ListMoto - Michael Dukakis

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Michael Stanley Dukakis (/dʊˈkɑːkɪs/; born November 3, 1933) is an American former politician who served as the 65th Governor of Massachusetts, from 1975 to 1979 and again from 1983 to 1991. He is the longest-serving governor in Massachusetts
history and only the second Greek-American governor in U.S. history, after Spiro Agnew. He was nominated by the Democratic Party for president in the 1988 election, losing to the Republican candidate, Vice President George H. W. Bush. Born in Brookline, Massachusetts
Brookline, Massachusetts
to Greek and Aromanian immigrants, Dukakis attended Swarthmore College
Swarthmore College
before enlisting in the United States Army. After graduating from Harvard Law School, he won election to the Massachusetts
House of Representatives, serving from 1963 to 1971. He won the 1974 Massachusetts
gubernatorial election but lost his 1978 bid for re-nomination to Edward J. King. He defeated King in the 1982 gubernatorial primary and served as governor from 1983 to 1991, presiding over a period of economic growth known as the " Massachusetts
Miracle". Building on his popularity as governor, Dukakis sought the Democratic presidential nomination for the 1988 presidential election. He prevailed in the Democratic primaries and was formally nominated at the 1988 Democratic National Convention. Dukakis chose Senator Lloyd Bentsen of Texas as his running mate, while the Republicans nominated a ticket consisting of George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
and Senator Dan Quayle. Dukakis lost the election, carrying only ten states and Washington, D.C., but he improved on the Democratic performance in the previous two elections. After the election, Dukakis announced that he would not seek another term as governor, and he left office in 1991. Since leaving office, Dukakis has served on the board of directors for Amtrak
and has taught political science at Northeastern University
Northeastern University
and UCLA. He was mentioned as a potential appointee to the Senate in 2009 to fill the vacancy caused by Ted Kennedy's death, but Governor Deval Patrick chose Paul G. Kirk. In 2012, Dukakis backed the successful Senate campaign of Elizabeth Warren.


1 Early life and education 2 Massachusetts

2.1 First governorship (1975–1979)

2.1.1 Cabinet

2.2 Second governorship (1983–1991)

2.2.1 Cabinet

3 1988 presidential campaign

3.1 Crime 3.2 Tank photograph 3.3 Outcome

4 After the presidential run 5 Electoral history 6 Family 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Early life and education[edit]

Dukakis off duty at a gun emplacement overlooking UN Command Military Armistice Commission base camp at Munsan-ni Korea 1956.

Dukakis was born in Brookline, Massachusetts. His father Panos (1896–1979) was a Greek immigrant from Adramyttion (Edremit),[2] in Asia Minor, which was then part of the Ottoman Empire. Panos Dukakis settled in Lowell, Massachusetts, in 1912, and graduated from Harvard Medical School twelve years later, subsequently working as an obstetrician. Dukakis' mother Euterpe (née Boukis; 1903–2003) was an Aromanian Greek immigrant from Larissa, in Thessaly;[3] she and her family emigrated to Haverhill, Massachusetts, in 1913.[4] Dukakis attended Brookline High School
Brookline High School
in his hometown,[5] where he was an honor student and a member of the basketball, baseball, tennis, and cross-country teams.[6] As a 17- year-old senior in high school, he ran the Boston Marathon.[7] He graduated from Swarthmore College
Swarthmore College
in 1955 with a B.A. in history. Although Dukakis had been accepted into Harvard Law School, he chose to enlist in the United States Army. After basic training at Fort Dix
Fort Dix
and advanced individual training at Camp Gordon, he was assigned as radio operator to the 8020th Administrative Unit in Munsan, South Korea. The unit was a support group to the United Nations
United Nations
delegation of the Military Armistice Commission[1][8][9] Dukakis served from 1955 to 1957. He then received his J.D. degree from Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School
in 1960. Dukakis is also an Eagle Scout and recipient of the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award
Distinguished Eagle Scout Award
from the Boy Scouts of America.[10] Dukakis began his political career as an elected Town Meeting Member in the town of Brookline.[11] Massachusetts
governor[edit] First governorship (1975–1979)[edit] Main article: Massachusetts
gubernatorial election, 1974 After serving four terms in the Massachusetts
House of Representatives between 1962 and 1970 (and winning the Democratic nomination for lieutenant governor in 1970[12]), Dukakis was elected governor in 1974, defeating the incumbent Republican Francis Sargent
Francis Sargent
during a period of fiscal crisis. Dukakis won in part by promising to be a "reformer" and pledging a "lead pipe guarantee" of no new taxes to balance the state budget. He would later reverse his position after taking office. He also pledged to dismantle the powerful Metropolitan District Commission (MDC), a bureaucratic enclave that served as home to hundreds of political patronage employees. The MDC managed state parks, reservoirs, and waterways, as well as the highways and roads abutting those waterways. In addition to its own police force, the MDC had its own maritime patrol force, and an enormous budget from the state, for which it provided minimal accounting. Dukakis' efforts to dismantle the MDC failed in the legislature, where the MDC had many powerful supporters. As a result, the MDC would withhold its critical backing of Dukakis in the 1978 gubernatorial primary. Governor Dukakis hosted President Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
and Britain's Queen Elizabeth II during their visits to Boston in 1976 to commemorate the bicentennial of the United States.[citation needed] He gained some notice as the only politician in the state government who went to work during the Blizzard of 1978, during which he went to local TV studios in a sweater to announce emergency bulletins.[13] Dukakis is also remembered for his 1977 exoneration of Sacco and Vanzetti, two Italian anarchists whose trial sparked protests around the world. During his first term in office, Dukakis commuted the sentences of 21 first-degree murderers and 23 second-degree murderers. His first term performance proved to be insufficient to offset a backlash against the state's high sales and property tax rates, which turned out to be the predominant issue in the 1978 gubernatorial campaign. Dukakis, despite being the incumbent Democratic governor, was refused renomination by his own party. The state's Democratic Party chose to support Director of the Massachusetts
Port Authority Edward J. King
Edward J. King
in the primary, partly because King rode the wave against high property taxes, but more significantly because state Democratic Party leaders lost confidence in Dukakis' ability to govern effectively. King also enjoyed the support of the power brokers at the MDC, who were unhappy with Dukakis' attempts to dismantle their powerful bureaucracy. King also had support from state police and public employee unions. Dukakis suffered a scathing defeat in the primary, a disappointment that his wife Kitty called "a public death".[14] Cabinet[edit]

