MEDICINE is the science and practice of the diagnosis , treatment ,
and prevention of disease .
Prescientific forms of medicine are now known as traditional medicine and folk medicine . They remain commonly used with or instead of scientific medicine and are thus called alternative medicine . For example, evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture is "variable and inconsistent" for any condition, but is generally safe when done by an appropriately trained practitioner. In contrast, treatments outside the bounds of safety and efficacy are termed quackery .
* 1 Etymology * 2 Clinical practice
* 3 Institutions
* 3.1 Delivery
* 4 Branches
* 4.1 Basic sciences
* 4.2 Specialties
* 4.2.1 Surgical specialty * 4.2.2 Internal specialty * 4.2.3 Diagnostic specialties * 4.2.4 Other major specialties
* 4.3 Interdisciplinary fields
* 5 Education and legal controls * 6 Medical ethics
* 7 History
* 7.1 Ancient world * 7.2 Middle Ages * 7.3 Modern
* 8 Traditional medicine * 9 See also * 10 Notes and references
_ The Doctor_, by Sir Luke Fildes (1891)
Medical availability and clinical practice varies across the world
due to regional differences in culture and technology. Modern
scientific medicine is highly developed in the
Western world , while
in developing countries such as parts of
In modern clinical practice, physicians personally assess patients in order to diagnose , treat, and prevent disease using clinical judgment. The doctor-patient relationship typically begins an interaction with an examination of the patient's medical history and medical record , followed by a medical interview and a physical examination . Basic diagnostic medical devices (e.g. stethoscope , tongue depressor ) are typically used. After examination for signs and interviewing for symptoms , the doctor may order medical tests (e.g. blood tests ), take a biopsy , or prescribe pharmaceutical drugs or other therapies. Differential diagnosis methods help to rule out conditions based on the information provided. During the encounter, properly informing the patient of all relevant facts is an important part of the relationship and the development of trust. The medical encounter is then documented in the medical record, which is a legal document in many jurisdictions. Follow-ups may be shorter but follow the same general procedure, and specialists follow a similar process. The diagnosis and treatment may take only a few minutes or a few weeks depending upon the complexity of the issue.
The components of the medical interview and encounter are:
* Chief complaint (CC): the reason for the current medical visit. These are the 'symptoms .' They are in the patient's own words and are recorded along with the duration of each one. Also called 'chief concern' or 'presenting complaint'. * History of present illness (HPI): the chronological order of events of symptoms and further clarification of each symptom. Distinguishable from history of previous illness, often called past medical history (PMH). Medical history comprises HPI and PMH. * Current activity: occupation, hobbies, what the patient actually does. * Medications (Rx): what drugs the patient takes including prescribed , over-the-counter , and home remedies , as well as alternative and herbal medicines/herbal remedies . Allergies are also recorded. * Past medical history (PMH/PMHx): concurrent medical problems, past hospitalizations and operations, injuries, past infectious diseases or vaccinations , history of known allergies. * Social history (SH): birthplace, residences, marital history, social and economic status, habits (including diet , medications, tobacco , alcohol). * Family history (FH): listing of diseases in the family that may impact the patient. A family tree is sometimes used. * Review of systems (ROS) or _systems inquiry_: a set of additional questions to ask, which may be missed on HPI: a general enquiry (have you noticed any weight loss , change in sleep quality, fevers, lumps and bumps? etc.), followed by questions on the body's main organ systems (heart , lungs , digestive tract , urinary tract , etc.).
The physical examination is the examination of the patient for medical signs of disease, which are objective and observable, in contrast to symptoms which are volunteered by the patient and not necessarily objectively observable. The healthcare provider uses the senses of sight, hearing, touch, and sometimes smell (e.g., in infection, uremia , diabetic ketoacidosis ). Four actions are the basis of physical examination: inspection , palpation (feel), percussion (tap to determine resonance characteristics), and auscultation (listen), generally in that order although auscultation occurs prior to percussion and palpation for abdominal assessments.
The clinical examination involves the study of:
* Vital signs including height, weight, body temperature, blood
pressure , pulse , respiration rate, and hemoglobin oxygen saturation
* General appearance of the patient and specific indicators of
disease (nutritional status, presence of jaundice, pallor or clubbing
* Head, eye , ear , nose, and throat (HEENT)
Cardiovascular (heart and blood vessels )
It is to likely focus on areas of interest highlighted in the medical history and may not include everything listed above.
