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Coordinates: 20°12′S 57°30′E / 20.2°S 57.5°E / -20.2; 57.5

Republic of Mauritius République de Maurice  (French) Repiblik Moris  ( Mauritian
Mauritian
creole)

Flag

Coat of arms

Motto: "Stella Clavisque Maris Indici" (Latin) French: L’étoile et la clé de l’océan Indien "Star and Key of the Indian Ocean"

Anthem: Motherland

Islands of the Republic of Mauritius
Mauritius
(excluding Chagos Archipelago
Chagos Archipelago
and Tromelin
Tromelin
Island)

Islands of the Republic of Mauritius
Mauritius
labelled in black; Chagos Archipelago and Tromelin
Tromelin
are claimed by Mauritius.

Capital and largest city Port Louis 20°10′S 57°31′E / 20.167°S 57.517°E / -20.167; 57.517

Official languages None [Note 1]

National Languages English (de jure) French[1][2]

Vernacular
Vernacular
languages a

84% Creole (de facto) 5.3% Bhojpuri-Hindustani 3.6% French 7.1% Others (including English)[3]

Ethnic groups (2011[3]) See Ethnic groups
Ethnic groups
in Mauritius

Religion (2011[3])

48.5% Hinduism 32.7% Christianity 17.2% Islam 0.8% Others (Including Buddhism) 0.7% None 0.1% Unspecified

Demonym Mauritian

Government Unitary parliamentary republic

• President

Barlen Vyapoory

• Prime Minister

Pravind Jugnauth

Legislature National Assembly

Independence from the United Kingdom

• Constitution of Mauritius

12 March 1968

• Republic

12 March 1992

Area

• Total

2,040 km2 (790 sq mi) (169th)

• Water (%)

0.07

Population

• July 2016 estimate

1,262,132[4] (156th)

• 2011 census

1,236,817[5]

• Density

618.24/km2 (1,601.2/sq mi) (19th)

GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate

• Total

$27.507 billion[6]

• Per capita

US$21,742[6] (66th)

GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate

• Total

US$13.551 billion[6]

• Per capita

US$11,763[7] (68th)

Gini (2012) 35.9[8] medium

HDI (2015)  0.781[9] high · 63rd

Currency Mauritian
Mauritian
rupee (MUR)

Time zone MUT (UTC+4)

Date format dd/mm/yyyy (AD)

Drives on the left

Calling code +230

ISO 3166 code MU

Internet TLD .mu

The mother tongue of Mauritians
Mauritians
(2011 Census).[3]

Mauritius
Mauritius
(/məˈrɪʃəs/ ( listen) or /məˈrɪʃiəs/; French: Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius
Mauritius
(French: République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) off the southeast coast of the African continent. The country includes the islands of Mauritius
Mauritius
and Rodrigues, 560 kilometres (350 mi) east of Mauritius, and the outer islands (Agaléga, St. Brandon
St. Brandon
and two disputed territories). The islands of Mauritius
Mauritius
and Rodrigues
Rodrigues
form part of the Mascarene Islands, along with nearby Réunion, a French overseas department. The area of the country is 2,040 km2 (790 sq mi). The capital and largest city is Port Louis. It is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
and the African Union. Formerly a Dutch colony (1638–1710) and a French colony (1715–1810), Mauritius
Mauritius
became a British colonial possession in 1810 and remained so until 1968, the year in which it attained independence. The British Crown colony of Mauritius
Mauritius
once included the current territories of Mauritius, Rodrigues, the outer islands of Agaléga, St. Brandon, Chagos
Chagos
Archipelago, and Seychelles. The Mauritian
Mauritian
territories gradually devolved with the creation of a separate colony of Seychelles
Seychelles
in 1903 and the excision of the Chagos Archipelago in 1965. The sovereignty over the Chagos Archipelago
Chagos Archipelago
is disputed between Mauritius
Mauritius
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK). The UK excised the archipelago from Mauritian
Mauritian
territory in 1965, three years prior to Mauritian
Mauritian
independence. The UK gradually depopulated the archipelago's indigenous population and leased its biggest island, Diego Garcia, to the United States. Access to the archipelago is prohibited to casual tourists, the media, and its former inhabitants. Mauritius
Mauritius
also claims sovereignty over Tromelin Island
Tromelin Island
from France. The people of Mauritius
Mauritius
are multiethnic, multi-religious, multicultural and multilingual. The island's government is closely modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system, and Mauritius
Mauritius
is highly ranked for democracy and for economic and political freedom. The Human Development Index
Human Development Index
of Mauritius
Mauritius
is the highest in Africa. Along with the other Mascarene Islands, Mauritius
Mauritius
is known for its varied flora and fauna, with many species endemic to the island. The island is widely known as the only known home of the dodo, which, along with several other avian species, was made extinct by human activities relatively shortly after the island's settlement. Mauritius is the only country in Africa
Africa
where Hinduism
Hinduism
is the largest religion. The administration uses English as its main language.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Mauritius
Mauritius
Island

2 Etymology 3 History

3.1 Dutch Mauritius
Dutch Mauritius
(1638–1710) 3.2 French Mauritius
Mauritius
(1715–1810) 3.3 British Mauritius
British Mauritius
(1810–1968) 3.4 Independence
Independence
(since 1968) 3.5 Republic (since 1992) 3.6 Truth and Justice Commission

4 Districts of Mauritius 5 Politics

5.1 Parliament 5.2 Government 5.3 Rule of law 5.4 Foreign relations 5.5 Military

6 Territorial dispute

6.1 Chagos
Chagos
Archipelago

6.1.1 MPA ruling

6.2 Tromelin

7 Environment and climate 8 Biodiversity 9 Demographics

9.1 Ethnic groups 9.2 Religion 9.3 Languages 9.4 Health 9.5 Education

10 Economy

10.1 Tourism 10.2 Transportation 10.3 Information and Communication Technology Sector

11 Culture

11.1 Music 11.2 Cuisine 11.3 Holidays and festivals 11.4 Sports

12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Bibliography 16 Further reading 17 External links

Geography[edit] Main articles: Geography of Mauritius
Geography of Mauritius
and Outer islands of Mauritius The total land area of the country is 2,040 km2 (790 sq mi) (about 80% the size of Luxembourg). It is the 169th largest nation in the world by size. The Republic of Mauritius is constituted of the main island of Mauritius
Mauritius
and several outlying islands. The second-largest island is Rodrigues
Rodrigues
with an area of 108 km2 (42 sq mi) and situated 560 km (350 mi) to the east of Mauritius; the twin islands of Agalega with a total land area of 2,600 hectares (26 km2; 10 sq mi) are situated some 1,000 km (620 mi) north of Mauritius. Saint Brandon is an archipelago comprising a number of sand-banks, shoals and islets. It is situated some 430 km (270 mi) northeast of Mauritius
Mauritius
and is mostly used as a fishing base by the Raphael Fishing Company Limited.[10][11] The nation's exclusive economic zone (EEZ) covers about 2.3 million square kilometres (890,000 sq mi) of the Indian Ocean, including approximately 400,000 km2 (150,000 sq mi) jointly managed with the Seychelles.[12][13][14] Mauritius
Mauritius
Island[edit] Main article: Mauritius
Mauritius
Island Mauritius
Mauritius
is 2,000 km (1,200 mi) off the southeast coast of Africa, between latitudes 19°58.8' and 20°31.7' south and longitudes 57°18.0' and 57°46.5' east. It is 65 km (40 mi) long and 45 km (30 mi) wide. Its land area is 1,864.8 km2 (720.0 sq mi).[15][16] The island is surrounded by more than 150 km (100 mi) of white sandy beaches, and the lagoons are protected from the open sea by the world's third-largest coral reef, which surrounds the island.[17] Just off the Mauritian
Mauritian
coast lie some 49 uninhabited islands and islets, several used as natural reserves for endangered species. The island of Mauritius
Mauritius
is relatively young geologically, having been created by volcanic activity some 8 million years ago. Together with Saint Brandon, Réunion, and Rodrigues, the island is part of the Mascarene Islands. These islands have emerged as a result of gigantic underwater volcanic eruptions that happened thousands of kilometres to the east of the continental block made up of Africa
Africa
and Madagascar.[11] They are no longer volcanically active and the hotspot now rests under Réunion
Réunion
Island. Mauritius
Mauritius
is encircled by a broken ring of mountain ranges, varying in height from 300–800 m (1,000–2,600 ft) above sea level. The land rises from coastal plains to a central plateau where it reaches a height of 670 m (2,200 ft); the highest peak is in the southwest, Piton de la Petite Rivière Noire at 828 metres (2,717 ft). Streams and rivers speckle the island, many formed in the cracks created by lava flows.

