ListMoto - Melchior System

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This is the named Melchior system, "a reference in all taxonomic courses",[1] detailing the taxonomic system of the Angiospermae according to A. Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien (1964),[2] also known as "modified or updated" Engler system. The collaborators in orders (and some families) were the following:

Hans Melchior in Casuarinales, Juglandales, Balanopales, Leitneriales, Salicales, Fagales, Urticales, Didiereaceae, Piperales, Aristolochiales, Guttiferales, Sarraceniales, Papaverales, Hydrostachyales, Podostemonales, Julianiales, Violales, Cucurbitales, Myrtiflorae, Umbelliflorae, Primulales, Tubiflorae, Plantaginales, Liliiflorae
p. p., Spathiflorae and Microspermae. G. Buchheim in Proteales, Cactales, Magnoliales
and Ranunculales. W. Schultze-Motel in Santalales, Balanophorales, Medusandrales, Rhamnales, Malvales, Diapensiales, Ericales
and Cyperales. Th. Eckardt in Polygonales, Centrospermae, Batales, Plumbaginales, Helobiae, Triuridales and Pandanales. G. K. Schultze-Menz in Rosales. H. Scholz in Geraniales, Rutales, Sapindales
and Celastrales. G. Wagenitz in Thymelaeales, Ebenales, Oleales, Gentianales, Dipsacales
and Campanulales. U. Hamann in Cyanastraceae, Pontederiaceae, Philydraceae, Juncales, Bromeliales
and Commelinales. E. Potztal in Graminales, Principes, Synanthae
and Scitamineae.


1 subdivisio Angiospermae

1.1 classis Monocotyledoneae

1.1.1 ordo Helobiae 1.1.2 ordo Triuridales 1.1.3 ordo Liliiflorae 1.1.4 ordo Juncales 1.1.5 ordo Bromeliales 1.1.6 ordo Commelinales 1.1.7 ordo Graminales 1.1.8 ordo Principes 1.1.9 ordo Synanthae 1.1.10 ordo Spathiflorae 1.1.11 ordo Pandanales 1.1.12 ordo Cyperales 1.1.13 ordo Scitamineae 1.1.14 ordo Microspermae

1.2 classis Dicotyledoneae

1.2.1 subclassis Archychlamydeae ordo Casuarinales ordo Juglandales ordo Balanopales ordo Leitneriales ordo Salicales ordo Fagales ordo Urticales ordo Proteales ordo Santalales ordo Balanophorales ordo Medusandrales ordo Polygonales ordo Centrospermae ordo Cactales ordo Magnoliales ordo Ranunculales ordo Piperales ordo Aristolochiales ordo Guttiferales ordo Sarraceniales ordo Papaverales ordo Batales ordo Rosales ordo Hydrostachyales ordo Podostemales ordo Geraniales ordo Rutales ordo Sapindales ordo Julianiales ordo Celastrales ordo Rhamnales ordo Malvales ordo Thymelaeales ordo Violales ordo Cucurbitales ordo Myrtiflorae ordo Umbelliflorae

1.2.2 subclassis Sympetalae ordo Diapensiales ordo Ericales ordo Primulales ordo Plumbaginales ordo Ebenales ordo Oleales ordo Gentianales ordo Tubiflorae ordo Plantaginales ordo Dipsacales ordo Campanulales

2 References 3 Bibliography

subdivisio Angiospermae[edit] classis Monocotyledoneae[edit] ordo Helobiae[edit]

subordo Alismatineae

Alismataceae Butomaceae

subordo Hydrocharitineae


subordo Scheuchzeriineae


subordo Potamogetonineae

Aponogetonaceae Juncaginaceae Potamogetonaceae Najadaceae Zannichelliaceae

ordo Triuridales[edit]


ordo Liliiflorae[edit]

subordo Liliineae

Liliaceae Xanthorrhoeaceae Stemonaceae Agavaceae Haemodoraceae Cyanastraceae Amaryllidaceae Hypoxidaceae Velloziaceae Taccaceae Dioscoreaceae

subordo Pontederiineae


subordo Iridineae

Iridaceae Geosiridaceae

subordo Burmanniineae

Burmanniaceae Corsiaceae

subordo Philydrineae


ordo Juncales[edit]

Juncaceae Thurniaceae

ordo Bromeliales[edit]


ordo Commelinales[edit]

subordo Commelinineae

Commelinaceae Xyridaceae Mayacaceae Rapateaceae

subordo Eriocaulineae


subordo Restionineae

Restionaceae Centrolepidaceae

subordo Flagellariineae


ordo Graminales[edit]

or Poaceae

ordo Principes[edit]

or Arecaceae

ordo Synanthae[edit]


ordo Spathiflorae[edit]

Araceae Lemnaceae

ordo Pandanales[edit]