The First Dukakis Cabinet


Governor Michael Dukakis 1975–1979

Lt. Governor Thomas P. O'Neill III 1975–1979

Secretary of Transportation Frederick P. Salvucci 1975–1979

Secretary of Communities and Development William G. Flynn 1975–1979

Secretary of Environmental Affairs Evelyn Murphy 1975–1979

Secretary of Consumer Affairs Lola Dickerman Christine Sullivan 1975–1976 1976–1979

Secretary of Human Services Lucy W. Benson Jerald Stevens 1975–1975 1975–1979

Secretary of Elder Affairs James H. Callahan 1977–1979

Secretary of Administration & Finance John R. Buckley 1975–1979

Secretary of Public Safety Charles V. Barry 1975–1979

Secretary of Economic Affairs Howard N. Smith 1977–1979

Secretary of Energy Henry Lee 1975–1979

Second governorship (1983–1991)[edit] Main articles: Massachusetts
gubernatorial election, 1982 and Massachusetts
gubernatorial election, 1986 Four years later, having made peace with the state Democratic Party, MDC, the state police and public employee unions, Dukakis defeated King in a re-match in the 1982 Democratic primary. He went on to defeat his Republican opponent, John Winthrop
John Winthrop
Sears, in the November election. Future United States Senator, 2004 Democratic Presidential nominee, and US Secretary of State John Kerry
John Kerry
was elected lieutenant governor on the same ballot with Dukakis, and served in the Dukakis administration from 1983 to 1985. Dukakis served as governor during which time he presided over a high-tech boom and a period of prosperity in Massachusetts
while simultaneously earning a reputation as a 'technocrat'.[citation needed] The National Governors Association voted Dukakis the most effective governor in 1986. Residents of the city of Boston and its surrounding areas remember him for the improvements he made to Boston's mass transit system, especially major renovations to the city's trains and buses. He was known for riding the subway to work every day as governor.[15][16] In 1988, Dukakis and Rosabeth Moss Kanter, his economic adviser in the 1988 presidential elections, wrote a book entitled Creating the Future: the Massachusetts
Comeback and Its Promise for America, an examination of the Massachusetts
Miracle.[17][18] Cabinet[edit]

The Second Dukakis Cabinet


Governor Michael Dukakis 1983–1991

Lt. Governor John Kerry Evelyn Murphy 1983–1985 1987–1991

Secretary of Transportation Frederick P. Salvucci 1983–1991

Secretary of Communities and Development Amy S. Anthony 1983–1991

Secretary of Environmental Affairs James Hoyte John DeVillars 1983–1988 1988–1991

Secretary of Consumer Affairs Paula W. Gold Mary Ann Walsh 1983–1989 1989–1991

Secretary of Human Services Manuel C. Carballo Philip W. Johnston 1983–1984 1984–1991