Panoramic view showing Port Louis, mountain ranges, and sugar cane plantations

Etymology[edit] The first historical evidence of the existence of an island now known as Mauritius
Mauritius
is on a map produced by the Italian cartographer Alberto Cantino in 1502.[18][19] From this, it appears that Mauritius
Mauritius
was first named Dina Arobi around 975 by Arab sailors, the first people to visit the island. In 1507, Portuguese sailors visited the uninhabited island. The island appears with a Portuguese name Cirne on early Portuguese maps, probably from the name of a ship in the 1507 expedition. Another Portuguese sailor, Dom Pedro Mascarenhas, gave the name Mascarenes to the Archipelago. In 1598, a Dutch squadron under Admiral
Admiral
Wybrand van Warwyck landed at Grand Port
Grand Port
and named the island Mauritius, in honour of Prince Maurice van Nassau, stadholder of the Dutch Republic. Later the island became a French colony and was renamed Isle de France. On 3 December 1810, the French surrendered the island to Great Britain during the Napoleonic Wars. Under British rule, the island's name reverted to Mauritius
Mauritius
/məˈrɪʃəs/ ( listen). Mauritius
Mauritius
is also commonly known as Maurice (pronounced [mɔˈʁis]) and Île Maurice in French, Moris in Mauritian
Mauritian
Creole. History[edit] Main article: History of Mauritius

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Cantino planisphere (1502), Biblioteca Estense, Modena, Italy

The island of Mauritius
Mauritius
was uninhabited before its first recorded visit during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
by Arab sailors, who named it Dina Arobi. However, the island might have been visited well before by sailors of ancient times; wax tablets were found on the shores of Mauritius
Mauritius
by the Dutch, but since the tablets were not preserved, it cannot be said whether they were of Greek, Phoenician or Arab origin.[20] In 1507, Portuguese sailors came to the uninhabited island and established a visiting base. Diogo Fernandes Pereira, a Portuguese navigator, was the first European known to land in Mauritius. He named the island "Ilha do Cirne". The Portuguese did not stay long as they were not interested in these islands.[21] Dutch Mauritius
Dutch Mauritius
(1638–1710)[edit] Main article: Dutch Mauritius

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2017)

Dutch map of a coast of Mauritius. The Dutch were the first to establish a permanent human settlement in Mauritius. Dutch colonists named it after Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange and the Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic.

Maurice, Prince of Orange, after whom the Island was named.

In 1598 a Dutch squadron under Admiral
Admiral
Wybrand Van Warwyck landed at Grand Port
Grand Port
and named the island "Mauritius" after Prince Maurice van Nassau of the Dutch Republic, the ruler of his country. The Dutch established a small colony on the island in 1638, from which they exploited ebony trees and introduced sugar cane, domestic animals and deer. It was from here that Dutch navigator Abel Tasman
Abel Tasman
set out to discover the western part of Australia. The first Dutch settlement lasted twenty years. Several attempts were subsequently made, but the settlements never developed enough to produce dividends, causing the Dutch to abandon Mauritius
Mauritius
in 1710.[21][22] French Mauritius
Mauritius
(1715–1810)[edit] Main article: Isle de France
France
(Mauritius)

Map of Isle de France

Mahé de La Bourdonnais whose governorship brought an accelerated and the major development in the French colony period

France, which already controlled neighbouring Île Bourbon (now Réunion), took control of Mauritius
Mauritius
in 1715 and renamed it Isle de France. In 1723, the Code Noir
Code Noir
was established to categorise one group of human beings as "goods", in order for the owner of these goods to be able to obtain insurance money and compensation in case of loss of his "goods".[23] The 1735 arrival of French governor Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais
Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais
coincided with development of a prosperous economy based on sugar production. Mahé de La Bourdonnais established Port Louis
Port Louis
as a naval base and a shipbuilding centre.[21] Under his governorship, numerous buildings were erected, a number of which are still standing. These include part of Government House, the Château de Mon Plaisir, and the Line Barracks, the headquarters of the police force. The island was under the administration of the French East India Company
French East India Company
which maintained its presence until 1767.[21] From 1767 to 1810, except for a brief period during the French Revolution when the inhabitants set up a government virtually independent of France, the island was controlled by officials appointed by the French Government. Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre lived on the island from 1768 to 1771, then went back to France, where he wrote Paul et Virginie, a love story, which made the Isle de France
France
famous wherever the French language
French language
was spoken. Two famous French governors were the Vicomte de Souillac (who constructed the Chaussée in Port Louis[24] and encouraged farmers to settle in the district of Savanne), and Antoine Bruni d'Entrecasteaux
Antoine Bruni d'Entrecasteaux
(who saw to it that the French in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
should have their headquarters in Mauritius
Mauritius
instead of Pondicherry
Pondicherry
in India).[20]

The Battle of Grand Port
Grand Port
between French and British naval forces, 1810

Charles Mathieu Isidore Decaen
Charles Mathieu Isidore Decaen
was a successful general in the French Revolutionary Wars and, in some ways, a rival of Napoléon I. He ruled as Governor of Isle de France
France
and Réunion
Réunion
from 1803 to 1810. British naval cartographer and explorer Matthew Flinders
Matthew Flinders
was arrested and detained by General Decaen on the island, in contravention of an order from Napoléon. During the Napoleonic Wars, Mauritius
Mauritius
became a base from which French corsairs
French corsairs
organised successful raids on British commercial ships. The raids continued until 1810, when a Royal Navy expedition led by Commodore Josias Rowley, R.N., an Anglo-Irish aristocrat, was sent to capture the island. Despite winning the Battle of Grand Port, the only French naval victory over the British during these wars, the French could not prevent the British from landing at Cap Malheureux
Cap Malheureux
three months later. They formally surrendered the island on the fifth day of the invasion, 3 December 1810,[20] on terms allowing settlers to keep their land and property and to use the French language
French language
and law of France
France
in criminal and civil matters. Under British rule, the island's name reverted to Mauritius.[21] British Mauritius
British Mauritius
(1810–1968)[edit] Main article: British Mauritius

Champ de Mars Racecourse, Port Louis, 1880

The British administration, which began with Sir Robert Farquhar as Governor, led to rapid social and economic changes. However, it was tainted by the Ratsitatane episode. Ratsitatane, nephew of King Radama of Madagascar, was brought to Mauritius
Mauritius
as a political prisoner. He managed to escape from prison and plotted a rebellion that would free the island's slaves. He was betrayed by an associate and was caught by the British forces, summarily judged, and condemned to death. He was beheaded at Plaine Verte on 15 April 1822, and his head was displayed as a deterrent against future uprisings among the slaves.[25] In 1832, Adrien d'Épinay launched the first Mauritian
Mauritian
newspaper (Le Cernéen) which was not controlled by the government. In the same year, there was a move by the procureur-general to abolish slavery without compensation to the slave owners. This gave rise to discontent, and, to check an eventual rebellion, the government ordered all the inhabitants to surrender their arms. Furthermore, a stone fortress, Fort Adelaide, was built on a hill (now known as the Citadel hill) in the centre of Port Louis
Port Louis
to quell any uprising.[24]

Demographics of slaves in Mauritius
Mauritius
(top line represents death rate)

Slavery
Slavery
was abolished in 1835, and the planters ultimately received two million pounds sterling in compensation for the loss of their slaves who had been imported from Africa
Africa
and Madagascar
Madagascar
during the French occupation. The abolition of slavery had important impacts on Mauritius's society, economy and population. The planters brought a large number of indentured labourers from India
India
to work in the sugar cane fields. Between 1834 and 1921, around half a million indentured labourers were present on the island. They worked on sugar estates, factories, in transport and on construction sites. Additionally, the British brought 8,740 Indian soldiers to the island.[21] Aapravasi Ghat, in the bay at Port Louis
Port Louis
and now a UNESCO
UNESCO
site, was the first British colony to serve as a major reception centre for slaves and indentured servants for British plantation labour.[clarification needed] An important figure of the 19th century was Rémy Ollier, a journalist of mixed origin. In 1828, the colour bar was officially abolished in Mauritius, but British governors gave little power to coloured persons, and appointed only whites as leading officials. Rémy Ollier petitioned to Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
to allow coloureds in the council of government, and this became possible a few years later. He also made Port Louis
Port Louis
become a municipality so that the citizens could administer the town through their own elected representatives. A street has been named after him in Port Louis, and his bust was erected in the Jardin de la Compagnie in 1906.[20] In 1885 a new constitution was introduced to Mauritius. It created elected positions on the governing council, but the franchise was restricted mainly to the French and Creole classes. The labourers brought from India
India
were not always fairly treated, and a German, Adolph von Plevitz, made himself the unofficial protector of these immigrants. He mixed with many of the labourers, and in 1871 helped them to write a petition which was sent to Governor Gordon. A commission was appointed to look into the complaints made by the Indian immigrants, and in 1872 two lawyers, appointed by the British Crown, were sent from England to make an inquiry. This Royal Commission recommended several measures that would affect the lives of Indian labourers during the next fifty years.[20] In November 1901, Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
visited Mauritius, on his way from South Africa
Africa
to India. He stayed on the island for two weeks, and urged the Indo- Mauritian
Mauritian
community to take an interest in education and to play a more active role in politics. Back in India, he sent over a young lawyer, Manilal Doctor, to improve the plight of the Indo-Mauritians. During the same year, faster links were established with the island of Rodrigues
Rodrigues
thanks to the wireless.[26] In 1903, motorcars were introduced in Mauritius, and in 1910 the first taxis, operated by Joseph Merven, came into service. The electrification of Port Louis
Port Louis
took place in 1909, and in the same decade the Mauritius
Mauritius
Hydro Electric Company (managed by the Atchia Brothers) was authorised to provide power to the towns of upper Plaines Wilhems. The 1910s were a period of political agitation. The rising middle class (made up of doctors, lawyers, and teachers) began to challenge the political power of the sugar cane landowners. Dr. Eugène Laurent, mayor of Port Louis, was the leader of this new group; his party, Action Libérale, demanded that more people should be allowed to vote in the elections. Action Libérale was opposed by the Parti de l'Ordre, led by Henri Leclézio, the most influential of the sugar magnates.[20] In 1911 there were riots in Port Louis
Port Louis
due to a false rumour that Dr. Eugène Laurent had been murdered by the oligarchs in Curepipe. Shops and offices were damaged in the capital, and one person was killed. In the same year, 1911, the first public cinema shows took place in Curepipe, and, in the same town, a stone building was erected to house the Royal College.[26] In 1912, a wider telephone network came into service, and it was used by the government, business firms, and a few private households. World War I
World War I
broke out in August 1914. Many Mauritians
Mauritians
volunteered to fight in Europe against the Germans and in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
against the Turks. But the war affected Mauritius
Mauritius
much less than the wars of the eighteenth century. On the contrary, the 1914–18 war was a period of great prosperity because of a boom in sugar prices. In 1919 the Mauritius
Mauritius
Sugar Syndicate came into being, and it included 70% of all sugar producers.

