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Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(/ˌmæsəˈtʃuːsɪts/ ( listen), /-zɪts/), officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England
New England
region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the east, the states of Connecticut
Connecticut
and Rhode Island
Rhode Island
to the south, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
and Vermont
Vermont
to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named after the Massachusett
Massachusett
tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area. The capital of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and the most populous city in New England
New England
is Boston. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston
Boston
metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history, academia, and industry.[44] Originally dependent on agriculture, fishing and trade,[45] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution.[46] During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services.[47] Modern Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is a global leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime trade.[48] Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials.[49] In 1777, General Henry Knox
Henry Knox
founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts.[50] In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States
United States
Constitutional Convention.[51] In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards.[52] In the late 18th century, Boston
Boston
became known as the "Cradle of Liberty"[53] for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution. The entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
was a center for the abolitionist, temperance,[54] and transcendentalist[55] movements.[56] In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts
Massachusetts
cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively.[57][58] In 2004, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
became the first U.S. state
U.S. state
to legally recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health
Goodridge v. Department of Public Health
by the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Supreme Judicial Court.[59] Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University
Harvard University
in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States,[60] with the largest financial endowment of any university,[61] and Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States.[62] Kendall Square
Kendall Square
in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010.[63][64] Both Harvard University
Harvard University
and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, also in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world.[65] Massachusetts' public school students place among the top nations in the world in academic performance,[66] and the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the nation for citizens to live.[67]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Pre-colonization 2.2 Colonial period 2.3 The Revolutionary War 2.4 Federal period 2.5 19th century 2.6 20th century 2.7 Notable 20th century politicians 2.8 21st century

3 Geography

3.1 Ecology 3.2 Climate

4 Demographics

4.1 Race and ancestry 4.2 Languages 4.3 Religion

5 Economy

5.1 Job growth 5.2 Taxation 5.3 Energy

5.3.1 Renewable energy

6 Transportation

6.1 Regional public transportation 6.2 Long-distance rail and bus 6.3 Ferry 6.4 Rail freight 6.5 Air service 6.6 Roads

7 Government and politics

7.1 Government 7.2 Politics

8 Cities, towns, and counties 9 Education 10 Arts, culture, and recreation 11 Media 12 Health 13 Sports 14 See also 15 References 16 Bibliography 17 Further reading

17.1 Overviews and surveys 17.2 Secondary sources

18 External links

Etymology[edit]

Prominent roads and cities in Massachusetts

The Massachusetts Bay Colony
Massachusetts Bay Colony
was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett, likely derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus(ây) "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative" (the '8' in these words refers to the 'oo' sound according to the Wôpanâak orthographic chart).[68] It has been translated as "near the great hill",[69] "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill
Great Blue Hill
which is located on the boundary of Milton and Canton.[70][71] Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock (meaning "hill shaped like an arrowhead") in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony
Plymouth Colony
commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, and Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621.[72][73] The official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".[74] While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications.[75] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
has the same position and powers within the United States
United States
as other states.[76] It may have been chosen by John Adams
John Adams
for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. (The "State of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay" was in the first draft that had been rejected by the legislature.)[77] History[edit] Main article: History of Massachusetts See also: Plymouth Colony
Plymouth Colony
and Massachusetts Bay
Massachusetts Bay
Colony

The Mayflower
Mayflower
in Plymouth Harbor
Harbor
by William Halsall
William Halsall
(1882). The Pilgrims were a group of Puritans
Puritans
who founded Plymouth in 1620.

Pre-colonization[edit] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
was originally inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Narragansett, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc, Mahican, and Massachusett.[78][79] While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were generally dependent on hunting, gathering and fishing for most of their food.[78] Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses,[79] and tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems.[80] Colonial period[edit] In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States
United States
were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles, influenza, and perhaps leptospirosis.[81][82] Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed approximately 90% of the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Native Americans.[83] The first English settlers in Massachusetts, the Pilgrims, arrived via the Mayflower[84] at Plymouth in 1620, and developed friendly relations with the native Wampanoag people.[85] This was the second successful permanent English colony in the part of North America that later became the United States, after the Jamestown Colony. The event known as the "First Thanksgiving" was celebrated by the Pilgrims after their first harvest in the New World
New World
which lasted for three days. The Pilgrims were soon followed by other Puritans, who established the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Massachusetts Bay Colony
at present-day Boston
Boston
in 1630.[86] The Puritans, who believed the Church of England
Church of England
needed to be purified and experienced harassment from English authority because of their beliefs,[87] came to Massachusetts
Massachusetts
with the goal of establishing an ideal religious society.[88] Unlike the Plymouth colony, the bay colony was founded under a royal charter in 1629.[89] Both religious dissent and expansionism resulted in several new colonies being founded shortly after Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay
Massachusetts Bay
elsewhere in New England. The Massachusetts Bay
Massachusetts Bay
banished dissenters such as Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams due to religious and political disagreements. In 1636, Williams founded the colony of Rhode Island and Hutchinson joined him there several years later. Religious intolerance continued. Among those who objected to this later in the century were the English Quaker preachers Alice and Thomas Curwen, who were publicly flogged and imprisoned in Boston
Boston
in 1676.[90][91]

A Modest Enquiry Into the Nature of Witchcraft
Witchcraft
by John Hale (Boston, 1697)

In 1641, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
expanded inland significantly, acquiring the Connecticut
Connecticut
River Valley settlement of Springfield, which had recently disputed with, and defected from its original administrators, the Connecticut
Connecticut
Colony.[92] This established Massachusetts's southern border in the west,[93] though surveying problems resulted in disputed territory until 1803–04.[94] In 1691, the colonies of Massachusetts Bay
Massachusetts Bay
and Plymouth were united (along with present-day Maine, which had previously been divided between Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and New York) into the Province of Massachusetts Bay.[95] Shortly after the arrival of the new province's first governor, William Phips, the Salem witch trials
Salem witch trials
took place, where a number of men and women were hanged for alleged witchcraft.[96] The most destructive earthquake yet known in New England
New England
occurred in 1755, causing considerable damage across Massachusetts.[97][98] The Revolutionary War[edit]

Earl, Ralph; Doolittle, Amos (1775). "Percy's Rescue at Lexington" (illustration). , about the Battles of Lexington and Concord

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
was a center of the movement for independence from Great Britain; colonists in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
had long uneasy relations with the British monarchy, including open rebellion under the Dominion of New England in the 1680s.[95] Protests against British attempts to tax the colonies after the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
ended in 1763 led to the Boston
Boston
Massacre in 1770, and the 1773 Boston
Boston
Tea Party escalated tensions.[99] In 1774, the Intolerable Acts
Intolerable Acts
targeted Massachusetts with punishments for the Boston
Boston
Tea Party and further decreased local autonomy, increasing local dissent.[100] Anti-Parliamentary activity by men such as Samuel Adams
Samuel Adams
and John Hancock, followed by reprisals by the British government, were a primary reason for the unity of the Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
and the outbreak of the American Revolution
American Revolution
in 1775.[101] The Battles of Lexington and Concord
Battles of Lexington and Concord
initiated the American Revolutionary War and were fought in the eponymous Massachusetts towns.[102] Future President George Washington
George Washington
took over what would become the Continental Army after the battle. His first victory was the Siege of Boston
Boston
in the winter of 1775–76, after which the British were forced to evacuate the city.[103] The event is still celebrated in Suffolk County as Evacuation Day.[104] On the coast, Salem became a center for privateering. Although the documentation is incomplete, about 1,700 letters of marque, issued on a per-voyage basis, were granted during the American Revolution. Nearly 800 vessels were commissioned as privateers and are credited with capturing or destroying about 600 British ships.[105]

Boston
Boston
natives Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
and John Adams
John Adams
were both Founding Fathers of the United States.

Federal period[edit] Bostonian John Adams, known as the "Atlas of Independence",[106] was an important figure in both the struggle for independence as well as the formation of the new United States. Adams was highly involved in the push for separation from Britain and the writing of the Constitution of Massachusetts in 1780 which, in the Elizabeth Freeman and Quock Walker
Quock Walker
cases, effectively made Massachusetts
Massachusetts
the first state to have a constitution that declared universal rights and, as interpreted by Supreme Judicial Court Chief Justice William Cushing, abolished slavery. David McCullough points out that an equally important feature was its placing for the first time the courts as a co-equal branch separate from the executive.[107] (The Constitution of Vermont, adopted in 1777, represented the first partial ban on slavery. Vermont
Vermont
became a state in 1791 but did not fully ban slavery until 1858 with the Vermont
Vermont
Personal Liberty Law. The Pennsylvania Gradual Abolition Act of 1780[108] made Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
the first state to abolish slavery by statute.) Later, Adams was active in early American foreign affairs and succeeded Washington as the second United States President. His son John Quincy Adams, also from Massachusetts,[109] would go on to become the sixth United States President. From 1786 to 1787, an armed uprising, known as Shays' Rebellion
Shays' Rebellion
led by Revolutionary War veteran Daniel Shays
Daniel Shays
wrought havoc throughout Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and ultimately attempted to seize the Federal armory.[51] The rebellion was one of the major factors in the decision to draft a stronger national constitution to replace the Articles of Confederation.[51] On February 6, 1788, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
became the sixth state to ratify the United States
United States
Constitution.[110] 19th century[edit] In 1820, Maine
Maine
separated from Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and entered the Union as the 23rd state as a result of the ratification of the Missouri Compromise.[111]

Textile mills such as the Boott Mills in Lowell made Massachusetts
Massachusetts
a leader in the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
in the United States.

During the 19th century, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
became a national leader in the American Industrial Revolution, with factories around cities such as Lowell and Boston
Boston
producing textiles and shoes, and factories around Springfield producing tools, paper, and textiles.[112][113] The economy transformed from one based primarily on agriculture to an industrial one, initially making use of water-power and later the steam engine to power factories. Canals and railroads were used for transporting raw materials and finished goods.[114] At first, the new industries drew labor from Yankees on nearby subsistence farms, and later relied upon immigrant labor from Europe and Canada.[115][116] Although Massachusetts
Massachusetts
was the first slave-holding colony dating back to the early 1600s, in the years leading up to the American Civil War, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
was a center of progressivist and abolitionist activity. Horace Mann
Horace Mann
made the state's school system a national model.[117] Henry David Thoreau
Henry David Thoreau
and Ralph Waldo Emerson
Ralph Waldo Emerson
made major contributions to American philosophy.[118] Members of the transcendentalist movement emphasized the importance of the natural world and emotion to humanity.[118] Although significant opposition to abolitionism existed early on in Massachusetts, resulting in anti-abolitionist riots between 1835 and 1837,[119] opposition to slavery gradually increased throughout the next few decades.[120][121] Abolitionists John Brown and Sojourner Truth lived in Springfield and Northampton, respectively, while Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass
lived in Boston
Boston
and Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony
in Adams, Massachusetts. The works of such abolitionists contributed to Massachusetts's actions during the Civil War. Massachusetts
Massachusetts
was the first state to recruit, train, and arm a Black regiment with White officers, the 54th Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Infantry Regiment.[122] In 1852, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
became the first state to pass compulsory education laws.[123] Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
is commonly credited as the inventor of the first practical telephone. On March 10, 1876 at Boston
Boston
University, he was able to communicate with his assistant Thomas A. Watson
Thomas A. Watson
in the next room. 20th century[edit]

Part of the "Big Dig" construction project; this portion is over the Charles River
Charles River
in Boston.

With the exodus of several manufacturing companies, the area's industrial economy began to decline during the early 20th century. By the 1920s, competition from the South and Midwest, followed by the Great Depression, led to the collapse of the three main industries in Massachusetts: textiles, shoemaking, and precision mechanics.[124] This decline would continue into the later half of the century; between 1950 and 1979, the number of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
residents involved in textile manufacturing declined from 264,000 to 63,000.[125] The 1969 closure of the Springfield Armory, in particular, spurred an exodus of high-paying jobs from Western Massachusetts, which suffered greatly as it de-industrialized during the last 40 years of the 20th century.[126] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
manufactured 3.4 percent of total United States
United States
military armaments produced during World War II, ranking tenth among the 48 states.[127] In Eastern Massachusetts, following World War II, the economy was transformed from one based on heavy industry into a service-based economy.[128] Government contracts, private investment, and research facilities led to a new and improved industrial climate, with reduced unemployment and increased per capita income. Suburbanization flourished, and by the 1970s, the Route 128 corridor was dotted with high-technology companies who recruited graduates of the area's many elite institutions of higher education.[129] In 1987, the state received federal funding for the Central Artery/Tunnel Project. Commonly known as "the Big Dig", it was, at the time, the biggest federal highway project ever approved.[130] The project included making the Central Artery
Central Artery
a tunnel under downtown Boston, in addition to the re-routing of several other major highways.[131] Often controversial, with numerous claims of graft and mismanagement, and with its initial price tag of $2.5 billion increasing to a final tally of over $15 billion, the Big Dig
Big Dig
has nonetheless changed the face of Downtown Boston.[130] It has connected areas that were once divided by elevated highway (much of the raised old Central Artery
Central Artery
was replaced with the Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy Greenway), and improved traffic conditions along a number of routes.[130][131] Additionally, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
has had a diplomatic relationship with the Japanese prefecture of Hokkaido
Hokkaido
since 1988.[132] Notable 20th century politicians[edit]

Kennedy brothers John, Robert (middle) and Edward in July 1960.