Secretary of Elder Affairs

Richard H. Rowland Paul J. Lanzikos 1983–1987 1987–1991

Secretary of Labor Paul Eustace 1983–1991

Secretary of Administration & Finance Frank Keefe L. Edward Lashman 1983–1988 1988–1991

Secretary of Public Safety Charles V. Barry 1983–1991

Secretary of Economic Affairs Evelyn Murphy Joseph Alviani Grady Hedgespeth Alden S. Raine 1983–1986 1986–1989 1989–1989 1989–1991

Secretary of Energy Sharon Pollard


1988 presidential campaign[edit] Main articles: United States presidential election, 1988; Democratic Party presidential primaries, 1988; and Michael Dukakis
Michael Dukakis
presidential campaign, 1988

Michael Dukakis
Michael Dukakis
at a campaign rally in UCLA's Pauley Pavilion, the night before the US presidential election of 1988 (Mon, 7 Nov 1988).

Using the phenomenon termed the " Massachusetts
Miracle" to promote his campaign, Dukakis sought the Democratic Party nomination for President of the United States in the 1988 United States presidential election, prevailing over a primary field that included Jesse Jackson, Dick Gephardt, Paul Simon, Gary Hart, Joe Biden
Joe Biden
and Al Gore, among others. Touching on his immigrant roots, Dukakis used Neil Diamond's ode to immigrants, "America", as the theme song for his campaign. Composer John Williams
John Williams
wrote "Fanfare for Michael Dukakis" in 1988 at the request of Dukakis's father-in-law, Harry Ellis Dickson. The piece was premiered under the baton of Dickson (then the Associate Conductor of the Boston Pops) at that year's Democratic National Convention. Dukakis won the Democratic nomination, with 2,877 out of 4,105 delegates. He chose Senator Lloyd Bentsen
Lloyd Bentsen
of Texas to be his vice presidential running mate. Dukakis was pro-choice on the issue of abortion.[19] Dukakis had trouble with the personality that he projected to the voting public. His reserved and stoic nature was easily interpreted to be a lack of passion; Dukakis was often referred to as "Zorba the Clerk".[citation needed] Nevertheless, Dukakis is considered to have done well in the first presidential debate with George Bush,[citation needed] but in the second debate, his performance was poor and played to his reputation as being cold. During the campaign, Dukakis's mental health became an issue when he refused to release his full medical history and there were, according to The New York Times, "persistent suggestions" that he had undergone psychiatric treatment in the past.[20] The issue gained further traction after a White House press conference, during which President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
flippantly referred to Dukakis as an "invalid".[21] In the 2008 film Boogie Man: The Lee Atwater Story, journalist Robert Novak
Robert Novak
revealed that Republican strategist Lee Atwater
Lee Atwater
had personally tried to get him to spread these mental health rumors.[22] Editors at The Washington Times contributed to these rumors when they ran a story headlined "Dukakis Kin Hints at Sessions," suggesting that a member of the Dukakis family had said "it is possible" that Dukakis saw a psychiatrist. A week later the reporter, Gene Grabowski, revealed that Times editors had taken the full quote out of context. The full quote was "It's possible, but I doubt it."[23] Dukakis' general election campaign was subject to several criticisms and gaffes on issues such as capital punishment, the pledge of allegiance in schools, and a photograph of Dukakis in a tank which was intended to portray him as a sound choice for Commander-in-chief
but which was widely perceived to have backfired. Like the allegations of psychiatric problems, these were vulnerabilities which Atwater identified and exploited. In 1991, shortly before his death from a brain tumor, Atwater apologized to Dukakis for the "naked cruelty" of the 1988 campaign.[24][25] Crime[edit] During the campaign, Vice President George H. W. Bush, the Republican nominee, criticized Dukakis for his traditionally liberal positions on many issues, calling him a "card-carrying member of the ACLU". Dukakis's support for a prison furlough program was a major election subject. During his first term as governor, he had vetoed a bill that would have stopped furloughs for first-degree murderers.[26] During his second term, that program resulted in the release of convicted murderer Willie Horton, who committed a rape and assault in Maryland after being furloughed.[27] George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
mentioned Horton by name in a speech in June 1988, and a conservative political action committee (PAC) affiliated with the Bush campaign, the National Security Political Action Committee, aired an ad entitled "Weekend Passes", which used a mug shot image of Horton. The Bush campaign refused to repudiate the ad. It was followed by a separate Bush campaign ad, "Revolving Door", criticizing Dukakis over the furlough program without mentioning Horton. The legislature canceled the program during Dukakis's last term. The issue of capital punishment came up in the October 13, 1988, debate between the two presidential nominees. Because she knew the Willie Horton
Willie Horton
issue would be brought up, Dukakis's campaign manager, Susan Estrich, had prepared with Michael Dukakis
Michael Dukakis
an answer highlighting the candidate's empathy for victims of crime, noting the beating of his father in a robbery and the death of his brother in a hit-and-run car accident.[28] However, when Bernard Shaw, the moderator of the debate, asked Dukakis, "Governor, if Kitty Dukakis [his wife] were raped and murdered, would you favor an irrevocable death penalty for the killer?" Dukakis replied, "No, I don't, and I think you know that I've opposed the death penalty during all of my life", and explained his stance. After the debate,[28] many observers felt Dukakis's answer lacked the passion one would expect of a person discussing a loved one's rape and death. Many–including Dukakis himself–believe this, in part, cost him the election, as his poll numbers dropped from 49% to 42% nationally that night.[citation needed] Other commentators thought the question itself was unfair, in that it injected an irrelevant emotional element into the discussion of a policy issue and forced the candidate to make a difficult choice, while others believed that Dukakis dwelled too much on post-mortem reflections about this incident while the election was still in play in a way that was too self-effacing to the point of appearing self-pitying and defeatist, which only served to demoralize his campaign and reinforce the image of him as a weak leader. Tank photograph[edit]