British colonial flag, 1923

The 1920s saw the rise of a "retrocessionism" movement which favoured the retrocession of Mauritius
Mauritius
to France. The movement rapidly collapsed because none of the candidates who wanted Mauritius
Mauritius
to be given back to France
France
was elected in the 1921 elections. Due to the post-war recession, there was a sharp drop in sugar prices. Many sugar estates closed down, and it marked the end of an era for the sugar magnates who had not only controlled the economy, but also the political life of the country. Raoul Rivet, the editor of Le Mauricien newspaper, campaigned for a revision of the constitution that would give the emerging middle class a greater role in the running of the country. The principles of Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
began to infiltrate the Hindu community, who clamoured for more social justice.[26] The 1930s saw the birth of the Labour Party, launched by Dr. Maurice Curé. Emmanuel Anquetil rallied the urban workers while Pandit Sahadeo concentrated on the rural working class. Labour Day
Labour Day
was celebrated for the first time in 1938. More than 30,000 workers sacrificed a day's wage and came from all over the island to attend a giant meeting at the Champ de Mars.[27] At the outbreak of World War II
World War II
in 1939, many Mauritians
Mauritians
volunteered to serve under the British flag in Africa
Africa
and the Near East, fighting against the German and Italian armies. Some went to England to become pilots and ground staff in the Royal Air Force. Mauritius
Mauritius
was never really threatened, but several British ships were sunk outside Port Louis by German submarines in 1943. During World War II, conditions were hard in the country; the prices of commodities doubled, but the salaries of workers increased only by 10 to 20 percent. There was civil unrest, and the colonial government crushed all trade union activities. However, the labourers of Belle Vue Harel Sugar Estate went on strike on 27 September 1943. Police officers eventually fired on the crowd, and killed three labourers including a boy of ten and a pregnant woman, Anjaly Coopen.[28][29]

Postage stamp with portrait of Queen Elizabeth II, 1954

The first general elections were held on 9 August 1948 and were won by the Labour Party. This party, led by Guy Rozemont, bettered its position in 1953, and, on the strength of the election results, demanded universal suffrage. Constitutional conferences were held in London in 1955 and 1957, and the ministerial system was introduced. Voting took place for the first time on the basis of universal adult suffrage on 9 March 1959. The general election was again won by the Labour Party, led this time by Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam.[30]

Elizabeth II, the last British Monarch of Mauritius

A Constitutional Review Conference was held in London in 1961, and a programme of further constitutional advance was established. The 1963 election was won by the Labour Party and its allies. The Colonial Office noted that politics of a communal nature was gaining ground in Mauritius
Mauritius
and that the choice of candidates (by parties) and the voting behaviour (of electors) were governed by ethnic and caste considerations.[30] Around that time, two eminent British academics, Richard Titmuss
Richard Titmuss
and James Meade, published a report of the island's social problems caused by overpopulation and the monoculture of sugar cane. This led to an intense campaign to halt the population explosion, and the decade registered a sharp decline in population growth. Independence
Independence
(since 1968)[edit] Main article: Mauritius
Mauritius
(1968–1992) At the Lancaster Conference of 1965, it became clear that Britain wanted to relieve itself of the colony of Mauritius. In 1959, Harold Macmillan had made his famous Winds of Change Speech where he acknowledged that the best option for Britain was to give complete independence to its colonies. Thus, since the late Fifties, the way was paved for independence.[31]

Seewoosagur Ramgoolam, known as Chacha led the independence movement which led to self-rule in 1968. He is revered as the 'father of the nation'

Later in 1965, after the Lancaster Conference, the Chagos
Chagos
Archipelago was excised from the territory of Mauritius
Mauritius
to form the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT). A general election took place on 7 August 1967, and the Labour Party and its two allies obtained the majority of seats. Mauritius
Mauritius
adopted a new constitution and independence was proclaimed on 12 March 1968. Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam
Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam
became the first prime minister of an independent Mauritius
Mauritius
with Queen Elizabeth II remaining head of state as Queen of Mauritius. In 1969, the opposition party Mauritian
Mauritian
Militant Movement (MMM) led by Paul Bérenger was founded. Later in 1971, the MMM, backed by unions, called a series of strikes in the port which caused a state of emergency in the country.[32] The coalition government of the Labour Party and the PMSD (Parti Mauricien Social Democrate) reacted by curtailing civil liberties and curbing freedom of the press.[26] Two unsuccessful assassination attempts were made against Paul Bérenger. The second one led to the death of Azor Adélaïde, a dock worker and activist, on 25 November 1971.[33] General elections were postponed and public meetings were prohibited. Members of the MMM including Paul Bérenger were imprisoned on 23 December 1971. The MMM leader was released a year later.[34] In May 1975, a student revolt that started at the University of Mauritius
Mauritius
swept across the country.[35] The students were unsatisfied with an education system that did not meet their aspirations and gave limited prospects for future employment. On 20 May, thousands of students tried to enter Port-Louis over the Grand River North West bridge and clashed with police. An act of Parliament was passed on 16 December 1975 to extend the right to vote to 18-year-olds. This was seen as an attempt to appease the frustration of the younger generation.[25] The next general election took place on 20 December 1976. The Labour Party won 28 seats out of 62[36] but Prime Minister Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam managed to remain in office, with a two-seat majority, after striking an alliance with the PMSD of Gaetan Duval. In 1982 an MMM government led by Prime Minister Anerood Jugnauth
Anerood Jugnauth
and Paul Bérenger
Paul Bérenger
as Minister of Finance was elected. However, ideological and personality differences emerged within the MMM leadership. The power struggle between Bérenger and Jugnauth peaked in March 1983. Jugnauth travelled to New Delhi to attend a Non-Aligned Movement summit; on his return, Bérenger proposed constitutional changes that would strip power from the Prime Minister. At Jugnauth's request, PM Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
of India
India
planned an armed intervention involving the Indian Navy
Indian Navy
and Indian Army
Indian Army
to prevent a coup under the code name Operation Lal Dora.[37][38][39] The MMM government split up nine months after the June 1982 election. According to an Information Ministry official the nine months was a "socialist experiment".[40] The new MSM party, led by Aneerood Jugnauth, was elected in 1983. Gaëtan Duval became the vice-prime minister. Throughout the decade, Aneerood Jugnauth ruled the country with the help of the PMSD and the Labour Party. That period saw a growth in the EPZ (Export Processing Zone) sector. Industrialisation began to spread to villages as well, and attracted young workers from all ethnic communities. As a result, the sugar industry began to lose its hold on the economy. Large retail chains began opening stores opened in 1985 and offered credit facilities to low income earners, thus allowing them to afford basic household appliances. There was also a boom in the tourism industry, and new hotels sprang up throughout the island. In 1989 the stock exchange opened its doors and in 1992 the freeport began operation.[26] In 1990, the Prime Minister lost the vote on changing the Constitution to make the country a republic with Bérenger as President.[41] Republic (since 1992)[edit] On 12 March 1992, twenty-four years after independence, Mauritius
Mauritius
was proclaimed a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations.[21] The last Governor General, Sir Veerasamy Ringadoo
Veerasamy Ringadoo
became the first President.[42] This was under a transitional arrangement, in which he was replaced by Cassam Uteem later that year.[43] Political power remained with the Prime Minister.

