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Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC). It includes Hainan
Hainan
island and strictly speaking, politically, does not include the special administrative regions of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau, even though both are partially on the geographic mainland (continental landmass). The term "mainland China" was coined[citation needed] by the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT Party) after receiving control of Taiwan
Taiwan
from Japan after World War II. By 1949, the KMT-led Republic of China
China
(ROC) government was defeated in the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
and fled to the island of Taiwan
Taiwan
where the KMT pledged to "retake the Mainland". The KMT considers both sides of the Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
(including Taiwan), as one nation, whereas Taiwan's Democratic Progressive Party
Democratic Progressive Party
(DPP) considers only mainland China
China
as China, and Taiwan
Taiwan
as a separate entity and country.[citation needed] There are two terms in Chinese for "mainland":

Dàlù (大陆; 大陸), which means "the continent", and Nèidì (内地; 內地), literally "inland" or "inner land".

In the PRC, the usage of the two terms are strictly speaking not interchangeable. To emphasize "equal footing" in Cross-Strait relations, the term must be used in official contexts with reference to Taiwan, with the PRC referring to itself as "the mainland side" (as opposed to "the Taiwan
Taiwan
side"). But in its relations with Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau, the PRC government refers to itself as "the Central People's Government", and Mainland China
China
excluding Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
Macau
is referred as Nèidì. "Mainland" area is the opposing term to "free area of the Republic of China" used in the ROC Constitution (as amended in April 2000). It treats the "mainland" as part of ROC's territory despite the lack of effective control.[1]

