Mausolus (Greek: Μαύσωλος or Μαύσσωλλος) was a ruler
Caria (377–353 BC), nominally the Persian Satrap, who enjoyed the
status of king or dynast by virtue of the powerful position created by
Hecatomnus who had succeeded the assassinated Persian
Tissaphernes in the
Carian satrapy and founded the hereditary
dynasty of the Hecatomnids.
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Mausolus was the eldest son of Hecatomnus, a native
Carian who became
the satrap of
Tissaphernes died, around 395 BC.
Mausolus took part in the Revolt of the Satraps, both on his nominal
sovereign Artaxerxes Mnemon's side and (briefly) against him;
conquered a great part of Lycia,
Ionia and several Greek islands; and
cooperated with the Rhodians in the Social War against Athens. He
moved his capital from Mylasa, the ancient seat of the
Mausolus embraced Hellenic culture. He is best known for the
monumental shrine, the
Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, erected and named
for him by order of his widow (who was also his sister) Artemisia.
Antipater of Sidon listed the
Mausoleum as one of the Seven Wonders of
the Ancient World. The architects Satyrus and Pythis, and the
Scopas of Paros, Leochares,
Bryaxis and Timotheus, finished
the work after the death of Artemisia, some of them working, it was
said, purely for renown. The site and a few remains can still be seen
in the Turkish town of Bodrum.
The term mausoleum has come to be used generically for any grand tomb.
An inscription discovered at Milas, the ancient Mylasa, details the
punishment of certain conspirators who had made an attempt upon his
life at a festival in a temple at
Labranda in 353 BC.
Simon Hornblower: Mausolus, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1982
^ Published by Philipp August Böckh, CIG ii. 2691 c.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mausolus.
Livius, Maussolus by Jona Lendering
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Mausolus".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
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