faramarz-e Khodadad * Nizami Ganjavi
Nizami Ganjavi
(1141–1209) * Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) * Kamal al-din Esfahani * Shams Tabrizi
Shams Tabrizi
(d.1248)

1200S

* Abu Tahir Tarsusi * Awhadi Maraghai * Shams al-Din Qays Razi * Sultan Walad * Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī * Afdal al-Din Kashani * Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi * Mahmud Shabistari (1288–1320s) * Abu\'l Majd Tabrizi * Amir Khusro
Amir Khusro
(1253–1325) * Saadi (Bustan / Golestān ) * Bahram-e-Pazhdo * Pur-Baha Jami * Zartosht Bahram e Pazhdo * Rumi
Rumi
* Homam Tabrizi (1238–1314) * Nozhat al-Majales * Khwaju Kermani
Khwaju Kermani
* Sultan Walad

1300S

* Ibn Yamin * Shah Ni\'matullah Wali * Hafez
Hafez
* Abu Ali Qalandar * Fazlallah Astarabadi * Nasimi
Nasimi
* Emad al-Din Faqih Kermani

1400S

* Ubayd Zakani * Salman Sawaji * Hatefi * Jami
Jami
* Kamal Khujandi * Ahli Shirzi (1454–1535) * Fuzûlî (1483–1556) * Ismail I (1487–1524) * Baba Faghani Shirzani

1500S

* Vahshi Bafqi (1523–1583) * \ 'Orfi Shirazi

1600S

* Taleb Amoli * Saib Tabrizi (1607–1670) * Kalim Kashani * Hazin Lāhiji (1692–1766) * Saba Kashani * Bidel Dehlavi (1642–1720)

1700S

* Neshat Esfahani * Abbas Foroughi Bastami (1798–1857)

1800S

* Mahmud Saba Kashani (1813–1893)

CONTEMPORARY

POETRY

IRAN

* Ahmadreza Ahmadi * Mehdi Akhavan-Sales * Hormoz Alipour * Qeysar Aminpour * Aref Qazvini * Manouchehr Atashi * Mahmoud Mosharraf Azad Tehrani * Mohammad-Taqi Bahar * Reza Baraheni * Simin Behbahani * Dehkhoda * Hushang Ebtehaj
Hushang Ebtehaj
* Bijan Elahi * Parviz Eslampour * Parvin E\'tesami * Forough Farrokhzad
Forough Farrokhzad
* Hossein Monzavi * Hushang Irani * Iraj Mirza
Iraj Mirza
* Bijan Jalali * Siavash Kasraie * Esmail Khoi * Shams Langeroodi * Mohammad Mokhtari * Nosrat Rahmani * Yadollah Royaee * Tahereh Saffarzadeh * Sohrab Sepehri * Mohammad-Reza Shafiei Kadkani * Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar * Ahmad Shamlou * Manouchehr Sheybani * Nima Yooshij * Fereydoon Moshiri * Rasoul Yunan

ARMENIA

* Edward Haghverdian

AFGHANISTAN

* Nadia Anjuman * Wasef Bakhtari * Raziq Faani * Khalilullah Khalili * Youssof Kohzad * Massoud Nawabi * Abdul Ali Mustaghni

TAJIKISTAN

* Sadriddin Ayni
Sadriddin Ayni
* Farzona * Iskandar Khatloni * Abolqasem Lahouti * Gulrukhsor Safieva * Loiq Sher-Ali * Payrav Sulaymoni * Mirzo Tursunzoda

UZBEKISTAN

* Asad Gulzoda
Asad Gulzoda

PAKISTAN

* Muhammad Iqbal

NOVELS

* Ali Mohammad Afghani * Ghazaleh Alizadeh * Bozorg Alavi * Reza Amirkhani * Mahshid Amirshahi * Reza Baraheni * Simin Daneshvar * Mahmoud Dowlatabadi * Reza Ghassemi * Houshang Golshiri * Aboutorab Khosravi * Ahmad Mahmoud * Shahriyar Mandanipour * Abbas Maroufi * Iraj Pezeshkzad

SHORT STORIES

* Jalal Al-e-Ahmad * Shamim Bahar * Sadeq Chubak * Simin Daneshvar * Nader Ebrahimi * Ebrahim Golestan * Houshang Golshiri * Sadegh Hedayat * Mohammad-Ali Jamalzadeh * Aboutorab Khosravi * Mostafa Mastoor * Jaafar Modarres-Sadeghi * Houshang Moradi Kermani
Houshang Moradi Kermani
* Bijan Najdi * Shahrnush Parsipur * Gholam-Hossein Sa\'edi * Bahram Sadeghi * Goli Taraqqi