The Kennedy family
Kennedy family
was prominent in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
politics in the 20th century. Children of businessman and ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. included John F. Kennedy, who was a senator and US president before his assassination in 1963, Robert F. Kennedy, who was a senator, US attorney general, and presidential candidate before his assassination in 1968, Ted Kennedy, a senator from 1962 until his death in 2009,[133] and Eunice Kennedy Shriver, a co-founder of the Special Olympics.[134] In 1966, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
became the first state to directly elect an African American
African American
to the US senate with Edward Brooke.[135] George H. W. Bush, 41st President of the United States (1989–1993) was born in Milton in 1924.[136] 21st century[edit] On May 17, 2004, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
became the first state in the U.S. to legalize same-sex marriage after a Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Supreme Judicial Court ruling in November 2003 determined that the exclusion of same-sex couples from the right to a civil marriage was unconstitutional.[59] This decision was eventually superseded by the U.S. Supreme Court's affirmation of same-sex marriage in the United States in 2015.

Boston
Boston
Marathon bombing

Two pressure cooker bombs exploded near the finish line of the Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013, at around 2:49 pm EDT. The explosions killed three civilians and injured an estimated 264 others. The Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal Bureau of Investigation
(FBI) later identified the suspects as brothers Dzhokhar Tsarnaev
Dzhokhar Tsarnaev
and Tamerlan Tsarnaev. The ensuing manhunt ended on April 19 when thousands of law enforcement officers searched a 20-block area of nearby Watertown. Dzhokhar later said that he was motivated by extremist Islamic beliefs and learned to build explosive devices from Inspire, the online magazine of al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula. On November 8, 2016, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
voted in favor of The Massachusetts Marijuana
Marijuana
Legalization Initiative, also known as Question 4.[137] It was included in the United States
United States
presidential election, 2016 ballot in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
as an indirectly initiated state statute.[138] Geography[edit] Main articles: Geography of Massachusetts
Geography of Massachusetts
and Geology of New England

A portion of the north-central Pioneer Valley
Pioneer Valley
in Sunderland

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is the 7th-smallest state in the United States. It is located in the New England
New England
region of the northeastern United States and has an area of 10,555 square miles (27,340 km2), 25.7% of which is water. Several large bays distinctly shape its coast. Boston is the largest city, at the inmost point of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay, and the mouth of the Charles River. Despite its small size, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
features numerous topographically distinctive regions. The large coastal plain of the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
in the eastern section of the state contains Greater Boston, along with most of the state's population,[44] as well as the distinctive Cape Cod
Cape Cod
peninsula. To the west lies the hilly, rural region of Central Massachusetts, and beyond that, the Connecticut River Valley. Along the western border of Western Massachusetts
Western Massachusetts
lies the highest elevated part of the state, the Berkshires. The U.S. National Park Service
National Park Service
administers a number of natural and historical sites in Massachusetts.[139] Along with twelve national historic sites, areas, and corridors, the National Park Service
National Park Service
also manages the Cape Cod
Cape Cod
National Seashore and the Boston
Boston
Harbor
Harbor
Islands National Recreation Area.[139] In addition, the Department of Conservation and Recreation maintains a number of parks, trails, and beaches throughout Massachusetts.[140] Ecology[edit]

Many coastal areas in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
provide breeding areas for species such as the piping plover.

The primary biome of inland Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is temperate deciduous forest.[141] Although much of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
had been cleared for agriculture, leaving only traces of old-growth forest in isolated pockets, secondary growth has regenerated in many rural areas as farms have been abandoned.[142] Currently, forests cover around 62% of Massachusetts.[143] The areas most affected by human development include the Greater Boston
Boston
area in the east and the Springfield metropolitan area in the west, although the latter includes agricultural areas throughout the Connecticut
Connecticut
River Valley.[144] There are currently 219 endangered species in Massachusetts.[145] A number of species are doing well in the increasingly urbanized Massachusetts. Peregrine falcons utilize office towers in larger cities as nesting areas,[146] and the population of coyotes, whose diet may include garbage and roadkill, has been increasing in recent decades.[147] White-tailed deer, raccoons, wild turkeys, and eastern gray squirrels are also found throughout Massachusetts. In more rural areas in the western part of Massachusetts, larger mammals such as moose and black bears have returned, largely due to reforestation following the regional decline in agriculture.[148] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is located along the Atlantic Flyway, a major route for migratory waterfowl along the eastern coast.[149] Lakes in central Massachusetts
Massachusetts
provide habitat for many species of fish and waterfowl, but some species such as the common loon are becoming rare.[150] A significant population of long-tailed ducks winter off Nantucket. Small offshore islands and beaches are home to roseate terns and are important breeding areas for the locally threatened piping plover.[151] Protected areas such as the Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge provide critical breeding habitat for shorebirds and a variety of marine wildlife including a large population of grey seals. Freshwater fish species in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
include bass, carp, catfish, and trout, while saltwater species such as Atlantic cod, haddock, and American lobster
American lobster
populate offshore waters.[152] Other marine species include Harbor
Harbor
seals, the endangered North Atlantic right whales, as well as humpback whales, fin whales, minke whales, and Atlantic white-sided dolphins. The European corn borer, a significant agricultural pest, was first found in North America near Boston, Massachusetts
Boston, Massachusetts
in 1917.[153] Climate[edit]

Köppen climate types in Massachusetts

Most of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
has a humid continental, with cold winters and warm summers. Far southeast coastal areas are the broad transition zone to temperate climates (humid subtropical climate in some classifications). The warm to hot summers render the oceanic climate rare in this transition, only applying to exposed coastal areas such as on the peninsula of Barnstable County. The climate of Boston
Boston
is quite representative for the commonwealth, characterized by summer highs of around 81 °F (27 °C) and winter highs of 35 °F (2 °C), and is quite wet. Frosts are frequent all winter, even in coastal areas due to prevailing inland winds. Due to its location near the Atlantic, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is vulnerable to nor'easters, hurricanes and tropical storms.

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Massachusetts[154]

Location July (°F) July (°C) January (°F) January (°C)

Boston 81/65 27/18 36/22 2/–5

Worcester 79/61 26/16 31/17 0/–8

Springfield 84/62 27/17 34/17 1/–8

New Bedford 80/65 26/18 37/23 3/–4

Quincy 80/61 26/16 33/18 1/–7

Plymouth 80/61 27/16 38/20 3/–6

v t e

Rivers of Massachusetts

Atlantic Ocean

Tiasquam River

Buzzards Bay

Acushnet River Agawam River Back River Copicut River Crooked River Mattapoisett River Nasketucket River Paskamanset River Pocasset River Sippican River Slocums River Wankinco River Westport River Weweantic River

Cape Cod
Cape Cod
Bay

Eel River Herring River Jones River Little Pamet River Pamet River Town Brook

Connecticut
Connecticut
River Watershed

Burnshirt River Chapel Brook Chicopee River Connecticut
Connecticut
River Cranberry
Cranberry
River Deerfield River East Brookfield River Farmington River Fall River Five Mile River Green River Hubbard River Manhan River Mill River (Northampton) Mill River (Springfield) Millers River Mirey Brook North Branch Millers River North Branch Westfield River North River Otter River Quaboag River Scantic River Seven Mile River Tarbell Brook Ware River Westfield River

Gulf of Maine

Annisquam River Blackwater River Eagle Hill River Egypt River Ipswich River Roger Island
Island
River Rowley River Skug River

Housatonic River
Housatonic River
Watershed

Housatonic River Konkapot River Schenob Brook Umpachene River

Hudson River
Hudson River
Watershed

Hoosic River Kinderhook Creek

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay

Aberjona River Alewife Brook Canton River Charles River Chelsea Creek Cochato River Fore River Fresh River Indian Head River Malden River Millers River Monatiquot River Mother Brook Muddy River Mystic River Neponset River North River Saugus River Stony Brook (Boston) Stony Brook (Waltham) Stop River Weir River Weymouth Back River

Merrimack River
Merrimack River
Watershed

Artichoke River Assabet River Back River Beaver Brook Cochichewick River Concord River Little River Merrimack River Nashua River Nissitissit River North Nashua River Phillips Brook Powwow River Quinapoxet River Salmon Brook Shawsheen River South Branch Souhegan River South Nashua River Spicket River Squannacook River Stillwater River Sudbury River Trout
Trout
Brook Vine Brook Whitman River

Nantucket
Nantucket
Sound

Bass River Bumps River Childs River Coonamesset River Mashpee River Mitchell River Oyster Pond
Pond
River Popponesset Creek Quashnet River Santuit River

Narragansett Bay

Barrington River Cole River Coles Brook Kickamuit River Lees River Palmer River Runnins River

Providence River
Providence River
Watershed

Abbott Run Blackstone River Bungay River Chockalog River Mill River Mumford River Peters River Quinsigamond River Sevenmile River Tannery River Ten Mile River Thacher River West River Wilde River

Taunton River
Taunton River
Watershed

Assonet River Canoe River Cedar Swamp River Cocasset River Cotley River Forge River Hockomock River Matfield River Mill River Nemasket River Poor Meadow Brook Quequechan River Rumford River Salisbury Plain River Satucket River Segreganset River Shumatuscacant River Snake River Taunton River Three Mile River Town River Wading River Winnetuxet River

Thames River Watershed

French River Quinebaug River

v t e

Mountains of Massachusetts

The Berkshires

Hoosac Range

Crum Hill

Others

Bakke Mountain Borden Mountain Crum Hill Massaemett Mountain Monument Mountain Pocumtuck Mountain Tekoa Mountain

Holyoke
Holyoke
Range

Bare Mountain Long Mountain Mount Hitchcock Mount Holyoke Mount Norwottuck Round Mountain Seven Sisters

Metacomet Ridge

Bare Mountain Crag Mountain East Mountain Farley Ledges Mount Grace Mount Hitchcock Mount Holyoke Mount Lincoln Mount Nonotuck Mount Norwottuck Mount Orient Mount Toby Mount Tom Northfield Mountain Pine Cobble Mountain Provin Mountain Round Mountain Seven Sisters Sugarloaf Mountain

Mount Tom Range

Mount Nonotuck Mount Tom

Pocumtuck Range

Sugarloaf Mountain

Taconic Mountains

Alander Mountain Berlin Mountain Berry Hill Berry Mountain Brodie Mountain Doll Mountain Holy Mount Honwee Mountain Misery Mountain Mount Everett Mount Fitch Mount Fray Mount Frissell Mount Greylock Mount Race Mount Raimer Mount Williams Pine Mountain Poppy Mountain Potter Mountain Round Mountain Rounds Mountain Saddle Ball Mountain Shaker Mountain Smith Mountain Tower Mountain White Rock

Wapack Range

Mount Watatic

Others

Faggot Hill Great Blue Hill Little Tom Mountain Mount Institute Mount Jefferson Mount Pisgah Mount Wachusett Peaked Mountain Pine Hill Tully Mountain Waitt's Mountain

v t e

Waterbodies of Massachusetts

Bays, Coves, and Sounds

Assonet Bay Broad Sound Buzzards Bay Cape Cod
Cape Cod
Bay Cat Cove Dorchester Bay Duxbury Bay Fairhaven Bay Hingham Bay Juniper Cove Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Nahant Bay Nantucket
Nantucket
Sound Narragansett Bay Orleans Cove Plymouth Bay Popponesset Bay Quincy Bay Vineyard Sound Waquoit Bay Warren Cove

Canals, Channels, and Straits

Blackstone Canal Broad Brook Canal Broad Canal Canapitsit Channel Cape Cod
Cape Cod
Canal Fort Point Channel Hampshire and Hampden Canal Holyoke
Holyoke
Canal
Canal
System Hypocrite Channel Jeremiah's Gutter Lechmere Canal Lowell Power Canal
Canal
System and Pawtucket Gatehouse Madaket Ditch Merrimack Canal Middlesex Canal Mother Brook North Canal Pawtucket Canal Quick's Hole Robinson's Hole Salem Channel Salem Beverly Waterway Canal South Channel South Hadley Canal Turners Falls Canal Woods Hole

Estuaries

Annisquam River Back River Bass River Boston
Boston
Harbor Buzzards Bay Fore River Mitchell River Mount Hope Bay Oyster Pond
Pond
River Popponesset Bay Quashnet River Weir River

Harbors

Barnstable Harbor Boston
Boston
Harbor East Harbor Hyannis Harbor Marblehead Harbor Plymouth Harbor Provincetown Harbor Rock Harbor Salem Harbor

Lakes

Briggs Reservoir Buffumville Lake Charge Pond Chebacco Lake Crystal Lake Follins Pond Hickory Hills Lake Indian Lake Lake
Lake
Ashmere Lake
Lake
Attitash Lake
Lake
Boon Lake
Lake
Buel Lake
Lake
Chaubunagungamaug Lake
Lake
Cochichewick Lake
Lake
Cochituate Lake
Lake
Garfield Lake
Lake
Massapoag Lake
Lake
Monomonac Lake
Lake
Nippenicket Lake
Lake
Onota Lake
Lake
Quannapowitt Lake
Lake
Quinsigamond Lake
Lake
Rico Lake
Lake
Sabbatia Lake
Lake
Saltonstall Lewis Lake Little Quittacas Pond Long Pond Mystic Lakes Pine Lake Pocksha Pond Prankers Pond Silver Lake Wallum Lake Wenham Lake Whites Pond