The photograph of Dukakis in an M1 Abrams
M1 Abrams
tank from the US presidential election of 1988.

Dukakis was criticized during the campaign for a perceived softness on defense issues, particularly the controversial "Star Wars" program, which he promised to weaken. In response to this, Dukakis orchestrated what would become the key image of his campaign, although it turned out quite differently from what he intended. On September 13, 1988 Dukakis visited the General Dynamics
General Dynamics
Land Systems plant in Sterling Heights, Michigan, to take part in a photo op in an M1 Abrams
M1 Abrams
tank. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Margaret Thatcher, had been photographed in a similar situation in 1986, riding in a Challenger tank while wearing a scarf.[29] Compared with Dukakis' results, Thatcher's picture was very successful and helped her reelection prospects.[30] Footage of Dukakis was used in television ads by the Bush campaign, as evidence that Dukakis would not make a good commander-in-chief, and "Dukakis in the tank" remains shorthand for backfired public relations outings.[31] Outcome[edit] The Dukakis/Bentsen ticket lost the election by a decisive margin in the Electoral College to George H.W. Bush
George H.W. Bush
and Dan Quayle, carrying only 10 states and the District of Columbia. Dukakis himself blamed his defeat on the time he spent doing gubernatorial work in Massachusetts
during the few weeks following the Democratic Convention.[citation needed] Many believed he should have been campaigning across the country. During this time, his 17-point lead in opinion polls completely disappeared, as his lack of visibility allowed Bush to define the issues of the campaign. Dukakis has since stated that the main reason he lost was his decision "not to respond to the Bush attack campaign, and in retrospect it was a pretty dumb decision".[32] Despite Dukakis's loss, his performance was a marked improvement over the previous two Democratic efforts. Dukakis made some strong showings in states that had voted for Republicans Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
and Gerald Ford. He managed to pull off a close win in New York which at the time was the second largest state in terms of electoral votes, he also scored victories in states like Rhode Island, Hawaii, and Dukakis's home state of Massachusetts; Walter Mondale
Walter Mondale
had lost all four, and since then, all three states have remained in the Democratic column for each subsequent presidential election. He swept Iowa, winning by 10 points in a state that had voted Republican in the last five presidential elections. He won 43% of the vote in Kansas, a surprising showing in the home state of 1936 Republican presidential nominee Alf Landon, Republican President Dwight Eisenhower, and future Republican nominee Bob Dole. In another surprising showing, he received 47% of the vote in South Dakota, while in Montana, Dukakis won 46% of the vote in a state that had voted over 60% Republican four years earlier.

The 1988 election with electoral votes by state.

Although Dukakis cut into the Republican hold in the Midwest, he failed to dent the emerging GOP stronghold in the South that had been forming since the end of World War II with a temporary reprieve with Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(along with future President and Southern Democrat Bill Clinton, albeit to a much lesser extent). He lost most of the South by a wide margin, with Bush's totals reaching around 60% in most states. He was able to hold Bush to 55% in Texas, though this was most likely due to Texan Lloyd Bentsen's presence on the ticket. He also carried most of the southern-central parishes of Louisiana, despite losing the state. He held onto the border state of West Virginia, and he captured 48% of the vote in Missouri. He also carried 41% in Oklahoma, a bigger share than any Democrat since Jimmy Carter.[citation needed] Dukakis won 41,809,476 votes in the popular vote. He also received 40% or more in Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, and Vermont. Overall, the 1988 election showed a marked improvement in the popular vote for the Democrats. While he lost the popular vote, Dukakis's margin of loss (7.8%) was narrower than Jimmy Carter's in 1980 (9.7%) or Walter Mondale's in 1984 (18.2%). In 2008, he reflected on his defeat during an interview with Katie Couric, in which he said he "owe[d] the American people an apology" because "if I had beaten the old man [i.e. George H. W. Bush], we never would have heard of the kid [i.e. George W. Bush], and we wouldn't be in this mess."[33] After the presidential run[edit]