Contents

1 Background 2 Political use

2.1 In mainland China 2.2 In Taiwan 2.3 In Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau 2.4 Others

3 Other terms 4 See also 5 References

5.1 Citations 5.2 Sources

6 External links

Background[edit] By 1949, the Communist Party of China's (CPC) People's Liberation Army had largely defeated the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT)'s National Revolutionary Army in the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
on the mainland. This forced the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
to relocate the Government and institutions of the Republic of China
China
to the relative safety of Taiwan, an island which was placed under the control of the Republic of China
China
after the surrender of Japan
Japan
at the end of World War II
World War II
in 1945. With the establishment of the People's Republic of China
China
on October 1, 1949, the CPC-controlled government saw itself as the sole legitimate government of China,[2] competing with the claims of the Republic of China, whose authority is now limited to Taiwan
Taiwan
and other islands. This has resulted in a situation in which two co-existing governments compete for international legitimacy and recognition as the "government of China". The phrase "mainland China" emerged as a politically neutral term to refer to the area under control of the Communist Party of China, and later to the administration of the PRC itself. Until the late 1970s, both the PRC and ROC envisioned a military takeover of the other. During this time the ROC referred to the PRC government as "Communist Bandits" (共匪) while the PRC referred to the ROC as "Chiang Bandits" (蔣匪). Later, as a military solution became less feasible, the ROC referred to the PRC as "Communist China"" (中共). With the democratization of Taiwan
Taiwan
in the 1990s, the phrase "mainland China" soon grew to mean not only the area under the control of the Communist Party of China, but also a more neutral means to refer to the People's Republic of China
China
government; this usage remains prevalent by the KMT today. Due to their status as colonies of foreign states during the establishment of the People's Republic of China
China
in 1949, the phrase "mainland China" excludes Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau.[3] Since the return of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
Macau
to Chinese sovereignty in 1997 and 1999, respectively, the two territories have retained their legal, political, and economic systems. The territories also have their distinct identities. Therefore, "mainland China" generally continues to exclude these territories, because of the "One country, two systems" policy adopted by the PRC central government towards the regions.[4] The term is also used in economic indicators, such as the IMD Competitiveness Report. International news media often use "China" to refer only to mainland China
China
or the People's Republic of China. Political use[edit] In mainland China[edit] In the People's Republic of China, the term 内地 ("Inland") is often contrasted with the term 境外 ("outside the border") for things outside the mainland region. Examples include "Administration of Foreign-funded Banks" (中華人民共和國外資銀行管理條例) or the "Measures on Administration of Representative Offices of Foreign Insurance Institutions" (外國保險機構駐華代表機構管理辦法).[4] Hainan
Hainan
is an offshore island, therefore geographically not part of the continental mainland. Nevertheless, politically it is common practice to consider it part of the mainland because its government, legal and political systems do not differ from the rest of the People's Republic in the geographical mainland. Nonetheless, Hainanese people still refer to the geographic mainland as "the mainland" and call its residents "mainlanders".[5] In some coastal provinces such as Guangdong, Fujian
Fujian
and Jiangsu, people often call the area of non-coastal provinces in of Mainland China
China
as "Inland" (内地). In Taiwan[edit] In Taiwan, some certain people, the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT, "Chinese Nationalist Party") and its supporters use the term "mainland" is to refer to the territory of the PRC ( Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
Macau
excluded). This accords with the KMT position that China
China
encompasses both sides of the Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait.[6] Since the KMT was the long-time ruling and only party in Taiwan
Taiwan
until 2000, and had set up the educational system and taught children the term since its takeover in 1945, the term has been in mainstream use and usually has no particular political connotations, since generations born after the takeover were taught that Taiwan
Taiwan
is part of Republic of China, and so is mainland China, and that they are "Chinese".[citation needed] Government organizations and official and legal documents in Taiwan, including the Republic of China
China
Constitution also use "the mainland" to refer to mainland China, since the ROC government has never recognized the founding of the PRC and because its Constitution does not allow the existence of another state within its territory, constitutional amendments made in the 1990s had to refer to the area occupied by PRC as "mainland", since it is officially considered still part of the ROC territory but just enemy occupied. In contrast, the pro- Taiwan
Taiwan
independence Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) prefer to use the term "China" instead, referring to the PRC, to imply that Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) is separate from China.[6][7] Related to this naming and broader national identity issue, the DPP would also like to amend the ROC constitution to limit its scope and territorial description to the Free area of the Republic of China
China
only and rectify the ROC country name to "Republic of Taiwan" instead, thereby eliminating the need to refer to the "mainland area" and "Free Area" altogether.[8] In 1992, a high-level political meeting between the ROC and PRC was held in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
where what became called the "1992 Consensus" developed. This "consensus" essentially reaffirmed that both the ROC (then under KMT administration) and the PRC agree there is only "one China" in a definition that covers both sides of Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait, but they differ on their own interpretation of what that "China" means. Each interprets and believes it is the China
China
and has a claim on the territories held by the other. In this context, the term "Mainland China" is agreeable to both sides since they both conceive "China" as including mainland and Taiwan, and therefore need this term to distinguish the two areas. However, since it was the KMT who came to this consensus with China, the Pan Green Coalition does not embrace this term as the Pan Blue Coalition does. In Taiwan, under the concept of "Mainlander" another comparative term often used is waishengren (外省人; wàishěngrén; "external province person(s)"), which are the people who immigrated to Taiwan from mainland China
China
with the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT) around the end of the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
in 1949, as well as their descendants born in Taiwan. The status of waishengren in Taiwan
Taiwan
is a divisive political issue. For many years certain groups of mainlanders were given special treatment by the KMT government which had imposed martial law on Taiwan. More recently, pro- Taiwan
Taiwan
independence politicians calling into question their loyalty and devotion to Taiwan
Taiwan
and pro-Chinese reunification politicians accusing the pro-independence politicians of playing identity politics.[9] The term "Mainlander" mostly refers to daluren (大陆人; 大陸人; dàlùrén; "mainland person(s)"), meaning people who live in mainland China. After the Republic of China's relocation to Taiwan, the Kuomintang party-state embued the term dalu with nostalgic overtones, associating it with "the land of the utopian past [and] childhood". Schoolchildren were taught slogans like "Counterattack the mainland!" (反攻大陸!) and "Save our mainland compatriots from the deepest water and hottest fire!" (拯救大陸同胞于水深火熱之中!).[10] The Taiwanese were also told that they were the guardians of traditional Chinese culture until political reunification. However, democratization on Taiwan
Taiwan
has led to the rise of voices which denounced traditional attitudes towards the mainland and the ancestral home system, pressing for Taiwanization, Desinicization, and " Taiwan
Taiwan
cultural independence" (文化台獨). Concurrently, the mainland Chinese economic reform changed the connotation of "mainland China" to one of "primitiveness, nativeness, and raw cultural material for economic gain", as well as condescention because of Taiwan's comparatively advanced economy.[10] Warlike phrases like "Counterattack the mainland!" saw a revival, but in reference to the economic expansion of Taiwanese businesses. Despite the re-branding of the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
in the 1990s as a party "native" to Taiwan, Kuomintang
Kuomintang
continues to produce a variety of mainland-related media such as the television program "Searching for the Strange on the Mainland" (大陸尋奇).[10] In Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau[edit] In Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau, the terms "mainland China" and "mainlander" are frequently used for people from China's mainland. The Chinese term Neidi (內地), meaning the inland but still translated mainland in English, is commonly applied by SAR governments to represent non-SAR areas of PRC, including Hainan
Hainan
Island (the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China) and coastal regions of mainland China, such as "Constitutional and Mainland Affairs" (政制及內地事務局)[11] and Immigration Departments.[12] In the Mainland and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (as well as the Mainland and Macau
Macau
Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement) the CPG also uses the Chinese characters 内地 "inner land", with the note that they refer to the "customs territory of China".[13] Others[edit] In the United States' Taiwan
Taiwan
Relations Act, the ROC-controlled islands of Quemoy
Quemoy
and Matsu were excluded from the definition of "Taiwan" and are regarded as parts of mainland China. The House Foreign Affairs Committee justified this exclusion on the grounds that " Quemoy
Quemoy
and Matsu are considered by both Taipei and by Peking to be part of mainland China".[14] Quemoy
Quemoy
and Matsu are geologically part of the continental mainland.[15] Other terms[edit] Other use of geography-related terms are also often used where neutrality is required.

