MAHBUB UL HAQ (Urdu : محبوب الحق; 24 February 1934 – 16
July 1998) was a Pakistani game theorist , economist and an
international development theorist who served as the 13th Finance
Pakistan from 10 April 1985 until 28 January 1988.
After studying economics at Punjab University , he travelled to
Cambridge where he got a degree. He later moved to Yale where he
received his PhD and later worked as a postdoctoral researcher at the
Harvard Kennedy School . He returned to
Pakistan to serve as the Chief
Pakistan during the 1960s, and moved to the U.S after the
election of the socialist government led by
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto . At
World Bank he worked as the policy director throughout the 1970s
and also the chief economic adviser to
Robert McNamara .
He moved back to
Pakistan in 1982 and in 1985 became the country's
Finance Minister and oversaw a period of cautious economic
liberalisation . In 1988 he moved back to U.S where he served as the
Special Adviser to the
William Henry Draper . Here,
Haq led the establishment of
Human Development Report which includes
the now popular HDI , which measures development by people's
well-being, rather than by their income alone. He returned to Pakistan
in 1996 to establish the Human Development Center in Islamabad.
Haq is considered to have had a profound effect on global development
. Haq's 1996 book Reflections on Human Development is said to have
opened new avenues to policy proposals for human development paradigms
, such as the 20:20 Global Compact and the setting up the UN Economic
and Social Council .
Amartya Sen and
Tam Dalyell termed Haq's work to
have "brought about a major change in the understanding and
statistical accounting of the process of development." The Economist
called him "one of the visionaries of international development." He
is widely regarded as "the most articulate and persuasive spokesman
for the developing world".
* 1 Early life
* 2 Career
* 3 Achievements
* 4 Death
* 4.1 Tributes from UN
* 4.2 The
Mahbub ul Haq
Mahbub ul Haq Award for Outstanding Contribution to Human
* 5 Selected works
* 6 Notes
* 7 External links
Mahbub ul Haq
Mahbub ul Haq was born in pre-independence Punjab province on 24
February 1934. His teenage years saw religious violence associated
with the independence of
Pakistan and India in August 1947. He and
his family narrowly escaped from being killed by the Sikhs in one of
the trains heading to Pakistan. The nature of the religious violence
left a lasting impression on Mahbub ul Haq. After reaching
Haq was given government-sponsored housing and decided to continue his
education. In 1954, he applied and was accepted at the Punjab
University where he enrolled in the social sciences department.
In 1958 he earned BS in
Economics and earned scholarship to resume
his studies in Great Britain. He went on to attend Cambridge
University where he earned another BA in the same discipline. At
Cambridge, Haq gained his BA alongside Amartya Sen, with whom he
formed a close, lifelong friendship. After renewing his scholarship,
Haq went to United States for his doctoral studies, where American
economics system would later influence him for his long advocacy for
capitalism. He entered in doctoral programme of
Yale University and
earned PhD in
Economics from Yale, which was followed by post-doctoral
work at Harvard University. After completing his post-doctoral
studies, Haq returned to his country to join the government service.
Haq also served as the
World Bank 's Director of Policy Planning
(1970–1982) and headed Pakistan\'s Finance Ministry as its minister
of finance and planning (1982–1988). In 1989, he was appointed as
Special Advisor to the
UNDP Administrator, where he led a team of
international scholars to produce the first
Human Development Report .
an early proponent of economic liberalization who in later years
argued that poor countries failed to prosper because they neglected
the basic development of their people
New York Times
New York Times ,
Upon returning to Pakistan, Haq joined the Planning Commission and,
while still in his 20s, he became chief economist of Planning
Commission. He maintained his ties with Finance Ministry and
continued serving as economist advisor to the government of Pakistan.
By the 1960s he was delivering speeches all over the country. He
supported the policies of President Ayub Khan . Haq advocated
capitalism as the economic base of the national economy and helped
guide the government to apply free-market principles to boost the
economy. In a public press conference in 1965, Haq alleged that "22
industrial family groups had come to dominate the economic and
financial life-cycle of
Pakistan and that they controlled about
two-thirds of industrial assets, 80% of banking and 79% of insurance
assets in the industrial domain." The rapid economic development made
Haq's team doubt the long-term viability of such a pattern of growth.