Dukakis attending the 2012 Democratic National Convention

In early January 1989, Dukakis announced that he would not run for a fourth term. His final two years as governor were marked by increased criticism of his policies and significant tax increases to cover the economic effects of the U.S. economy's "soft landing" at the end of the 1980s and the recession of 1990. After the end of his term, he served on the board of directors for Amtrak, and became a professor of political science at Northeastern University, a visiting professor of political science at Loyola Marymount University, and visiting professor in the Department of Public Policy at the Luskin School of Public Affairs at UCLA.[34] Along with a number of other notable Greek-Americans, he is a founding member of The Next Generation Initiative: a leadership program aimed at getting students involved in public affairs. In November 2008, Northeastern named its Center for Urban and Regional Policy after Michael Dukakis
Michael Dukakis
and his wife Kitty.[35] In 2012 he worked to support the successful candidacy of fellow Democrat Elizabeth Warren
Elizabeth Warren
to the U.S. Senate. He has also been an advocate for effective public transportation and high-speed rail as a solution to automobile congestion and the lack of space at airports; and for extended learning time initiative in public schools.[36][37] In August 2009, the 75-year-old Dukakis was mentioned as one of two leading candidates as a possible interim successor to Ted Kennedy
Ted Kennedy
in the U.S. Senate, after Kennedy's death.[38][39] Instead, Gov. Patrick named Paul G. Kirk, the other leading candidate and favorite of the Kennedy family who promised not to run in the special election, to fill the seat.[40] Dukakis stated on January 31, 2014, that he was not in favor of an effort to rename South Station
South Station
as the "Gov. Michael S. Dukakis Transportation Center". He went on to state that he would not object to the naming of the as-yet unbuilt North-South Rail Link
North-South Rail Link
after him.[41] Electoral history[edit] Massachusetts
gubernatorial election, 1974[42]

Party Candidate Votes %

Democratic Michael Dukakis 992,284 53.50

Republican Francis W. Sargent 784,353 42.29

Democratic gubernatorial primary, 1978[43]

Party Candidate Votes %

Democratic Edward J. King 442,174 51.07

Democratic Michael Dukakis 365,417 42.21

Democratic Barbara Ackermann 58,220 6.72

Democratic gubernatorial primary, 1982[44]

Party Candidate Votes %

Democratic Michael Dukakis 631,911 53.50

Democratic Edward J. King 549,335 46.51

gubernatorial election, 1982[45]

Party Candidate Votes %

Democratic Michael Dukakis 1,219,109 59.48

Republican John Winthrop
John Winthrop
Sears 749,679 36.57

gubernatorial election, 1986[46]

Party Candidate Votes %

Democratic Michael Dukakis 1,157,786 68.75

Republican George Kariotis 525,364 31.20

1988 Democratic presidential primaries[47]

Party Candidate Votes %

Democratic Michael Dukakis 9,898,750 42.51

Democratic Jesse Jackson 6,788,991 29.15

Democratic Al Gore 3,185,806 13.68

Democratic Dick Gephardt 1,399,041 6.01

Democratic Paul M. Simon 1,082,960 4.65

Democratic Gary Hart 415,716 1.79

1988 Democratic National Convention[48]

Party Candidate Votes %

Democratic Michael Dukakis 2,877 70.09

Democratic Jesse Jackson 1,219 29.70

Democratic Richard H. Stallings 3 0.07

Democratic Joe Biden 2 0.05

Democratic Dick Gephardt 2 0.05

Democratic Lloyd Bentsen 1 0.02

Democratic Gary Hart 1 0.02

US presidential election, 1988
US presidential election, 1988
(Popular Vote)

Party Candidate Votes %

Republican George H. W. Bush 48,886,597 53.4

Democratic Michael Dukakis 41,809,476 45.6

US presidential election, 1988
US presidential election, 1988
(Electoral College)

Party Candidate Votes %

Republican George H. W. Bush 426 79

Democratic Michael Dukakis 111 21

Family[edit] Dukakis is married to Katharine D. (Kitty) Dukakis. They have three children: John, Andrea, and Kara. During the second presidential debate on October 13, 1988, in Los Angeles, Dukakis revealed that he and his wife had had another child, who died about 20 minutes after birth. Dukakis is the cousin of actress Olympia Dukakis.[49] The Dukakises continue to reside in the home that they bought in the early 1970s in Brookline, Massachusetts, where they both grew up, but live in Los Angeles during the winter while he teaches at UCLA.[50] See also[edit]