Simplified Chinese Traditional Chinese Pinyin Jyutping Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ Description

海峡两岸 海峽兩岸 Hǎixiá liǎng'àn Hoi2 haap6 loeng5 ngon6 Hái-kiap lióng-gān The physical shores on both sides of the straits, may be translated as "two shores".

两岸关系 兩岸關係 liǎng'àn guānxì loeng5 ngon6 gwaan1 hai6 lióng-gān koan-hē Reference to the Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
(cross-Strait relations, literally "relations between the two sides/shores [of the Strait of Taiwan]").

两岸三地 兩岸三地 liǎng'àn sāndì loeng5 ngon6 saam1 dei6 lióng-gān sam-tè An extension of this is the phrase "two shores, three places", with "three places" meaning mainland China
China
(大陸/大陆), Taiwan (臺灣/台湾) and either Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(香港) or Macau (澳門/澳门).

两岸四地 兩岸四地 liǎng'àn sìdì loeng5 ngon6 sei3 dei6 lióng-gān sù-tè When referring to either Hong Kong
Hong Kong
or Macau, or "two shores, four places" when referring to both Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(香港) and Macau (澳門/澳门).

See also[edit]

China
China
proper Free Area of the Republic of China Free China Greater China Mainlander

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Additional Articles to the Republic of China
China
Constitution, 6th Revision, 2000 ^ Jeshurun, Chandran, ed. (1993). China, India, Japan
Japan
and the Security of Southeast Asia. Singapore: ISEAS. p. 146. ISBN 9813016612.  ^ So, Alvin Y.; Lin, Nan; Poston, Dudley L., eds. (2001). The Chinese Triangle of mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong : comparative institutional analyses. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313308697.  ^ a b LegCo. "Legislative council HK." Mainland Judgments (Reciprocal Enforcement) Bill. Retrieved on 2008-03-10. ^ http://wenwen.sogou.com/z/q192508057.htm ^ a b Wachman, Alan (1994). Taiwan: National Identity and Democratization. M.E. Sharpe. p. 81.  ^ DPP is firm on China
China
name issue. Taipei Times (2013-07-14). Retrieved on 2013-07-21. ^ [1] Democratic Progressive Party
Democratic Progressive Party
Platform: Taiwan
Taiwan
Sovereignty page ^ Apdrc.org. "Apdrc.org Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine.." Taiwan's Identity Politics. Retrieved on 2008-03-10. ^ a b c Shih, Shu-mei (2007). "A Short History of The "Mainland"". Visuality and Identity: Sinophone Articulations Across the Pacific. University of California press. pp. 124–129.  ^ Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau, Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. "Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau, Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China." Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau. Retrieved on 2008-03-10. ^ Chinese version Archived 2009-11-27 at the Wayback Machine., English version Archived 2009-02-04 at the Wayback Machine., Statistics on Admission Scheme for Mainland Talents and Professionals (輸入內地人才計劃數據資料), Immigration Department (Hong Kong). ^ English Text Chinese text Archived 2011-07-07 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Kan, Shirley (2011-06-24). "China/Taiwan: Evolution of the "One China" Policy -- Key Statements from Washington, Beijing, and Taipei" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. p. 36. Retrieved 2012-02-24.  ^ Copper, John (2012). Taiwan. ReadHowYouWant. p. 4. 