PLAYS

* Reza Abdoh * Mirza Fatali Akhundzadeh * Hamid Amjad * Bahram Beyzai
Bahram Beyzai
* Mohammad Charmshir * Alireza Koushk Jalali * Hadi Marzban * Bijan Mofid * Hengameh Mofid * Abbas Nalbandian * Akbar Radi * Pari Saberi * Mohammad Yaghoubi

SCREENPLAYS

* Saeed Aghighi * Rakhshan Bani-E\'temad * Bahram Beyzai
Bahram Beyzai
* Hajir Darioush * Pouran Derakhshandeh * Asghar Farhadi * Bahman Farmanara * Farrokh Ghaffari * Behrouz Gharibpour * Bahman Ghobadi * Fereydun Gole * Ebrahim Golestan * Ali Hatami * Abolfazl Jalili * Ebrahim Hatamikia * Abdolreza Kahani * Varuzh Karim-Masihi * Samuel Khachikian * Abbas Kiarostami * David Mahmoudieh * Majid Majidi
Majid Majidi
* Mohsen Makhmalbaf * Dariush Mehrjui * Reza Mirkarimi * Rasoul Mollagholipour * Amir Naderi * Jafar Panahi * Kambuzia Partovi * Rasul Sadr Ameli
Rasul Sadr Ameli
* Mohammad Sadri * Parviz Shahbazi * Sohrab Shahid-Saless

TRANSLATORS

* Amrollah Abjadian * Jaleh Amouzgar * Najaf Daryabandari * Behzad Ghaderi Sohi * Mohammad Ghazi * Lili Golestan * Sadegh Hedayat * Saleh Hosseini * Ahmad Kamyabi Mask
Ahmad Kamyabi Mask
* Mohammad Moin * Ebrahim Pourdavoud * Hamid Samandarian * Jalal Sattari * Jafar Shahidi * Ahmad Shamlou * Ahmad Tafazzoli * Abbas Zaryab

ESSAYISTS

* Aydin Aghdashloo * Mohammad Ebrahim Bastani Parizi * Ehsan Yarshater
Ehsan Yarshater

Contemporary Persian and Classical Persian are the same language, but writers since 1900 are classified as contemporary. At one time, Persian was a common cultural language of much of the non-Arabic Islamic world. Today it is the official language of Iran
Iran
, Tajikistan and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
.

* v * t * e

Indo-Iranian languages

INDO-ARYAN (INDIC)

OLD / MIDDLE

OLD

* Vedic

* Sanskrit

* Classical * Buddhist

* Mitanni-Aryan

MIDDLE

* Abahatta * Apabhraṃśa

* Dramatic Prakrits

* Magadhi * Maharashtri * Shauraseni

* Elu * Gāndhārī * Paisaci * Pāli * Prakrit

MODERN

CENTRAL

HINDI

* Awadhi * Bagheli * Bhojpuri * Bombay Hindi * Braj Bhasha * Bundeli * Caribbean Hindi * Chhattisgarhi * Fiji Hindi * Haflong Hindi * Haryanvi * Kannauji * Khari Boli * Sansi Boli

URDU

* Dakhini
Dakhini
* Hyderabadi Urdu
Urdu
* Rekhta (early form)

OTHERS

* Danwar * Parya

EASTERN

BENGALI–ASSAMESE

* Assamese * Bengali * Bishnupriya Manipuri * Chakma * Chittagonian * Hajong * Kayort * Kharia Thar * Nahari * Rajbanshi * Rohingya * Sylheti

BIHARI

* Angika * Vajjika * Magahi * Maithili * Majhi * Sadri

ODIA

* Halbi * Odia

OTHERS

* Mal Paharia

NORTHERN

* Garhwali * Kumaoni

* Nepali

* Palpa

North western

* Aer * Dogri * Hindko * Kangri * Kutchi * Punjabi * Sindhi * Saraiki

SOUTHERN

MARATHI–KONKANI

* Konkani * Marathi

INSULAR

* Maldivian * Sinhala

WESTERN

BHIL

* Bhili * Gamit

RAJASTHANI

* Bagri * Goaria * Gojri * Jaipuri * Malvi * Marwari * Mewari * Dhatki (sociolect)

OTHERS

* Domari * Gujarati * Kalto * Khandeshi * Parkari Koli * Romani * Saurashtra

OTHERS

DARDIC

* Dameli * Domaaki * Gawar-Bati * Kalami * Kalash * Kashmiri * Khowar * Kohistani * Nangalami * Palula * Pashayi * Shina * Shumashti * Torwali * Ushoji