Anerood Jugnauth
Anerood Jugnauth
led a coalition government which amended the constitution for Mauritius
Mauritius
to become a Republic and a sovereign nation in 1991

Despite an improvement in the economy, which coincided with a fall in the price of petrol and a favourable dollar exchange rate, the government did not enjoy full popularity. As early as 1984, there was discontent. Through the Newspapers and Periodicals Amendment Act, the government tried to make every newspaper provide a bank guarantee of half a million rupees. Forty-three journalists protested by participating in a public demonstration in Port Louis, in front of Parliament. They were arrested and freed on bail. This caused a public outcry and the government had to review its policy.[26] There was also dissatisfaction in the education sector. There were not enough high-quality secondary colleges to answer the growing demand of primary school leavers who had got through their CPE (Certificate of Primary Education). In 1991, a master plan for education failed to get national support and contributed to the government's downfall.[26] Dr Navin Chandra Ramgoolam was elected as Prime Minister in the 1995 election. The landslide victory of 60–0 was a repeat of the 1982 score, but this time it was on the side of the Labour–MMM alliance.[citation needed] In February 1999, the country experienced a brief period of civil unrest. Riots flared after the popular singer Kaya, arrested for smoking marijuana at a public concert, was found dead in his prison cell. President Cassam Uteem and Cardinal Jean Margéot toured the country and, after four days of turmoil, calm was restored.[44] A commission of enquiry was set up to investigate the root causes of the social disturbance. The resulting report delved into the cause of poverty and qualified many tenacious beliefs as perceptions.[45] Aneerood Jugnauth of the MSM returned to power in 2000 after making an alliance with the MMM, which included prominent figures such as Anil Bachoo, Pravind Jugnauth
Pravind Jugnauth
and Sangeet Fowdar
Sangeet Fowdar
[clarification needed] amongst others. In 2002, the island of Rodrigues
Rodrigues
became an autonomous entity within the republic and was thus able to elect its own representatives to administer the island. In 2003, the prime ministership was transferred to Paul Bérenger
Paul Bérenger
of the MMM, and Aneerood Jugnauth went to Le Réduit to serve as president.[citation needed] In the 2005 election, Navin Ramgoolam, leader of the Labour Party, was brought to power after making an alliance with the Parti Mauricien Xavier-Luc Duval
Xavier-Luc Duval
(PMXD) and other minor parties. Navin Ramgoolam was again elected in May 2010. This time the Labour Party joined forces with the PMSD and the MSM. Under the new government, the country continued with its MID (Maurice Ile Durable) project, started in 2008, to make the economy less dependent on fossil fuels. The political landscape stayed rather confused. The Labour Party did away with the MSM, and then with the PMSD, whose leader had acted as Finance minister. The MMM made an alliance (known as Remake) with the MSM but broke off with the latter to become the ally of Labour Party. Parliament remained closed for most of 2014. A second republic was proposed (by the leaders of Labour and MMM) whereby a president, elected by the population, would hold more power and rule the country in joint collaboration with the PM. Nomination day took place on 24 November 2014 and, for the first time, electoral candidates had the option of not proclaiming their ethnic group. Only a few chose to do so. General elections were held on 10 December 2014, and the Lepep alliance made up of the MSM, PMSD, and Mouvement Liberater (led by an MMM dissident) was elected to power by reaping 47 seats out of 60. The Westminster system
Westminster system
was thus maintained and Aneerood Jugnauth became the PM for the sixth time.[citation needed] Shortly after the new government took office, the ex-PM was lengthily interrogated by the police on charges related to money laundering. The license of the Bramer Bank was revoked due to alleged lack of liquidity, and the BAI (British-American Insurance) was suspended from trading and placed in receivership. A United Nations
United Nations
tribunal ruled that Britain had acted illegally when it created a marine protected area around the Chagos
Chagos
without the consent of Mauritius, thereby depriving this country of its fishing rights. Fresh negotiations began with Jin Fei in view of reviving the project started in 2006. Mauritius
Mauritius
will henceforth detain 80% of the shares while the rest would go to the Chinese promoters.

Modern skyline of Port Louis

Tourism continued to be the main source for foreign exchange, and the number of visitors to the island reached 1.1 million in 2015. Despite this boom in the tourism industry, Tourism Minister Xavier-Luc Duval placed a two-year moratorium on the construction of new hotels.[citation needed] In December 2016, the PMSD left the coalition government in protest against the government’s decision to introduce a prosecution commission bill. The bill was intended to transfer the power to prosecute from the DPP (Director of Public Prosecutions) to an appointed commission made up of three judges. Because of the PMSD exit, the bill did not through and the PMSD leader, Xavier Luc Duval, replaced Paul Bérenger
Paul Bérenger
as leader as leader of the opposition. On 21 January 2017, Anerood Jugnauth
Anerood Jugnauth
announced that in two days time he would resign in favour of his son, Finance Minister Pravind Jugnauth, who would assume the office of prime minister.[46] The transition took place as planned on 23 January.[47] Truth and Justice Commission[edit] Operating from 2009 to 2011 the Truth and Justice Commission
Truth and Justice Commission
was established to explore the impact of slavery and indentured servitude in Mauritius. The Commission was tasked to investigate the dispossession of land and "determine appropriate measures to be extended to descendants of slaves and indentured laborers."[48][49] It was "unique in that it [dealt] with socio-economic class abuses" and explored the possibility of reparations.[48] The Commission attempted to cover more than 370 years, the longest period of time that a truth commission has ever covered.[48] Published on 25 November 2011, the report outlined over 300 recommendations detailing ways to bring those affected by slavery and indentured labour out of poverty.[50][needs update] Districts of Mauritius[edit] Main article: Districts of Mauritius Mauritius
Mauritius
is subdivided into nine Districts, they consist of different cities, towns and villages.

Savanne Flacq Rivière Noire Port Louis Rivière du Rempart Pamplemousses Plaines Wilhems Grand Port Moka

Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Mauritius

Ameenah Gurib, President from 2015 to 2018

The politics of Mauritius
Mauritius
take place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, in which the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government, assisted by a Council of Ministers. Mauritius
Mauritius
has a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the Government. Legislative power
Legislative power
is vested in both the Government and the National Assembly. Parliament[edit] Main article: National Assembly of Mauritius

National Assembly building

The National Assembly is Mauritius's unicameral legislature, which was called the Legislative Assembly until 1992, when the country became a republic. It consists of 70 members, 62 elected for four-year terms in multi-member constituencies and eight additional members, known as "best losers", appointed by the Supreme Court to ensure that ethnic and religious minorities are equitably represented. The UN Human Rights Committee (UNHRC), which monitors member states' compliance with the International Covenant on Political and Civil Rights (ICPCR), has criticised the country's Best Loser System following a complaint by a local youth and trade union movement.[51] The president is elected for a five-year term by the Parliament. The island of Mauritius
Mauritius
is divided into 20 constituencies that return three members each, while Rodrigues
Rodrigues
is a single constituency that returns two members. After a general election, the Electoral Supervisory Commission may nominate up to eight additional members with a view to correct any imbalance in the representation of ethnic minorities in Parliament. This system of nominating members is commonly called the best loser system. The political party or party alliance that wins the majority of seats in Parliament forms the government. Its leader becomes the Prime Minister, who selects the Cabinet from elected members of the Assembly, except for the Attorney General, who may not be an elected member of the Assembly. The political party or alliance which has the second largest majority forms the Official Opposition and its leader is normally nominated by the President of the Republic as the Leader of the Opposition. The Assembly elects a Speaker, a Deputy Speaker and a Deputy Chairman of Committees as some of its first tasks. Government[edit] Main article: Government of Mauritius Mauritius
Mauritius
is a democracy with a government elected every five years. The most recent National Assembly Election was held on 10 December 2014 in all the 20 mainland constituencies, and in the constituency covering the island of Rodrigues. Elections have tended to be a contest between two major coalitions of parties. The 2006–2014 Ibrahim Index of African Governance
Ibrahim Index of African Governance
ranked Mauritius first in good governance.[52] According to the 2017 Democracy Index compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit
Economist Intelligence Unit
that measures the state of democracy in 167 countries, Mauritius
Mauritius
ranks 16th worldwide and is the only African-related country with "full democracy".[53]

Office held Office holder Incumbency[54]

President Ameenah Gurib 5 June 2015

Prime Minister Pravind Jugnauth 23 January 2017

Vice President Barlen Vyapoory 4 April 2015[55]