The treatment plan may include ordering additional medical laboratory tests and medical imaging studies, starting therapy, referral to a specialist, or watchful observation. Follow-up may be advised. Depending upon the health insurance plan and the managed care system, various forms of "utilization review ", such as prior authorization of tests, may place barriers on accessing expensive services.
The medical decision-making (MDM) process involves analysis and synthesis of all the above data to come up with a list of possible diagnoses (the differential diagnoses ), along with an idea of what needs to be done to obtain a definitive diagnosis that would explain the patient's problem.
On subsequent visits, the process may be repeated in an abbreviated manner to obtain any new history, symptoms, physical findings, and lab or imaging results or specialist consultations.
Contemporary medicine is in general conducted within health care systems . Legal, credentialing and financing frameworks are established by individual governments, augmented on occasion by international organizations, such as churches. The characteristics of any given health care system have significant impact on the way medical care is provided.
From ancient times, Christian emphasis on practical charity gave rise
to the development of systematic nursing and hospitals and the
Most tribal societies provide no guarantee of healthcare for the population as a whole. In such societies, healthcare is available to those that can afford to pay for it or have self-insured it (either directly or as part of an employment contract) or who may be covered by care financed by the government or tribe directly. Modern drug ampoules
Transparency of information is another factor defining a delivery system. Access to information on conditions, treatments, quality, and pricing greatly affects the choice by patients/consumers and, therefore, the incentives of medical professionals. While the US healthcare system has come under fire for lack of openness, new legislation may encourage greater openness. There is a perceived tension between the need for transparency on the one hand and such issues as patient confidentiality and the possible exploitation of information for commercial gain on the other.
See also: Health care , clinic , hospital , and hospice
Primary care medical services are provided by physicians , physician assistants , nurse practitioners , or other health professionals who have first contact with a patient seeking medical treatment or care. These occur in physician offices, clinics , nursing homes , schools, home visits, and other places close to patients. About 90% of medical visits can be treated by the primary care provider. These include treatment of acute and chronic illnesses, preventive care and health education for all ages and both sexes.
Secondary care medical services are provided by medical specialists in their offices or clinics or at local community hospitals for a patient referred by a primary care provider who first diagnosed or treated the patient. Referrals are made for those patients who required the expertise or procedures performed by specialists. These include both ambulatory care and inpatient services, emergency rooms , intensive care medicine , surgery services, physical therapy , labor and delivery , endoscopy units, diagnostic laboratory and medical imaging services, hospice centers, etc. Some primary care providers may also take care of hospitalized patients and deliver babies in a secondary care setting.
Tertiary care medical services are provided by specialist hospitals or regional centers equipped with diagnostic and treatment facilities not generally available at local hospitals. These include trauma centers , burn treatment centers, advanced neonatology unit services, organ transplants , high-risk pregnancy, radiation oncology , etc.
Modern medical care also depends on information – still delivered in many health care settings on paper records, but increasingly nowadays by electronic means .
In low-income countries, modern healthcare is often too expensive for the average person. International healthcare policy researchers have advocated that "user fees" be removed in these areas to ensure access, although even after removal, significant costs and barriers remain.
Separation of prescribing and dispensing is a practice in medicine and pharmacy in which the physician who provides a medical prescription is independent from the pharmacist who provides the prescription drug . In the Western world there are centuries of tradition for separating pharmacists from physicians. In Asian countries it is traditional for physicians to also provide drugs.
Working together as an interdisciplinary team , many highly trained health professionals besides medical practitioners are involved in the delivery of modern health care. Examples include: nurses , emergency medical technicians and paramedics, laboratory scientists, pharmacists , podiatrists , physiotherapists , respiratory therapists , speech therapists , occupational therapists , radiographers, dietitians , and bioengineers , surgeons , surgeon\'s assistant , surgical technologist .
The scope and sciences underpinning human medicine overlap many other fields. Dentistry , while considered by some a separate discipline from medicine, is a medical field.
A patient admitted to the hospital is usually under the care of a specific team based on their main presenting problem, e.g., the cardiology team, who then may interact with other specialties, e.g., surgical, radiology, to help diagnose or treat the main problem or any subsequent complications/developments.
Physicians have many specializations and subspecializations into certain branches of medicine, which are listed below. There are variations from country to country regarding which specialties certain subspecialties are in.
The main branches of medicine are:
* Basic sciences of medicine; this is what every physician is educated in, and some return to in biomedical research * Medical specialties * Interdisciplinary fields , where different medical specialties are mixed to function in certain occasions.