Ponds

Abner Pond Arnold School Pond Barrett Pond Bartlett Pond Bates Pond Beaver Dam Pond Big Rocky Pond Big Sandy Pond Billington Sea Black Jimmy Pond Bloody Pond Boot Pond Brooks Pond Browning Pond Bullough's Pond Campus Pond Cedar Pond Clay Pit Pond College Pond Cooks Pond Crossman Pond Curlew Pond Deer Pond Dug Pond Dunham Pond East Head Reservoir Elbow Pond Ezekiel Pond Fairyland Pond Fawn Pond Fearing Pond Federal Pond Five Mile Pond Forge Pond Fresh Meadow Pond Fresh Pond Fuller Street Pond Furnace Pond Gallows Pond Glen Charlie Pond Great Herring Pond Great Island
Island
Pond Great South Pond Gunners Exchange Pond Halfway Pond Hardy Pond Harrobs Corner Bog Pond Hedges Pond Hocomonco Pond Horn Pond Houghton's Pond Hoyts Pond Indian Head Pond Indian Pond Island
Island
Creek Pond Island
Island
Pond
Pond
(Cedarville) Island
Island
Pond
Pond
(Plymouth) Jacobs Pond Keene Pond Kings Pond Lake
Lake
Lashaway Learned Pond Leonards Pond Little Herring Pond Little Long Pond
Pond
(Plymouth) Little Long Pond
Pond
(Wareham) Little Pond Little Rocky Pond Little Sandy Bottom Pond Little Sandy Pond Little West Pond Long Duck Pond Long Island
Island
Pond Long Pond
Pond
(Plymouth) Long Pond
Pond
(Rochester) Lout Pond Lower Chandler Pond Maquan Pond Mary's Pond Mashpee and Wakeby Ponds Micajah Pond Mill Pond
Pond
(Duxbury) Mill Pond
Pond
(Wareham) Monponsett Pond Morey Hole Muddy Pond New Long Pond North Hill Marsh Pond North Triangle Pond Oldham Pond Parker Mills Pond Pembroke Street South Pond Pine Street Pond Quaboag Pond Redd's Pond Reeds Millpond Robbins Pond Rocky Pond Round Pond Russell Millpond Russell Pond Sampsons Pond Sandy Pond Sargent's Pond Savery Pond Sawins Pond Scargo Lake Shallow Pond Ship Pond Smelt Pond Smith Pool Snipatuit Pond South Meadow Brook Reservoir South Meadow Pond South Triangle Pond Spectacle Pond Spring Pond Spy Pond Stetson Pond Studleys Pond Thompson Pond Tihonet Pond Tispaquin Pond Tremont Mill Pond Triangle Pond Tuxbury Pond Union Pond Upper Chandler Pond Vaughn Pond Walden Pond Walker Pond Wampatuck Pond Watson Pond Watuppa Ponds West Chandler Pond White Island
Island
Pond Winnecunnet Pond

Reservoirs

Aaron River Reservoir Accord Pond Ashley Reservoir Assawompset Pond Big Pond Blackmore Pond Briggs Reservoir Chestnut Hill Reservoir Fisher Hill Reservoir Fort Meadow Reservoir Fresh Pond Great Quittacas Pond Great Sandy Bottom Pond Haggetts Pond High Service Water Tower and Reservoir Lake
Lake
Wyola Little South Pond Littleville Lake Lost Lake Miscoe Lake Neponset Reservoir Norton Reservoir Otis Reservoir Quabbin Reservoir Round Pond Silver Lake Stockbridge Bowl Stony Brook Stump Pond Sudbury Reservoir Sugden Reservoir Tully Lake Wachusett Reservoir Walden Pond
Pond
(Lynn) Weston Reservoir

v t e

Islands and Peninsulas of Massachusetts

Islands

Abiels Ledge Abnecotants Island Adams Island Alden Island Aldridge Ledge Alleghany Rock Allen Rock (Edgartown) Allen Rock (Salisbury) Amrita Island Angelica Rock Anuxanon Island Apple Island Archer Rock Averills Island Babson Ledge Bachelor Island Badgers Rock Bagwell Island Bailey Flat Bakers Island Bar Rock (Westport) Bar Rock (Scituate) Baret Island Barrel Rock Barstow Rock Bartletts Island Barton Island Bass Ledge Bass Rock (Ipswich) Bass Rock (Lynn) Bassetts Island Bates Island Beaver Island Big Pine Island Big Quamino Rock Billingsgate Island Bird Island Black Rock Blueberry Island Boston
Boston
Ledge Brant Island Brant Rock Bumpkin Island Busta Rhymes Island Button Island Calf Island Carrick Island Castle Island Castle Rock Cemetery Island Chappaquiddick Island Children's Island Childs Island Choate Island Chubb Island Clark Island Clark's Island Cleveland Island Cobble Island Commissioners Ledge Coney Island Conspiracy Island Cormorant Rock (Marblehead) Cormorant Rock (Mattapoisett) Corn Island Cove
Cove
Ledge Crow Island Crowninshield Island Cuttyhunk Island Decatur Rock Deer Island
Island
(Amesbury) Dole Island Egg Rock
Egg Rock
(Concord) Egg Rock
Egg Rock
(Nahant) Elizabeth Islands Fish Island Gallops Island Georges Island Gooseberry Island Governors Island Grand Island Grape Island
Island
(Weymouth) Grape Island
Island
(Ipswich) Great Brewster Island Green Island Gull Island Hales Island Hangman Island Holy Island House Island Langlee Island Little Brewster Island Long Island Lovells Island Marblehead Rock Martha's Vineyard Martin Ledge Middle Brewster Island Misery Islands Monomoy Island Moon Island Muskeget Island Nahant Nantucket Nashawena Island Naushon Island Nixes Mate Noddle's Island Nomans Land Nonamesset Island Nut Island Onset Island Outer Brewster Island Pasque Island Peddocks Island Penikese Island Plum Island Popponesset Island Raccoon
Raccoon
Island Ragged Island Rainsford Island Roaring Bulls Sampsons Island Sarah Island Shag Rocks Snake Island Spectacle Island Spinnaker Island Stall Hill Island Tewksbury Rock Thacher Island The Graves Thompson Island Three and One-half Fathom Ledge Tinker's Island Tuckernuck Island Uncatena Island Veckatimest Island Washburn Island Weepecket Islands West Island Wickets Island Winter Island

Peninsulas

Cape Ann Cape Cod Charles River
Charles River
Peninsula Charlestown Neck Columbia Point Deer Island Houghs Neck Humarock Pemberton Point Popponesset Peninsula Ram Head Rocky Point Rose Point Salem Neck Shawmut Peninsula Wings Neck World's End

Demographics[edit] Main articles: Demographics of Massachusetts
Demographics of Massachusetts
and List of people from Massachusetts

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
population density map. The centers of high-density settlement, from east to west, are Boston, Worcester, Springfield, and Pittsfield, respectively.

Historical population

Census Pop.

1790 378,787

1800 422,845

11.6%

1810 472,040

11.6%

1820 523,287

10.9%

1830 610,408

16.6%

1840 737,699

20.9%

1850 994,514

34.8%

1860 1,231,066

23.8%

1870 1,457,351

18.4%

1880 1,783,085

22.4%

1890 2,238,947

25.6%

1900 2,805,346

25.3%

1910 3,366,416

20.0%

1920 3,852,356

14.4%

1930 4,249,614

10.3%

1940 4,316,721

1.6%

1950 4,690,514

8.7%

1960 5,148,578

9.8%

1970 5,689,170

10.5%

1980 5,737,037

0.8%

1990 6,016,425

4.9%

2000 6,349,097

5.5%

2010 6,547,629

3.1%

Est. 2017 6,859,819

4.8%

[9][155][156][157]

The United States
United States
Census Bureau estimated that the population of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
was 6,859,819 on July 1, 2017, a 4.77% increase since the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[9] As of 2014, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
was estimated to be the third-most densely populated U.S. state, with 839.4 people per square mile,[158] behind New Jersey
New Jersey
and Rhode Island. In 2014, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
had 1,011,811 foreign-born residents or 15% of the population.[158] Most Bay
Bay
State residents live within the Boston
Boston
Metropolitan Area, also known as Greater Boston, which includes Boston
Boston
and its proximate surroundings but also extending to Greater Lowell
Greater Lowell
and to Worcester. The Springfield metropolitan area, also known as Greater Springfield, is also a major center of population. Demographically, the center of population of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is located in the town of Natick.[159][160] Like the rest of the northeastern United States, the population of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
has continued to grow in the past few decades. Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is the fastest growing state in New England
New England
and the 25th fastest growing state in the United States.[161] Population growth was largely due to a relatively high quality of life and a large higher education system in the state.[161] Foreign immigration is also a factor in the state's population growth, causing the state's population to continue to grow as of the 2010 Census (particularly in Massachusetts gateway cities
Massachusetts gateway cities
where costs of living are lower).[162][163] 40% of foreign immigrants were from Central or South America, according to a 2005 Census Bureau study, with many of the remainder from Asia. Many residents who have settled in Greater Springfield claim Puerto Rican descent.[162] Many areas of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
showed relatively stable population trends between 2000 and 2010.[163] Exurban Boston
Boston
and coastal areas grew the most rapidly, while Berkshire County in far Western Massachusetts
Western Massachusetts
and Barnstable County on Cape Cod
Cape Cod
were the only counties to lose population as of the 2010 Census.[163] By gender, 48.4% were male and 51.6% were female in 2014. In terms of age, 79.2% were over 18 years old and 14.8% were over 65 years old.[158] Race and ancestry[edit]

Saint Patrick's Day
Saint Patrick's Day
parade in Scituate, the municipality with the highest percentage identifying Irish ancestry in the United States, at 47.5% in 2010.[164] Irish Americans
Irish Americans
constitute the largest ethnicity in Massachusetts.

As of 2014, in terms of race and ethnicity, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
was 83.2% White (73.7% Non-Hispanic White), 8.8% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American and Alaska
Alaska
Native, 6.3% Asian American, <0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 2.1% from Some Other Race, and 3.1% from Two or More Races. Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 11.2% of the population.[158] The state's most populous ethnic group, non-Hispanic white, has declined from 95.4% in 1970 to 73.7% in 2014.[158][165] As of 2011, non-Hispanic whites were involved in 63.6% of all the births,[166] while 36.4% of the population of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
younger than age 1 was minorities (meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white).[167] As late as 1795, the population of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
was nearly 95% of English ancestry.[168] During the early and mid 19th century, immigrant groups began arriving in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
in large numbers; first from Ireland in the 1840s;[169] today the Irish and part-Irish are the largest ancestry group in the state at nearly 25% of the total population. Others arrived later from Quebec as well as places in Europe such as Italy, Portugal, and Poland.[170] In the early 20th century, a number of African Americans
African Americans
migrated to Massachusetts, although in somewhat fewer numbers than many other Northern states.[171] Later in the 20th century, immigration from Latin
Latin
America increased considerably. Over 156,000 Chinese Americans made their home in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
in 2014,[172] and Boston
Boston
hosts a growing Chinatown accommodating heavily traveled Chinese-owned bus lines to and from Chinatown, Manhattan
Chinatown, Manhattan
in New York City. Massachusetts
Massachusetts
also has large Puerto Rican, Dominican, Haitian, Cape Verdean and Brazilian populations. Boston's South End and Jamaica Plain
Jamaica Plain
are both gay villages, as is nearby Provincetown, Massachusetts
Provincetown, Massachusetts
on Cape Cod.

Boston's Chinatown, with its paifang gate, is home to many Chinese and also Vietnamese restaurants.

Boston
Boston
gay pride march, held annually in June. Massachusetts
Massachusetts
became the first U.S. state
U.S. state
to legalize same-sex marriage in 2004.