While the international community was applauding
Pakistan as a model
of development, Haq reserved the concerns and raises questions that
all was not well with the distribution of benefits of growth. It came
as a surprise to Haq that the strong oligarchy of 22 families had
control of the national economy and the private sector. While
supporting add taxation of the powerful oligarch families, Haq left
the country in 1971, just before the 1971 war that led the secession
While in the
United Kingdom , Haq was called by Bhutto to join the
Ministry of Finance, but ultimately refused as he had strong opposing
views on socialist economics . Bhutto, in response, began to attack
the powerful oligarch families in a programme of nationalization . In
1973 Bhutto again asked Mahbub to return to
Pakistan and join his
administration in devising a strategy that would lift a large number
Pakistanis out of poverty and stagflation , but ideological
differences persuaded Haq not to return. In 1982 Haq returned at the
request of General Zia-ul-Haq , and assumed charge of the Ministry of
Finance . He became associated with the Ministry of Defence , where he
would go on to play an important role. He was the first chairman of
the Executive Committee of the Space
Research Commission and assisted
in the nuclear weapon policy of the country with
Munir Ahmad Khan
Munir Ahmad Khan .
During his tenure at the
World Bank (1970–82), Haq influenced the
Bank's development philosophy and lending policies, steering more
attention towards poverty alleviation programmes and increased
allocations for small farm production, nutrition , education , water
supply and other social sectors . He wrote a study that served as a
precursor to the basic needs and human development approaches of the
Serving as Pakistan\'s Minister of Finance, Planning and Commerce
(1982–88), Haq is credited with significant tax reforms ,
deregulation of the economy , increased emphasis on human development
and several initiatives for poverty alleviation. According to Parvez
Hasan 'under Mahbub's direction, the Planning Commission became once
again a lively place and began to exert powerful influence on social
sector issues, including education and family planning , much
neglected in earlier Zia years – as Finance Minister, Mahbub piloted
a major acceleration in social spending '.
On 1968, Haq identified 22 families/groups in
Pakistan that were
dominating the financial and economic life of the country controlling
66% of the industrial assets and 87% of the banking. As indicated by
Haq, these families had become both the Planning Commission and
Finance Ministry for the private sector by 1968. The list included
Dawood family of
Dawood Group , Saigols of
Saigol Group , Adamjees of
Adamjee Group , Colony, Fancy, Valika, Jalil, Bawany, Crescent, Wazir
Ali, Gandhara, Ispahani,
House of Habib , Khyber, Nishat Group, Beco,
Gul Ahmed Group
Gul Ahmed Group , Arag, Hafiz, Karim, Milwala and Dada.
In his capacity as
Special Advisor to
UNDP Administrator, Haq
initiated the concept of Human Development and the Human Development
Report as its Project Director. He gathered
Paul Streeten , Inge Kaul
, Frances Stewart,
Amartya Sen and
Richard Jolly to prepare annual
Human Development Reports. In 1996, Haq founded the Human Development
Pakistan — a policy research institute
committed to organizing professional research , policy studies and
seminars in the area of human development, with a special focus on the
South Asian region.
Haq devised the
Human Development Index
Human Development Index along with Indian Economist
Amartya Sen which has become one of the most influential and widely
used indices to measure human development across countries. The HDI
has been used since 1990 by the United Nations Development Programme
for its annual Human Development Reports.
Haq died on 16 July 1998 in New York , leaving behind his wife
Khadija Haq, son Farhan and daughter Toneema. In acknowledgement of
his contributions, the Human Development Centre,
officially renamed the
Mahbub ul Haq
Mahbub ul Haq Human Development Centre on 13
December 1998, with Mrs. Khadija Haq as president.
TRIBUTES FROM UN
* 'Mahbub ul Haq's untimely death is a loss to the world ...', Kofi
Annan , UN Secretary General .
* '... probably more than anyone else, (Mahbub) provided the
intellectual impetus for the Bank's commitment to poverty reduction in
the early 1970s. His unique contributions were trend setters for the
world and focused attention on the South Asian social realities,
urging all of us to look at the dark corners of our social milieus'.