Pandanaceae Sparganiaceae Typhaceae

ordo Cyperales[edit]


ordo Scitamineae[edit]

Musaceae Zingiberaceae Cannaceae Marantaceae Lowiaceae

ordo Microspermae[edit]


classis Dicotyledoneae[edit] subclassis Archychlamydeae[edit] ordo Casuarinales[edit]


ordo Juglandales[edit]

Myricaceae Juglandaceae

ordo Balanopales[edit]


ordo Leitneriales[edit]

Leitneriaceae Didymelaceae

ordo Salicales[edit]


ordo Fagales[edit]

Betulaceae Fagaceae

ordo Urticales[edit]

Rhoipteleaceae Ulmaceae Moraceae Urticaceae Eucommiaceae

ordo Proteales[edit]


ordo Santalales[edit]

subordo Santalineae

Olacaceae Dipentodontaceae Opiliaceae Grubbiaceae Santalaceae Misodendraceae

subordo Loranthineae


ordo Balanophorales[edit]


ordo Medusandrales[edit]


ordo Polygonales[edit]


ordo Centrospermae[edit]

subordo Phytolaccineae

Phytolaccaceae Gyrostemonaceae Achatocarpaceae Nyctaginaceae Molluginaceae Aizoaceae

subordo Portulacineae

Portulacaceae Basellaceae

subordo Caryophyllineae


subordo Chenopodiineae

Dysphaniaceae Chenopodiaceae Amaranthaceae

incertae sedis


ordo Cactales[edit]


ordo Magnoliales[edit]

Magnoliaceae Degeneriaceae Himantandraceae Winteraceae Annonaceae Eupomatiaceae Myristicaceae Canellaceae Schisandraceae Illiciaceae Austrobaileyaceae Trimeniaceae Amborellaceae Monimiaceae Calycanthaceae Gomortegaceae Lauraceae Hernandiaceae Tetracentraceae Trochodendraceae Eupteleaceae Cercidiphyllaceae

ordo Ranunculales[edit]

subordo Ranunculineae

Ranunculaceae Berberidaceae Sargentodoxaceae Lardizabalaceae Menispermaceae

subordo Nymphaeineae

Nymphaeaceae Ceratophyllaceae

ordo Piperales[edit]

Saururaceae Piperaceae Chloranthaceae Lactoridaceae

ordo Aristolochiales[edit]

Aristolochiaceae Rafflesiaceae Hydnoraceae

ordo Guttiferales[edit]

subordo Dilleniineae

Dilleniaceae Paeoniaceae Crossosomataceae Medusagynaceae Actinidiaceae Eucryphiaceae

subordo Ochnineae

Ochnaceae Dioncophyllaceae Strasburgeriaceae Dipterocarpaceae

subordo Theineae

Theaceae Caryocaraceae Marcgraviaceae Quiinaceae Guttiferae
or Clusiaceae

subordo Ancistrocladineae


ordo Sarraceniales[edit]

Sarraceniaceae Nepenthaceae Droseraceae

ordo Papaverales[edit]

subordo Papaverineae


subordo Capparineae

Capparaceae Cruciferae
or Brassicaceae Tovariaceae

subordo Resedineae


subordo Moringineae


ordo Batales[edit]


ordo Rosales[edit]

subordo Hamamelidineae

Platanaceae Hamamelidaceae Myrothamnaceae

subordo Saxifragineae

Crassulaceae Cephalotaceae Saxifragaceae Brunelliaceae Cunoniaceae Davidsoniaceae Pittosporaceae Byblidaceae Roridulaceae Bruniaceae

subordo Rosineae

Rosaceae Neuradaceae Chrysobalanaceae

subordo Leguminosineae

Connaraceae Leguminosae
or Fabaceae Krameriaceae

ordo Hydrostachyales[edit]


ordo Podostemales[edit]


ordo Geraniales[edit]

subordo Limnanthineae


subordo Geraniineae

Oxalidaceae Geraniaceae Tropaeolaceae Zygophyllaceae Linaceae Erythroxylaceae subordo Euphorbiineae Euphorbiaceae Daphniphyllaceae

ordo Rutales[edit]

subordo Rutineae

Rutaceae Cneoraceae Simaroubaceae Picrodendraceae Burseraceae Meliaceae

subordo Malpighiineae

Malpighiaceae Trigoniaceae Vochysiaceae

subordo Polygalineae

Tremandraceae Polygalaceae

ordo Sapindales[edit]

subordo Coriariineae


subordo Anacardiineae


subordo Sapindineae

Aceraceae Bretschneideraceae Sapindaceae Hippocastanaceae Sabiaceae Melianthaceae Aextoxicaceae

subordo Balsamineae


ordo Julianiales[edit]


ordo Celastrales[edit]

subordo Celastrineae

Cyrillaceae Pentaphylacaceae Aquifoliaceae Corynocarpaceae Pandaceae Celastraceae Staphyleaceae Hippocrateaceae Stackhousiaceae Salvadoraceae

subordo Buxineae


subordo Icacinineae

Icacinaceae Cardiopteridaceae

ordo Rhamnales[edit]