The largest ancestry group in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
are the Irish (22.5% of the population), who live in significant numbers throughout the state but form more than 40% of the population along the South Shore in Norfolk and Plymouth counties (in both counties overall, Irish-Americans comprise more than 30% of the population). Italians form the second-largest ethnic group in the state (13.5%), but only form a plurality in some suburbs north of Boston
Boston
and a few towns in the Berkshires. English is the third-largest ancestry in Massachusetts (11.4%), and have lived in the region the longest but only form a plurality in some towns in western Massachusetts. French people also form a significant part of the state's population (8%), and they primarily live in the hills of Worcester County.[173] Lowell is home to the second-largest Cambodian community of the nation.[174] There are also several populations of Native Americans in Massachusetts, the Wampanoag tribe maintains reservations at Aquinnah on Martha's Vineyard and at Mashpee on Cape Cod—with an ongoing native language revival project underway since 1993; while the Nipmuc
Nipmuc
maintain two state-recognized reservations in the central part of the state, including one at Grafton.[175] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
has avoided many forms of racial strife seen elsewhere in the US, but examples such as the successful electoral showings of the nativist (mainly anti-Catholic) Know Nothings in the 1850s,[176] the controversial Sacco and Vanzetti
Sacco and Vanzetti
executions in the 1920s,[177] and Boston's opposition to desegregation busing in the 1970s[178] show that the ethnic history of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
was not completely harmonious. Languages[edit] The most common varieties of American English
American English
spoken in Massachusetts, other than General American, are the cot-caught distinct, rhotic, western Massachusetts
Massachusetts
dialect and the cot-caught merged, non-rhotic, eastern Massachusetts
Massachusetts
dialect (popularly known as a "Boston accent").[179]

Top 11 Non-English Languages Spoken in Massachusetts

Language Percentage of population (as of 2010)[180]

Spanish 7.50%

Portuguese 2.97%

Chinese (including Cantonese
Cantonese
and Mandarin) 1.59%

French (including New England
New England
French) 1.11%

French Creole 0.89%

Italian 0.72%

Russian 0.62%

Vietnamese 0.58%

Greek 0.41%

Arabic
Arabic
and Khmer (Cambodian) (including all Austroasiatic languages) (tied) 0.37%

As of 2010, 78.93% (4,823,127) of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a first language, while 7.50% (458,256) spoke Spanish, 2.97% (181,437) Portuguese, 1.59% (96,690) Chinese (which includes Cantonese
Cantonese
and Mandarin), 1.11% (67,788) French, 0.89% (54,456) French Creole, 0.72% (43,798) Italian, 0.62% (37,865) Russian, and Vietnamese was spoken as a primary language by 0.58% (35,283) of the population over the age of five. In total, 21.07% (1,287,419) of Massachusetts's population aged 5 and older spoke a first language other than English.[158][180]

Built in 1681, the Old Ship Church
Old Ship Church
in Hingham is the oldest church in America in continuous ecclesiastical use.[181]

Religion[edit] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
was founded and settled by Brownist Puritans
Puritans
in 1620[87] and soon after by other groups of Separatists/Dissenters, Nonconformists and Independents from 17th century England.[85] Most people in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
today remain Christians.[158] The descendants of the Puritans
Puritans
belong to many different churches; in the direct line of inheritance are the various Congregational churches, the United Church of Christ and congregations of the Unitarian Universalist Association. The headquarters of the Unitarian Universalist Association, long located on Beacon Hill, is now located in South Boston.[182][183] Many Puritan descendants also dispersed to other Protestant denominations. Some disaffiliated along with Roman Catholics and other Christian
Christian
groups in the wake of modern secularization.

Boston's Cathedral of the Holy Cross was built in 1875 to serve the area's growing Catholic population at the time. Having passed peak population, many Catholic parishes in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
have closed,[184] with a major round in the Archdiocese of Boston
Boston
beginning in 2004.[185]

Today, Christians make up 57% of the state's population, with Protestants making up 21% of them. Roman Catholics make up 34% and now predominate because of massive immigration from primarily Catholic countries and regions – chiefly Ireland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Quebec, and Latin
Latin
America. Both Protestant and Roman Catholic communities have been in decline since the late 20th century, due to the rise of irreligion in New England. It is the most irreligious region of the country, along with the Western United States. A significant Jewish population immigrated to the Boston
Boston
and Springfield areas between 1880 and 1920. Jews
Jews
currently make up 3% of the population. Mary Baker Eddy
Mary Baker Eddy
made the Boston
Boston
Mother Church of Christian Science serve as the world headquarters of this new religious movement. Buddhists, Pagans, Hindus, Seventh-day Adventists, Muslims, and Mormons
Mormons
can also be found. Kripalu Center
Kripalu Center
in Stockbridge, the Shaolin Meditation Temple in Springfield, and the Insight Meditation Center in Barre are examples of non-Abrahamic religious centers in Massachusetts. According to 2010 data from The Association of Religion Data Archives, (ARDA) the largest single denominations are the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
with 2,940,199 adherents; the United Church of Christ with 86,639 adherents; and the Episcopal Church with 81,999 adherents.[186] 32% of the population identifies as having no religion.[187] Economy[edit] See also: List of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
locations by per capita income, List of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
locations by unemployment rate, and Category:Economy of Massachusetts The United States
United States
Bureau of Economic Analysis
Bureau of Economic Analysis
estimates that the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
gross state product in 2016 was US$505 billion.[188] The per capita personal income in 2012 was $53,221, making it the third-highest state in the nation.[189] As of January 2017, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
general minimum wage in the state was $11 per hour while the minimum wage for tipped workers is $3.75 an hour.[190] In 2015, twelve Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies were located in Massachusetts: Liberty Mutual, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Mutual Life Insurance Company, TJX Companies, EMC Corporation, Raytheon, Staples Inc., Global Partners, Thermo Fisher Scientific, State Street Corporation, Biogen, Eversource Energy, and Boston
Boston
Scientific.[191] CNBC's list of "Top States for Business for 2014" has recognized Massachusetts
Massachusetts
as the 25th-best state in the nation for business,[192] and for the second year in a row the state was ranked by Bloomberg as the most innovative state in America.[193] According to a 2013 study by Phoenix Marketing International, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
had the sixth-largest number of millionaires per capita in the United States, with a ratio of 6.73 percent.[194] Billionaires living in the state include past and present leaders (and related family) of local companies such as Fidelity Investments, New Balance, Kraft Group, Boston
Boston
Scientific, and the former Continental Cablevision.[195] Boston-Logan International Airport is the busiest airport in New England, serving 33.4 million total passengers in 2015, and witnessing rapid growth in international air traffic since 2010.[196] Sectors vital to the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
economy include higher education, biotechnology, information technology, finance, health care, tourism, and defense. The Route 128 corridor and Greater Boston
Boston
continue to be a major center for venture capital investment,[197] and high technology remains an important sector. In recent years tourism has played an ever-important role in the state's economy, with Boston
Boston
and Cape Cod
Cape Cod
being the leading destinations.[198] Other popular tourist destinations include Salem, Plymouth, and the Berkshires. Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is the sixth-most popular tourist destination for foreign travelers.[199]

Cape Cod
Cape Cod
Bay, a leading tourist destination in Massachusetts. Tourism is important to the state's economy.

As of 2012, there were 7,755 farms in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
encompassing a total of 523,517 acres (2,120 km2), averaging 67.5 acres (0.273 km2) apiece.[200] Particular agricultural products of note include green house products making up more than one third of the state's agricultural output, cranberries, sweet corn and apples are also large sectors of production.[201] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is the second-largest cranberry-producing state in the union after Wisconsin.[202] The more than 33,000 nonprofits in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
employ one-sixth of the state's workforce.[203] In 2007, Governor Deval Patrick signed into law a state holiday, Nonprofit Awareness Day. In February 2017, U.S. News & World Report ranked Massachusetts the best state in the United States
United States
based upon 60 metrics including healthcare, education, crime, infrastructure, opportunity, economy, and government. The Bay
Bay
State ranked number one in education, number two in healthcare, and number five in the handling of the economy.[204] Job growth[edit] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
scored ninth among all other states in non-farm job growth in 2015 according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The state ranked 15th in percentage change with a two-percent increase.[205] Taxation[edit] Depending on how it is calculated, state and local tax burden in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
has been estimated among U.S. states and Washington D.C. as 21st-highest (11.44% or $6,163 per year for a household with nationwide median income)[206] or 25th-highest overall with below-average corporate taxes (39th-highest), above-average personal income taxes, (13th-highest), above-average sales tax (18th-highest), and below-average property taxes (46th-highest).[207] In the 1970s, the Commonwealth ranked as a relatively high-tax state, gaining the pejorative nickname "Taxachusetts". This was followed by a round of tax limitations during the 1980s—a conservative period in American politics—including Proposition 2½.[208] As of January 1, 2016, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
has a flat-rate personal income tax of 5.1%,[209] after a 2002 voter referendum to eventually lower the rate to 5.0%[210] as amended by the legislature.[211] There is a tax exemption for income below a threshold that varies from year to year. The corporate income tax rate is 8.8%,[212] and the short-term capital gains tax rate is 12%.[213] An unusual provision allows filers to voluntarily pay at the pre-referendum 5.85% income tax rate, which is done by between one and two thousand taxpayers per year.[214] The state imposes a 6.25% sales tax[212] on retail sales of tangible personal property—except for groceries, clothing (up to $175.00), and periodicals.[215] The sales tax is charged on clothing that costs more than $175.00, for the amount exceeding $175.00.[215] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
also charges a use tax when goods are bought from other states and the vendor does not remit Massachusetts
Massachusetts
sales tax; taxpayers report and pay this on their income tax forms or dedicated forms, though there are "safe harbor" amounts that can be paid without tallying up actual purchases (except for purchases over $1000).[215] There is no inheritance tax and limited Massachusetts
Massachusetts
estate tax related to federal estate tax collection.[213] Energy[edit] Massachusetts's electricity generation market was made competitive in 1998, enabling retail customers to change suppliers without changing utility companies.[216] In 2012, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
consumed 1374.4 trillion BTU,[217] making it the fifth-lowest state in terms of consumption of energy per capita, and 63% of that energy came from natural gas.[217] In 2014 and 2015, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
was ranked as the most energy efficient state the United States[218][219] while Boston is the most efficient city,[220] but it had the third-highest electricity prices of any state.[217] Renewable energy[edit] Fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas reserves are slowly being depleted, to make up for the loss of these fuels an alternative to supply Massachusetts
Massachusetts
with energy is needed. An alternative to replace the fossil fuels is renewable energy, resources-such as wind and solar energy-are constantly being replenished and will never run out. To have Massachusetts
Massachusetts
become less dependent on fossil fuels, a bill to move Massachusetts
Massachusetts
to 100 percent renewable energy was submitted. The bill (S.1849) was introduced by a petition (accompanied by bill, Senate, No. 1849) of James B. Eldridge, Sean Garballey, Carmine L. Gentile, Jason M. Lewis and other members of the General Court for legislation to transition Massachusetts
Massachusetts
to 100 percent renewable energy.[221] The bill aims to have Massachusetts
Massachusetts
on 100 percent renewable energy by 2050 with plans on reducing pollution to Massachusetts
Massachusetts
air, water and land, along with reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and ultimately eliminate Massachusetts
Massachusetts
use of fossil fuels and other polluting and dangerous forms of energy.[221] Further information: Category:Energy in Massachusetts Transportation[edit] See also: Category:Transportation in Massachusetts

The Massachusetts Bay
Massachusetts Bay
Transportation Authority, serving Greater Boston

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
has 10 regional metropolitan planning organizations and three non-metropolitan planning organizations covering the remainder of the state;[222] statewide planning is handled by the Massachusetts Department of Transportation. Regional public transportation[edit] The Massachusetts Bay
Massachusetts Bay
Transportation Authority (MBTA), also known as "The T",[223] operates public transportation in the form of subway,[224] bus,[225] and ferry[226] systems in the Metro Boston area. Fifteen other regional transit authorities provide public transportation in the form of bus services in the rest of the state.[227] Two heritage railways are also in operation: the Cape Cod Central Railroad and the Berkshire Scenic Railway.[228][229] Long-distance rail and bus[edit] Amtrak
Amtrak
operates inter-city rail, including the high-speed Acela service to cities such as Providence, New Haven, New York City, and Washington, DC from South Station. From North Station
North Station
the Amtrak Downeaster serves Portland, Maine
Maine
and Brunswick, Maine.[230] Amtrak also runs east-west from Boston
Boston
South Station
South Station
to Worcester, Springfield, and eventually Chicago, Illinois; and north-south from the Pioneer Valley
Pioneer Valley
to New Haven, Connecticut
Connecticut
via Hartford. Amtrak carries more passengers between Boston
Boston
and New York than all airlines combined (about 54% of market share in 2012).[231] but has infrequent trips to other cities. There, more frequent intercity service is provided by private bus carriers, including Peter Pan Bus Lines (headquartered in Springfield), Greyhound Lines, and BoltBus. Various Chinatown bus lines
Chinatown bus lines
depart for New York from South Station
South Station
in Boston. MBTA Commuter Rail
MBTA Commuter Rail
services run throughout the larger Greater Boston area, including service to Worcester, Lowell, and Plymouth.[232] This overlaps with the service areas of neighboring regional transportation authorities. As of the summer of 2013 the Cape Cod
Cape Cod
Regional Transit Authority in collaboration with the MBTA and the Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT) is operating the CapeFLYER providing passenger rail service between Boston
Boston
and Cape Cod.[233][234] Hartford-Springfield Commuter Rail
Hartford-Springfield Commuter Rail
is expected to begin operation in 2018. Ferry[edit] The Woods Hole, Martha's Vineyard
Martha's Vineyard
and Nantucket
Nantucket
Steamship Authority regulates freight and passenger ferry service to the islands of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
including Martha's Vineyard
Martha's Vineyard
and Nantucket.[235] Rail freight[edit] As of 2015, a number of freight railroads were operating in Massachusetts, with CSX being the largest carrier.[236] Massachusetts has a total of 892 miles (1,436 km) of freight trackage in operation.[237] Air service[edit] Further information: List of airports in Massachusetts

Worcester, second-largest city in the state, with Worcester Regional Airport tower in the background

The major airport in the state is Boston-Logan International Airport. The airport served 33.5 million passengers in 2015, up from 31.6 million in 2014,[196] and is used by around 40 airlines with a total of 103 gates.[238] Logan International Airport
Logan International Airport
has service to numerous cities throughout the United States, as well as international service to Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, Europe, and Asia.[239] Logan, Hanscom Field
Hanscom Field
in Bedford, and Worcester Regional Airport
Worcester Regional Airport
are operated by Massport, an independent state transportation agency.[239] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
has approximately 42 public-use airfields, and over 200 private landing spots.[240] Some airports receive funding from the Aeronautics Division of the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Department of Transportation and the Federal Aviation Administration; the FAA is also the primary regulator of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
air travel.[241] Roads[edit] There are a total of 31,300 miles (50,400 km) of interstates and other highways in Massachusetts.[242] Interstate 90 (I-90, also known as the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Turnpike), is the longest interstate in Massachusetts. The route travels 136 mi (219 km) generally west to east, entering Massachusetts
Massachusetts
at the New York state line in the town of West Stockbridge, and passes just north of Springfield, just south of Worcester and through Framingham before terminating near Logan International Airport
Logan International Airport
in Boston.[243] Other major interstates include I-91, which travels generally north and south along the Connecticut
Connecticut
River; I-93, which travels north and south through central Boston, then passes through Methuen before entering New Hampshire; and I-95, which connects Providence, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
with Greater Boston, forming a partial loop concurrent with Route 128 around the more urbanized areas before continuing north along the coast into New Hampshire. I-495 forms a wide loop around the outer edge of Greater Boston. Other major interstates in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
include I-291, I-391, I-84, I-195, I-395, I-290, and I-190. Major non-interstate highways in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
include U.S. Routes 1, 3, 6, and 20, and state routes 2, 3, 9, 24, and 128. A great majority of interstates in Massachusetts were constructed during the mid 20th century, and at times were controversial, particularly the intent to route I-95 northeastwards from Providence, Rhode Island, directly through central Boston, first proposed in 1948. Opposition to continued construction grew, and in 1970 Governor Francis W. Sargent
Francis W. Sargent
issued a general prohibition on most further freeway construction within the I-95/Route 128 loop in the Boston
Boston
area.[244] A massive undertaking to bring I-93 underground in downtown Boston, called the Big Dig, brought the city's highway system under public scrutiny for its high cost and construction quality.[130] Government and politics[edit]

The Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State House, topped by its golden dome, faces Boston Common on Beacon Hill.