James Wolfensohn , President of the
World Bank .
THE MAHBUB UL HAQ AWARD FOR OUTSTANDING CONTRIBUTION TO HUMAN
In honour of Haq,
UNDP established this award that alternates between
recognizing political and civil society leaders. Recipients include:
* 2007 –
Sheila Watt-Cloutier , Canadian
Inuit activist .
* 2004 -
Fazle Hasan Abed , founder of
BRAC (NGO) in
* 2002 -
Fernando Henrique Cardoso
Fernando Henrique Cardoso ,
President of Brazil
President of Brazil ,
* The Strategy of Economic Planning (1963)
* The Poverty Curtain: Choices for the Third World (1976). Columbia
University Press. 247 pages. ISBN 0-231-04062-8
* The Myth of the Friendly Markets (1992)
* Reflections on Human Development (1996)
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press .
1st edition (1996): 288 pages, ISBN 0-19-510193-6 . 2nd edition
(1999): 324 pages, ISBN 0-19-564598-7
* The U.N. and the Bretton Woods Institutions: New Challenges For
The Twenty-First Century / Edited By Mahbub Ul Haq ... (1995)
* The Vision and the Reality (1995)
* The Third World and the international economic order (1976)
* New Imperatives of Human Security (1995)
* A New Framework for Development Cooperation (1995)
* Humanizing Global Institutions (1998)
* ^ Mahbub ul Haq, a heretic among economists, died on 16 July,
* ^ "Inaugural Mahbub ul Haq-
Amartya Sen Lecture, UNIGE Human
Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. Retrieved 2016-02-23.
* ^ "
Amartya Sen - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved
* ^ "Honouring Mahbubul Haq - The Express Tribune". The Express
Tribune. Retrieved 2016-02-23.
Mahbub ul Haq
Mahbub ul Haq (1996) Reflections on Human Development. Oxford
University Press . 288 pages. ISBN 0-19-510193-6
* ^ "Obituary: Mahbub ul Haq". The Independent. Retrieved
* ^ "Mahbub ul Haq". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613 . Retrieved
* ^ "Dr. Mahbub ul-Haq". www.scu.edu. Retrieved 2016-02-23.
* ^ Baru, Sanjaya (1998-01-01). "
Mahbub ul Haq
Mahbub ul Haq and Human
Development: A Tribute". Economic and Political Weekly. 33 (35):
JSTOR 4407121 .
* ^ A B C D E F G H Sen, Amartya;
Tam Dalyell (3 August 1998).
"Obituary: Mahbub ul Haq". Amartya Sen, Tam Dalyell. The Independent.
Retrieved 10 August 2012.
Human Development Report 1990: Concept and
Measurement of Human Development. Oxford University press. ISBN
* ^ BARBARA CROSSETTE. "Mahbub ul Haq, 64, Analyst And Critic of
Global Poverty". The New York Times. July 17, 1998.
* ^ A B Crossette, Barbara (17 July 1998). "Mahbub ul Haq, 64,
Analyst And Critic of Global Poverty". The New York Times. The New
York Times. p. 2. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
* ^ A B C D E "System is to blame for the 22 wealthy families".
Human Development Center, Originally published on London Times. Human
Development Center. 22 March 1973. p. 1. Archived from the original on
22 July 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2012.
* ^ A B C Ponzio, Richard; Khadija Haq (2008). Pioneering the human
development revolution: an intellectual biography of Mahbub Ul Haq.
United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2008. pp. 256–260. ISBN
9780195695137 . Retrieved 26 February 2014.
Mahbub ul Haq
Mahbub ul Haq (1976) The Poverty Curtain: Choices for the Third
Columbia University Press
Columbia University Press . 247 pages. ISBN 0-231-04062-8
* ^ A Tribute to Dr Haq at Human Development Centre website
* ^ The 22 Families
* ^ The Human Development Awards
Web site of
Mahbub ul Haq
Mahbub ul Haq Human Development Centre. Islamabad: A
Tribute to Dr.
Mahbub ul Haq
Mahbub ul Haq