Rhamnaceae Vitaceae Leeaceae

ordo Malvales[edit]

subordo Elaeocarpineae


subordo Sarcolaenineae


subordo Malvineae

Tiliaceae Malvaceae Bombacaceae Sterculiaceae

subordo Scytopetalineae


ordo Thymelaeales[edit]

Family Geissolomataceae

Monotypic. It consists of genus Geissoloma Lindl. ex Kunth, and species Geissoloma marginatum, from Cape, South Africa.

Family Penaeaceae
from South Africa.

Tribe Endonemeae

Endonema A.Juss. Glischrocolla (Endl.) A.DC.

Tribe Penaeeae

Brachysiphon A.Juss. Penaea L. Saltera Bullock (syn.:Sarcocolla Kunth)

Note: Sonderothamnus R.Dahlgren, 1968 is posterior to the publication of this work, and Stylapterus A.Juss. was included by G. Bentham & J.D. Hooker in Penaea.

Family Dichapetalaceae

Dichapetalum Thouars Gonypetalum Ule (currently syn. of Tapura) Stephanopodium Poepp. Tapura Aubl.

Family Thymelaeaceae

Note: the classification of Thymelaeaceae
was based on Domke 1934.[3]

Subfamily Gonystyloideae (Syn.:Gonystylaceae)

Aetoxilon Amyxa Gonystylus

Subfamily Aquilarioideae

Tribe Microsemmateae Tribe Solmsieae Tribe Octolepideae Tribe Aquilarieae

Subfamily Gilgiodaphnoideae (or Synandrodaphnoideae)

Monotypic. It consists of genus Gilgiodaphne (currently synonym of Synandrodaphne Gilg), and species Gilgiodaphne paradoxa, syn. of Synandrodaphne paradoxa, from West Africa.

Subfamily Thymelaeoideae

Tribe Dicranolepideae Tribe Phalerieae Tribe Daphneae Tribe Thymelaeeae (Syn.:Gnidieae)

Family Elaeagnaceae

Elaeagnus Hippophae Shepherdia

ordo Violales[edit]

subordo Flacourtiineae

Flacourtiaceae Peridiscaceae Violaceae Stachyuraceae Scyphostegiaceae Turneraceae Malesherbiaceae Passifloraceae Achariaceae

subordo Cistineae

Cistaceae Bixaceae Sphaerosepalaceae Cochlospermaceae

subordo Tamaricineae

Tamaricaceae Frankeniaceae Elatinaceae

subordo Caricineae


subordo Loasineae


subordo Begoniineae

Datiscaceae Begoniaceae

ordo Cucurbitales[edit]


ordo Myrtiflorae[edit]

subordo Myrtineae

Lythraceae Trapaceae Crypteroniaceae Myrtaceae Dialypetalanthaceae Sonneratiaceae Punicaceae Lecythidaceae Melastomataceae Rhizophoraceae Combretaceae Onagraceae Oliniaceae Haloragaceae Theligonaceae

subordo Hippuridineae


subordo Cynomoriineae


ordo Umbelliflorae[edit]

Alangiaceae Nyssaceae Davidiaceae Cornaceae Garryaceae Araliaceae Umbelliferae
or Apiaceae

subclassis Sympetalae[edit] ordo Diapensiales[edit]


ordo Ericales[edit]

Clethraceae Pyrolaceae Ericaceae Empetraceae Epacridaceae

ordo Primulales[edit]

Theophrastaceae Myrsinaceae Primulaceae

ordo Plumbaginales[edit]


ordo Ebenales[edit]

subordo Sapotineae

Sapotaceae Sarcospermataceae

subordo Ebenineae

Ebenaceae Styracaceae Lissocarpaceae Symplocaceae Hoplestigmataceae

ordo Oleales[edit]


ordo Gentianales[edit]

Loganiaceae Desfontainiaceae Gentianaceae Menyanthaceae Apocynaceae Asclepiadaceae Rubiaceae

ordo Tubiflorae[edit]

subordo Convolvulineae

Polemoniaceae Fouquieriaceae Convolvulaceae

subordo Boraginineae

Hydrophyllaceae Boraginaceae Lennoaceae

subordo Verbenineae

Verbenaceae Callitrichaceae Labiatae
or Lamiaceae

subordo Solanineae

Nolanaceae Solanaceae Duckeodendraceae Buddlejaceae Scrophulariaceae Globulariaceae Bignoniaceae Henriqueziaceae Acanthaceae Pedaliaceae Martyniaceae Gesneriaceae Columelliaceae Orobanchaceae Lentibulariaceae

subordo Myoporineae


subordo Phrymineae


ordo Plantaginales[edit]


ordo Dipsacales[edit]