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
has a long political history; earlier political structures included the Mayflower
Mayflower
Compact of 1620, the separate Massachusetts Bay
Massachusetts Bay
and Plymouth colonies, and the combined colonial Province of Massachusetts. The Massachusetts Constitution was ratified in 1780 while the Revolutionary War was in progress, four years after the Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation
was drafted, and eight years before the present United States
United States
Constitution was ratified on June 21, 1788. Drafted by John Adams, the Massachusetts Constitution is currently the oldest functioning written constitution in continuous effect in the world.[245][246][247] It has been amended 120 times, most recently in 2000. Massachusetts
Massachusetts
politics since the second half of the 20th century have generally been dominated by the Democratic Party, and the state has a reputation for being the most liberal state in the country.[248] In 1974, Elaine Noble became the first openly lesbian or gay candidate elected to a state legislature in US history.[249] The state housed the first openly gay member of the United States
United States
House of Representatives, Gerry Studds, in 1972[250] and in 2004, Massachusetts became the first state to allow same-sex marriage.[59] Government[edit] Main article: Government of Massachusetts See also: Commonwealth (U.S. state)

Charlie Baker
Charlie Baker
(R), the 72nd and current Governor of Massachusetts

The Government of Massachusetts
Government of Massachusetts
is divided into three branches: Executive, Legislative, and Judicial. The governor of Massachusetts heads the executive branch; duties of the governor include signing or vetoing legislation, filling judicial and agency appointments, granting pardons, preparing an annual budget, and commanding the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
National Guard.[251] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
governors, unlike those of most other states, are addressed as His/Her Excellency.[251] The current governor is Charlie Baker,[252] a Republican from Swampscott.[253] The executive branch also includes the Executive Council, which is made up of eight elected councilors and the Lieutenant Governor seat,[251] which is currently occupied by Karyn Polito.[252] Abilities of the Council include confirming gubernatorial appointments and certifying elections.[251] The Massachusetts
Massachusetts
House of Representatives and Massachusetts Senate
Massachusetts Senate
comprise the legislature of Massachusetts, known as the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
General Court.[251] The House consists of 160 members while the Senate has 40 members.[251] Leaders of the House and Senate are chosen by the members of those bodies; the leader of the House is known as the Speaker while the leader of the Senate is known as the President.[251] Each branch consists of several committees.[251] Members of both bodies are elected to two-year terms.[254] The Judicial branch is headed by the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Supreme Judicial Court, which serves over a number of lower courts.[251] The Supreme Judicial Court is made up of a chief justice and six associate justices.[251] Judicial appointments are made by the governor and confirmed by the executive council.[251] The Congressional delegation from Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is entirely Democratic.[255] Currently, the US senators are Democrats Elizabeth Warren and Ed Markey. The members of the state's delegation to the US House of Representatives are Richard Neal, Jim McGovern, Niki Tsongas, Joseph Kennedy III, Katherine Clark, Seth Moulton, Mike Capuano, Stephen Lynch, and Bill Keating.[256] Federal court cases are heard in the United States
United States
District Court for the District of Massachusetts, and appeals are heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit.[257] In U.S. presidential elections since 2012, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
has been allotted 11 votes in the electoral college, out of a total of 538.[258] Like most states, Massachusetts's electoral votes are granted in a winner-take-all system.[259] Politics[edit] Main articles: Politics of Massachusetts
Politics of Massachusetts
and Political party strength in Massachusetts See also: Green-Rainbow Party, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Democratic Party, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Republican Party, and United Independent Party

Gubernatorial election results[260]

Year Democratic Republican

1958 56.2% 1,067,020 43.1% 818,463

1960 46.8% 1,130,810 52.5% 1,269,295

1962 49.9% 1,053,322 49.7% 1,047,891

1964 49.3% 1,153,416 50.3% 1,176,462

1966 36.9% 752,720 62.6% 1,277,358

1970 42.8% 799,269 56.7% 1,058,623

1974 53.5% 992,284 42.3% 784,353

1978 51.2% 1,030,294 46.0% 926,072

1982 59.5% 1,219,109 36.6% 749,679

1986 68.7% 1,157,786 31.2% 525,364

1990 46.9% 1,099,878 50.2% 1,175,817

1994 28.3% 611,650 70.8% 1,533,390

1998 47.4% 901,843 50.8% 967,160

2002 44.9% 985,981 49.8% 1,091,988

2006 55.6% 1,234,984 35.3% 784,342

2010 48.4% 1,112,283 42.0% 964,866

2014 46.5% 1,004,408 48.4% 1,044,573

Presidential election results[260]

Year Democratic Republican

1952 45.5% 1,083,525 54.2% 1,292,325

1956 40.4% 948,190 59.3% 1,393,197

1960 60.2% 1,487,174 39.6% 976,750

1964 76.2% 1,786,422 23.4% 549,727

1968 63.0% 1,469,218 32.9% 766,844

1972 54.2% 1,332,540 45.2% 1,112,078

1976 56.1% 1,429,475 40.4% 1,030,276

1980 41.8% 1,053,802 41.9% 1,057,631

1984 48.4% 1,239,606 51.2% 1,310,936

1988 53.2% 1,401,416 45.4% 1,194,644

1992 47.5% 1,318,662 37.0% 1,005,049

1996 61.5% 1,571,763 28.1% 718,107

2000 59.8% 1,616,487 32.5% 878,502

2004 61.9% 1,803,800 36.8% 1,071,109

2008 61.8% 1,904,098 36.0% 1,108,854

2012 60.7% 1,921,290 37.5% 1,188,314

2016 60.0% 1,995,196 32.8% 1,090,893

Throughout the mid 20th century, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
has gradually shifted from a Republican-leaning state to one largely dominated by Democrats; the 1952 victory of John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
over incumbent Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. is seen as a watershed moment in this transformation. His younger brother Edward M. Kennedy held that seat until his death from a brain tumor in 2009.[261] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
has since gained a reputation as being a politically liberal state and is often used as an archetype of modern liberalism, hence the usage of the phrase " Massachusetts
Massachusetts
liberal".[262] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
routinely votes for the Democratic Party, with the core concentrations in the Boston
Boston
metro area, the Cape and Islands, and Western Massachusetts
Western Massachusetts
outside Hampden County. Pockets of Republican strength are in the central areas along the I-495 crescent, Hampden County, and communities on the south and north shores,[263] but the state as a whole has not given its Electoral College votes to a Republican in a presidential election since Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
carried it in 1984. Additionally, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
provided Reagan with his smallest margins of victory in both the 1980[264] and 1984 elections.[265] As of the 2014 election, the Democratic Party holds a significant majority over the Republican Party. Only 35 of the 160 seats in the state house[266] and 6 of the 40 seats in the state senate belong to the Republican Party.[267] Although Republicans held the governor's office continuously from 1991 to 2007 and from 2015 onwards,[252] they have been among the most moderate Republican leaders in the nation.[268][269] In the 2004 election, the state gave Massachusetts
Massachusetts
senator John Kerry
John Kerry
61.9% of the vote, his best showing in any state.[270] In 2008, President Barack Obama carried the state with 61.8% of the vote.[271]

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
registered voters as of February 2017[272]

Party Number of Voters Percentage

Independent 2,424,979 54.04%

Democratic 1,526,870 34.03%

Republican 479,237 10.68%

Libertarian 8,587 0.19%

Political designations 47,176 1.05%

Total 4,486,849 100%

In the 2010 special election for the U.S. Senate, Republican Scott Brown defeated Democrat Martha Coakley
Martha Coakley
by a 52% to 47% margin only to lose the seat in the 2012 Senate election to Elizabeth Warren, the first female senator to represent Massachusetts.[273][274] A number of contemporary national political issues have been influenced by events in Massachusetts, such as the decision in 2003 by the state Supreme Judicial Court allowing same-sex marriage[275] and a 2006 bill which mandated health insurance for all Bay
Bay
Staters.[276] In 2008, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
voters passed an initiative decriminalizing possession of small amounts of marijuana.[277] Voters in Massachusetts also approved a ballot measure in 2012 that legalized the medical use of marijuana.[278] Cities, towns, and counties[edit] Main article: Local Government

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Massachusetts Source:[279]

Rank Name County Pop.

Boston

Worcester 1 Boston Suffolk 673,184

Springfield

Cambridge

2 Worcester Worcester 184,508

3 Springfield Hampden 154,074

4 Cambridge Middlesex 110,651

5 Lowell Middlesex 110,558

6 Brockton Plymouth 95,630

7 New Bedford Bristol 95,032

8 Quincy Norfolk 93,688

9 Lynn Essex 92,697

10 Fall River Bristol 88,390

There are 50 cities and 301 towns in Massachusetts, grouped into 14 counties.[280] The fourteen counties, moving roughly from west to east, are Berkshire, Franklin, Hampshire, Hampden, Worcester, Middlesex, Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Bristol, Plymouth, Barnstable, Dukes, and Nantucket. Eleven communities which call themselves "towns" are, by law, cities since they have traded the town meeting form of government for a mayor-council or manager-council form.[281] Boston
Boston
is the state capital and largest city in Massachusetts. The population of the city proper is 673,184,[282] and Greater Boston, with a population of 4,628,910, is the 10th largest metropolitan area in the nation.[283] Other cities with a population over 100,000 include Worcester, Springfield, Lowell, and Cambridge. Plymouth is the largest municipality in the state by land area.[280] Massachusetts, along with the five other New England
New England
states, features the local governmental structure known as the New England
New England
town.[284] In this structure, incorporated towns—as opposed to townships or counties—hold many of the responsibilities and powers of local government.[284] Most of the county governments were abolished by the state of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
beginning in 1997 including Middlesex County,[285] the largest county in the state by population.[286][287] The voters of these now defunct counties elect only Sheriffs and Registers of Deeds, who are part of the state government. Other counties have been reorganized, and a few still retain county councils.[288] Education[edit]

Harvard University
Harvard University
and MIT
MIT
are both widely regarded as in the top handful of universities worldwide for academic research in various disciplines.[65]

Towns in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
by combined mean SAT of their public high school district for the 2015–2016 academic year.[289]

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
was the first state in North America to require municipalities to appoint a teacher or establish a grammar school with the passage of the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Education Law of 1647,[290] and 19th century reforms pushed by Horace Mann
Horace Mann
laid much of the groundwork for contemporary universal public education[291][292] which was established in 1852.[123] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is home to the oldest school in continuous existence in North America (The Roxbury Latin
Latin
School, founded in 1645), as well as the country's oldest public elementary school (The Mather School, founded in 1639),[293] its oldest high school ( Boston
Boston
Latin
Latin
School, founded in 1635),[294] its oldest continuously operating boarding school (The Governor's Academy, founded in 1763),[295] its oldest college (Harvard University, founded in 1636),[296] and its oldest women's college ( Mount Holyoke
Mount Holyoke
College, founded in 1837).[297] Massachusetts's per-student public expenditure for elementary and secondary schools was eighth in the nation in 2012, at $14,844.[298] In 2013, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
scored highest of all the states in math and third-highest in reading on the National Assessment of Educational Progress.[299] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is home to 121 institutions of higher education.[300] Harvard University
Harvard University
and the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, both located in Cambridge, consistently rank among the world's best private universities and universities in general.[301] In addition to Harvard and MIT, several other Massachusetts
Massachusetts
universities currently rank in the top 50 at the undergraduate level nationally in the widely cited rankings of U.S. News and World Report: Tufts University
Tufts University
(#27), Boston College (#32), Brandeis University
Brandeis University
(#34), Boston
Boston
University (#37) and Northeastern University
Northeastern University
(#40). Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is also home to three of the top five U.S. News and World Report's best Liberal Arts Colleges: Williams College
Williams College
(#1), Amherst College
Amherst College
(#2), and Wellesley College (#4).[302] The public University of Massachusetts
University of Massachusetts
(nicknamed UMass) features five campuses in the state, with its flagship campus in Amherst that enrolls over 25,000 students.[303][304] Further information: List of colleges and universities in Massachusetts, List of engineering schools in Massachusetts, List of high schools in Massachusetts, and List of school districts in Massachusetts Arts, culture, and recreation[edit]