_ Louis Pasteur in his laboratory, 1885
Embryology _ is the study of the early development of organisms.
Endocrinology _ is the study of hormones and their effect
throughout the body of animals.
Epidemiology _ is the study of the demographics of disease
processes, and includes, but is not limited to, the study of
Genetics _ is the study of genes, and their role in biological
Main article: Medical specialty
In the broadest meaning of "medicine", there are many different specialties. In the UK, most specialities have their own body or college, which have its own entrance examination. These are collectively known as the Royal Colleges, although not all currently use the term "Royal". The development of a speciality is often driven by new technology (such as the development of effective anaesthetics) or ways of working (such as emergency departments); the new specialty leads to the formation of a unifying body of doctors and the prestige of administering their own examination.
Within medical circles, specialities usually fit into one of two
broad categories: "Medicine" and "Surgery." "Medicine" refers to the
practice of non-operative medicine, and most of its subspecialties
require preliminary training in Internal Medicine. In the UK, this was
traditionally evidenced by passing the examination for the Membership
Royal College of Physicians
SURGERY is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual
and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a
pathological condition such as disease or injury , to help improve
bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas
(for example, a perforated ear drum ).
Surgical training in the U.S. requires a minimum of five years of residency after medical school. Sub-specialties of surgery often require seven or more years. In addition, fellowships can last an additional one to three years. Because post-residency fellowships can be competitive, many trainees devote two additional years to research. Thus in some cases surgical training will not finish until more than a decade after medical school. Furthermore, surgical training can be very difficult and time-consuming.
Main article: Internal medicine
INTERNAL MEDICINE is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases. According to some sources, an emphasis on internal structures is implied. In North America, specialists in internal medicine are commonly called "internists." Elsewhere, especially in Commonwealth nations, such specialists are often called physicians . These terms, _internist_ or _physician_ (in the narrow sense, common outside North America), generally exclude practitioners of gynecology and obstetrics, pathology, psychiatry, and especially surgery and its subspecialities.
Because their patients are often seriously ill or require complex investigations, internists do much of their work in hospitals. Formerly, many internists were not subspecialized; such _general physicians_ would see any complex nonsurgical problem; this style of practice has become much less common. In modern urban practice, most internists are subspecialists: that is, they generally limit their medical practice to problems of one organ system or to one particular area of medical knowledge. For example, gastroenterologists and nephrologists specialize respectively in diseases of the gut and the kidneys.
Commonwealth of Nations
There are many subspecialities (or subdisciplines) of internal medicine :
* _ Angiology /Vascular Medicine_ * _ Cardiology _ * _ Critical care medicine _ * _ Endocrinology _ * _ Gastroenterology _ * _ Geriatrics _ * _ Hematology _ * _ Hepatology _ * _ Infectious disease _ * _ Nephrology _ * _ Neurology _ * _ Oncology _ * _ Pediatrics _ * _ Pulmonology /Pneumology/Respirology/chest medicine_ * _ Rheumatology _ * Sports Medicine
Training in internal medicine (as opposed to surgical training), varies considerably across the world: see the articles on _medical education _ and _physician _ for more details. In North America, it requires at least three years of residency training after medical school, which can then be followed by a one- to three-year fellowship in the subspecialties listed above. In general, resident work hours in medicine are less than those in surgery, averaging about 60 hours per week in the US. This difference does not apply in the UK where all doctors are now required by law to work less than 48 hours per week on average.