Michael Dukakis
Michael Dukakis
presidential campaign, 1988


^ a b "While Seeking Higher Rank, Dukakis Keeps Military Brass At Parade Rest - tribunedigital-chicagotribune". Articles.chicagotribune.com. 1988-10-09. Retrieved 2016-09-08.  ^ Charles C. Moskos (1989). Greek Americans: Struggle and Success (2nd ed.). Transaction Publishers. p. 176. ISBN 0-88738-778-0. Retrieved 2015-04-05.  ^ Bernard Weinraub (October 17, 1988). "Campaign Trail; Tapping Another Ethnic Group". The New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2008.  ^ "Euterpe Dukakis, mother of former Mass. governor, dies at 99". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. April 3, 2003.  ^ "Fanfares for Michael Dukakis", The New York Times, July 23, 1988. Retrieved February 5, 2008. "And then the candidate, once a trumpeter in the Brookline High School
Brookline High School
band, took the podium and performed his own Fanfare for the Common Man." ^ Ruttman, Larry (2005). Voices of Brookline. Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Peter E. Randall Publisher LLC. p. 195. ISBN 1-931807-39-6. Retrieved December 30, 2013.  ^ Quinn, Garrett. "Talking Trash with Mike Dukakis". Boston (November 2015).  ^ "Kitty and Michael Dukakis
Michael Dukakis
Biographies". Northeastern.edu. Retrieved 2016-09-08.  ^ Associated Press
Associated Press
Published: Aug. 29, 1988 12:00 a.m. (1988-08-29). "Dukakis' Military Service Uneventful, Say What Few Records Exist After Fire". Deseret News. Retrieved 2016-09-08.  ^ Townley, Alvin. Legacy of Honor: The Values and Influence of America's Eagle Scouts. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 192–196. ISBN 0-312-36653-1. Retrieved December 29, 2006.  ^ "Kitty and Michael Dukakis
Michael Dukakis
Biographies". Northeastern.edu. Retrieved 2015-04-05.  ^ "Michael S. Dukakis". Hri.org. 1933-11-03. Retrieved 2015-04-05.  ^ Peter J. Howe (February 3, 2008). "Have we learned anything?". The Boston Globe.  ^ Drogin, Bob (January 17, 1988). "An Enigma: For Dukakis, Key Is Voter Perception". Los Angeles Times.  ^ "Boston in transit war against uneasy riding". The New York Times. March 23, 1986.  ^ Michael Levenson (January 31, 2014). "Will there be a new Duke at South Station?". The Boston Globe.  ^ Butterfield, Fox (May 1, 1988)."What you see is what you get". The New York Times. Retrieved April 14, 2012. ^ Sheldrake, John (2003). Management theory. London: Thomson Learning. p. 231. ISBN 978-1-86152-963-3.  ^ Goldman, Ari L. (1988-09-07). "Dukakis's Ties to Orthodox Church Stay Warm Despite Abortion Stance". NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2015-04-05.  ^ "Dukakis Releases Medical Details To Stop Rumors on Mental Health", The New York Times, August 4, 1988. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6_krr3Zs0D8 ^ Boogie Man: The Lee Atwater
Lee Atwater
Story transcript, PBS, director: Stefan Forbes, 2008. ^ International, United Press (1988-08-13). "Reporter Quits in Dispute Over Dukakis Story". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2016-01-08.  ^ "Gravely Ill, Atwater Offers Apology". The New York Times. AP. January 13, 1991. Retrieved November 21, 2013.  ^ Dorothy Wickenden (May 5, 2008). "Going Positive". The New Yorker. Retrieved November 21, 2013.  ^ Oshinsky, David. "What Became of the Democrats", The New York Times (October 20, 1991): "In 1976 the state legislature passed a bill that would have ended the furloughs of first-degree murderers. Governor Dukakis, as the Edsalls point out, vetoed it. A strong advocate of prisoners' rights, he contended that the bill would 'cut the heart out of efforts at inmate rehabilitation.'" ^ Crime, Risk and Insecurity" ed. Tim Hope and Richard Sparks, p. 266 ^ a b Susan Estrich: "The Debates", Newsmax
September 2004 (copy at the Internet Archive) ^ "Radio4 - Today/The Fate of Tanks". BBC.co.uk. 2014-10-03. Retrieved 2015-04-05.  ^ [1] Archived August 1, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. ^ [2] Archived April 3, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Rizzo, John (2013-11-17). "Dukakis and the Tank - Josh King - POLITICO Magazine". Politico.com. Retrieved 2015-04-05.  ^ "Dukakis Defends Obama Campaign". CBS News.  ^ "[3]", Luskin School of Public Affairs Faculty Index, January 4, 2016. ^ "History of Dukakis Center". www.northeastern.edu. Retrieved 2018-01-24.  ^ "Make the school day a full day Archived April 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.", The Orange County Register, April 11, 2008. ^ Lehigh, Scot (August 21, 2009). "Who should fill Kennedy's seat?" – via The Boston Globe.  ^ Lehigh, Scot (August 21, 2009). "Who should fill Kennedy's seat?". The Boston Globe.  ^ "Kennedy successor to be appointed". BBC News Online. September 22, 2009. Retrieved May 12, 2010.  ^ "Paul Kirk to fill Kennedy's Senate seat". CNN. September 24, 2009. Retrieved May 12, 2010.  ^ Sweet, Laurel (January 31, 2014). " Michael Dukakis
Michael Dukakis
decries terminal honor?". Boston Herald.  ^ "MA Governor Race - Nov 05, 1974". Ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2015-04-05.  ^ "MA Governor - D Primary Race - Sep 19, 1978". Ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2015-04-05.  ^ "MA Governor - D Primary Race - Sep 14, 1982". Ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2015-04-05.  ^ "MA Governor Race - Nov 02, 1982". Ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2015-04-05.  ^ "MA Governor Race - Nov 04, 1986". Ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2015-04-05.  ^ "US President - D Primaries Race - Feb 01, 1988". Ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2015-04-05.  ^ "US President - D Convention Race - Jul 18, 1988". Ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2015-04-05.  ^ IMDb
— Biography for Michael Dukakis. Retrieved October 18, 2009. ^ "George Bush: Appointment of Katharine D. Dukakis as a Member of the United States Holocaust Memorial Council". Presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved 2015-04-05. 