Sources[edit]

http://www.imd.ch/research/publications/wcy/World-Competitiveness-Yearbook-2008-Results.cfm www.imd.org. "THE WORLD COMPETITIVENESS SCOREBOARD 2011" (PDF). IMD INTERNATIONAL. 

External links[edit]

Economic profile for mainland China
China
at HKTDC

v t e

Cross-Strait relations

 People's Republic of China  Republic of China

Organizations

Taiwan
Taiwan
Affairs Office Association for Relations Across the Taiwan
Taiwan
Straits Communist Party of China Kuomintang
Kuomintang
Revolutionary Committee Taiwan
Taiwan
Democratic Self-Government League

Paramount leaders

Xi Jinping Hu Jintao Jiang Zemin Deng Xiaoping

People

Chen Deming Chen Yunlin Zhang Zhijun Wang Yi Wang Daohan

Organizations

Mainland Affairs Council Straits Exchange Foundation Kuomintang Democratic Progressive Party National Unification Council

Presidents

Tsai Ing-wen Ma Ying-jeou Chen Shui-bian Lee Teng-hui

People

Lin Join-sane Wang Yu-chi Chiang Pin-kung Lai Shin-yuan Koo Chen-fu

Mainland China, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen
Kinmen
and Matsu

Events

Treaty of Shimonoseki
Treaty of Shimonoseki
(1895) Retrocession of Taiwan
Taiwan
(1945) February 28 Incident
February 28 Incident
(1947) Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(1946–1950) First Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
Crisis (1954–1955) Second Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
Crisis (1958) PRC entry to the United Nations (1971) Lieyu Massacre (1987) Third Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
Crisis (1995–1996) Anti-Secession Law
Anti-Secession Law
(2005) Pan–Blue visits to mainland China
China
(2005) Cross-Strait charter
Cross-Strait charter
(2005–2008) Sunflower Movement (2014) 2014 Wang–Zhang meetings 2015 Xi–Chu meeting 2015 Ma–Xi meeting

Negotiations

Kinmen
Kinmen
Agreement (1990) Wang–Koo summit
Wang–Koo summit
(1993) Cross-Strait high-level talks
Cross-Strait high-level talks
(2008–current) Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement
Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement
(2010) Cross-Strait Economic, Trade and Culture Forum
Cross-Strait Economic, Trade and Culture Forum
(2006–current) Straits Forum
Straits Forum
(2009–current) Shanghai-Taipei City Forum
Shanghai-Taipei City Forum
(2010–current) Cross-Strait Service Trade Agreement
Cross-Strait Service Trade Agreement
(2013) Cross-Strait Peace Forum
Cross-Strait Peace Forum
(2013–current)

Concepts

China
China
and the United Nations Political status of Taiwan Chinese unification One country, two systems One China, Better system Taiwan
Taiwan
independence movement 1992 Consensus one China, respective interpretations no unification, no independence and no use of force Three Links One- China
China
policy Two Chinas One Country on Each Side Three Noes Six Assurances Special
Special
state-to-state relations Four Noes and One Without Zhonghua minzu Special
Special
non-state-to-state relations Cross-Strait Economic Zone Free area of the Republic of China Chinese Taipei

v t e

Territorial disputes in East, South, and Southeast Asia

Land Islands and waters

Bhutanese enclaves
Bhutanese enclaves
( ) Bolshoy Ussuriysky/Heixiazi Island1 ( ) Kashmir2 ( ) Khao Phra Wihan1 ( ) Kalapani Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
( )

Mainland China
China
( ) North Borneo (Sabah)1 ( ) Sixty-Four Villages East of the River1 ( ) South Tibet / Arunachal Pradesh ( ) Mongolia1 ( ) Jiangxinpo / Northern Kachin1 ( )

Kuril ( ) Liancourt Rocks ( ) Noktundo1 ( ) Paracels ( ) Senkaku ( ) Scarborough Shoal ( )

Sir Creek1 ( ) Spratlys2 ( ) Taiwan
Taiwan
Area ( ) Bạch Long Vĩ island1 ( ) Pedra Branca, Middle Rocks and South Ledge ( )

1: Inactive dispute 2: Divided among

.