* _ Clinical laboratory sciences_ are the clinical diagnostic services that apply laboratory techniques to diagnosis and management of patients. In the United States, these services are supervised by a pathologist. The personnel that work in these medical laboratory departments are technically trained staff who do not hold medical degrees, but who usually hold an undergraduate medical technology degree, who actually perform the tests , assays , and procedures needed for providing the specific services. Subspecialties include transfusion medicine , cellular pathology , clinical chemistry , hematology , clinical microbiology and clinical immunology . * _ Pathology as a medical specialty _ is the branch of medicine that deals with the study of diseases and the morphologic, physiologic changes produced by them. As a diagnostic specialty, pathology can be considered the basis of modern scientific medical knowledge and plays a large role in evidence-based medicine . Many modern molecular tests such as flow cytometry , polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry , cytogenetics , gene rearrangements studies and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) fall within the territory of pathology. * _ Diagnostic radiology _ is concerned with imaging of the body, e.g. by x-rays , x-ray computed tomography , ultrasonography , and nuclear magnetic resonance tomography . Interventional radiologists can access areas in the body under imaging for an intervention or diagnostic sampling. * _ Nuclear medicine _ is concerned with studying human organ systems by administering radiolabelled substances (radiopharmaceuticals) to the body, which can then be imaged outside the body by a gamma camera or a PET scanner. Each radiopharmaceutical consists of two parts: a tracer that is specific for the function under study (e.g., neurotransmitter pathway, metabolic pathway, blood flow, or other), and a radionuclide (usually either a gamma-emitter or a positron emitter). There is a degree of overlap between nuclear medicine and radiology, as evidenced by the emergence of combined devices such as the PET/CT scanner. * _ Clinical neurophysiology _ is concerned with testing the physiology or function of the central and peripheral aspects of the nervous system. These kinds of tests can be divided into recordings of: (1) spontaneous or continuously running electrical activity, or (2) stimulus evoked responses. Subspecialties include electroencephalography , electromyography , evoked potential , nerve conduction study and polysomnography . Sometimes these tests are performed by techs without a medical degree, but the interpretation of these tests is done by a medical professional.
Other Major Specialties
The followings are some major medical specialties that do not directly fit into any of the above-mentioned groups:
Anesthesiology _ (also known as _anaesthetics_): concerned with
the perioperative management of the surgical patient. The
anesthesiologist's role during surgery is to prevent derangement in
the vital organs' (i.e. brain, heart, kidneys) functions and
postoperative pain. Outside of the operating room, the anesthesiology
physician also serves the same function in the labor ">_
Gynecologist Michel Akotionga of
* Obstetrics and gynecology _ (often abbreviated as _ OB/GYN _ (American English) or _Obs & Gynae_ (British English)) are concerned respectively with childbirth and the female reproductive and associated organs. Reproductive medicine and fertility medicine are generally practiced by gynecological specialists. * _ Medical genetics _ is concerned with the diagnosis and management of hereditary disorders. * _ Neurology _ is concerned with diseases of the nervous system. In the UK, neurology is a subspecialty of general medicine. * _ Ophthalmology _ is exclusively concerned with the eye and ocular adnexa, combining conservative and surgical therapy. * _ Pediatrics _ (AE) or _paediatrics_ (BE) is devoted to the care of infants, children, and adolescents. Like internal medicine, there are many pediatric subspecialties for specific age ranges, organ systems, disease classes, and sites of care delivery. * _ Pharmaceutical medicine _ is the medical scientific discipline concerned with the discovery, development, evaluation, registration, monitoring and medical aspects of marketing of medicines for the benefit of patients and public health. * _ Physical medicine and rehabilitation _ (or _physiatry_) is concerned with functional improvement after injury, illness, or congenital disorders . * _ Podiatric medicine _ is the study of, diagnosis, and medical veterinarians apply similar techniques as physicians to the care of animals. * _Wilderness medicine _ entails the practice of medicine in the wild, where conventional medical facilities may not be available. * Many other health science fields, e.g. dietetics
EDUCATION AND LEGAL CONTROLS
Medical education and training varies around the world. It typically
involves entry level education at a university medical school ,
followed by a period of supervised practice or internship , or
residency . This can be followed by postgraduate vocational training.
A variety of teaching methods have been employed in medical education,
still itself a focus of active research. In
Since knowledge, techniques, and medical technology continue to
evolve at a rapid rate, many regulatory authorities require continuing
medical education . Medical practitioners upgrade their knowledge in
various ways, including medical journals , seminars, conferences, and
online programs. Headquarters of the Organización Médica
Colegial de España , which regulates the medical profession in
In most countries, it is a legal requirement for a medical doctor to be licensed or registered. In general, this entails a medical degree from a university and accreditation by a medical board or an equivalent national organization, which may ask the applicant to pass exams. This restricts the considerable legal authority of the medical profession to physicians that are trained and qualified by national standards. It is also intended as an assurance to patients and as a safeguard against charlatans that practice inadequate medicine for personal gain. While the laws generally require medical doctors to be trained in "evidence based", Western, or Hippocratic Medicine, they are not intended to discourage different paradigms of health.
In the European Union, the profession of doctor of medicine is regulated. A profession is said to be regulated when access and exercise is subject to the possession of a specific professional qualification. The regulated professions database contains a list of regulated professions for doctor of medicine in the EU member states, EEA countries and Switzerland. This list is covered by the Directive 2005/36/EC.