Further reading[edit]

Carlson, Margaret (June 20, 1988). "A Tale of Two Childhoods". Time.  Ducat, Stephen J. (2004). The Wimp Factor: Gender Gaps, Holy Wars, and the Politics of Anxious Masculinity. Boston: Beacon Press. pp. 84–99. ISBN 0-8070-4344-3.  Nyhan, David (1988). The Duke: The Inside Story of a Political Phenomenon. Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-35454-6.  Ruttman, Larry (2005). Voices of Brookline. Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Peter E. Randall. pp. xvii–xx and 194–198. ISBN 1-931807-39-6. 

External links[edit]

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Michael Dukakis
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on IMDb Faculty Page at the Northeastern University
Northeastern University
Department of Political Science Faculty Page at UCLA The Michael S. Dukakis Presidential Campaign records, 1962–1989 (bulk 1987–1988) are located in the Northeastern University Libraries, Archives and Special
Collections Department, Boston, MA. The Joseph D. Warren papers, 1972–2003 (bulk 1980–1990) are located in the Northeastern University
Northeastern University
Libraries, Archives and Special Collections Department, Boston, MA. Dukakis discusses presidential debates as reported in the Harvard Law Record Dukakis mentioned on MSNBC's Morning Joe: The Scoop on 'Boogie Man' Appearances on C-SPAN

Party political offices

Preceded by Kevin White Democratic nominee for Governor of Massachusetts 1974 Succeeded by Edward J. King

Preceded by Edward J. King Democratic nominee for Governor of Massachusetts 1982, 1986 Succeeded by John Silber

Preceded by Richard Riley Chair of the Democratic Governors Association 1986–1987 Succeeded by Bill Clinton

Preceded by Walter Mondale Democratic nominee for President of the United States 1988

Political offices

Preceded by Francis W. Sargent Governor of Massachusetts 1975–1979 Succeeded by Edward J. King

Preceded by Edward J. King Governor of Massachusetts 1983–1991 Succeeded by Bill Weld

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United States Democratic Party

Chairpersons of the DNC

Hallett McLane Smalley Belmont Schell Hewitt Barnum Brice Harrity Jones Taggart Mack McCombs McCormick Cummings White Hull Shaver Raskob Farley Flynn Walker Hannegan McGrath Boyle McKinney Mitchell Butler Jackson Bailey O'Brien Harris O'Brien Westwood Strauss Curtis White Manatt Kirk Brown Wilhelm DeLee Dodd/Fowler Romer/Grossman Rendell/Andrew McAuliffe Dean Kaine Wasserman Schultz Perez