Deputy Prime Minister Ivan Collendavelloo 14 December 2014

Chief Justice Kheshoe Parsad Matadeen 31 December 2013

Speaker of the National Assembly Mrs. Santi Bai Hanoomanjee 22 December 2014

Leader of the Opposition Xavier-Luc Duval 14 December 2014

Rule of law[edit] Laws governing the Mauritian
Mauritian
penal system are derived partly from French civil law
French civil law
and British common law.[56] The crime rate reduced from 4.3 per 1,000 population in 2009 to 3.6 per 1,000 population in 2010.[57] The Constitution of Mauritius
Constitution of Mauritius
states that for purposes of separation of powers, the judiciary is independent. According to Justice E. Balancy,[when?] public opinion is characterised by excessive emotional reaction to crimes arousing the moral indignation of the community. The result is a reluctance to give due weight to the liberty of the citizen and the presumption of innocence.[58] The provisional charge, part of criminal procedure law since 1852, is a practice that allows anyone suspected of a crime to be detained – sometimes for up to two years – before being charged.[59] In 1994, the police detained the editor-in-chief and a journalist of a weekly magazine for having "unlawfully published secret news". The chairman of the company was also arrested. In 1995, the Supreme Court found the provisional charge to be null and void, as the offence set out on the provisional charge "publishing secret news" was not known to the law.[60] Foreign relations[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of Mauritius Mauritius
Mauritius
has strong and friendly relations with various African, American, Asian, European and Oceania countries. Considered part of Africa
Africa
geographically, Mauritius
Mauritius
has friendly relations with African states in the region, particularly South Africa, by far its largest continental trading partner. Mauritian
Mauritian
investors are gradually entering African markets, notably Madagascar, Mozambique
Mozambique
and Zimbabwe. The country's political heritage and dependence on Western markets have led to close ties with the European Union
European Union
and its member states, particularly France. It also depends on the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
as a trading partner. Relations with China and India
India
are strong for both historical and commercial reasons. Mauritius
Mauritius
is a member of the World Trade Organization, the Commonwealth of Nations, La Francophonie, the African Union, the Southern Africa
Africa
Development Community (SADC), the Indian Ocean Commission, COMESA, and formed the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Rim Association. Military[edit] Main article: Military of Mauritius All military, police, and security functions in Mauritius
Mauritius
are carried out by 10,000 active-duty personnel under the Commissioner of Police. The 8,000-member National Police Force is responsible for domestic law enforcement. The 1,400-member Special Mobile Force
Special Mobile Force
(SMF) and the 688-member National Coast Guard are the only two paramilitary units in Mauritius. Both units are composed of police officers on lengthy rotations to those services.[61] Territorial dispute[edit]

This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding or removing subheadings. (August 2016)

Chagos
Chagos
Archipelago[edit] Main articles: Chagos Archipelago
Chagos Archipelago
sovereignty dispute and Depopulation of Chagossians
Chagossians
from the Chagos
Chagos
Archipelago Mauritius
Mauritius
has long sought sovereignty over the Chagos
Chagos
Archipelago, located 1,287 kilometres (800 mi) to the northeast. Chagos
Chagos
was administratively part of Mauritius
Mauritius
from the 18th century when the French first settled the islands. All of the islands forming part of the French colonial territory of Isle de France
France
(as Mauritius
Mauritius
was then known) were ceded to the British in 1810 under the Act of Capitulation signed between the two powers.[62] In 1965, three years before the independence of Mauritius, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
split the Chagos Archipelago from Mauritius
Mauritius
and the islands of Aldabra, Farquhar and Desroches
Desroches
from the Seychelles
Seychelles
to form the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT). The islands were formally established as an overseas territory of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
on 8 November 1965. On 23 June 1976, Aldabra, Farquhar and Desroches
Desroches
were returned to Seychelles
Seychelles
as a result of its attaining independence. The BIOT now comprises the Chagos Archipelago
Chagos Archipelago
only. The UK leased the main island of the archipelago Diego Garcia
Diego Garcia
to the United States
United States
under a 50-year lease (which expires in 2016[needs update]) to establish a military base.[62][63] Mauritius
Mauritius
has repeatedly asserted that the separation of its territories is a violation of United Nations
United Nations
resolutions banning the dismemberment of colonial territories before independence and claims that the Chagos
Chagos
Archipelago, including Diego Garcia, forms an integral part of the territory of Mauritius
Mauritius
under both Mauritian
Mauritian
law and international law.[64] After initially denying that the islands were inhabited, British officials forcibly expelled to the mainland approximately 2,000 Chagossians
Chagossians
who had lived on those islands for a century. Since 1971, only the atoll of Diego Garcia
Diego Garcia
is inhabited, home to some 3,000 UK and US military and civilian contracted personnel. Chagossians
Chagossians
have since engaged in activism to return to the archipelago, claiming that their forced expulsion and dispossession were illegal.[65][66] MPA ruling[edit]

The biggest island of the Archipelago, Diego Garcia
Diego Garcia
is home to an American military base.

On 20 December 2010, Mauritius
Mauritius
initiated proceedings against the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK) under the United Nations
United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) to challenge the legality of the Chagos
Chagos
Marine Protected Area (MPA), which the UK purported to declare around the Chagos Archipelago
Chagos Archipelago
in April 2010. The dispute was arbitrated by the Permanent Court of Arbitration. After lengthy written pleadings by the Parties and a hearing from 22 April to 9 May 2014 in Istanbul, Turkey, the Arbitral Tribunal ruled unanimously on 18 March 2015 that the ‘marine protected area' which the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
had declared around the Chagos Archipelago
Chagos Archipelago
in April 2010 violates international law. It is the first time that UK's conduct with regard to the Chagos Archipelago
Chagos Archipelago
has been considered and condemned by any international court or tribunal.[67] The Tribunal held unanimously that, in declaring the ‘MPA', UK violated international law. It ruled that UK breached its obligations under Articles 2(3), 56(2), and 194(4) of UNCLOS. In reaching these conclusions, the Tribunal made several findings. It considered the undertakings given by UK to the Mauritian
Mauritian
Ministers at the Lancaster House talks in September 1965. UK argued that those undertakings were not binding and had no status in international law. The Tribunal rejected that argument, holding that those undertakings became a binding international agreement upon the independence of Mauritius, and have bound UK since then. It found that UK's commitments to Mauritius
Mauritius
in relation to fishing rights and oil and mineral rights in the Chagos Archipelago
Chagos Archipelago
are legally binding. The Tribunal also found that UK's undertaking to return the Chagos Archipelago
Chagos Archipelago
to Mauritius when no longer needed for defence purposes is legally binding.[67] The Tribunal held that UK had not respected Mauritius's legal rights over the Chagos
Chagos
Archipelago. It considered the events from February 2009 to April 2010, during which time the ‘MPA' proposal came into being and was then imposed on Mauritius.[67] The Tribunal observed that UK's failure to balance its rights and interests with those of Mauritius
Mauritius
is to be contrasted with the approach adopted by UK with respect to the United States. It noted that the record demonstrates a conscious balancing of rights and interests, suggestions of compromise and willingness to offer assurances by UK, and an understanding of the United States' concerns in connection with the proposed ‘MPA'. Those elements were noticeably absent in UK's approach to Mauritius. Accordingly, the Tribunal found that, in declaring the ‘MPA', UK had acted unlawfully and in disregard of Mauritius's rights.[67] The parties differ on the characterization of the dispute. Mauritius states that its case is that the MPA is unlawful under the Convention. UK argued that the dispute concerns sovereignty over the Chagos Archipelago. Mauritius
Mauritius
requested the Tribunal to adjudge and declare that UK is not entitled to declare an "MPA" or other maritime zones because it is not the "coastal State within the meaning of inter alia Articles 2, 55, 56 and 76 of the Convention."[68] The sovereignty of Mauritius
Mauritius
was explicitly recognised by two of the arbitrators and denied by none of the other three. Three members of the Tribunal found that they did not have jurisdiction to rule on that question; they expressed no view as to which of the two States has sovereignty over the Chagos
Chagos
Archipelago. Tribunal Judges Rüdiger Wolfrum and James Kateka held that the Tribunal did have jurisdiction to decide this question, and concluded that UK does not have sovereignty over the Chagos
Chagos
Archipelago. They found that:[69]

Internal United Kingdom
United Kingdom
documents suggested there was an ulterior motive behind the ‘MPA' and noted the disturbing similarities and common pattern between the establishment of the so-called "BIOT" in 1965 and the proclamation of the ‘MPA' in 2010; the excision of the Chagos Archipelago
Chagos Archipelago
from Mauritius
Mauritius
in 1965 shows a complete disregard for the territorial integrity of Mauritius
Mauritius
by UK; UK Prime Minister Harold Wilson's threat to Premier Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam in 1965 that he could return home without independence if he did not consent to the excision of the Chagos Archipelago
Chagos Archipelago
amounted to duress; Mauritian
Mauritian
Ministers were coerced into agreeing to the detachment of the Chagos
Chagos
Archipelago, and that this detachment violated the international law of self-determination; the ‘MPA' is legally invalid.