Doctors who are negligent or intentionally harmful in their care of patients can face charges of medical malpractice and be subject to civil, criminal, or professional sanctions.
Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values and judgments to the practice of medicine. As a scholarly discipline, medical ethics encompasses its practical application in clinical settings as well as work on its history, philosophy, theology, and sociology. Six of the values that commonly apply to medical ethics discussions are:
* autonomy - the patient has the right to refuse or choose their treatment. (_Voluntas aegroti suprema lex_.) * beneficence - a practitioner should act in the best interest of the patient. (_Salus aegroti suprema lex_.) * justice - concerns the distribution of scarce health resources, and the decision of who gets what treatment (fairness and equality). * non-maleficence - "first, do no harm" (_primum non-nocere_). * respect for persons - the patient (and the person treating the patient) have the right to be treated with dignity. * truthfulness and honesty - the concept of informed consent has increased in importance since the historical events of the Doctors\' Trial of the Nuremberg trials, Tuskegee syphilis experiment , and others.
Values such as these do not give answers as to how to handle a particular situation, but provide a useful framework for understanding conflicts. When moral values are in conflict, the result may be an ethical dilemma or crisis. Sometimes, no good solution to a dilemma in medical ethics exists, and occasionally, the values of the medical community (i.e., the hospital and its staff) conflict with the values of the individual patient, family, or larger non-medical community. Conflicts can also arise between health care providers, or among family members. For example, some argue that the principles of autonomy and beneficence clash when patients refuse blood transfusions , considering them life-saving; and truth-telling was not emphasized to a large extent before the HIV era.
Prehistoric medicine incorporated plants (herbalism ), animal parts, and minerals. In many cases these materials were used ritually as magical substances by priests, shamans , or medicine men . Well-known spiritual systems include animism (the notion of inanimate objects having spirits), spiritualism (an appeal to gods or communion with ancestor spirits); shamanism (the vesting of an individual with mystic powers); and divination (magically obtaining the truth). The field of medical anthropology examines the ways in which culture and society are organized around or impacted by issues of health, health care and related issues.
Early records on medicine have been discovered from ancient Egyptian medicine , Babylonian Medicine , Ayurvedic medicine (in the Indian subcontinent ), classical Chinese medicine (predecessor to the modern traditional Chinese medicine ), and ancient Greek medicine and Roman medicine .
In China, archaeological evidence of medicine in Chinese dates back
In India, the surgeon Sushruta described numerous surgical operations, including the earliest forms of plastic surgery . Earliest records of dedicated hospitals come from Mihintale in Sri Lanka where evidence of dedicated medicinal treatment facilities for patients are found.
In Greece, the Greek physician
Hippocrates , the "father of western
medicine", laid the foundation for a rational approach to medicine.
Hippocrates introduced the
Hippocratic Oath for physicians, which is
still relevant and in use today, and was the first to categorize
illnesses as acute , chronic , endemic and epidemic, and use terms
such as, "exacerbation, relapse , resolution, crisis, paroxysm , peak,
and convalescence ". The Greek physician
Most of our knowledge of ancient
Hebrew medicine during the 1st
millennium BC comes from the
_ A manuscript of
After 750 CE, the Muslim world had the works of Hippocrates, Galen
Sushruta translated into
However, the fourteenth and fifteenth century Black Death devastated both the Middle East and Europe, and it has even been argued that Western Europe was generally more effective in recovering from the pandemic than the Middle East. In the early modern period, important early figures in medicine and anatomy emerged in Europe, including Gabriele Falloppio and William Harvey .
The major shift in medical thinking was the gradual rejection,
especially during the
Black Death in the 14th and 15th centuries, of
what may be called the 'traditional authority' approach to science and
medicine. This was the notion that because some prominent person in
the past said something must be so, then that was the way it was, and
anything one observed to the contrary was an anomaly (which was
paralleled by a similar shift in European society in general – see
Copernicus 's rejection of
Paul-Louis Simond injecting a plague vaccine in Karachi, 1898
Modern scientific biomedical research (where results are testable and reproducible ) began to replace early Western traditions based on herbalism, the Greek "four humours " and other such pre-modern notions. The modern era really began with Edward Jenner 's discovery of the smallpox vaccine at the end of the 18th century (inspired by the method of inoculation earlier practiced in Asia), Robert Koch 's discoveries around 1880 of the transmission of disease by bacteria, and then the discovery of antibiotics around 1900.