The site of Henry David Thoreau's cabin at Walden Pond
Pond
in Concord

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
has contributed to American arts and culture. Drawing from its Native American and Yankee
Yankee
roots, along with later immigrant groups, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
has produced a number of writers, artists, and musicians. A number of major museums and important historical sites are also located there, and events and festivals throughout the year celebrate the state's history and heritage.[305] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
was an early center of the Transcendentalist
Transcendentalist
movement, which emphasized intuition, emotion, human individuality and a deeper connection with nature.[118] Ralph Waldo Emerson, who was born in Boston
Boston
but spent much of his later life in Concord, largely created the philosophy with his 1836 work Nature, and continued to be a key figure in the movement for the remainder of his life. Emerson's friend, Henry David Thoreau, who was also involved in Transcendentalism, recorded his year spent alone in a small cabin at nearby Walden Pond
Pond
in the 1854 work Walden; or, Life in the Woods.[306] Other famous authors and poets born or strongly associated with Massachusetts
Massachusetts
include Nathaniel Hawthorne, John Updike, Emily Dickinson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, E.E. Cummings, Sylvia Plath, H.P. Lovecraft, Edgar Allan Poe, and Theodor Seuss Geisel, better known as "Dr. Seuss".[307][308][309] Famous painters from Massachusetts
Massachusetts
include Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer
and Norman Rockwell;[309] many of the latter's works are on display at the Norman Rockwell
Norman Rockwell
Museum in Stockbridge.[310]

An outdoor dance performance at Jacob's Pillow in Becket

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is also an important center for the performing arts. Both the Boston
Boston
Symphony Orchestra and Boston
Boston
Pops Orchestra are based in Massachusetts.[311] Other orchestras in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
include the Cape Cod
Cape Cod
Symphony Orchestra in Barnstable and the Springfield Symphony Orchestra.[312][313] Tanglewood, in western Massachusetts, is a music venue that is home to both the Tanglewood
Tanglewood
Music Festival and Tanglewood
Tanglewood
Jazz Festival, as well as the summer host for the Boston Symphony Orchestra.[314] Other performing arts and theater organizations in Massachusetts include the Boston
Boston
Ballet, the Boston
Boston
Lyric Opera,[311] and the Lenox-based Shakespeare & Company. In addition to classical and folk music, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
has produced musicians and bands spanning a number of contemporary genres, such as the classic rock band Aerosmith, the proto-punk band The Modern Lovers, the new wave band The Cars, and the alternative rock band Pixies.[315] Film events in the state include the Boston
Boston
Film Festival, the Boston
Boston
International Film Festival, and a number of smaller film festivals in various cities throughout Massachusetts.[316]

USS Constitution
USS Constitution
fires a salute during its annual Fourth of July turnaround cruise.

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is home to a large number of museums and historical sites. The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, the Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, and the DeCordova contemporary art and sculpture museum in Lincoln are all located within Massachusetts,[317] and the Maria Mitchell Association in Nantucket
Nantucket
includes several observatories, museums, and an aquarium.[318] Historically themed museums and sites such as the Springfield Armory
Springfield Armory
National Historic Site in Springfield,[139] Boston's Freedom Trail
Freedom Trail
and nearby Minute Man National Historical Park, both of which preserve a number of sites important during the American Revolution,[139][319] the Lowell National Historical Park, which focuses on some of the earliest mills and canals of the industrial revolution in the US,[139] the Black Heritage Trail in Boston, which includes important African-American and abolitionist sites in Boston,[320] and the New Bedford Whaling National Historical Park[139] all showcase various periods of Massachusetts's history. Plimoth Plantation
Plimoth Plantation
and Old Sturbridge Village
Old Sturbridge Village
are two open-air or "living" museums in Massachusetts, recreating life as it was in the 17th and early 19th centuries, respectively.[321][322] Boston's annual St. Patrick's Day
St. Patrick's Day
parade and "Harborfest", a week-long Fourth of July
Fourth of July
celebration featuring a fireworks display and concert by the Boston
Boston
Pops as well as a turnaround cruise in Boston
Boston
Harbor
Harbor
by the USS Constitution, are popular events.[323] The New England
New England
Summer Nationals, an auto show in Worcester, draws tens of thousands of attendees every year.[324] The Boston
Boston
Marathon is also a popular event in the state drawing more than 30,000 runners and tens of thousands of spectators annually.[325] Long-distance hiking trails in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
include the Appalachian Trail, the New England
New England
National Scenic Trail, the Metacomet-Monadnock Trail, the Midstate Trail, and the Bay
Bay
Circuit Trail.[326] Other outdoor recreational activities in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
include sailing and yachting, freshwater and deep-sea fishing,[327] whale watching,[328] downhill and cross-country skiing,[329] and hunting.[330] Media[edit] See also: List of television stations in Massachusetts, List of newspapers in Massachusetts, and List of radio stations in Massachusetts There are two major television media markets located in Massachusetts. The Boston/Manchester market is the fifth-largest in the United States.[331] The other market surrounds the Springfield area.[332] WGBH-TV
WGBH-TV
in Boston
Boston
is a major public television station and produces national programs such as Nova, Frontline, and American Experience.[333][334] The Boston
Boston
Globe, Boston
Boston
Herald, Springfield Republican, and the Worcester Telegram & Gazette are Massachusetts's largest daily newspapers.[335] In addition, there are many community dailies and weeklies. There are a number of major AM and FM stations which serve Massachusetts,[336] along with many more regional and community-based stations. Some colleges and universities also operate campus television and radio stations, and print their own newspapers.[337][338][339] Health[edit] See also: List of hospitals in Massachusetts, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
health care reform, and Governorship of Mitt Romney § Health care Massachusetts
Massachusetts
generally ranks highly among states in most health and disease prevention categories. In 2015, the United Health Foundation ranked the state as third-healthiest overall.[340] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
has the most doctors per 100,000 residents,[341] the second-lowest infant mortality rate,[342] and the lowest percentage of uninsured residents (for both children as well as the total population).[343] According to Businessweek, commonwealth residents have an average life expectancy of 80.41 years, the fifth-longest in the country.[344] 37.2% of the population is overweight and 21.7% is obese,[345] and Massachusetts ranks sixth-highest in the percentage of residents who are considered neither obese nor overweight (41.1%).[345] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
also ranks above average in the prevalence of binge drinking, which is the 20th-highest in the country.[346]

Map showing the average medicare reimbursement per enrollee for the counties in the state of Massachusetts. Data from the 2016 report published by the University of Wisconsin
Wisconsin
County Health Rankings & Roadmaps.

The nation's first Marine Hospital was erected by federal order in Boston
Boston
in 1799.[347][348] There are currently a total of 143 hospitals in the state.[349] According to 2015 rankings by U.S. News & World Report, Massachusetts General Hospital
Massachusetts General Hospital
the hospital ranked in the top three in two specialties.[350] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
General was founded in 1811 and serves as the largest teaching hospital for nearby Harvard University.[351] The state of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is a center for medical education and research including Harvard's Brigham and Women's Hospital, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute[352] as well as the New England
New England
Baptist Hospital, Tufts Medical Center, and Boston
Boston
Medical Center which is the primary teaching hospital for Boston
Boston
University.[353] The University of Massachusetts
University of Massachusetts
Medical School is located in Worcester.[354] The Massachusetts
Massachusetts
College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences has two of its three campuses in Boston
Boston
and Worcester.[355] Sports[edit] Main article: Sports in Massachusetts

Fenway Park

Gillette Stadium

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is home to five major league professional sports teams: seventeen-time NBA Champions Boston
Boston
Celtics,[356] eight-time World Series winners Boston
Boston
Red Sox,[357] six-time Stanley Cup
Stanley Cup
winners Boston
Boston
Bruins,[358] and five-time Super Bowl
Super Bowl
winners New England Patriots.[359] The New England
New England
Revolution is the Major League Soccer team for Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and the Boston
Boston
Cannons are the Major League Lacrosse team.[360] The Boston
Boston
Breakers are the Women's Professional Soccer in Massachusetts. Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is also the home of the Cape Cod Baseball League. In the late 19th century, the Olympic sports of basketball[57] and volleyball[58] were invented in the Western Massachusetts
Western Massachusetts
cities of Springfield[57] and Holyoke,[58] respectively. The Basketball
Basketball
Hall of Fame, is a major tourist destination in the City of Springfield and the Volleyball
Volleyball
Hall of Fame is located in Holyoke.[58] The American Hockey League (AHL), the NHL's development league, is headquartered in Springfield.[361] Several universities in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
are notable for their collegiate athletics. The state is home to two Division 1 FBS teams, Boston College of the Atlantic Coast Conference, and FBS Independent University of Massachusetts
University of Massachusetts
at Amherst. FCS play includes Harvard University, which competes in the famed Ivy League, and College of the Holy Cross of the Patriot League. Boston
Boston
University, Northeastern University, UMASS Lowell, and Merrimack College
Merrimack College
also participate in Division I athletics.[362][363] Many other Massachusetts
Massachusetts
colleges compete in lower divisions such as Division III, where MIT, Tufts University, Amherst College, Williams College, and others field competitive teams. Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is also the home of rowing events such as the Eastern Sprints on Lake
Lake
Quinsigamond and the Head of the Charles Regatta.[364] A number of major golf events have taken place in Massachusetts, including nine U.S. Opens and two Ryder Cups.[365][366] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
has produced several successful Olympians including Butch Johnson, Todd Richards, Albina Osipowich, Aly Raisman, and Susan Rojcewicz.[367]

See also[edit]

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
portal New England
New England
portal

Index of Massachusetts-related articles Outline of Massachusetts

References[edit]

