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HARI SINGH (September 1895 – 26 April 1961) was the last ruling Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir in India.

He was married four times. With his fourth wife, Maharani
Maharani
Tara Devi (1910–1967), he had one son, Yuvraj
Yuvraj
(Crown Prince) Karan Singh
Karan Singh
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life * 2 Education and preparation for the throne

* 3 Reign

* 3.1 Seal of Maharaja Hari Singh
Hari Singh

* 4 Family * 5 Titles * 6 Honours * 7 References * 8 External links

EARLY LIFE

Hari Singh
Hari Singh
was born on 23 September 1895 at the palace of Amar Mahal , Jammu
Jammu
, the only surviving son of General Raja
Raja
Sir Amar Singh Jamwal (14 January 1865 – 26 March 1909), the brother of Maharaja Pratap Singh , the then Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir
Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir
.

EDUCATION AND PREPARATION FOR THE THRONE

In 1903, Hari Singh
Hari Singh
served as a page of honour to Lord Curzon at the grand Delhi Durbar
Delhi Durbar
. At the age of thirteen, Hari Singh
Hari Singh
was dispatched to the Mayo College
Mayo College
in Ajmer
Ajmer
. A year later, in 1909, his father died, and the British took a keen interest in his education and appointed Major H. K. Brar as his guardian. After Mayo College, the ruler-in-waiting went to the British-run Imperial Cadet Corps at Dehra Dun for military training. Pratap Singh appointed him as commander-in-chief of the state forces of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir in 1915.

REIGN

The last Maharaja of Kashmir

Following the death of his uncle Pratap Singh in 1925, Hari Singh ascended the throne of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir. He made primary education compulsory in the state, introduced laws prohibiting child marriage, and opened places of worship to the low castes . His ascent was despite misgivings concerning "youthful escapades", including him having paid £300,000 when he was blackmailed by a prostitute in Paris in 1921. That issue had resulted in a court case in London in 1924 during which the India
India
Office tried to keep his name out of proceedings by arranging for him to be referred to as "Mr. A."

Singh was hostile towards the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
, in part because of the close friendship between Kashmiri political activist and socialist Sheikh Abdullah and the Congress leader Jawaharlal Nehru . He also opposed the Muslim League and its members' communalist outlook, as represented by their two-nation theory . During the Second World War , from 1944–1946 Sir Hari Singh
Hari Singh
was a member of the Imperial War Cabinet
Imperial War Cabinet
.

In 1947, after India
India
gained independence from British rule, Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir had the option to join either India
India
or Pakistan or to remain independent. Hari Singh
Hari Singh
originally manoeuvred to maintain his independence by playing off India
India
and Pakistan. There was a widespread belief that rulers of the princely states, in deciding to accede to India
India
or Pakistan, should respect the wishes of the population, but few rulers took any steps to consult on such decisions. Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir was a Muslim majority state, and Pashtun tribesmen from Pakistan invaded Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir under the impression that Hari Singh would accede to India. Hari Singh
Hari Singh
appealed to India
India
for help. Although the Indian Prime Minister Nehru was ready to send troops, the Governor-General of India
India
, Lord Mountbatten of Burma
Lord Mountbatten of Burma
, advised the Maharaja to accede to India
India
before India
India
could send its troops. Hence, considering the emergency situation, the Maharaja signed an Instrument of Accession to the Dominion of India.

Hari Singh
Hari Singh
signed the Instrument of Accession on 26 October 1947, joining the whole of his princely state (including Jammu, Kashmir, Northern Areas
Northern Areas
, Ladakh
Ladakh
, Trans-Karakoram Tract
Trans-Karakoram Tract
and Aksai Chin
Aksai Chin
) to the Dominion of India
India
. These events triggered the first Indo-Pakistan War .

Pressure from Nehru and Sardar Patel
Sardar Patel
eventually compelled Hari Singh to appoint his son and heir, Yuvraj
Yuvraj
(Crown Prince) Karan Singh
Karan Singh
, as Regent of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir in 1949, although he remained titular Maharaja of the state until 1952, when the monarchy was abolished. He was also forced to appoint Sheikh Abdullah as prime minister of Kashmir. He had a contentious relationship with both the Congress Leaders and, at the time, their most favored and popular politician in the area, Sheikh Abdullah . Karan Singh
Karan Singh
was appointed 'Sadr-e-Riyasat' ('President of the Province') in 1952 and Governor of the State in 1964. Abdullah would later be dismissed from his position as prime minister of Kashmir and jailed by Karan Singh, son of Hari Singh.

Hari Singh
Hari Singh
spent his final days at the Hari Niwas Palace in Jammu. He died on 26 April 1961 at Bombay
Bombay
. As per his will, his ashes were brought to Jammu
Jammu
and spread all over Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir and immersed in the Tawi River at Jammu
Jammu
.

SEAL OF MAHARAJA HARI SINGH

Detail of the Seal of Maharaja Hari Singh
Hari Singh
as printed on the Civil List of his government

The British Crown was at the top, representing the Emperor of India, whose Resident was posted in Kashmir. A katar or ceremonial dagger sat below the crown. Two soldiers held flags. An image of the sun was between them, that symbolised his Rajput lineage from Lord Surya
Surya
, the Hindu Sun God .