Caprifoliaceae Adoxaceae Valerianaceae Dipsacaceae

ordo Campanulales[edit]

Campanulaceae Sphenocleaceae Pentaphragmataceae Goodeniaceae Brunoniaceae Stylidiaceae Calyceraceae Compositae
or Asteraceae


^ Swift, Lloyd H. (1974). Botanical Classifications. Hamden, Connecticut,USA: Archon Books. ISBN 0-208-01455-1.  ^ H. Melchior (1964). Adolf Engler, ed. Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien (12th ed.).  I. Band: Allgemeiner Teil. Bakterien bis Gymnospermen. II. Band: Angiospermen. ^ Domke, W. (1934).Untersuchungen über die geographische und systematische Gliederung der Thymelaeaceae. Biblioth. Bot. 111:1-151.


Melchior, Hans; Werdermann, Erich, eds. (1964) [1892]. A. Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien (12th ed.). Stuttgart: Schweizerbart. 

I. Band: Allgemeiner Teil. Bakterien bis Gymnospermen. ISBN 978-3-443-39015-0 II. Band: Angiospermen. ISBN 978-3-443-39016-7

v t e

List of systems of plant taxonomy


John Ray
John Ray
system (1686–1704)

A discourse on the seeds of plants Methodus plantarum nova De Variis Plantarum Methodis Dissertatio Brevis Methodus plantarum emendata et aucta


Linnaean system (1735–51)

Systema Naturae Species Plantarum Genera Plantarum Philosophia Botanica

Adanson system (1763)

Familles naturelles des plantes

De Jussieu system (1789)

Genera Plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam

De Candolle system (1819–24)

Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classification naturelle et de l'art de décrire et d'etudier les végétaux Prodromus systemati naturalis regni vegetabilis sive enumeratio contracta ordinum, generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarum, juxta methodi naturalis normas digesta

Berchtold and Presl system (1820–1823)

O Prirozenosti Rostlin

Agardh system (1825)

Classes Plantarum

Gray system (1821)

The Natural Arrangement of British Plants

system (1829)

Analyse des familles des plantes

Lindley system (1830–45)

An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany The Vegetable Kingdom

Don system (1834)

General History of Dichlamydious Plants.

Bentham & Hooker system (1862–83)

Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita.

Baillon system (1867–94)

Histoire des plantes

Post- Darwinian

Nineteenth century

Eichler system (1875–1886)

Blüthendiagramme: construirt und erläutert Syllabus der Vorlesungen über Phanerogamenkunde

Engler system
Engler system

Führer durch den Königlich botanischen Garten der Universität zu Breslau Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien Das Pflanzenreich

van Tieghem system (1891)

Traité de botanique

Twentieth century

Dalla Torre & Harms system (1900–07)

Genera Siphonogamarum, ad systema Englerianum conscripta

Warming system (1912)

Haandbog i den systematiske botanik

Hallier system (1912)

L'origine et le système phylétique des angiospermes

Bessey system (1915)

The phylogenetic taxonomy of flowering plants

Wettstein system (1901–35)

Handbuch der systematischen Botanik

Lotsy system (1907–11)

Vorträge über botanische Stammesgeschichte, gehalten an der Reichsuniversität zu Leiden. Ein Lehrbuch der Pflanzensystematik.

Hutchinson system (1926–73)

The families of flowering plants, arranged according to a new system based on their probable phylogeny

Calestani system (1933)

Le origini e la classificazione delle Angiosperme

Kimura system (1956)

Système et phylogénie des monocotyledones

Emberger system (1960)

Traité de Botanique systématique

Melchior system (1964)

Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien

Takhtajan system (1966–97)

A system and phylogeny of the flowering plants Flowering plants: origin and dispersal Diversity and classification of flowering plants

Cronquist system
Cronquist system

The evolution and classification of flowering plants An integrated system of classification of flowering plants

Goldberg system (1986–89

Classification, Evolution and Phylogeny of the Families of Dicotyledons

Dahlgren system (1975–85)

The families of the monocotyledons: structure, evolution, and taxonomy

Thorne system (1968–2000)

An updated phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants

Kubitzki system (1990–)

The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants

Reveal system (1999)

Reveal System of Angiosperm Classification

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group System (1998–2009)

An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants (APG I) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV Angiosperm Phylogeny Website

See also

Plantae at Wikispecies

Note: This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his 1853 edition, and Dahlgren (1982). Examples include the works of Scopoli, Bat