The Tribunal's decision determined that UK's undertaking to return the Chagos Archipelago
Chagos Archipelago
to Mauritius
Mauritius
gives Mauritius
Mauritius
an interest in significant decisions that bear upon possible future uses of the Archipelago. The result of the Tribunal's decision is that, it is now open to the Parties to enter into the negotiations that the Tribunal would have expected prior to the proclamation of the MPA, with a view to achieving a mutually satisfactory arrangement for protecting the marine environment, to the extent necessary under a "sovereignty umbrella".[67] Tromelin[edit] Mauritius
Mauritius
also claims sovereignty over Tromelin
Tromelin
island from France, a small island that lies 430 km northeast of Mauritius.[70][71] France
France
and Mauritius
Mauritius
reached a co-management treaty in 2010.[72] Environment and climate[edit]

Tropical beach, Trou-aux-Biches

The environment in Mauritius
Mauritius
is typically tropical in the coastal regions with forests in the mountainous areas. Seasonal cyclones are destructive to its flora and fauna, although they recover quickly. Mauritius
Mauritius
ranked second in an air quality index released by the World Health Organization in 2011.[73] Situated near the Tropic of Capricorn, Mauritius
Mauritius
has a tropical climate. There are 2 seasons: a warm humid summer from November to April, with a mean temperature of 24.7 °C (76.5 °F) and a relatively cool dry winter from June to September with a mean temperature of 20.4 °C (68.7 °F). The temperature difference between the seasons is only 4.3 °C (7.7 °F). The warmest months are January and February with average day maximum temperature reaching 29.2 °C (84.6 °F) and the coolest months are July and August with average overnight minimum temperatures of 16.4 °C (61.5 °F). Annual rainfall ranges from 900 mm (35 in) on the coast to 1,500 mm (59 in) on the central plateau. Although there is no marked rainy season, most of the rainfall occurs in summer months. Sea temperature in the lagoon varies from 22–27 °C (72–81 °F) The central plateau is much cooler than the surrounding coastal areas and can experience as much as double the rainfall. The prevailing trade winds keep the east side of the island cooler and bring more rain. There can also be a marked difference in temperature and rainfall from one side of the island to the other. Occasional tropical cyclones generally occur between January to March and tend to disrupt the weather for only about three days, bringing heavy rain.[74] Biodiversity[edit] Main article: Wildlife of Mauritius

Mauritius
Mauritius
ornate day gecko

The country is home to some of the world's rarest plants and animals, but human habitation and the introduction of non-native species have threatened its indigenous flora and fauna.[65] Due to its volcanic origin, age, isolation, and its unique terrain, Mauritius
Mauritius
is home to a diversity of flora and fauna not usually found in such a small area. Before the Portuguese arrival in 1507, there were no terrestrial mammals on the island. This allowed the evolution of a number of flightless birds and large reptile species. The arrival of man saw the introduction of invasive alien species and the rapid destruction of habitat and the loss of much of the endemic flora and fauna. Less than 2% of the native forest now remains, concentrated in the Black River Gorges National Park in the southwest, the Bambous Mountain Range in the southeast, and the Moka- Port Louis
Port Louis
Ranges in the northwest. There are some isolated mountains, Corps de Garde, Le Morne Brabant, and several offshore islands with remnants of coastal and mainland diversity. Over 100 species of plants and animals have become extinct and many more are threatened. Conservation activities began in the 1980s with the implementation of programmes for the reproduction of threatened bird and plant species as well as habitat restoration in the national parks and nature reserves.[75] In 2011, The Ministry of Environment & Sustainable Development issued the " Mauritius
Mauritius
Environment Outlook Report" which recommended that St Brandon be declared a Marine Protected Area. In the President's Report of the Mauritian
Mauritian
Wildlife Foundation dated March 2016, St Brandon is declared an official MWF project in order to promote the conservation of the atoll.[76] In April 2016, a seven-day fact-finding mission[77][78][79] composed of three highly acclaimed international experts (Professor Henk Bauwman[80] (Ecotoxicology, Environmental Pollution, Bird Ecology); Professor Tony Martin[81] (world’s foremost expert on marine mammals) and Dr. Nick Cole[82] (herpetologist; MWF Islands Restoration Manager) inspected the islands to raise awareness about the need to protect the islands and to investigate, for the longer term, the effects of plastic and heavy metal pollution in the Indian Ocean.[83] In 2016, a documentary was made on Conservation on the St Brandon islands held on permanent lease.[84][85]

Mauritius
Mauritius
was the only known habitat of the extinct dodo, a flightless bird.

When it was discovered, Mauritius
Mauritius
was the home of a previously unknown species of bird, the dodo, descendants of a type of pigeon which settled in Mauritius
Mauritius
over four million years ago.[86] With no predators to attack them, they had lost their ability to fly. Arabs became the first humans to set foot on Mauritius, followed by Portuguese around 1505. The island quickly became a stopover for ships engaged in the spice trade. Weighing up to 50 pounds, the dodo was a welcome source of fresh meat for the sailors. Large numbers of dodos were killed for food. Later, when the Dutch used the island as a penal colony, new species were introduced to the island. Rats, pigs, and monkeys ate dodo eggs in the ground nests. The combination of human exploitation and introduced species significantly reduced the dodo population. Within 100 years of the arrival of humans on Mauritius, the once abundant dodo became a rare bird. The last one was killed in 1681.[87] The dodo is prominently featured as a (heraldic) supporter of the national coat of arms of Mauritius.

Cap Malheureux

Demographics[edit] Main articles: Mauritians, Demographics of Mauritius, and Religion in Mauritius

Population pyramid
Population pyramid
of Mauritius
Mauritius
according to 2011 census

The estimated resident population of the Republic of Mauritius
Mauritius
was 1,264,000 as of December 2016. The female population was 637,032 compared to a male population of 624,176. The population on the island of Mauritius
Mauritius
is 1,219,265, and that of Rodrigues
Rodrigues
island is 41,669; Agalega
Agalega
and Saint Brandon had an estimated total population of 274.[88] Mauritius
Mauritius
has the highest population density in Africa. Ethnic groups[edit] Subsequent to a Constitutional amendment in 1982, there is no need for Mauritians
Mauritians
to reveal their ethnic identities for the purpose of population census. Official statistics on ethnicity are not available. The 1972 census was the last one to measure ethnicity.[89][90] Mauritius
Mauritius
is a multiethnic society, drawn from Indian (mostly Bhojpuri and Awadhi), African, Chinese and European (mostly French) origin. Religion[edit]

The Hindu
Hindu
festival of Thaipusam

According to the 2011 census conducted by Statistics Mauritius, Hinduism
Hinduism
is the majority religion at 51.9%, followed by Christianity (31.4%), Islam
Islam
(15.3%) and Buddhism
Buddhism
(0.4%). Those of other religions accounted for 0.2% of the population, and 0.7% reported themselves as non-religious and 0.1% did not answer.[91] Mauritius
Mauritius
is the only country in Africa
Africa
to have a Hindu
Hindu
majority. An officially secular state, Mauritius
Mauritius
is a religiously diverse nation, with freedom of religion being enshrined as a constitutional right.[92] The culture of the Mauritian
Mauritian
people is reflected in the various religious festivities that are celebrated throughout the year, some of which are recognized as public holidays. According to one estimate Mauritians
Mauritians
spend an average of more than 700 hours per year engaging in religious activities.[93] Languages[edit] Main article: Languages of Mauritius As both an English-speaking and French-speaking nation, Mauritius
Mauritius
is a member of both the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
and the Francophonie. The Mauritian
Mauritian
constitution makes no mention of an official language. In Parliament, the official language is English; however, any member of the National Assembly can also address the chair in French.[94] Despite this, English and French are generally considered to be de facto national and common languages of Mauritius, as they are the languages of government administration, courts, and business.[95] The constitution of Mauritius
Mauritius
is written in English, while some laws, such as the Civil code, are in French. The Mauritian
Mauritian
population is multilingual; while Mauritian Creole
Mauritian Creole
is the mother tongue of most Mauritians, most people are also fluent in English and French; they tend to switch languages according to the situation.[96] French and English are favoured in educational and professional settings, while Asian languages
Asian languages
are used mainly in music, religious and cultural activities. The media and literature are primarily in French. The Creole language, derived mainly from French (a French-based Creole) with influences from the other dialects, is spoken by the majority of the population and is the country's native language.[97] The Creole languages which are spoken in different islands of the country are more or less similar: Mauritian
Mauritian
Creole, Rodriguan Creole, Agalega
Agalega
Creole and Chagossian Creole are spoken by people from the islands of Mauritius, Rodrigues, Agalega
Agalega
and Chagos. Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
which was widely spoken as mother tongue, has been decreasing over the years. According to the 2011 census, there was a decrease in the use of Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
at home; it was spoken by 5% of the population compared to 12% in 2000.[3] Some ancestral languages that are also spoken in Mauritius
Mauritius
include Bhojpuri,[98] Chinese,[99] Hindi,[100] Marathi,[101] Tamil,[102] Telugu[103] and Urdu.[104] School students must learn English and French; they also have the option to study Asian languages
Asian languages
and Creole. The medium of instruction varies from school to school but is usually Creole, French and English. Health[edit] See also: Drugs in Mauritius Mauritius
Mauritius
had a life expectancy of 75.17 years in 2014.[105] 39% of Mauritian
Mauritian
men smoked in 2014.[106] 12.9% of men and 23% of women were obese in 2008.[106] Heroin
Heroin
use has a high prevalence rate of 0.91% (2011 UN figure).[107] Education[edit] Main article: Education in Mauritius The government of Mauritius
Mauritius
provides free education to its citizens from pre-primary to tertiary level. In 2013 government expenditure on education was estimated at about Rs 13,584 million, representing 13% of total expenditure.[108] The adult literacy rate was estimated at 89.8% in 2011.[109] Male literacy was 92.3% and female literacy 87.3%.[109] The education system in Mauritius
Mauritius
consists of pre-primary, primary, secondary and tertiary sectors. The education structure consists of two to three years of pre-primary school, six years of primary schooling leading to the Primary School Achievement Certificate, five years of secondary education leading to the School Certificate, and two years of higher secondary ending with the Higher School Certificate.[110] Secondary schools have "college" as part of their title. The O-Level
O-Level
and A-Level
A-Level
examinations are carried out by the University of Cambridge through University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
International Examinations. The Tertiary Education sector includes universities and other technical institutions in Mauritius. The country's two main public universities are the University of Mauritius
University of Mauritius
and the University of Technology. The Tertiary Education Commission's Strategic Plan envisages Mauritius
Mauritius
as a regional knowledge hub and a centre for higher learning and excellence. It promotes open and distance learning to increase access to post-secondary education and lifelong learning locally and regionally.[110] Economy[edit] Main articles: Economy of Mauritius
Economy of Mauritius
and International rankings of Mauritius