^ Herman, Jennifer (2008). Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Encyclopedia. State History Publications, LLC. p. 7. Various nicknames have been given to describe Massachusetts, including the Bay
Bay
State, the Old Bay
Bay
State, the Pilgrim State, the Puritan State, the Old Colony State and, less often, the Baked Bean State  ^ Schwarz, Hunter (August 12, 2014). "States where English is the official language". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 29, 2014.  ^ "Language spoken at home by ability to speak English for the population 5 years and over – 2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". American FactFinder. Retrieved February 6, 2016.  ^ " Massachusetts
Massachusetts
General Laws, Chapter 2, Section 35: Designation of citizens of commonwealth". The Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved February 29, 2008.  ^ "Collections". Boston: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Historical Society. 1877: 435. Retrieved June 10, 2015.  ^ Jones, Thomas (1879). DeLancey, Edward Floyd, ed. History of New York During the Revolutionary War. New York: New-York Historical Society. p. 465. Retrieved June 10, 2015.  ^ Hendrickson, Robert (2000). The Facts on File
File
Dictionary of American Regionalisms. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1438129921. Retrieved April 21, 2017.  ^ "Massachusetts". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved June 10, 2015.  ^ a b c [1] Accessed December 29, 2017. ^ "U. S. States by size". WorldAtlas.com. Retrieved April 21, 2015.  ^ "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 9, 2016.  ^ "Greylock RM 1 Reset". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey.  ^ Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988. ^ "Black-Capped Chickadee: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Bird". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 17, 2015.  ^ "Wild Turkey: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Game Bird". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 17, 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r " Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Facts". Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved April 21, 2015.  ^ "Cod: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Fish". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015.  ^ "Mayflower: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Flower". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015.  ^ "Ladybug: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Insect". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015.  ^ "Right Whale: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Marine Mammal". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015.  ^ "Morgan Horse: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Horse". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015.  ^ "Tabby Cat: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Cat". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015.  ^ " Boston
Boston
Terrier: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Dog". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015.  ^ "Garter Snake: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Reptile". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015.  ^ "American Elm: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Tree". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015.  ^ " Cranberry
Cranberry
Juice: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Beverage". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015.  ^ "Blue – Green – Cranberry: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Colors". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015.  ^ "Square Dance: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Folk Dance". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015.  ^ "Cranberry: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Berry". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015.  ^ "Corn Muffin: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Muffin". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 20, 2015.  ^ "Baked Navy Bean: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Bean". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 20, 2015.  ^ " Boston
Boston
Creme Pie: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Dessert". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 20, 2015.  ^ "Chocolate Chip Cookie: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Cookie". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 20, 2015.  ^ " Boston
Boston
Cream Donut: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Donut". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015.  ^ "Dinosaur Tracks: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Fossil". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 20, 2015.  ^ "Rhodonite: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Gem". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 20, 2015.  ^ "Babingtonite: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Mineral". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 20, 2015.  ^ "Blue Hills of Massachusetts: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Poem". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 20, 2015.  ^ "Rolling Rock: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Glacial Rock". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 20, 2015.  ^ "State Slogans". Ereferencedesk.com. Retrieved April 21, 2015.  ^ Levenson, Michael (August 9, 2006). "Can you guess the state sport of Massachusetts?". The Boston
Boston
Globe. Retrieved February 14, 2012.  ^ " New England
New England
Neptune: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Shell". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 23, 2015.  ^ "The Official Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Quarter". theus50.com. Retrieved April 21, 2015.  ^ a b Douglas, Craig. "Greater Boston
Boston
gains population, remains 10th-largest region in U.S." bizjournals.com. Retrieved April 21, 2015.  ^ "Maritime Commerce". National Park Service. Retrieved April 21, 2015.  ^ "History of Lowell, Massachusetts". City of Lowell. Retrieved April 21, 2015.  ^ "Staying Power: The Future of Manufacturing in Massachusetts" (PDF). The Center for Urban and Regional Policy School of Social Science, Urban Affairs, and Public Policy Northeastern University. Retrieved April 21, 2015.  ^ "Housing and Economic Development:Key Industries". mass.gov. Retrieved April 21, 2015.  ^ "The 1692 Salem Witch Trials". Salem Witch Trials Museum. Retrieved April 21, 2015.  ^ "Springfield Armory: Technology in Transition" (PDF). National Park Service United States
United States
Department of the Interior. Retrieved April 21, 2015.  ^ a b c "Shays' Rebellion". ushistory.org. Retrieved April 21, 2015.  ^ "The First Great Awakening
First Great Awakening
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Marathon". WBUR-FM. Retrieved May 8, 2015.  ^ "Southern New England". Appalachian Mountain Club. Retrieved June 2, 2010.  ^ " Fishing
Fishing
& charters". Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Office of Travel and Tourism. Retrieved June 5, 2010.  ^ "Whale watching". Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Office of Travel and Tourism. Retrieved June 5, 2010.  ^ "Skiing/snowboarding". Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Office of Travel and Tourism. Retrieved June 5, 2010.  ^ "Hunting". Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs. Retrieved May 7, 2015.  ^ "Nielson Media Research Local Universe Estimates (US)". 2005. Archived from the original on May 17, 2006. Retrieved May 27, 2010.  ^ "Springfield – Holyoke
Holyoke
TV Channels". Station Index. Retrieved May 7, 2015.  ^ "WGBH – About Us". WGBH-TV. Retrieved May 27, 2010.  ^ "American Experience". WGBH-TV. Retrieved May 27, 2010.  ^ "US Newspaper – Search Results (Massachusetts)". Audit Bureau of Circulations. Retrieved May 25, 2010.  ^ "FM Query Results (Massachusetts)". Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved May 27, 2010.  ^ "General". WZBC. Retrieved May 27, 2010.  ^ "About". Harvard Crimson. Retrieved May 27, 2010.  ^ "About the BU Literary Society and Clarion". Boston
Boston
University. Archived from the original on May 8, 2010. Retrieved May 27, 2010.  ^ "2015 Annual Report". America's Health Rankings. Retrieved February 8, 2018.  ^ "Doctors per 100,000 Resident Population, 2007". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on October 16, 2010. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ "Infant Mortality Rate, 2006". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Archived from the original on October 16, 2010. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ "Persons With and Without Health Insurance Coverage by State: 2007" (PDF). United States
United States
Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 16, 2010. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ "Here's how your life expectancy varies based on which state you're born in". Business Insider. Retrieved 2017-12-10.  ^ a b "Overweight and Obesity (BMI) – 2007". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on March 6, 2013. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ "Booziest states in America: Who binge drinks most?". CBS News. Retrieved May 7, 2015.  ^ "The United States
United States
Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service". Journal of the American Medical Association. 43: 326. July 30, 1904. doi:10.1001/jama.1904.92500050002. Retrieved February 20, 2011.  ^ "U.S. Marine Hospital". Chelsea Historical Society. Retrieved February 20, 2011.  ^ " Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Hospitals: Directory". Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Hospital Association. Retrieved May 7, 2015.  ^ "U.S. News Best Hospitals 2014–15". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on March 1, 2012. Retrieved June 10, 2015.  ^ "Hospital Overview". Massachusetts
Massachusetts
General Hospital. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ "Facts and Figures: 2009–2010". Harvard Medical School. Retrieved October 25, 2010.  ^ "About Us". Boston
Boston
University School of Medicine. Archived from the original on April 14, 2010. Retrieved October 25, 2010.  ^ "An Introduction to UMass Medical School". University of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Medical School. Retrieved October 25, 2010.  ^ "Campuses". MCPHS University. Retrieved May 7, 2015.  ^ "Celtics History — Championship Wins". National Basketball Association. Retrieved May 7, 2015.  ^ "MLB World Series
World Series
Winners". ESPN. Archived from the original on October 11, 2010. Retrieved May 7, 2015.  ^ " Stanley Cup
Stanley Cup
Winners". Hockey Hall of Fame. Retrieved May 7, 2015.  ^ " Super Bowl
Super Bowl
History". National Football League. Retrieved May 7, 2015.  ^ "MLL Standings". Major League Lacrosse. Retrieved October 21, 2009.  ^ "AHL Staff Directory". American Hockey League. Retrieved May 7, 2015.  ^ "College Football Teams (FBS and FCS)". ESPN. Retrieved October 18, 2009.  ^ "College Basketball
Basketball
Teams — Division I Teams". ESPN. Retrieved October 18, 2009.  ^ "Cornell Rowing Excels at Eastern Sprints". Cornell University. Retrieved June 6, 2010.  ^ "2009 U.S. Open — Past Champions". United States
United States
Golf Association. Retrieved October 21, 2009.  ^ "Deutsche Bank Championship". Professional Golfers' Association of America. Retrieved October 21, 2009.  ^ "25 Olympians from Massachusetts". GoLocalWorcester. Retrieved May 7, 2015. 

Bibliography[edit]

Brebner, John Bartlet (1927). New England's Outpost: Acadia Before the Conquest of Canada. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-7812-6367-0.  Brettell, Caroline (2003). Anthropology and Migration:Essays on Transnational Ethnicity and Identity. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. ISBN 0-7591-0320-8.  Brown, Richard D; Tager, Jack (2000). Massachusetts: A Concise History. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts
University of Massachusetts
Press. ISBN 1-55849-248-8.  Dejnozka, Edward L; Gifford, Charles S; Kapel, David E; Kapel, Marilyn B (1982). American Educators' Encyclopedia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-20954-5.  Goldfield, David; Abbott, Carl; Anderson, Virginia
Virginia
DeJohn; Argersinger, Jo Ann E; Argersinger, Peter H; Barney, William L; Weir, Robert M (1998). The American Journey – A History of the United States. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-656562-X.  Koplow, David A (2004). Smallpox: The Fight to Eradicate a Global Scourge. Berkeley, CA: University of California
California
Press. ISBN 0-520-24220-3.  Sokolow, Alvin D (1997). "Town and Township Government: Serving Rural and Suburban Communities". Handbook of Local Government Administration. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker. ISBN 0-8247-9782-5. 

Further reading[edit] Overviews and surveys[edit]

Hall, Donald. ed. The Encyclopedia of New England
New England
(2005) Works Progress Administration. Guide to Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(1939)

Secondary sources[edit]

Abrams, Richard M. Conservatism in a Progressive Era: Massachusetts Politics, 1900–1912 (1964) Adams, James Truslow. Revolutionary New England, 1691–1776 (1923) Adams, James Truslow. New England
New England
in the Republic, 1776–1850 (1926) Andrews, Charles M. The Fathers of New England: A Chronicle of the Puritan Commonwealths (1919), short survey Conforti, Joseph A. Imagining New England: Explorations of Regional Identity from the Pilgrims to the Mid-Twentieth Century (2001) Cumbler, John T. Reasonable Use: The People, the Environment, and the State, New England, 1790–1930 (1930), environmental history Fischer, David Hackett. Paul Revere's Ride (1994), 1775 in depth Flagg, Charles Allcott, A Guide to Massachusetts
Massachusetts
local history, Salem : Salem Press Company, 1907. Green, James R., William F. Hartford, and Tom Juravich. Commonwealth of Toil: Chapters in the History of Massachusetts
History of Massachusetts
Workers and Their Unions (1996) Huthmacher, J. Joseph. Massachusetts
Massachusetts
People and Politics, 1919–1933 (1958) Labaree, Benjamin Woods. Colonial Massachusetts: A History (1979) Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Maritime History of Massachusetts, 1783–1860 (1921) Peirce, Neal R. The New England
New England
States: People, Politics, and Power in the Six New England
New England
States (1976), 1960–75 era Porter, Susan L. Women of the Commonwealth: Work, Family, and Social Change in Nineteenth-Century Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(1996) Sletcher, Michael. New England
New England
(2004). Starkey, Marion L. The Devil in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(1949), Salem witches Tager, Jack, and John W. Ifkovic, eds. Massachusetts
Massachusetts
in the Gilded Age: Selected Essays (1985), ethnic groups Zimmerman, Joseph F. The New England
New England
Town Meeting: Democracy in Action (1999)

External links[edit]

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Places adjacent to Massachusetts

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 Commonwealth of Massachusetts

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Topics

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Society

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Regions

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Counties

Barnstable Berkshire Bristol Dukes Essex Franklin Hampden Hampshire Middlesex Nantucket Norfolk Plymouth Suffolk Worcester

Cities

Agawam Amesbury Attleboro Barnstable Beverly Boston Braintree Bridgewater Brockton Cambridge Chelsea Chicopee East Longmeadow Easthampton Everett Fall River Fitchburg Framingham Franklin Gardner Gloucester Greenfield Haverhill Holyoke Lawrence Leominster Lowell Lynn Malden Marlborough Medford Melrose Methuen New Bedford Newburyport Newton North Adams Northampton Palmer Peabody Pittsfield Quincy Randolph Revere Salem Somerville Southbridge Springfield Taunton Waltham Watertown Westfield West Springfield Weymouth Winthrop Woburn Worcester Note: Municipalities not listed have a town meeting form of government (see all municipalities)

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Government of Massachusetts

Legislative

General Court Senate (Members, President) House of Representatives (Members, Speaker)

Executive

Governor (List) Lt. Governor Attorney General Auditor Secretary of the Commonwealth Treasurer and Receiver-General Office for Administration and Finance Office of Education Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs Office of Health and Human Services Office of Housing and Economic Development Office of Labor and Workforce Development Office of Public Safety and Security Department of Transportation

Judicial

Boston
Boston
Municipal Court District Court Superior Court Land Court Juvenile Court Housing Court Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Probate and Family Court Appeals Court (Judges) Supreme Judicial Court Dedham District Court

Independent agencies

Board of Library Commissioners Commission Against Discrimination Commission on the Status of Women Disabled Persons Protection Commission Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Appellate Tax Board Massachusetts
Massachusetts
District Attorneys Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Inspector General Office of Campaign and Political Finance Office of the Comptroller Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Sheriffs State Ethics Commission

Law

Constitution General Laws Code of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Regulations Alcohol Cannabis Capital punishment Crime Elder law Gun laws LGBT rights Taxation

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Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in Massachusetts

Marty Walsh (Boston) Joseph M. Petty (Worcester) Domenic Sarno (Springfield) Edward J. Kennedy (Lowell) Marc McGovern (Cambridge)

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Protected areas of Massachusetts

Federal

National Historical Parks

Adams Blackstone River
Blackstone River
Valley Boston Lowell Minute Man New Bedford Whaling

National Historic Sites

Boston
Boston
African American Frederick Law Olmsted John Fitzgerald Kennedy Longfellow House–Washington's Headquarters Salem Maritime Saugus Iron Works Springfield Armory

Other National Park Service
National Park Service
Units

Appalachian National Scenic Trail Boston
Boston
Harbor
Harbor
Islands National Recreation Area Cape Cod
Cape Cod
National Seashore

National Wildlife Refuges

Assabet River Great Meadows Mashpee Massasoit Monomoy Nantucket Nomans Land Oxbow Parker River Silvio O. Conte Thacher Island

Other

Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Waquoit Bay
Bay
National Estuarine Research Reserve West Hill Dam
West Hill Dam
(USACE)

State Parks

Parks

Alewife Brook Ames Nowell Ashland Bash Bish Falls Blackstone River
Blackstone River
and Canal
Canal
Heritage Borderland Boston
Boston
Harbor
Harbor
Islands Bradley Palmer C. M. Gardner Callahan Castle Island
Island
State Park Chicopee Memorial City Square Clarksburg Cochituate Connecticut
Connecticut
River Greenway Demarest Lloyd Dighton Rock Dunn Ellisville Harbor Fall River Heritage Gardner Heritage Governor Thomas Dudley Great Brook Farm Halibut Point Hampton Ponds Holyoke
Holyoke
Heritage Hopkinton Lake
Lake
Lorraine Lake
Lake
Wyola Lawrence Heritage Lowell Heritage Lynn Heritage Massasoit Maudslay Moore Mount Holyoke
Mount Holyoke
Range Natural Bridge Nickerson Pearl Hill Pilgrim Quinsigamond Robinson Roxbury Heritage Rutland Skinner South Cape Beach Wahconah Falls Webb Memorial Wells Western Gateway Heritage Whitehall Wompatuck