FAMILY

* Dharampur Rani Sri Lal Kunverba Sahiba; married at Rajkot
Rajkot
7 May 1913, died during pregnancy in 1915. No child. * Chamba Rani Sahiba; married at Chamba 8 November 1915, died 31 January 1920. No child. * Maharani
Maharani
Dhanvant Kunveri Baiji Sahiba (1910–19?); married at Dharampur 30 April 1923. No child. * Maharani
Maharani
Tara Devi Sahiba of Kangra,(1910–1967); married 1928, separated 1950, one son:

* Yuvraj
Yuvraj
(Crown Prince), i.e., heir-apparent Karan Singh
Karan Singh
(9 March 1931–)

TITLES

Titles of Maharaga Hari Singh
Hari Singh
and Yuvraj
Yuvraj
Karan Singh
Karan Singh
on the first page of his Civil List of 1945

* 1895–1916: Sri Hari Singh * 1916–1918: Raja
Raja
Sri Hari Singh * 1918–1922: Captain Raja
Raja
Sir Hari Singh, KCIE * 1922–1925: Captain Raja
Raja
Sri Sir Hari Singh, KCIE, KCVO * 1925–1926: Captain His Highness Shriman Rajrajeshwar Maharajadhiraj Sri Sir Hari Singh
Hari Singh
Indar Mahindar Bahadur, Sipar-i-Sultanat, Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir
Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir
, KCIE, KCVO * 1926–1929: Colonel
Colonel
His Highness Shriman Rajrajeshwar Maharajadhiraj Sri Sir Hari Singh
Hari Singh
Indar Mahindar Bahadur, Sipar-i-Sultanat, Maharaja of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, KCIE, KCVO * 1929–1933: Colonel
Colonel
His Highness Shriman Rajrajeshwar Maharajadhiraj Sri Sir Hari Singh
Hari Singh
Indar Mahindar Bahadur, Sipar-i-Sultanat, Maharaja of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, GCIE , KCVO * 1933–1935: Colonel
Colonel
His Highness Shriman Rajrajeshwar Maharajadhiraj Sri Sir Hari Singh
Hari Singh
Indar Mahindar Bahadur, Sipar-i-Sultanat, Maharaja of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, GCSI
GCSI
, GCIE, KCVO * 1935–1941: Major-General
Major-General
His Highness Shriman Rajrajeshwar Maharajadhiraj Sri Sir Hari Singh
Hari Singh
Indar Mahindar Bahadur, Sipar-i-Sultanat, Maharaja of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, GCSI, GCIE, KCVO * 1941–1946: Lieutenant-General
Lieutenant-General
His Highness Shriman Rajrajeshwar Maharajadhiraj Sri Sir Hari Singh
Hari Singh
Indar Mahindar Bahadur, Sipar-i-Sultanat, Maharaja of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, GCSI, GCIE, KCVO. * 1946–1961: Lieutenant-General
Lieutenant-General
His Highness Shriman Rajrajeshwar Maharajadhiraj Sri Sir Hari Singh
Hari Singh
Indar Mahindar Bahadur, Sipar-i-Sultanat, Maharaja of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO
GCVO

HONOURS

(ribbon bar, as it would look today; incomplete)

* Delhi Durbar
Delhi Durbar
Medal-1903 * Delhi Durbar
Delhi Durbar
Medal-1911 * Prince of Wales Visit Medal-1922 * Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (GCIE)-1929 (KCIE-1918) * Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Italy
Order of the Crown of Italy
-1930 * Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India (GCSI)-1933 * King George V Silver Jubilee Medal
King George V Silver Jubilee Medal
-1935 * King George VI Coronation Medal -1937 * Hon. LL.D from Punjab University -1938 * Grand Officer of the Legion d\'Honneur -1938 * 1939-1945 Star
1939-1945 Star
-1945 * Africa Star
Africa Star
-1945 * War Medal 1939-1945
War Medal 1939-1945
-1945 * India
India
Service Medal -1945 * Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
Royal Victorian Order
(GCVO)-1946 (KCVO-1922) * Indian Independence Medal
Indian Independence Medal
-1947

Hari Singh
Hari Singh
DOGRA DYNASTY BORN: 23 September 1895 DIED: 26 April 1961

REGNAL TITLES

Preceded by Pratap Singh (as Maharaja of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir) MAHARAJA OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR 1925–1947 Succeeded by Abolished

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Snedden, Christopher (2015). Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris. Oxford University Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-1-84904-342-7 . * ^ Anand, Ragubhir Lal (2014-02-01). IS God DEAD?????. Partridge Publishing. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-48281-823-9 . * ^ Maharaja Hari Singh\'s Letter to Mountbatten * ^ Ramachandra., Guha, (2008-01-01). India
India
after Gandhi : the history of the world\'s largest democracy. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0060958588 . OCLC
OCLC
474262656 . * ^ Justice A. S. Anand, The Constitution of Jammu
Jammu
& Kashmir (5th edition, 2006), page 67 * ^ Kashmir, Research Paper 04/28 by Paul Bowers, House of Commons Library, United Kingdom., page 46, 30 March 2004 * ^ A B Ramachandra., Guha, (2008-01-01). India
India
after Gandhi : the history of the world\'s largest democracy. Harper Perennial. p. 92. ISBN 0060958588 . OCLC
OCLC
474262656 . * ^ Ramachandra., Guha, (2008-01-01). India
India
after Gandhi : the history of the world\'s largest democracy. Harper Perennial. p. 262. ISBN 0060958588 . OCLC
OCLC
474262656 . * ^ "J&K power defaulters cocking a snook at CM". Daily Pioneer. 18 January 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2013.

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