Sugar cane
Sugar cane
plantation in Mauritius

Since independence from Britain in 1968, Mauritius
Mauritius
has developed from a low-income, agriculture-based economy to a middle-income diversified economy, based on tourism, textiles, sugar, and financial services. The economic history of Mauritius
Mauritius
since independence has been called “the Mauritian
Mauritian
Miracle” and the “success of Africa” (Romer, 1992; Frankel, 2010; Stiglitz, 2011).[111] In recent years, information and communication technology, seafood, hospitality and property development, healthcare, renewable energy, and education and training have emerged as important sectors, attracting substantial investment from both local and foreign investors.[112] Mauritius
Mauritius
has no exploitable natural resources and therefore depends on imported petroleum products to meet most of its energy requirements. Local and renewable energy sources are biomass, hydro, solar and wind energy.[113] Mauritius
Mauritius
has one of the largest exclusive economic zones in the world, and in 2012 the government announced its intention to develop the marine economy.[114] Mauritius
Mauritius
is ranked high in terms of economic competitiveness, a friendly investment climate, good governance and a free economy.[6][52][115][116][117] The Gross Domestic Product (PPP) was estimated at US$22.025 billion in 2014, and GDP (PPP) per capita was over US$16,820, one of the highest in Africa.[6][52][115][116][117] Mauritius
Mauritius
has an upper middle income economy, according to the World Bank in 2011.[118] The World Bank's 2018 Ease of Doing Business Index ranks Mauritius
Mauritius
25th worldwide out of 190 economies in terms of ease of doing business.[117][119] According to the Mauritian
Mauritian
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the country's challenges are heavy reliance on a few industry sectors, high brain drain, scarcity of skilled labour, ageing population and inefficient public companies and para-statal bodies.[120] Mauritius
Mauritius
has built its success on a free market economy. According to the 2013 Index of Economic Freedom, Mauritius
Mauritius
is ranked as having the 8th most free economy in the world, and the highest score in investment freedom.[121] The report's ranking of 183 countries is based on measures of economic openness, regulatory efficiency, rule of law, and competitiveness. Tourism[edit]

The Seven Coloured Earths
Seven Coloured Earths
at Chamarel

Main article: Tourism in Mauritius Mauritius
Mauritius
is a major tourist destination, ranking 3rd in the region and 56th globally.[122] It enjoys a tropical climate with clear warm sea waters, beaches, tropical fauna and flora complemented by a multi-ethnic and cultural population.[123][better source needed] Mauritius
Mauritius
received the World's Leading Island Destination award for the third time and World's Best Beach at the World Travel Awards in January 2012.[124] Tourists can now climb "Le Morne Brabant" mountain, which is listed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site.[125] Issues often encountered by foreign tourists include scams, overcharging and dual pricing.[126][127][128][129] Transportation[edit] Main article: Transport in Mauritius Since 2005 public bus transport in Mauritius
Mauritius
is free of charge for students, people with disabilities and senior citizens.[130] There are currently no railways in Mauritius, former privately owned industrial railways having been abandoned. To cope with increasing road traffic congestion, a Light Rail Transit system has been proposed between Curepipe
Curepipe
and Port Louis. The harbour of Port Louis
Port Louis
handles international trade as well as a cruise terminal. The sole international airport for civil aviation is Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam
Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam
International Airport, which also serves as the home operating base for the national airline Air Mauritius; the airport authority inaugurated a new passenger terminal in September 2013.[131] Another airport is the Sir Gaëtan Duval Airport
Sir Gaëtan Duval Airport
in Rodrigues. Information and Communication Technology Sector[edit] Since 2002, Mauritius
Mauritius
has invested heavily into the development of an ICT Hub. The contribution of the ICT Sector accounts for 5.7% of the GDP.[132] The ICT Sector employs 15,390 people.[132] In 2016, Mauritius
Mauritius
participated for the first time in the Google Code-in international competition, and was noted for its "strong debut".[133] In 2017, Mauritius
Mauritius
made it for the first time as a Grand Prize winner for Google Code-in.[134] Mauritius
Mauritius
has also participated in the IETF. It has been noted for its contribution to TLS[135][136][137] and currently is ahead of other African countries for RFC development.[138] Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Mauritius Music[edit] Main articles: Music of Mauritius
Music of Mauritius
and Sega (genre) The major musical genre of Mauritius
Mauritius
is Sega music, other musical genres are its fusion genre, Seggae and Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
songs. Cuisine[edit] Further information: Cuisine of Mauritius

A food market at Port Louis, Mauritius

The cuisine of Mauritius
Mauritius
is a combination of Creole, French, Chinese and Indian, with many dishes unique to the island. Spices are also a big part of Mauritian
Mauritian
cuisine. Holidays and festivals[edit] The public holidays of Mauritius
Mauritius
involve the blending of several cultures from Mauritius's history. There are Hindu
Hindu
festivals, Chinese festivals, Muslim festivals, as well as Christian festivals.

Public holidays in Mauritius
Mauritius
in 2018 Date

New Year's Day Mon 01- Tues 02 January

Thaipoosam Cavadee Wed 30 January

Abolition of slavery Thurs 01 February

Maha Shivaratree Tues 13 February

Chinese Spring Festival Fri 16 February

Independence
Independence
and Republic Day Mon 12 March

Ugadi Sun 18 March

Labour Day Tues 01 May

Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr
(Depending on the visibility of the moon) Sat 16 June

Assumption Day Wed 15 August

Ganesh Chaturthi Fri 14 September

Arrival of Indentured Labourers Fri 02 November

Divali Wed 07 November

Christmas Day Tues 25 December

There are 15 annual public holidays in Mauritius. Seven of these are fixed holidays: 1 and 2 January; 1 February; 12 March; 1 May; 2 November; and 25 December. The remaining public holidays are religious festivals with dates that vary from year to year. However these are public holidays, many other festivals such as Holi, Raksha Bandhan, Père Laval Pilgrimage also exist in Mauritius. Sports[edit] See also: Football in Mauritius

The Maiden Cup in 2006

The most popular sport in Mauritius
Mauritius
is football[139] and the national team is the Club M. Other popular sports in Mauritius
Mauritius
include cycling, table tennis, horse racing, badminton, volleyball, basketball, handball, boxing, judo, karate, taekwondo, weightlifting, bodybuilding and athletics. Water sports include swimming, sailing, scuba diving, windsurfing and kitesurfing. Horseracing, which dates from 1812 when the Champ de Mars Racecourse was inaugurated, remains popular. The country hosted the second (1985) and fifth editions (2003) of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Island Games. Mauritius won its first Olympic medal at the 2008 Summer Olympics
2008 Summer Olympics
in Beijing when boxer Bruno Julie won the bronze medal. In golf, the former Mauritius Open and the current Afr Asia
Asia
Bank Mauritius Open have been part of the European Tour. See also[edit]

Outline of Mauritius Index of Mauritius-related articles List of Mauritius-related topics

Geography portal Africa
Africa
portal Mauritius
Mauritius
portal Islands portal

Notes[edit]

^ The Mauritian
Mauritian
Constitution does not mention any official language, only Section 49 mentions that the official language of the National Assembly shall be English, while French may be used.