Reservations

Beaver Brook Belle Isle Marsh Blue Hills Breakheart Charles River Chestnut Hill Cutler Dorchester Shores Elm Bank Fort Phoenix Hammond Pond Hemlock Gorge Horseneck Beach Jug End Lynn Shore Middlesex Fells Mount Everett Mount Greylock Mount Sugarloaf Mount Tom Myles Standish Mystic River Nahant Beach Nantasket Beach Nasketucket Bay Neponset River Pope John Paul II Purgatory Chasm Quincy Quarries Quincy Shore Revere Beach Rumney Marsh Salisbury Beach Sandy Point Scusset Beach Stony Brook Upper Charles River Wachusett Mountain Walden Pond West Island Weymouth Wilson Mountain

Other

Appalachian Trail Ashuwillticook Rail Trail Cape Cod
Cape Cod
Rail Trail Fort Revere Lake
Lake
Dennison Recreation Area Lower Neponset River
Neponset River
Trail Nashua River
Nashua River
Rail Trail Norwottuck Branch Rail Trail Quabbin Reservoir Southwest Corridor Park Squantum Point Park Streeter Point Recreation Area Sudbury Reservoir Wachusett Reservoir Ware River
Ware River
Watershed Area

State Forests

Barnstable Beartown Berkley Billerica Brimfield Chester-Blandford DAR Douglas Erving F. Gilbert Hills Federated Women's Club Franklin Freetown-Fall River Georgetown-Rowley Gilbert A. Bliss Granville Harold Parker Kenneth Dubuque Memorial Leominster Lowell-Dracut-Tyngsboro Manuel F. Correllus Mohawk Trail Monroe Mount Grace Mount Washington Myles Standish October Mountain Otter River Pittsfield Sandisfield Savoy Mountain Shawme-Crowell Spencer Tolland Upton Wendell Willard Brook Warren H. Manning Willowdale Windsor

Wildlife Management Areas

Wildlife Management Areas

Agawam Lake Agawam Mill Pond Ashby Ashfield Hawley Attitash Ayer Game Farm Baddacook Pond Bakers Pond Bay
Bay
Circuit Trail Bearse Pond Becket Bennett Birch Hill Black Brook Blackstone / West River Bolton Flats Boxboro Station Brayton Point Salt Marsh Breakneck Brook Brewer Brook Bullock Ledge Burrage Pond Canoe River Catamount Chalet Chase Garden Creek Salt Marsh Childs River Chockalog Swamp Church Homestead Clapps Pond Clinton Bluff Concord River Connecticut
Connecticut
River Cook Pond Copicut Coy Hill Crane Pond Cummington Cusky Pond Dartmoor Farm Darwin Scott Memorial Day Mountain Deerfield River Dogfish Bar Beach Coastal Dolomite Ledges Dunstable Brook E. Kent Swift Eagle Island East Mountain Eastham Salt Marsh Elbow Meadow English Salt Marsh Eugene D. Moran Facing Rock Fairfield Brook Farmington River Fish Brook Fisherville Pond Fisk Forestdale Lot Fisk Meadows Five Mile River Flagg Swamp Flint Pond Four Chimneys Fox Den Fox Island
Island
Salt Marsh Frances A. Crane Freetown Swamp George L. Darey Housatonic Valley Glen Echo Lake Gosnold Grassy Pond
Pond
(Dennis) Grassy Pond
Pond
(Plymouth) Green River (Franklin County) Green River (Berkshire County) Greenfield River Halfway Pond Hamilton Hancock Harlow / Cooks Pond Haskell Swamp Hauk Swamp Hawksnest State Park Hawley Head Of The Plains Herman Covey High Ridge Hinsdale Flats Hiram H. Fox Hockomock Swamp Hog Pond
Pond
Lot Honey Pot Hoosatonic River Hoosic River Hop Brook Housatonic River Hubbard Brook Hunting Hills Hyannis Ponds Ipswich River John J. Kelly Joint Base Cape Cod Jug End Fen Jug End Kampoosa Fen Katama Plains Knops Pond Konkapot River Lackey Pond Lake
Lake
Lorraine Lake
Lake
Rohunta Lake
Lake
Snipatuit Lake
Lake
Warner Lanesboro Lawrence Brook Lawrence Pond
Pond
Lot Leadmine Leyden Lilly Pond Little Alum Pond Long Sought For Pond Maple Hill Maple Springs Martha Deering Martin H. Burns Mascuppic Lake Mashpee Pine Barrens Mashpee Pond
Pond
Lot Mashpee River Mckinstry Brook Meetinghouse Swamp Merrill Pond Miacomet Heath Mill River Millers River Mine Brook Montague Plains Montague Moose
Moose
Brook Moose
Moose
Brook Moose
Moose
Hill Mossy Pond Mount Watatic
Mount Watatic
Reservation Mt. Esther Mt. Toby Highlands Mt. Toby Mt. Tom Muddy Brook Muddy Pond Mulpus Brook Nashua River Natty Brook Nemasket River Nissitissit River Noquochoke Nordeen Marsh North Brookfield North Shore Salt Marsh Northboro Oakham Olivers Pond Orange Otis Packard Pond Palmer Pantry Brook Pauchaug Brook Peru Peterson Swamp Phillipston Podunk Marsh Poland Brook Popple Camp Popponesset Peninsula Poutwater Pond Powell Brook Prince River Provincetown Route 6 Corridor Purchade Brook Quaboag Quacumquasit Quag Pond
Pond
Bog Quashnet River Quashnet Woods State Reservation Quinapoxet River Quinsigamond Marsh Quisset Raccoon
Raccoon
Hill Rainbow Beach Red Brook Richardson Robbins Pond Rochester Rocky Gutter Rowe Salisbury Salt Marsh Salisbury Salt Marsh Sandwich Game Farm Sandy Pond Satan's Kingdom Savage Hill Savoy Sawmill River Scorton Creek Coastal SE Mass Bioreserve Sevenmile River Shattuck Brook Sheperds Island Shubael Pond Sibley Brook Sly Pond South Barrier Beach South Meadow Pond South Shore Salt Marsh South Triangle Pond Southampton Southwick Spectacle Pond Springhill Lot Sputtermill Pond Squannacook River Stafford Hill Sudbury River Sunderland Islands Taconic Mountain Taunton River Taunton River Tekoa Mountain Thad Ellis Thayer Pond Three Mile Pond Townsend Townsend Hill Trapfall Brook Triangle Pond Tully Brook Tully Mountain Tully River Wakeby Pond Wales Walnut Hill Ware River Warwick Wendell West Meadows Westboro Westfield River Westfield Weymouth Back River Whately Great Swamp Whately Ponds Whately Wilbraham Game Farm William Forward Williams River Williamsburg Winimusset Wolf Swamp

Wildlife Sanctuaries

Billingsgate Island Carr Island E. Howe Forbush Egg Rock Grace A. Robson J.C. Phillips Knight Penikese Island Ram Island
Island
(Salisbury) Ram Island
Island
(Mattapoisett) Susan B. Minns Tarpaulin Cove Watatic Mountain

The Nature Conservancy

Black Pond
Pond
Bog Boat Meadow Francis Newhall Woods Grassy Pond Greene Swamp Halfway Pond
Pond
Island Hawley Bog Hockomock Swamp Hoft Farm Homer-Watcha Preserve Katama Plains McElwain-Olsen Miacomet Moors Reed Brook Drury Sandy Neck David H. Smith Preserve and Fire Trail Stacy Mountain Tatkon

Trustees of Reservations

Agassiz Rock Governor Oliver Ames Estate Appleton Farms Appleton Farms
Appleton Farms
Grass Rides Ashintully Gardens Bartholomew's Cobble Bear's Den Bear Swamp Boston
Boston
Community Gardens Bullitt Chestnut Hill Farm Colonel John Ashley House Dunes' Edge Campground Francis William Bird Park Eleanor Cabot Bradley Estate Bridge Island
Island
Meadows Brooks Woodland William Cullen Bryant Homestead Cape Poge Cedariver Castle Hill Chapel Brook Charles River
Charles River
Peninsula Chase Woodlands Chesterfield Gorge Coolidge Copicut Woods Cormier Woods Coskata-Coatue Wildlife Refuge Crane Beach Crane Wildlife Refuge Crowninshield Island Dexter Drumlin Dinosaur Footprints Doane's Falls Doyle Dry Hill East Over Elliott Laurel Farandnear FARM Institute Field Farm Fruitlands Museum Fork Factory Brook Glendale Falls Goose Pond Greenwood Farm Hales Brook and Sippican River Halibut Point Hamlin Allen C. Haskell Public Gardens Holmes Governor Hutchinson's Field Jacobs Hill Little Tom Mountain Land of Providence Leatherbee Woods Long Hill Long Point Lowell Holly Lyman Reserve Malcolm Mashpee River McLennan Medfield Meadow Lots Medfield Rhododendrons Menemsha Hills Misery Islands Mission House Monument Mountain Moose
Moose
Hill Farm Moraine Farm Mount Ann Park Mount Warner Mountain Meadow Mytoi Naumkeag Noanet Woodlands Noon Hill Norris North Common Meadow Norton Point Beach Notchview Old Manse Old Town Hill Peaked Mountain Pegan Hill Peters Petticoat Hill Pierce Pine and Hemlock Knoll Powisset Farm Questing Quinebaug Woods Ravenswood Park Redemption Rock Rock House Rocky Narrows Rocky Woods Royalston Falls Shattuck Signal Hill Slocum's River Stavros Stevens-Coolidge Swift River Tantiusques Tully Lake
Lake
Campground Two Mile Farm Tyringham Cobble Ward Wasque Weir Hill Weir River Farm Westport Town Farm Whitney and Thayer Woods World's End

Audubon Society Wildlife Sanctuaries

Allens Pond Arcadia Ashumet Holly Attleboro Springs Barnstable Great Marsh Blue Hills Trailside Museum Boston
Boston
Nature Center Broad Meadow Brook Broadmoor Burncoat Pond Canoe Meadows Daniel Webster Drumlin Farm Eagle Lake Eastern Point Endicott Felix Neck Flat Rock Graves Farm Great Neck Habitat High Ledges Ipswich River Joppa Flats Kettle Island Lake
Lake
Wampanoag Laughing Brook Lime Kiln Farm Lincoln Woods Long Pasture Lynes Woods Marblehead Neck Moose
Moose
Hill Museum of American Bird Art Nahant Thicket Nashoba Brook North Hill Marsh North River Oak Knoll Pierpont Meadow Pleasant Valley Poor Farm Hill Richardson Brook Road's End Rough Meadows Rutland Brook Sampsons Island Sesachacha Heathlands Skunknett River Stony Brook Wachusett Meadow Waseeka Wellfleet Bay Wildwood Camp

Other

Concord Land Conservation Trust Harvard Forest Lincoln Land Conservation Trust Lloyd Center for the Environment Lynn Woods Reservation Norcross Wildlife Sanctuary Old Harbor
Harbor
Wildlife Refuge

Category Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs Commons

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New England

Topics

Autumn Climate Cuisine Culture Demographics Economy Elections Flag Geography Geology Government History

New England
New England
Colonies Dominion of New England New England
New England
Confederation

Literature Place names of Native-American origin Politics Sports

States

Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont

Major cities

Augusta Boston Bridgeport Burlington Cambridge Concord Hartford Lowell Manchester Montpelier New Bedford New Haven New London New Britain Portland Providence Quincy Springfield Stamford Waterbury Worcester

State capitals

Augusta Boston Concord Hartford Montpelier Providence

Transportation

Passenger rail

MBTA (MA, RI) Northeast Corridor
Northeast Corridor
(CT, MA, RI) Acela
Acela
Express (CT, MA, RI) Downeaster (ME, NH, MA) Vermonter (CT, MA, NH, VT) Shore Line East
Shore Line East
(CT) Metro-North (CT) Hartford Line
Hartford Line
(CT, MA; under construction) High-speed Northern New England
New England
(proposed)

Major Interstates

I-84 (CT, MA) I-89 (NH, VT) I-90 (Mass Pike) (MA) I-91 (CT, MA, VT) I-93 (MA, NH, VT) I-95 (CT, RI, MA, NH, ME) defunct: New England
New England
road marking system

Airports

Bradley (CT) Burlington (VT) T. F. Green (RI) Manchester– Boston
Boston
(NH) Logan (MA) Portland (ME)

Category Portal Commons

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Northeastern United States

Topics

Culture Geography Government History

States

Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Maryland Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New York Maine Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont

Major cities

Allentown Baltimore Boston Bridgeport Buffalo Burlington Cambridge Elizabeth Erie Hartford Jersey City Lowell Manchester New Haven New York City Newark Paterson Philadelphia Pittsburgh Portland Providence Quincy Reading Rochester Scranton Springfield Stamford Syracuse Washington, D.C. Waterbury Wilmington Worcester

State capitals

Albany Annapolis Augusta Boston Concord Dover Hartford Harrisburg Montpelier Providence Trenton

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Political divisions of the United States

States

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Federal district

Washington, D.C.

Insular areas

American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

Outlying islands

Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Palmyra Atoll Wake Island

Indian reservations

List of Indian reservations

Coordinates: 42°18′N 71°48′W / 42.3°N 71.8°W / 42.3; -71.8

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 130169058 LCCN: n79007084 ISNI: 0000 0004 0434 8629 GND: 4037858-5 BNF: cb11941588j (d

.