IRANIAN

OLD / MIDDLE

OLD

WESTERN

* Old Persian * Median

EASTERN

* _ Avestan _ * _Old Scythian _

MIDDLE

WESTERN

* Middle Persian * _Parthian _

EASTERN

* _Bactrian _ * _Khwarezmian _

* Ossetic

* _Jassic _

* Sakan (Sacian) * Scythian * Sogdian

MODERN

NORTH

* _Old Azari _ * Balochi * Central Iran
Iran
* Zoroastrian Dari * Fars * Gilaki * Gorani

* Kurdic

* Sorani * Kurmanji * Southern group

* Mazandarani * Semnani * Taleshi * Deilami * Tati * Zazaki

EASTERN

PAMIR

* Ishkashimi * Sanglechi * Wakhi * Munji * Yidgha * Vanji * Yazghulami * Shughni * Roshani * Khufi * Bartangi * Sarikoli

OTHERS

* Ossetian

* Digor * Iron

* Pashto

* Central Pashto * Northern Pashto * Southern Pashto * Wanetsi

* Yaghnobi * Ormuri * Parachi

WESTERN

SOUTH

* Persian

* Caucasian Tat * Dari * Tajik

* Luri

* Feyli * Bakhtiari * Laki * Kumzari

* Larestani * Bashkardi

OTHER INDO-IRANIAN LANGUAGES

NURISTANI

KAMKATA-VIRI

* Kamviri * Kata-vari * Mumviri

OTHERS

* Askunu * Kalasha-ala * Kamkata-viri * Tregami * Vasi-vari

_Italics_ indicate extinct languages .

* v * t * e

Ancient Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia

GEOGRAPHY

MODERN

* Euphrates
Euphrates
* Upper Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
* Mesopotamian Marshes * Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
* Syrian Desert * Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains
* Tigris
Tigris
* Zagros Mountains

ANCIENT

* Akkad * Assyria
Assyria
* Babylonia
Babylonia
* Chaldea * Elam * Hittites * Media * Mitanni * Sumer
Sumer
* Urartu * Cities

HISTORY

PRE- / PROTOHISTORY

* Acheulean * Mousterian * Trialetian * Zarzian * Natufian * Nemrikian * Khiamian * Pre-Pottery Neolithic A
Pre-Pottery Neolithic A
(PPNA) * Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) * Hassuna /Samarra * Halaf * Ubaid * Uruk * Jemdet Nasr * Kish civilization

HISTORY

* Early Dynastic * Akkadian
Akkadian
* Ur III * Old Babylonian * Kassite * Neo-Assyrian * Neo-Babylonian * Achaemenid * Seleucid * Parthian * Roman * Sasanian * Muslim conquest * Timeline of the Assyrian Empire

LANGUAGES

* Akkadian
Akkadian
* Amorite * Aramaic * Eblaite * Elamite * Gutian * Hittite * Hurrian * Luwian * Middle Persian * Old Persian * Parthian * Proto-Armenian * Sumerian * Urartian

CULTURE / SOCIETY

* Architecture * Art * Cuneiform script * Akkadian
Akkadian
literature * Sumerian literature
Sumerian literature
* Music * Religion

ARCHAEOLOGY

* Looting * Destruction by ISIL * Tell

PORTAL

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Links: ------ /wiki/Iranian_languages#Middle_Iranian_languages /wiki/Ethnolect /wiki/Sasanian_Empire /wiki/Prestige_(sociolinguistics) /wiki/Western_Iranian_languages /wiki/Old_Persian /wiki/Persian_language#Modern_Persian /wiki/Papyrus /wiki/Pahlavi_scripts /#cite_note-LLDescrip-2 /#cite_note-3 /wiki/Aramaic_alphabet /#cite_note-4 /wiki/Pazend /wiki/Avestan_alphabet /wiki/Logogram /wiki/Manichaean_alphabet /wiki/Sogdian_alphabet /#Name /#Transition_from_Old_Persian /#Transition_to_New_Persian /#Surviving_literature /#Samples /#Poetry /#Other_sample_texts /#Vocabulary /#Affixes /#Location_suffixes /#Comparison_of_Middle_Persian_and_Modern_Persian_vocabulary /#Middle_Persian_loanwords_in_other_languages /#Comparison_of_Middle_Persian_and_Modern_Persian_names /#See_also /#References /#Sources /W/INDEX.PHP?TITLE=MIDDLE_PERSIAN&ACTION=EDIT&SECTION=1 /wiki/Parthian_language /wiki/Parthian_Empire /wiki/Pars_(Sasanian_province) /wiki/Pahlavi_scripts /wiki/Pars_(Sasanian_province) /#cite_note-linguistics-5 /#cite_note-6

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