References[edit]

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Mauritius
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Country
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Bibliography[edit]

This article incorporates public domain text from the websites of the Government Portal of Mauritius, the United States
United States
Department of State, the U.S. Library of Congress, and the CIA World Factbook. Macdonald, Fiona; et al. "Mauritius". Peoples of Africa. pp. 340–341. 

Further reading[edit]

Bahadur, Gaiutra (2014). Coolie Woman: The Odyssey of Indenture. The University of Chicago. ISBN 978-0-226-21138-1.  Moree, Perry J. (1998). A Concise History of Dutch Mauritius, 1598–1710: A Fruitful and Healthy Land. Routledge.  Vink, Markus (2003). "'The World's Oldest Trade': Dutch Slavery
Slavery
and Slave Trade in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
in the Seventeenth Century". Journal of World History. 14 (2): 131–177. 

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African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights

ECOSOCC Committees

Peace and Security Political Affairs Infrastructure and Energy Social Affairs and Health HR, Sciences and Technology Trade and Industry Rural Economy and Agriculture Economic Affairs Women and Gender Cross-Cutting Programs

Financial Institutions

AFRA Commission African Central Bank African Monetary Fund African Investment Bank

Peace and Security Council

ACIRC African Standby Force Panel of the Wise UNAMID AMIB AMIS AMISOM MISCA

Politics

APRM Foreign relations African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights Enlargement

Symbols

Anthem Emblem Flag

Economy

Currencies Development Bank African Economic Community NEPAD African Free Trade Zone Tripartite Free Trade Area

Culture

Africa
Africa
Day Languages

Theory

Afro United States
United States
of Africa United States
United States
of Latin Africa

Category

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Members of the Commonwealth of Nations

Sovereign states (Members)

Antigua and Barbuda Australia Bahamas Bangladesh Barbados Belize Botswana Brunei Cameroon Canada Cyprus Dominica Fiji Ghana Grenada Guyana India Jamaica Kenya Kiribati Lesotho Malawi Malaysia Malta Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Nauru New Zealand Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Swaziland Tanzania The Gambia Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tuvalu Uganda United Kingdom Vanuatu Zambia

Dependencies of Members

Australia

Ashmore and Cartier Islands Australian Antarctic Territory Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Coral Sea Islands Heard Island and McDonald Islands Norfolk Island

New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue Ross Dependency Tokelau

United Kingdom

Akrotiri and Dhekelia Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory British Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Montserrat Pitcairn Islands St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands

Source: Commonwealth Secretariat - Member States

Languages

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La Francophonie

Membership

Members

Albania Andorra Armenia Belgium

French Community

Benin Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada

New Brunswick Quebec

Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros Cyprus1 Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Djibouti Dominica Egypt Equatorial Guinea France

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique St. Pierre and Miquelon

Gabon Ghana1 Greece Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti Ivory Coast Laos Luxembourg Lebanon Macedonia2 Madagascar Mali Mauritania Mauritius Moldova Monaco Morocco Niger Qatar Romania Rwanda St. Lucia São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Switzerland Togo Tunisia Vanuatu Vietnam

Observers

Argentina Austria Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia Czech Republic Dominican Republic Georgia Hungary Kosovo Latvia Lithuania Montenegro Mozambique Ontario Poland Serbia Slovakia Slovenia South Korea Thailand Ukraine United Arab Emirates Uruguay

1 Associate member. 2 Provisionally referred to by the Francophonie as the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.

Organization

Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique Agence universitaire de la Francophonie

Secretaries-General

Boutros Boutros-Ghali Abdou Diouf Michaëlle Jean

Culture

French language UN French Language Day International Francophonie Day Jeux de la Francophonie Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie Senghor University AFFOI TV5Monde LGBT rights

Category

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Community of Portuguese Language Countries
Community of Portuguese Language Countries
(CPLP)

Category

Membership

Members

Angola Brazil Cape Verde East Timor Equatorial Guinea Guinea-Bissau Mozambique Portugal São Tomé and Príncipe

Observers

Georgia Japan Mauritius Namibia Senegal Turkey

Organization

CPLP Games Flag TV CPLP

ACOLOP

Lusophony Games

Portuguese-using countries

v t e

Dialects and accents of Modern English by continent

Europe

United Kingdom

Received Pronunciation

England

Varieties by common name

Barrovian Black Country Brummie Bristolian Cheshire Cockney

"Mockney"

Cornish Cumbrian East Anglian East Midlands Essex Estuary Geordie Kentish Lancastrian Mackem Mancunian Multicultural London Norfolk Northern Pitmatic Potteries Scouse Southern Suffolk Sussex West Country

"Mummerset"

West Midlands Yorkshire

Varieties by geographic location

East of England

Essex Norfolk Suffolk

East Midlands North

Cheshire Cumbria

Barrow

Lancashire Manchester Merseyside Northumbria

Sunderland Tyneside Pitmatic

Yorkshire

South

Kent Thames Estuary; London

Multicultural London

Sussex

West Country

Bristol Cornwall Dorset

West Midlands

Black Country Birmingham Stoke-on-Trent

Northern Ireland

Mid Ulster Ulster Scots

Scotland

Glasgow Highlands

Wales

Cardiff Gower Port Talbot

Ireland

Dublin

D4

South-West

Cork

Supraregional Ulster

Channel Islands

Alderney Guernsey Jersey

Elsewhere

Gibraltar Isle of Man Malta

North and South America

United States

Varieties by common name

African American Appalachian Boston Cajun California Chicago; Detroit; Great Lakes Chicano Mid-Atlantic

Philadelphia; South Jersey Baltimorese

General American High Tider Maine Miami Midland Midwestern New England New Mexican New York Old Southern Pacific Northwest Pennsylvania Dutch Pittsburghese Rhode Island Southern Texan Upper Midwestern Western Vermont Yat Yeshivish Yooper

Varieties by geographic location

Delaware Valley; Mid-Atlantic

Pennsylvania Dutch Philadelphia; South Jersey Baltimore

Midland Midwest

Great Lakes; Inland North Upper Midwest Upper Peninsula of Michigan

New England

Boston Maine Rhode Island Vermont

New York City; Northeastern New Jersey

New York Latino

North South

Acadiana Appalachia Chesapeake; Pamlico Miami New Orleans Texas

West

California New Mexico Pacific Northwest

Western Pennsylvania

Canada

Aboriginal Atlantic

Cape Breton Newfoundland Lunenburg

Standard

Ottawa Valley Pacific Northwest Quebec

Caribbean

Bahamas Barbados Dominican Republic Jamaica Puerto Rico Trinidad

Elsewhere

Bermuda Falkland Islands Guyana

Oceania

Australia

Aboriginal Broad; Strine General South Australian Torres Strait West Australian

Elsewhere

Fiji New Zealand Palau Solomon Islands

Other continents

Africa

Cameroon Ghana Kenya Liberia Malawi Namibia Nigeria Sierra Leone South Africa

White

Cultivated General Broad Cape Flats

Black Indian

Uganda

Asia

Bangladesh Brunei Burma or Myanmar Hong Kong India Malaysia Nepal Pakistan Philippines Singapore Sri Lanka

v t e

Countries and regions in the Somali Plate

Countries

Somalia Madagascar Seychelles Comoros Uganda Kenya Tanzania Swaziland Mozambique

Regions

Somaliland Réunion Mayotte Mauritius KwaZulu-Natal Khatumo Somali Region

v t e

English-speaking world

Click on a coloured area to see an article about English in that country or region

Further links

Articles

English-speaking world History of the English language British Empire English in the Commonwealth of Nations Anglosphere

Lists

List of countries by English-speaking population List of countries where English is an official language

 

Countries and territories where English is the national language or the native language of the majority

Africa

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

Americas

Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda The Bahamas Barbados Belize Bermuda British Virgin Islands Canada Cayman Islands Dominica Falkland Islands Grenada Guyana Jamaica Montserrat Saba Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Sint Eustatius Sint Maarten South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Trinidad and Tobago Turks and Caicos Islands United States United States
United States
Virgin Islands

Europe

Guernsey Ireland Isle of Man Jersey United Kingdom

Oceania

Australia New Zealand Norfolk Island Pitcairn Islands

 

Countries and territories where English is an official language, but not the majority first language

Africa

Botswana Cameroon The Gambia Ghana Kenya Lesotho Liberia Malawi Mauritius Namibia Nigeria Rwanda Sierra Leone Somaliland South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

Americas

Puerto Rico

Asia

Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Hong Kong Special
Special
Administrative Region India Pakistan Philippines Singapore

Europe

Gibraltar Malta

Oceania

American Samoa Cook Islands Fiji Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia Nauru Niue Northern Mariana Islands Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tokelau Tuvalu Vanuatu

Dependencies shown in italics.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 153147628 GND: 4074641-0 BNF: cb153244016 (d

.