The post-18th century modernity period brought more groundbreaking
researchers from Europe. From
In the United States,
William Williams Keen ,
William Coley , James
D. Watson , Italy (
Salvador Luria ), Switzerland (
Alexandre Yersin ),
Kitasato Shibasaburō ), and France (
Jean-Martin Charcot ,
Claude Bernard ,
Paul Broca ) and others did significant work. Russian
Nikolai Korotkov also did significant work, as did Sir William Osler
Harvey Cushing .
As science and technology developed, medicine became more reliant upon medications . Throughout history and in Europe right until the late 18th century, not only animal and plant products were used as medicine, but also human body parts and fluids. Pharmacology developed in part from herbalism and some drugs are still derived from plants (atropine , ephedrine , warfarin , aspirin , digoxin , _vinca_ alkaloids , taxol , hyoscine , etc.). Vaccines were discovered by Edward Jenner and Louis Pasteur .
The first antibiotic was arsphenamine (Salvarsan) discovered by Paul Ehrlich in 1908 after he observed that bacteria took up toxic dyes that human cells did not. The first major class of antibiotics was the sulfa drugs , derived by German chemists originally from azo dyes .
Pharmacology has become increasingly sophisticated; modern
biotechnology allows drugs targeted towards specific physiological
processes to be developed, sometimes designed for compatibility with
the body to reduce side-effects .
Evidence-based medicine is a contemporary movement to establish the most effective algorithms of practice (ways of doing things) through the use of systematic reviews and meta-analysis . The movement is facilitated by modern global information science , which allows as much of the available evidence as possible to be collected and analyzed according to standard protocols that are then disseminated to healthcare providers. The Cochrane Collaboration leads this movement. A 2001 review of 160 Cochrane systematic reviews revealed that, according to two readers, 21.3% of the reviews concluded insufficient evidence, 20% concluded evidence of no effect, and 22.5% concluded positive effect.
Main article: Traditional medicine
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine)
comprises knowledge systems that developed over generations within
various societies before the introduction of modern medicine. The
In some Asian and African countries, up to 80% of the population relies on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. When adopted outside of its traditional culture, traditional medicine is often called alternative medicine . Practices known as traditional medicines include Ayurveda , Siddha medicine , Unani , ancient Iranian medicine , Irani , Islamic medicine , traditional Chinese medicine , traditional Korean medicine , acupuncture , Muti , Ifá , and traditional African medicine .
The WHO notes however that "inappropriate use of traditional medicines or practices can have negative or dangerous effects" and that "further research is needed to ascertain the efficacy and safety" of several of the practices and medicinal plants used by traditional medicine systems. The line between alternative medicine and quackery is a contentious subject.
Traditional medicine may include formalized aspects of folk medicine, that is to say longstanding remedies passed on and practised by lay people. Folk medicine consists of the healing practices and ideas of body physiology and health preservation known to some in a culture, transmitted informally as general knowledge, and practiced or applied by anyone in the culture having prior experience. Folk medicine may also be referred to as traditional medicine, alternative medicine , indigenous medicine , or natural medicine . These terms are often considered interchangeable, even though some authors may prefer one or the other because of certain overtones they may be willing to highlight. In fact, out of these terms perhaps only _indigenous medicine_ and _traditional medicine_ have the same meaning as _folk medicine_, while the others should be understood rather in a modern or modernized context.
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List of causes of death by rate
NOTES AND REFERENCES
* ^ "Dictionary, medicine". Retrieved 2 Dec 2013.
* ^ Colquhoun, D ; Novella S (2013). "
Acupuncture is a theatrical
placebo: the end of a myth" (PDF). _Anesthesia & Analgesia_. 116 (6):
1360–1363. PMID 23709076 . doi :10.1213/ANE.0b013e31828f2d5e .
* ^ "
National Cancer Institute . Retrieved 15
* ^ "Medicine, n.1". _OED Online_. Oxford University Press.
September 2014. Retrieved 8 Nov 2014.
* ^ "Medicine". _
Oxford Dictionaries Online _. Oxford University
Press. Retrieved 8 Nov 2014.
* ^ Etymology:
* ^ Blainey, Geoffrey (2011).
A Short History of Christianity _.
OCLC 793902685 .
* ^ "Insuring America\'s Health: Principles and Recommendations".
* ^ Ackerknecht, Erwin (1982). _A Short History of Medicine_. JHU
Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-8018-2726-6 .
* ^ Hong, Francis (2004). "History of
* v * t * e
* Outline * History
Specialties and subspecialties
Obstetrics and gynaecology
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