Presidential tickets

Jackson/Calhoun Jackson/Van Buren Van Buren/R. Johnson Van Buren/None Polk/Dallas Cass/Butler Pierce/King Buchanan/Breckinridge Douglas/H. Johnson (Breckinridge/Lane, SD) McClellan/Pendleton Seymour/Blair Greeley/Brown Tilden/Hendricks Hancock/English Cleveland/Hendricks Cleveland/Thurman Cleveland/Stevenson I W. Bryan/Sewall W. Bryan/Stevenson I Parker/H. Davis W. Bryan/Kern Wilson/Marshall (twice) Cox/Roosevelt J. Davis/C. Bryan Smith/Robinson Roosevelt/Garner (twice) Roosevelt/Wallace Roosevelt/Truman Truman/Barkley Stevenson II/Sparkman Stevenson II/Kefauver Kennedy/L. Johnson L. Johnson/Humphrey Humphrey/Muskie McGovern/(Eagleton, Shriver) Carter/Mondale (twice) Mondale/Ferraro Dukakis/Bentsen B. Clinton/Gore (twice) Gore/Lieberman Kerry/Edwards Obama/Biden (twice) H. Clinton/Kaine

State/ Territorial Parties

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming District of Columbia Guam Puerto Rico



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Affiliated groups


Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee Democratic Governors Association Democratic Legislative Campaign Committee Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee National Conference of Democratic Mayors


College Democrats of America Democrats Abroad National Federation of Democratic Women Stonewall Democrats

Stonewall Young Democrats

Young Democrats of America High School Democrats of America

Related articles

History Primaries Debates Party factions Superdelegate 2005 chairmanship election 2017 chairmanship election

Liberalism portal

v t e

(1984 ←) United States presidential election, 1988
United States presidential election, 1988
(→ 1992)

Republican Party Convention Primaries Primary results


George H. W. Bush

VP nominee

Dan Quayle


Bob Dole Pete du Pont Ben Fernandez Alexander Haig Jack Kemp Paul Laxalt Isabell Masters Pat Robertson Donald Rumsfeld Harold Stassen

Democratic Party Convention Primaries Primary results


Michael Dukakis


VP nominee

Lloyd Bentsen


Douglas Applegate Bruce Babbitt Joe Biden


David Duke Dick Gephardt Al Gore


Gary Hart Jesse Jackson


Lyndon LaRouche Andy Martin Patricia Schroeder Paul Simon James Traficant

Third party and independent candidates

Libertarian Party Convention


Ron Paul
Ron Paul

VP nominee

Andre Marrou


Jim Lewis Russell Means

New Alliance Party


Lenora Fulani

Populist Party


David Duke

Prohibition Party


Earl Dodge

VP nominee

George Ormsby

Socialist Equality Party


Edward Winn

Socialist Party


Willa Kenoyer

VP nominee

Ron Ehrenreich

Socialist Workers Party


James Warren

VP nominee

Kathleen Mickells

Workers World Party


Larry Holmes

VP nominee

Gloria La Riva

Independents and others

Jack Herer Lyndon LaRouche Herbert G. Lewin William A. Marra Eugene McCarthy

Other 1988 elections: House Senate Gubernatorial

v t e

Governors of Massachusetts

Colony (1629–86)

Endecott Winthrop T. Dudley Haynes Vane Winthrop T. Dudley Bellingham Winthrop Endecott T. Dudley Winthrop Endecott T. Dudley Endecott Bellingham Endecott Bellingham Leverett Bradstreet

Dominion (1686–89)

J. Dudley Andros Bradstreet

Province (1692–1776)

W. Phips Stoughton Bellomont Stoughton Governor's Council J. Dudley Governor's Council J. Dudley Tailer Shute Dummer Burnet Dummer Tailer Belcher Shirley S. Phips Shirley S. Phips Governor's Council Pownall Hutchinson Bernard Hutchinson Gage

Commonwealth (since 1776)

Hancock Cushing Bowdoin Hancock Adams Sumner Gill Governor's Council Strong Sullivan Lincoln Sr. Gore Gerry Strong Brooks Eustis Morton Lincoln Jr. Davis Armstrong Everett Morton Davis Morton Briggs Boutwell Clifford E. Washburn Gardner Banks Andrew Bullock Claflin W. Washburn Talbot Gaston Rice Talbot Long Butler Robinson Ames Brackett Russell Greenhalge Wolcott Crane Bates Douglas Guild Draper Foss Walsh McCall Coolidge Cox Fuller Allen Ely Curley Hurley Saltonstall Tobin Bradford Dever Herter Furcolo Volpe Peabody Volpe Sargent Dukakis King Dukakis Weld Cellucci Swift Romney Patrick Baker

Italics indicate acting officeholders

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3764338 LCCN: n80011660 ISNI: 0000 0001 1436 8728 GND: 118879693 SUDOC: 029383722 BNF: cb12102234z (data) BIBSYS: 90583537 NDL: 00620